Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: skyline

10 Computing Continuous Skyline Queries without Discriminating between Static and Dynamic Attributes

Authors: Ibrahim Gomaa, Hoda M. O. Mokhtar

Abstract:

Although most of the existing skyline queries algorithms focused basically on querying static points through static databases; with the expanding number of sensors, wireless communications and mobile applications, the demand for continuous skyline queries has increased. Unlike traditional skyline queries which only consider static attributes, continuous skyline queries include dynamic attributes, as well as the static ones. However, as skyline queries computation is based on checking the domination of skyline points over all dimensions, considering both the static and dynamic attributes without separation is required. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for computing continuous skyline queries without discriminating between static and dynamic attributes. Our algorithm in brief proceeds as follows: First, it excludes the points which will not be in the initial skyline result; this pruning phase reduces the required number of comparisons. Second, the association between the spatial positions of data points is examined; this phase gives an idea of where changes in the result might occur and consequently enables us to efficiently update the skyline result (continuous update) rather than computing the skyline from scratch. Finally, experimental evaluation is provided which demonstrates the accuracy, performance and efficiency of our algorithm over other existing approaches.

Keywords: continuous query processing, dynamic database, moving object, skyline queries

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9 Selecting Skyline Mash-Ups under Uncertainty

Authors: Aymen Gammoudi, Hamza Labbaci, Nizar Messai, Yacine Sam

Abstract:

Web Service Composition (Mash-up) has been considered as a new approach used to offer the user a set of Web Services responding to his request. These approaches can return a set of similar Mash-ups in a given context that makes users unable to select the perfect one. Recent approaches focus on computing the skyline over a set of Quality of Service (QoS) attributes. However, these approaches are not sufficient in a dynamic web service environment where the delivered QoS by a Web service is inherently uncertain. In this paper, we treat the problem of computing the skyline over a set of similar Mash-ups under certain dimension values. We generate dimensions for each Mash-up using aggregation operations applied to the QoS attributes. We then tackle the problem of computing the skyline under uncertain dimensions. We present each dimension value of mash-up using a frame of discernment and introduce the d-dominance using the Evidence Theory. Finally, we propose our experimental results that show both the effectiveness of the introduced skyline extensions and the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

Keywords: web services, uncertain QoS, mash-ups, uncertain dimensions, skyline, evidence theory, d-dominance

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8 Emily Dickinson's Green Aesthetics: Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower as the Anthropomorphic Architectural Representation in the Age of Anthropocene

Authors: Chia-Wen Kuo

Abstract:

Jesse Curran states that there is a "breath awareness" that "facilitates a present-minded capability" to catalyse an "epistemological rupture" in Emily Dickinson's poetry, particularly in the age of Anthropocene. In Dickinson's "Nature", non-humans are subjectified as nature ceases to be subordinated to human interests, and Dickinson's Eco-humility has driven us, readers, into mimicking nature for the making of a better world. In terms of sustainable architecture, Norman Foster is among the representatives who utilise BIM to reduce architectural waste while satiating the users' aesthetic craving for a spectacular skyline. Notably, the Gherkin - 30 St. Mary Axe in east-end London. In 2019, Foster and his team aspired to savour the London skyline with his new design - the Tulip, which has been certified by the LEED as a legitimate green building as well as a complementary extension of the Gherkin. However, Foster's proposition had been denied for numerous times by the mayor Sadiq Khan and the city council as the Tulip cannot blend in the public space around while its observatory functions like a surveillance platform. The Tulip, except for its aesthetic idiosyncrasy, fails to serve for the public good other than another ostentatious tourist attraction in London. The architectural team for Mode Gakuen Cocoon tower, completed in 2008, intended to honour Nature with the symbolism in the building's aesthetic design. It serves as an architectural cocoon that nurtures the students of "Special Technology and Design College" inside. The building itself turns into a Dickinsonian anthropomorphism, where humans are made humble to learn from the entomological beings for self-betterment in the age of Anthropocene. Despite bearing resemblance to a tulip as well as its LEED credential, Norman Foster’s Tulip merely pays tribute to the Nature in a relatively superficial manner without constructing an apparatus that substantially benefit the Londoners as all green cities should embrace Emily Dickinson’s “breath awareness” and be built and treated as an extensive as well as expansive form of biomimicry.

Keywords: green city, sustianable architecture, London, Tokyo

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7 The Impact of an Improved Strategic Partnership Programme on Organisational Performance and Growth of Firms in the Internet Protocol Television and Hybrid Fibre-Coaxial Broadband Industry

Authors: Collen T. Masilo, Brane Semolic, Pieter Steyn

Abstract:

The Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and Hybrid Fibre-Coaxial (HFC) Broadband industrial sector landscape are rapidly changing and organisations within the industry need to stay competitive by exploring new business models so that they can be able to offer new services and products to customers. The business challenge in this industrial sector is meeting or exceeding high customer expectations across multiple content delivery modes. The increasing challenges in the IPTV and HFC broadband industrial sector encourage service providers to form strategic partnerships with key suppliers, marketing partners, advertisers, and technology partners. The need to form enterprise collaborative networks poses a challenge for any organisation in this sector, in selecting the right strategic partners who will ensure that the organisation’s services and products are marketed in new markets. Partners who will ensure that customers are efficiently supported by meeting and exceeding their expectations. Lastly, selecting cooperation partners who will represent the organisation in a positive manner, and contribute to improving the performance of the organisation. Companies in the IPTV and HFC broadband industrial sector tend to form informal partnerships with suppliers, vendors, system integrators and technology partners. Generally, partnerships are formed without thorough analysis of the real reason a company is forming collaborations, without proper evaluations of prospective partners using specific selection criteria, and with ineffective performance monitoring of partners to ensure that a firm gains real long term benefits from its partners and gains competitive advantage. Similar tendencies are illustrated in the research case study and are based on Skyline Communications, a global leader in end-to-end, multi-vendor network management and operational support systems (OSS) solutions. The organisation’s flagship product is the DataMiner network management platform used by many operators across multiple industries and can be referred to as a smart system that intelligently manages complex technology ecosystems for its customers in the IPTV and HFC broadband industry. The approach of the research is to develop the most efficient business model that can be deployed to improve a strategic partnership programme in order to significantly improve the performance and growth of organisations participating in a collaborative network in the IPTV and HFC broadband industrial sector. This involves proposing and implementing a new strategic partnership model and its main features within the industry which should bring about significant benefits for all involved companies to achieve value add and an optimal growth strategy. The proposed business model has been developed based on the research of existing relationships, value chains and business requirements in this industrial sector and validated in 'Skyline Communications'. The outputs of the business model have been demonstrated and evaluated in the research business case study the IPTV and HFC broadband service provider 'Skyline Communications'.

Keywords: growth, partnership, selection criteria, value chain

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6 Evaluating the Challenges of Large Scale Urban Redevelopment Projects for Central Government Employee Housing in Delhi

Authors: Parul Kapoor, Dheeraj Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Delhi and other Indian cities accommodate thousands of Central Government employees in housing complexes called ‘General Pool Residential Accommodation’ (GPRA), located in prime parcels of the city. These residential colonies are now undergoing redevelopment at a massive scale, significantly impacting the ecology of the surrounding areas. Essentially, these colonies were low-rise, low-density planned developments with a dense tree cover and minimal parking requirements. But with increasing urbanisation and spike in parking demand, the proposed built form is an aggregate of high-rise gated complexes, redefining the skyline of the city which is a huge departure from the mediocre setup of Low-rise Walk-up apartments. The complexity of these developments is further aggravated by the need for parking which necessitates cutting huge number of trees to accommodate multiple layers of parking beneath the structures thus sidelining the authentic character of these areas which is laden with a dense tree cover. The aftermath of this whole process is the generation of a huge carbon footprint on the surrounding areas, which is unaccounted for, in the planning and design practice. These developments are currently planned as mix-use compounds with large commercial built-up spaces which have additional parking requirements over and above the residential parking. Also, they are perceived as gated complexes and not as neighborhood units, thus project isolated images of high-rise, dense systems with little context to the surroundings. The paper would analyze case studies of GPRA Redevelopment projects in Delhi, and the lack of relevant development control regulations which have led to abnormalities and complications in the entire redevelopment process. It would also suggest policy guidelines which can establish comprehensive codes for effective planning of these settlements.

Keywords: gated complexes, GPRA Redevelopment projects, increased densities, huge carbon footprint, mixed-use development

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5 Morphological Transformation of Traditional Cities: The Case Study of the Historic Center of the City of Najaf

Authors: Sabeeh Lafta Farhan, Ihsan Abbass Jasim, Sohaib Kareem Al-Mamoori

Abstract:

This study addresses the subject of transformation of urban structures and how does this transformation affect the character of traditional cities, which represents the research issue. Hence, the research has aimed at studying and learning about the urban structure characteristics and morphological transformation features in the traditional cities centers, and to look for means and methods to preserve the character of those cities. Cities are not merely locations inhabited by a large number of people, they are political and legal entities, in addition to economic activities that distinguish these cities, thus, they are a complex set of institutions, and the transformation in urban environment cannot be recognized without understanding these relationships. The research presumes an existing impact of urbanization on the properties of traditional structure of the Holy City of Najaf. The research has defined urbanization as restructuring and re-planning of urban areas that have lost their functions and bringing them into social and cultural life in the city, to be able to serve economy in order to better respond to the needs of users. Sacred Cities provide the organic connection between acts of worship and dealings and reveal the mechanisms and reasons behind the regulatory nature of the sacred shrine and their role in achieving organizational assimilation of urban morphology. The research has reached a theoretical framework of the particulars of urbanization. This framework has been applied to the historic center of the old city of Najaf, where the most important findings of the research were that the visual and structural dominant presence of holy shrine of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) remains to emphasize the visual particularity, and the main role of the city, which hosts one of the most important Muslim shrines in the world, in addition to the visible golden dome rising above the skyline, and the Imam Ali Mosque the hub and the center for religious activities. Thus, in view of being a place of main importance and a symbol of religious and Islamic culture, it is very important to have the shrine of Imam Ali (AS) prevailing on all zones of re-development in the old city. Consequently, the research underlined that the distinctive and unique character of the city of Najaf did not proceed from nothing, but was achieved through the unrivaled characteristics and features possessed by the city of Najaf alone, which allowed it and enabled it to occupy this status among the Arab and Muslim cities. That is why the activities arising from the development have to enhance the historical role of the city in order to have this development as clear support, strength and further addition to the city assets and its cultural heritage, and not seeing the developmental activities crushing the city urban traditional fabric, cultural heritage and its historical specificity.

Keywords: Iraq, the city of Najaf, heritage, traditional cities, morphological transformation

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4 Effect of Climate Change on the Genomics of Invasiveness of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Species Complex by Estimating the Effective Population Size via a Coalescent Method

Authors: Samia Elfekih, Wee Tek Tay, Karl Gordon, Paul De Barro

Abstract:

Invasive species represent an increasing threat to food biosecurity, causing significant economic losses in agricultural systems. An example is the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, which is a complex of morphologically indistinguishable species causing average annual global damage estimated at US$2.4 billion. The Bemisia complex represents an interesting model for evolutionary studies because of their extensive distribution and potential for invasiveness and population expansion. Within this complex, two species, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) have invaded well beyond their home ranges whereas others, such as Indian Ocean (IO) and Australia (AUS), have not. In order to understand why some Bemisia species have become invasive, genome-wide sequence scans were used to estimate population dynamics over time and relate these to climate. The Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) method as implemented in BEAST was used to infer the historical effective population size. In order to overcome sampling bias, the populations were combined based on geographical origin. The datasets used for this particular analysis are genome-wide SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) called separately in each of the following groups: Sub-Saharan Africa (Burkina Faso), Europe (Spain, France, Greece and Croatia), USA (Arizona), Mediterranean-Middle East (Israel, Italy), Middle East-Central Asia (Turkmenistan, Iran) and Reunion Island. The non-invasive ‘AUS’ species endemic to Australia was used as an outgroup. The main findings of this study show that the BSP for the Sub-Saharan African MED population is different from that observed in MED populations from the Mediterranean Basin, suggesting evolution under a different set of environmental conditions. For MED, the effective size of the African (Burkina Faso) population showed a rapid expansion ≈250,000-310,000 years ago (YA), preceded by a period of slower growth. The European MED populations (i.e., Spain, France, Croatia, and Greece) showed a single burst of expansion at ≈160,000-200,000 YA. The MEAM1 populations from Israel and Italy and the ones from Iran and Turkmenistan are similar as they both show the earlier expansion at ≈250,000-300,000 YA. The single IO population lacked the latter expansion but had the earlier one. This pattern is shared with the Sub-Saharan African (Burkina Faso) MED, suggesting IO also faced a similar history of environmental change, which seems plausible given their relatively close geographical distributions. In conclusion, populations within the invasive species MED and MEAM1 exhibited signatures of population expansion lacking in non-invasive species (IO and AUS) during the Pleistocene, a geological epoch marked by repeated climatic oscillations with cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. These expansions strongly suggested the potential of some Bemisia species’ genomes to affect their adaptability and invasiveness.

Keywords: whitefly, RADseq, invasive species, SNP, climate change

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3 A Strategic Approach in Utilising Limited Resources to Achieve High Organisational Performance

Authors: Collen Tebogo Masilo, Erik Schmikl

Abstract:

The demand for the DataMiner product by customers has presented a great challenge for the vendor in Skyline Communications in deploying its limited resources in the form of human resources, financial resources, and office space, to achieve high organisational performance in all its international operations. The rapid growth of the organisation has been unable to efficiently support its existing customers across the globe, and provide services to new customers, due to the limited number of approximately one hundred employees in its employ. The combined descriptive and explanatory case study research methods were selected as research design, making use of a survey questionnaire which was distributed to a sample of 100 respondents. A sample return of 89 respondents was achieved. The sampling method employed was non-probability sampling, using the convenient sampling method. Frequency analysis and correlation between the subscales (the four themes) were used for statistical analysis to interpret the data. The investigation was conducted into mechanisms that can be deployed to balance the high demand for products and the limited production capacity of the company’s Belgian operations across four aspects: demand management strategies, capacity management strategies, communication methods that can be used to align a sales management department, and reward systems in use to improve employee performance. The conclusions derived from the theme ‘demand management strategies’ are that the company is fully aware of the future market demand for its products. However, there seems to be no evidence that there is proper demand forecasting conducted within the organisation. The conclusions derived from the theme 'capacity management strategies' are that employees always have a lot of work to complete during office hours, and, also, employees seem to need help from colleagues with urgent tasks. This indicates that employees often work on unplanned tasks and multiple projects. Conclusions derived from the theme 'communication methods used to align sales management department with operations' are that communication is not good throughout the organisation. This means that information often stays with management, and does not reach non-management employees. This also means that there is a lack of smooth synergy as expected and a lack of good communication between the sales department and the projects office. This has a direct impact on the delivery of projects to customers by the operations department. The conclusions derived from the theme ‘employee reward systems’ are that employees are motivated, and feel that they add value in their current functions. There are currently no measures in place to identify unhappy employees, and there are also no proper reward systems in place which are linked to a performance management system. The research has made a contribution to the body of research by exploring the impact of the four sub-variables and their interaction on the challenges of organisational productivity, in particular where an organisation experiences a capacity problem during its growth stage during tough economic conditions. Recommendations were made which, if implemented by management, could further enhance the organisation’s sustained competitive operations.

Keywords: high demand for products, high organisational performance, limited production capacity, limited resources

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2 Guiding Urban Development in a Traditional Neighbourhood: Case Application of Kolkata

Authors: Nabamita Nath, Sanghamitra Sarkar

Abstract:

Urban development in traditional neighbourhoods of cities is undergoing a sea change due to imposition of irregular development patterns on a predominantly inclusive urban fabric. In recent times, traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata have experienced irregular urban development which has resulted in transformation of its immediate urban character. The goal is to study and analyse impact of new urban developments within traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata and establish development guidelines to balance the old with the new. Various cities predominantly in third world countries are also experiencing similar development patterns in their traditional neighbourhoods. Existing literature surveys of development patterns in such neighbourhoods have established 9 major parameters viz. edge, movement, node, landmark, size-density, pattern-grain-texture, open spaces, urban spaces, urban form and views-vistas of the neighbourhood. To evaluate impact of urban development in traditional neighbourhoods of Kolkata, 3 different areas have been chronologically selected based on their settlement patterns. Parameters established through literature surveys have been applied to the selected areas to study and analyse the existing patterns of development. The main sources of this study included extensive on-site surveys, academic archive, census data, organisational records and informational websites. Applying the established parameters, 5 major conclusions were derived. Firstly, it was found that pedestrian friendly neighbourhoods of the city were becoming more car-centric. This has resulted in loss of interactive and social spaces which defined the cultural heritage of Kolkata. Secondly, the urban pattern which was composed of dense and compact fabric is gradually losing its character due to incorporation of new building typologies. Thirdly, the new building typologies include gated communities with private open spaces which is a stark departure from the existing built typology. However, these open spaces have not contributed in creation of inclusive public places for the community which are a significant part of such heritage neighbourhood precincts. Fourthly, commercial zones that primarily developed along major access routes have now infiltrated within these neighbourhoods. Gated communities do not favour formation of on-street commercial activities generating haphazard development patterns. Lastly, individual residential buildings that reflected Indo-saracenic and Neo-gothic architectural styles are converting into multi-storeyed residential apartments. As a result, the axis that created a definite visual identity for a neighbourhood is progressively following an irregular pattern. Thus, uniformity of the old skyline is gradually becoming inconsistent. The major issue currently is threat caused by irregular urban development to heritage zones and buildings of traditional neighbourhoods. Streets, lanes, courtyards, open spaces and buildings of old neighbourhoods imparted a unique cultural identity to the city that is disappearing with emerging urban development patterns. It has been concluded that specific guidelines for urban development should be regulated primarily based on existing urban form of traditional neighbourhoods. Such neighbourhood development strategies should be formulated for various cities of third world countries to control irregular developments thereby balancing heritage and development.

Keywords: heritage, Kolkata, traditional neighbourhood, urban development

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1 Rethinking Urban Voids: An Investigation beneath the Kathipara Flyover, Chennai into a Transit Hub by Adaptive Utilization of Space

Authors: V. Jayanthi

Abstract:

Urbanization and pace of urbanization have increased tremendously in last few decades. More towns are now getting converted into cities. Urbanization trend is seen all over the world but is becoming most dominant in Asia. Today, the scale of urbanization in India is so huge that Indian cities are among the fastest-growing in the world, including Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Delhi, and Mumbai. Urbanization remains a single predominant factor that is continuously linked to the destruction of urban green spaces. With reference to Chennai as a case study, which is suffering from rapid deterioration of its green spaces, this paper sought to fill this gap by exploring key factors aside urbanization that is responsible for the destruction of green spaces. The paper relied on a research approach and triangulated data collection techniques such as interviews, focus group discussion, personal observation and retrieval of archival data. It was observed that apart from urbanization, problem of ownership of green space lands, low priority to green spaces, poor maintenance, enforcement of development controls, wastage of underpass spaces, and uncooperative attitudes of the general public, play a critical role in the destruction of urban green spaces. Therefore the paper narrows down to a point, that for a city to have a proper sustainable urban green space, broader city development plans are essential. Though rapid urbanization is an indicator of positive development, it is also accompanied by a host of challenges. Chennai lost a lot of greenery, as the city urbanized rapidly that led to a steep fall in vegetation cover. Environmental deterioration will be the big price we pay if Chennai continues to grow at the expense of greenery. Soaring skyscrapers, multistoried complexes, gated communities, and villas, frame the iconic skyline of today’s Chennai city which reveals that we overlook the importance of our green cover, which is important to balance our urban and lung spaces. Chennai, with a clumped landscape at the center of the city, is predicted to convert 36% of its total area into urban areas by 2026. One major issue is that a city designed and planned in isolation creates underused spaces all around the cities which are of negligence. These urban voids are dead, underused, unused spaces in the cities that are formed due to inefficient decision making, poor land management, and poor coordination. Urban voids have huge potential of creating a stronger urban fabric, exploited as public gathering spaces, pocket parks or plazas or just enhance public realm, rather than dumping of debris and encroachments. Flyovers need to justify their existence themselves by being more than just traffic and transport solutions. The vast, unused space below the Kathipara flyover is a case in point. This flyover connects three major routes: Tambaram, Koyambedu, and Adyar. This research will focus on the concept of urban voids, how these voids under the flyovers, can be used for place making process, how this space beneath flyovers which are neglected, can be a part of the urban realm through urban design and landscaping.

Keywords: landscape design, flyovers, public spaces, reclaiming lost spaces, urban voids

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