Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Louise H. Gracioso

41 Potential Biosorption of Rhodococcus erythropolis, an Isolated Strain from Sossego Copper Mine, Brazil

Authors: Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Ingrid Avanzi, Elen A. Perpetuo

Abstract:

In this work, bacterial strains were isolated from environmental samples from a copper mine and three of them presented potential for bioremediation of copper. All the strains were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-Biotyper) and grown in three diferent media supplemented with 100 ppm of copper chloride in flasks of 500mL and it was incubated at 28 °C and 180 rpm. Periodically, samples were taken and monitored for cellular growth and copper biosorption by spectrophotometer UV-Vis (600 nm) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. At the end of exponential phase of cellular growth, the biomass was utilized to construct a correlation curve between absorbance and dry mass of the cells. Among the three isolates with potential for biorremediation, 1 strain exhibit capacity the most for bioremediation of effluents contaminated by copper being identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Bioprocess, Copper, biosorption

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40 Uptake of Copper by Dead Biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia Isolated from a Metal Mine in Pará, Brazil

Authors: Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Elen A. Perpetuo, Ingrid R. Avanzi, Claudio Auguto Oller do Nascimento

Abstract:

In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process. In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process.

Keywords: Biotechnology, biosorption, copper recovery, dead biomass

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39 Comparison of Different Methods of Microorganism's Identification from a Copper Mining in Pará, Brazil

Authors: Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Elen A. Perpetuo, Ingrid R. Avanzi, Marcela P.G. Baltazar, Claudio O. Nascimento

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Introduction: Higher copper concentrations promote a selection pressure on organisms such as plants, fungi and bacteria, which allows surviving only the resistant organisms to the contaminated site. This selective pressure keeps only the organisms most resistant to a specific condition and subsequently increases their bioremediation potential. Despite the bacteria importance for biosphere maintenance, it is estimated that only a small fraction living microbial species has been described and characterized. Due to the molecular biology development, tools based on analysis 16S ribosomal RNA or another specific gene are making a new scenario for the characterization studies and identification of microorganisms in the environment. News identification of microorganisms methods have also emerged like Biotyper (MALDI / TOF), this method mass spectrometry is subject to the recognition of spectroscopic patterns of conserved and features proteins for different microbial species. In view of this, this study aimed to isolate bacteria resistant to copper present in a Copper Processing Area (Sossego Mine, Canaan, PA) and identifies them in two different methods: Recent (spectrometry mass) and conventional. This work aimed to use them for a future bioremediation of this Mining. Material and Methods: Samples were collected at fifteen different sites of five periods of times. Microorganisms were isolated from mining wastes by culture enrichment technique; this procedure was repeated 4 times. The isolates were inoculated into MJS medium containing different concentrations of chloride copper (1mM, 2.5mM, 5mM, 7.5mM and 10 mM) and incubated in plates for 72 h at 28 ºC. These isolates were subjected to mass spectrometry identification methods (Biotyper – MALDI/TOF) and 16S gene sequencing. Results: A total of 105 strains were isolated in this area, bacterial identification by mass spectrometry method (MALDI/TOF) achieved 74% agreement with the conventional identification method (16S), 31% have been unsuccessful in MALDI-TOF and 2% did not obtain identification sequence the 16S. These results show that Biotyper can be a very useful tool in the identification of bacteria isolated from environmental samples, since it has a better value for money (cheap and simple sample preparation and MALDI plates are reusable). Furthermore, this technique is more rentable because it saves time and has a high performance (the mass spectra are compared to the database and it takes less than 2 minutes per sample).

Keywords: Bioremediation, Identification, Microorganisms, copper mining area, MALDI/TOF, RNA 16S

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38 Educating Children Who Are Deaf and Hearing Impaired in Southern Africa: Challenges and Triumphs

Authors: Emma Louise McKinney

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There is a global move to integrate children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired into regular classrooms with their hearing peers with an inclusive education framework. This paper examines the current education situation for children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired in South Africa, Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Qualitative data for this paper was obtained from the author’s experiences working as the Southern African Education Advisor for an international organization funding disability projects. It examines some of the challenges facing these children and their teachers relating to education. Challenges include cultural stigma relating to disability and deafness, a lack of hearing screening and early identification of deafness, schools in rural areas, special schools, specialist teacher training, equipment, understanding of how to implement policy, support, appropriate teaching methodologies, and sign language training and proficiency. On the other hand, in spite of the challenges some teachers are able to provide quality education to children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired. This paper examines both the challenges as well as what teachers are doing to overcome these.

Keywords: Challenges, education of children who are deaf and hearing impaired, Southern African experiences, triumphs

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37 Regulation of PKA-Dependent Calcineurin as a Switch in Cell Secretion

Authors: Hani M. M. Alothaid, Louise Robson, Richmond Muimo

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This study will investigate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) dependent calcineurin (Cn), known as protein phosphatase 2 B (PP2B) as well, regulation of chloride ion (Cl⁻) secretion and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules in immune cells such as cytokines. THP-1-derived monocytes, primary human monocytes and the bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) were used in this study. The 16HBE14o- cells were chosen as positive control. Hence, to further confirm the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), calcium binding protein (S100A10), annexin A2 (AnxA2) and calcineurin A subunit (CnA) in all three cell types, cell lysate was probed against corresponding primary antibodies by immunoblotting. Western blot analyses show the expression of CFTR, AnxA2, CnA and S100A10 in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes. In conclusion, CFTR, S100A10, CnA and AnxA2 are expressed in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes and regulate Cl⁻ secretion. Also, they may play a role in the pro-inflammatory molecules release. The ongoing work will confirm interaction between these proteins in the cell lines.

Keywords: monocytes, chloride, annexin A2, calcineurin, CFTR, pro-inflammatory molecules, S100A10

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36 Understanding Health-Related Properties of Grapes by Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Intestinal Absorption

Authors: Sophie N. Selby-Pham, Yudie Wang, Louise Bennett

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Consumption of grapes promotes health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases due to the action of grape phytochemicals in regulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation (OSI). The bioefficacy of phytochemicals depends on their absorption in the human body. The time required for phytochemicals to achieve maximal plasma concentration (Tₘₐₓ) after oral intake reflects the time window of maximal bioefficacy of phytochemicals, with Tₘₐₓ dependent on physicochemical properties of phytochemicals. This research collated physicochemical properties of grape phytochemicals from white and red grapes to predict their Tₘₐₓ using pharmacokinetic modelling. The predicted values of Tₘₐₓ were then compared to the measured Tₘₐₓ collected from clinical studies to determine the accuracy of prediction. In both liquid and solid intake forms, white grapes exhibit a shorter Tₘₐₓ range (0.5-2.5 h) versus red grapes (1.5-5h). The prediction accuracy of Tₘₐₓ for grape phytochemicals was 33.3% total error of prediction compared to the mean, indicating high prediction accuracy. Pharmacokinetic modelling allows prediction of Tₘₐₓ without costly clinical trials, informing dosing frequency for sustained presence of phytochemicals in the body to optimize the health benefits of phytochemicals.

Keywords: phytochemical, absorption kinetics, Vitis vinifera, phytochemical absorption prediction model

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35 Iron Extraction from Bog Iron Ore in Early French Colonial America

Authors: Yves Monette, Brad Loewen, Louise Pothier

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This study explores the first bog iron ore extraction activities which took place in colonial New France. Archaeological excavations carried on the founding site of Montreal in the last ten years have revealed the remains of Fort Ville-Marie erected in 1642. In a level related to the fort occupation between 1660 and 1680, kilos of scories, a dozen of half-finished iron artefacts and a light yellow clayey ore material have recovered that point to extractive metallurgy activities at the fort. Examples of scories, artefacts and of a possible bog iron ore were submitted to SEM-EDS analysis. The results clearly indicate that iron was extracted from local limonite ores in a bloomery. We discovered that the gangue material could be traced from the ore to the scories. However, some lime silicates and some accessory minerals found in the scories, like barite and celestine for example, were absent from the ore but present in dolomite fragments found in the same archaeological context. The tracing of accessory minerals suggests that the ironmaster introduced a lime flux in the bloomery charge to maximize the separation of the iron ore. Before the introduction of the blast furnace in Western Europe during the first half of the 18th Century, the use of fluxes in iron bloomery was not a common practice.

Keywords: Extractive Metallurgy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), bog iron ore, French colonial America, Montreal

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34 The Effect of Mood and Normative Conformity on Prosocial Behavior

Authors: Antoine Miguel Borromeo, Kristian Anthony Menez, Moira Louise Ordonez, David Carl Rabaya

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This study aimed to test if induced mood and normative conformity have any effect specifically on prosocial behavior, which was operationalized as the willingness to donate to a non-government organization. The effect of current attitude towards the object of the prosocial behavior was also considered with a covariate test. Undergraduates taking an introductory course on psychology (N = 132) from the University of the Philippines Diliman were asked how much money they were willing to donate after being presented a video about coral reef destruction and a website that advocates towards saving the coral reefs. A 3 (Induced mood: Positive vs Fear and Sadness vs Anger, Contempt, and Disgust) x 2 (Normative conformity: Presence vs Absence) between-subjects analysis of covariance was used for experimentation. Prosocial behavior was measured by presenting a circumstance wherein participants were given money and asked if they were willing to donate an amount to the non-government organization. An analysis of covariance revealed that the mood induced has no significant effect on prosocial behavior, F(2,125) = 0.654, p > 0.05. The analysis also showed how normative conformity has no significant effect on prosocial behavior, F(1,125) = 0.238, p > 0.05, as well as their interaction F(2, 125) = 1.580, p > 0.05. However, the covariate, current attitude towards corals was revealed to be significant, F(1,125) = 8.778, p < 0.05. From this, we speculate that inherent attitudes of people have a greater effect on prosocial behavior than temporary factors such as mood and conformity.

Keywords: attitude, prosocial behavior, induced mood, normative conformity

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33 Impact of Pan Pacific's Training Program to Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) Practicum Trainees

Authors: Bandojo Paula Maria Noella, Bernardo Bea Samantha B., Del Rosario Hanassa Mae S., Gomez Marian Louise D., Gomez Rome Voltaire M., Reyes Alessa Anne Therese A.

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The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a significant difference between the training program of Pan Pacific Hotel to other Five Star Hotels in terms of the technical, professional and personal competencies before and after their training. The theoretical framework of this study is the practicum manual of the University of Santo Tomas College of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Hotel and Restaurant Management Program Practicum Manual. This study was conducted using survey questionnaires that were distributed to 50 respondents. The results showed that there is a significant difference with the level of competencies of the practicum trainee before and after the training regardless if the training is structured or unstructured. Results also showed that the structured training program of Pan Pacific Hotel significantly improved the Technical Competencies in the different departments of the hotel industry. On the other hand, the findings also showed that there is no difference between the structured and unstructured training program in terms of Professional Competencies and Personal Competencies. The proponents concluded the study by providing recommendations to the partner hotels of the University of Santo Tomas College of Tourism and Hospitality Management that there should be a structured training program for the practicum trainees.

Keywords: Tourism, Competencies, structured and structured training program, practicum trainees

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32 The Importance of Zenithal Lighting Systems for Natural Light Gains and for Local Energy Generation in Brazil

Authors: Ana Paula Esteves, Diego S. Caetano, Louise L. B. Lomardo

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This paper presents an approach on the advantages of using adequate coverage in the zenithal lighting typology in various areas of architectural production, while at the same time to encourage to the design concerns inherent in this choice of roofing in Brazil. Understanding that sustainability needs to cover several aspects, a roofing system such as zenithal lighting system can contribute to the provision of better quality natural light for the interior of the building, which is related to the good health and welfare; it will also be able to contribute for the sustainable aspects and environmental needs, when it allows the generation of energy in semitransparent or opacity photovoltaic solutions and economize the artificial lightning. When the energy balance in the building is positive, that is, when the building generates more energy than it consumes, it may fit into the Net Zero Energy Building concept. The zenithal lighting systems could be an important ally in Brazil, when solved the burden of heat gains, participate in the set of pro-efficiency actions in search of "zero energy buildings". The paper presents comparative three cases of buildings that have used this feature in search of better environmental performance, both in light comfort and sustainability as a whole. Two of these buildings are examples in Europe: the Notley Green School in the UK and the Isofóton factory in Spain. The third building with these principles of shed´s roof is located in Brazil: the Ipel´s factory in São Paulo.

Keywords: Natural Lighting, SHEDs, net zero energy building, semi-transparent photovoltaics

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31 An Anthropometric and Postural Risk Assessment of Students in Computer Laboratories of a State University

Authors: Sarah Louise Cruz, Jemille Venturina

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Ergonomics considers the capabilities and limitations of a person as they interact with tools, equipment, facilities and tasks in their work environment. Workplace is one example of physical work environment, be it a workbench or a desk. In school laboratories, sitting is the most common working posture of the students. Students maintain static sitting posture as they perform different computer-aided activities. The College of Engineering and College of Information and Communication Technology of a State University consist of twenty-two computer laboratories. Normally, students aren’t usually aware of the importance of sustaining proper sitting posture while doing their long hour computer laboratory activities. The study evaluates the perceived discomfort and working postures of students as they are exposed on current workplace design of computer laboratories. The current study utilizes Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Body Discomfort Chart using Borg’s CR-10 Scale Rating and Quick Exposure Checklist in order to assess the posture and the current working condition. The result of the study may possibly minimize the body discomfort experienced by the students. The researchers redesign the individual workstations which includes working desk, sitting stool and other workplace design components. Also, the economic variability of each alternative was considered given that the study focused on improvement of facilities of a state university.

Keywords: Ergonomics, workplace, students, posture, computer workstation

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30 The Performance of Natural Light by Roof Systems in Cultural Buildings

Authors: Ana Paula Esteves, Diego S. Caetano, Louise L. B. Lomardo

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This paper presents an approach to the performance of the natural lighting, when the use of appropriated solar lighting systems on the roof is applied in cultural buildings such as museums and foundations. The roofs, as a part of contact between the building and the external environment, require special attention in projects that aim at energy efficiency, being an important element for the capture of natural light in greater quantity, but also for being the most important point of generation of photovoltaic solar energy, even semitransparent, allowing the partial passage of light. Transparent elements in roofs, as well as superior protection of the building, can also play other roles, such as: meeting the needs of natural light for the accomplishment of the internal tasks, attending to the visual comfort; to bring benefits to the human perception and about the interior experience in a building. When these resources are well dimensioned, they also contribute to the energy efficiency and consequent character of sustainability of the building. Therefore, when properly designed and executed, a roof light system can bring higher quality natural light to the interior of the building, which is related to the human health and well-being dimension. Furthermore, it can meet the technologic, economic and environmental yearnings, making possible the more efficient use of that primordial resource, which is the light of the Sun. The article presents the analysis of buildings that used zenith light systems in search of better lighting performance in museums and foundations: the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in the United States, the Iberê Camargo Foundation in Brazil, the Museum of Fine Arts in Castellón in Spain and the Pinacoteca of São Paulo.

Keywords: Natural Lighting, roof lighting systems, natural lighting in museums, comfort lighting

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29 A Prevalence of Phonological Disorder in Children with Specific Language Impairment

Authors: Etim, Victoria Enefiok, Dada, Oluseyi Akintunde, Bassey Okon

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Phonological disorder is a serious and disturbing issue to many parents and teachers. Efforts towards resolving the problem have been undermined by other specific disabilities which were hidden to many regular and special education teachers. It is against this background that this study was motivated to provide data on the prevalence of phonological disorders in children with specific language impairment (CWSLI) as the first step towards critical intervention. The study was a survey of 15 CWSLI from St. Louise Inclusive schools, Ikot Ekpene in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Phonological Processes Diagnostic Scale (PPDS) with 17 short sentences, which cut across the five phonological processes that were examined, were validated by experts in test measurement, phonology and special education. The respondents were made to read the sentences with emphasis on the targeted sounds. Their utterances were recorded and analyzed in the language laboratory using Praat Software. Data were also collected through friendly interactions at different times from the clients. The theory of generative phonology was adopted for the descriptive analysis of the phonological processes. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and composite bar chart for better understanding of the result. The study found out that CWSLI exhibited the five phonological processes under investigation. It was revealed that 66.7%, 80%, 73.3%, 80%, and 86.7% of the respondents have severe deficit in fricative stopping, velar fronting, liquid gliding, final consonant deletion and cluster reduction, respectively. It was therefore recommended that a nationwide survey should be carried out to have national statistics of CWSLI with phonological deficits and develop intervention strategies for effective therapy to remediate the disorder.

Keywords: Phonology, specific language impairment, Language disorders, phonological processes

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28 Experimental Investigations on the Mechanical properties of Spiny (Kawayan Tinik) Bamboo Layers

Authors: Ma. Doreen E. Candelaria, Ma. Louise Margaret A. Ramos, Dr. Jaime Y. Hernandez

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Bamboo has been introduced as a possible alternative to some construction materials nowadays. Its potential use in the field of engineering, however, is still not widely practiced due to insufficient engineering knowledge on the material’s properties and characteristics. Although there are researches and studies proving its advantages, it is still not enough to say that bamboo can sustain and provide the strength and capacity required of common structures. In line with this, a more detailed analysis was made to observe the layered structure of the bamboo, particularly the species of Kawayan Tinik. It is the main intent of this research to provide the necessary experiments to determine the tensile strength of dried bamboo samples. The test includes tensile strength parallel to fibers with samples taken at internodes only. Throughout the experiment, methods suggested by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) were followed. The specimens were tested using 3366 INSTRON Universal Testing Machine, with a rate of loading set to 0.6 mm/min. It was then observed from the results of these experiments that dried bamboo samples recorded high layered tensile strengths, as high as 600 MPa. Likewise, along the culm’s length and across its cross section, higher tensile strength were observed at the top part and at its outer layers. Overall, the top part recorded the highest tensile strength per layer, with its outer layers having tensile strength as high as 600 MPa. The recorded tensile strength of its middle and inner layers, on the other hand, were approximately 450 MPa and 180 MPa, respectively. From this variation in tensile strength across the cross section, it may be concluded that an increase in tensile strength may be observed towards the outer periphery of the bamboo. With these preliminary investigations on the layered tensile strength of bamboo, it is highly recommended to conduct experimental investigations on the layered compressive strength properties as well. It is also suggested to conduct investigations evaluating perpendicular layered tensile strength of the material.

Keywords: tensile test, bamboo strength, layered strength tests, strength test

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27 Impact of Soot on NH3-SCR, NH3 Oxidation and NH3 TPD over Cu/SSZ-13 Zeolite

Authors: Lidija Trandafilovic, Kirsten Leistner, Marie Stenfeldt, Louise Olsson

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Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (NH3 SCR), is one of the most efficient post combustion abatement technologies for removing NOx from diesel engines. In order to remove soot, diesel particulate filters (DPF) are used. Recently, SCR coated filters have been introduced, which captures soot and simultaneously is active for ammonia SCR. There are large advantages with using SCR coated filters, such as decreased volume and also better light off characteristics, since both the SCR function as well as filter function is close to the engine. The objective of this work was to examine the effect of soot, produced using an engine bench, on Cu/SSZ-13 catalysts. The impact of soot on Cu/SSZ-13 in standard SCR, NH3 oxidation, NH3 temperature programmed desorption (TPD), as well as soot oxidation (with and without water) was examined using flow reactor measurements. In all experiments, prior to the soot loading, the fresh activity of Cu/SSZ-13 was recorded with stepwise increasing the temperature from 100°C till 600°C. Thereafter, the sample was loaded with soot and the experiment was repeated in the temperature range from 100°C till 700°C. The amount of CO and CO2 produced in each experiment is used to calculate the soot oxidized at each steady state temperature. The soot oxidized during the heating to next temperature step is included, e.g. the CO+CO2 produced when increasing the temperature to 600°C is added to the 600°C step. The influence of the two factors seem to be of the most importance to soot oxidation: ammonia and water. The influence of water on soot oxidation shift the maximum of CO2 and CO production towards lower temperatures, thus water increases the soot oxidation. Moreover, when adding ammonia to the system it is clear that the soot oxidation is lowered in the presence of ammonia, resulting in larger integrated COx at 500°C for O2+H2O, while opposite results at 600 °C was received where more was oxidised for O2+H2O+NH3 case. To conclude the presence of ammonia reduces the soot oxidation, which is in line with the ammonia TPD results where we found ammonia storage on the soot. Interestingly, during ammonia SCR conditions the activity for soot oxidation is regained at 500°C. At this high temperature the SCR zone is very short, thus the majority of the catalyst is not exposed to ammonia and therefore the inhibition effect of ammonia is not observed.

Keywords: Zeolite, soot, NH3-SCR, Cu/SSZ-13

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26 Relationship among Teams' Information Processing Capacity and Performance in Information System Projects: The Effects of Uncertainty and Equivocality

Authors: Ouafa Sakka, Henri Barki, Louise Cote

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Uncertainty and equivocality are defined in the information processing literature as two task characteristics that require different information processing responses from managers. As uncertainty often stems from a lack of information, addressing it is thought to require the collection of additional data. On the other hand, as equivocality stems from ambiguity and a lack of understanding of the task at hand, addressing it is thought to require rich communication between those involved. Past research has provided weak to moderate empirical support to these hypotheses. The present study contributes to this literature by defining uncertainty and equivocality at the project level and investigating their moderating effects on the association between several project information processing constructs and project performance. The information processing constructs considered are the amount of information collected by the project team, and the richness and frequency of formal communications among the team members to discuss the project’s follow-up reports. Data on 93 information system development (ISD) project managers was collected in a questionnaire survey and analyzed it via the Fisher Test for correlation differences. The results indicate that the highest project performance levels were observed in projects characterized by high uncertainty and low equivocality in which project managers were provided with detailed and updated information on project costs and schedules. In addition, our findings show that information about user needs and technical aspects of the project is less useful to managing projects where uncertainty and equivocality are high. Further, while the strongest positive effect of interactive use of follow-up reports on performance occurred in projects where both uncertainty and equivocality levels were high, its weakest effect occurred when both of these were low.

Keywords: Uncertainty, Project Control, Information System Development, equivocality, information processing model, management control systems, interactive use, diagnostic use

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25 Supportive Group Therapy: Its Effects on Depression, Self-Esteem and Quality of Life Among Institutionalized Elderly

Authors: Hannah Patricia S., Louise Margarrette R., Josking Oliver L., Denisse Katrina C., Justine Kali O.

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Aims: In the Philippines, there has been an astronomical increase in the population of elderly sent to nursing home facilities which has been studied to induce despair and loss of self-worth. Nurses in institutionalized facilities generally care for the elderly. Although supportive group therapy has been explored to mend this psychological disparity, nursing research has limited published studies about this in the institutionalized setting. Hence, the study determined the effectiveness of supportive group therapy in depression, self-esteem and quality of life among institutionalized elderly. Methodology: A one-group pre-test-post-test design was conducted among 20-purposively selected institutionalized elderly after the Ethics Research Board approval. All eligible participants underwent the supportive group therapy after being subdivided into session groups. The Geriatric Depression Scale, which has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.90; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem, which has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient = 0.84; and the Older People Quality of Life, which has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient =0.88, were utilized to measure depression, self-esteem, and quality of life, respectively. Descriptive statistics and Repeated Measures-Multivariate Analysis of Variance (RM-MANOVA) analyzed gathered data. Results: Results showed that the supportive group therapy significantly decreased post-test depression scores (F(1,19)=78.69,p=0.0001,partial η2=0.805), significantly improved post-test self-esteem score (F(1,19)=28.07,p=0.0001,partial η2=0.596), and significantly increased the post-test quality of life (F(1,19)=79.73,p=0.0001,partial η2=0.808) after the intervention has been rendered. Conclusion: Supportive group therapy is effective in alleviating depression and in improving self-esteem and quality of life among institutionalized elderly and can be utilized by nursing homes as an intervention to improve the over-all psychosocial status of elderly patients.

Keywords: Depression, Quality of Life, self-esteem, supportive group therapy, institutionalized elderly

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24 Development of a Feedback Control System for the Lab-Scale Biomass Combustion System Using Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: Samuel O. Alamu, Seong W. Lee, Blaise Kalmia, Marc J. Louise Caballes, Xuejun Qian

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The application of combustion technologies for thermal conversion of solid biomass to energy has been a major solution to the effective handling of wastes over a long period of time. Lab-scale biomass combustion systems have been observed to be economically viable and socially acceptable, but major concerns are the environmental impacts of the process and deviation of temperature distribution within the combustion chamber. Both high and low combustion chamber temperature may affect the overall combustion efficiency and gaseous emissions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a control system which measures the deviations of chamber temperature from set target values, send these deviations (which generates disturbances in the system) in form of feedback signal (as input), and control operating conditions for correcting the errors. In this research study, major components of the feedback control system were determined, assembled and tested. In addition, control algorithms were developed to actuate operating conditions (e.g., airflow rate, fuel feeding rate) using ladder logic function embedded in the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The developed control algorithm having chamber temperature as a feedback signal is integrated in the lab-scale swirling fluidized bed to study the temperature distribution at different heights of the combustion chamber based on operation conditions. The air blower rate and the fuel feeding rates obtained from automatic control operations were correlated with manual inputs. Comparison results indicated that there was no disparity and equally served as a benchmark for the experimental design using the lab-scale biomass combustion chamber. The developed control system was shown to be adequate in controlling the airflow and the fuel feeding rate for the overall biomass combustion process.

Keywords: temperature, Air Flow, Programmable Logic Controller, Biomass Combustion, feedback control signal, fuel flow

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23 Passenger Preferences on Airline Check-In Methods: Traditional Counter Check-In Versus Common-Use Self-Service Kiosk

Authors: Cruz Queen Allysa Rose, Bautista Joymeeh Anne, Lantoria Kaye, Barretto Katya Louise

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The study presents the preferences of passengers on the quality of service provided by the two airline check-in methods currently present in airports-traditional counter check-in and common-use self-service kiosks. Since a study has shown that airlines perceive self-service kiosks alone are sufficient enough to ensure adequate services and customer satisfaction, and in contrast, agents and passengers stated that it alone is not enough and that human interaction is essential. In reference with former studies that established opposing ideas about the choice of the more favorable airline check-in method to employ, it is the purpose of this study to present a recommendation that shall somehow fill-in the gap between the conflicting ideas by means of comparing the perceived quality of service through the RATER model. Furthermore, this study discusses the major competencies present in each method which are supported by the theories–FIRO Theory of Needs upholding the importance of inclusion, control and affection, and the Queueing Theory which points out the discipline of passengers and the length of the queue line as important factors affecting quality service. The findings of the study were based on the data gathered by the researchers from selected Thomasian third year and fourth year college students currently enrolled in the first semester of the academic year 2014-2015, who have already experienced both airline check-in methods through the implication of a stratified probability sampling. The statistical treatments applied in order to interpret the data were mean, frequency, standard deviation, t-test, logistic regression and chi-square test. The final point of the study revealed that there is a greater effect in passenger preference concerning the satisfaction experienced in common-use self-service kiosks in comparison with the application of the traditional counter check-in.

Keywords: traditional counter check-in, common-use self-service Kiosks, airline check-in methods

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22 Approach for Evaluating Wastewater Reuse Options in Agriculture

Authors: Manal Elgallal, Louise Fletcher, Barbara Evans

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Water scarcity is a growing concern in many arid and semi-arid countries. The increase of water scarcity threatens economic development and sustainability of human livelihoods as well as environment especially in developing countries. Globally, agriculture is the largest water consumption sector, accounting for approximately 70% of all freshwater extraction. Growing competition between the agricultural and higher economic value in urban and industrial uses of high-quality freshwater supplies, especially in regions where water scarcity major problems, will increase the pressure on this precious resource. In this circumstance, wastewater may provide reliable source of water for agriculture and enable freshwater to be exchanged for more economically valuable purposes. Concern regarding the risks from microbial and toxic components to human health and environment quality is a serious obstacle for wastewater reuse particularly in agriculture. Although powerful approaches and tools for microbial risk assessment and management for safe use of wastewater are now available, few studies have attempted to provide any mechanism to quantitatively assess and manage the environmental risks resulting from reusing wastewater. In seeking pragmatic solutions to sustainable wastewater reuse, there remains a lack of research incorporating both health and environmental risk assessment and management with economic analysis in order to quantitatively combine cost, benefits and risks to rank alternative reuse options. This study seeks to enhance effective reuse of wastewater for irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas, the outcome of the study is an evaluation approach that can be used to assess different reuse strategies and to determine the suitable scale at which treatment alternatives and interventions are possible, feasible and cost effective in order to optimise the trade-offs between risks to protect public health and the environment and preserving the substantial benefits.

Keywords: Management, Environmental Risks, life cycle costs, waste water irrigation

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21 Exploring the Facets of Sexuality among Older Adults

Authors: Vivienne Cloude C. Bersabe, Nuelle Anne Castro, Christy P. Gonzales, Nathalie Ann D. Ocbo, Araceli Chuwaley C. Padcayan, Michelle Gaile Lianne S. Peralta, Cecile A. Perez, Eiden Mae A. Roque, Frances Bea S. Sabaten, Korina Louise A. Saculles, Jada Kristen O. Taska, Jose Reinhard C. Laoingco, Don Leonardo N. Dacumos

Abstract:

The rationale of the study: Since discussion about sexuality is considered taboo in the Filipino culture, provision of quality holistic care often lacks sexuality aspect. This research was conducted to highlight the need for nurses to incorporate sexuality in their care of older adults. Research Objectives: To measure the levels of older adults’ sexual desire, sexual behavior, and sexual intimacy and relate them to sex, living arrangement, educational level, and presence of chronic illness, whether with or without treatment. Methods: This study is of quantitative descriptive design that utilized purposive sampling. 400 older adults of Baguio City participated. The study used a 30 point researcher-made questionnaire, one-on-one interview and focused group discussion to gather data. Data were treated using weighted mean, t-test, F-test, and Scheffe's test. Results and Conclusions: The overall findings revealed that Filipino older adults have a low level of sexuality expressed by the participants’ sexual desire, behavior, and intimacy. Males have significantly higher level of sexual desire, behavior, and intimacy. Living arrangement does not seem to influence the level of sexuality in all its 3 facets. Sexual desire was significantly higher among those with tertiary education and without chronic illness. Recommendation: It is recommended that nurses carry out their assessment of clients to include the exploration of their sexuality especially the older adults. A similar study may be done to explore other variables like demographic location, i.e., rural or urban setting; socio-cultural factors; and functional performance status. It is also recommended that a similar study may be done exploring the different facets of sexuality among homosexual older persons.

Keywords: Sexuality, Geriatrics, Older Adults, Philippines

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20 Canthin-6-One Alkaloid Inhibits NF-κB and AP-1 Activity: An Inhibitory Action At Transcriptional Level

Authors: Fadia Gafri, Kathryn Mckintosh, Louise Young, Alan Harvey, Simon Mackay, Andrew Paul, Robin Plevin

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Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor found originally to play a key role in regulating inflammation. However considerable evidence links this pathway to the suppression of apoptosis, cellular transformation, proliferation and invasion (Aggarwal et al., 2006). Moreover, recent studies have also linked inflammation to cancer progression making NF-κB overall a promising therapeutic target for drug discovery (Dobrovolskaia & Kozlov, 2005). In this study we examined the effect of the natural product canthin-6-one (SU182) as part of a CRUK small molecule drug discovery programme for effects upon the NF-κB pathway. Initial studies demonstrated that SU182 was found to have good potency against the inhibitory kappa B kinases (IKKs) at 30M in vitro. However, at concentrations up to 30M, SU182 had no effect upon TNFα stimulated loss in cellular IκBα or p65 phosphorylation in the keratinocyte cell line NCTC2544. Nevertheless, 30M SU182 reduced TNF-α / PMA-induced NF-κB-linked luciferase reporter activity to (22.9 ± 5%) and (34.6± 3 %, P<0.001) respectively, suggesting an action downstream of IKK signalling. Indeed, SU182 neither decreased NF-κB-DNA binding as assayed by EMSA nor prevented the translocation of p65 (NF-κB) to the nucleus assessed by immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation. In addition to the inhibition of transcriptional activity of TNFα-induced NF-κB reporter activity SU182 significantly reduced PMA-induced AP-1-linked luciferase reporter activity to about (48± 9% at 30M, P<0.001) . This mode of inhibition was not sufficient to prevent the activation of NF-κB dependent induction of other proteins such as COX-2 and iNOS, or activated MAP kinases (p38, JNK and ERK1/2) in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Taken together these data indicate the potential for SU182 to interfere with the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 at transcriptional level. However, no potential anti-inflammatory effect was indicated, further investigation for other NF-κB dependent proteins linked to survival are also required to identify the exact mechanism of action.

Keywords: NF-κB, phosphorylation, Canthin-6-one, AP-1, Nuclear translocation, DNA-binding activity, inflammatory proteins

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19 Evaluation of Air Movement, Humidity and Temperature Perceptions with the Occupant Satisfaction in Office Buildings in Hot and Humid Climate Regions by Means of Field Surveys

Authors: Diego S. Caetano, Louise L. B. Lomardo, Doreen E. Kalz, Luiz P. Rosa

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The energy consumption in non-residential buildings in Brazil has a great impact on the national infrastructure. The growth of the energy consumption has a special role over the building cooling systems, supported by the increased people's requirements on hygrothermal comfort. This paper presents how the occupants of office buildings notice and evaluate the hygrothermic comfort regarding temperature, humidity, and air movement, considering the cooling systems presented at the buildings studied, analyzed by real occupants in areas of hot and humid climate. The paper presents results collected over a long time from 3 office buildings in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Niteroi (Brazil) in 2015 and 2016, from daily questionnaires with eight questions answered by 114 people between 3 to 5 weeks per building, twice a day (10 a.m. and 3 p.m.). The paper analyses 6 out of 8 questions, emphasizing on the perception of temperature, humidity, and air movement. Statistics analyses were made crossing participant answers and humidity and temperature data related to time high time resolution time. Analyses were made from regressions comparing: internal and external temperature, and then compared with the answers of the participants. The results were put in graphics combining statistic graphics related to temperature and air humidity with the answers of the real occupants. Analysis related to the perception of the participants to humidity and air movements were also analyzed. The hygrothermal comfort statistic model of the European standard DIN EN 15251 and that from the Brazilian standard NBR 16401 were compared taking into account the perceptions of the hygrothermal comfort of the participants, with emphasis on air humidity, taking basis on prior studies published on this same research. The studies point out a relative tolerance for higher temperatures than the ones determined by the standards, besides a variation on the participants' perception concerning air humidity. The paper presents a group of detailed information that permits to improve the quality of the buildings based on the perception of occupants of the office buildings, contributing to the energy reduction without health damages and demands of necessary hygrothermal comfort, reducing the consumption of electricity on cooling.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Thermal comfort, energy standards, comfort models

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18 Lived Experiences of Parents in Disciplining Their Children

Authors: Bernardino Vinoya, Cassandra D. Batton, Samantha Gayle M. Bonavente, Johnson O. Canoza, Lhea Flynn B. Capones, Camille S. Dispo, Johanna Neilvin T. Dontogan, Louise Angelica C. Lipana, Charlene Pearl P. Navalta, Rechelle Vhen W. Payo-os, Mary Reyna D. Ridao, Rushnol Jade P. Tupac, Pauline B. Sol

Abstract:

Parenting is preparing children for life as productive adults and discipline strategies are needed to achieve it like non-aggressive, psychologically aggressive and physical discipline. The effects of disciplinary strategies on children are well explored as evidenced by existing studies, local and international laws and active international organizations which are all brimmed towards child protection but status quo shows a profound scarcity of studies engaged in the effects of disciplining the child on the parent. To know the deeper unexplored reasons and untold stories of the parent, mainly the lived experiences of parents in disciplining their children. Design is descriptive phenomelogical. Participants were chosen using snowball purposive sampling. Data were collected through interview with the general question, “Ano ang mga karanasan ninyo sa pagdidisiplina ng inyong anak (What are your experiences when disciplining your child?)”, followed with unstructured questions. Collaizi method was used in analyzing data. Data collected was verified through focused group discussion. Results show three main themes: Reason, Disciplinary Strategy, and Aftermath. The use of disciplinary strategy is influenced by the experiences of the parent, the triggers like the child’s misbehavior and parental desires or wishes for the child. Disciplinary strategy can either be physical punishment or verbal. Parent’s generally used both when children disrespects or disobeys. Parents also experience both positive and negative effects on their physical, social, emotional aspects after disciplining their children. As a result, parents use coping mechanisms to maintain ego stability. Disciplining a child is a cyclical process. Parents, just like the child will also experience both positive and negative outcomes after using different disciplinary strategies. Future researchers can replicate study or use triangulation in multi-site qualitative and quantitative studies, professors can teach findings on parents in the concepts of pediatric nursing and apply the findings in the clinical area particularly when dealing with families.

Keywords: Pediatric Nursing, Parents, disciplinary strategy, parental effects

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17 Utilization of Standard Paediatric Observation Chart to Evaluate Infants under Six Months Presenting with Non-Specific Complaints

Authors: Michael Zhang, Nicholas Marriage, Valerie Astle, Marie-Louise Ratican, Jonathan Ash, Haddijatou Hughes

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Objective: Young infants are often brought to the Emergency Department (ED) with a variety of complaints, some of them are non-specific and present as a diagnostic challenge to the attending clinician. Whilst invasive investigations such as blood tests and lumbar puncture are necessary in some cases to exclude serious infections, some basic clinical tools in additional to thorough clinical history can be useful to assess the risks of serious conditions in these young infants. This study aimed to examine the utilization of one of clinical tools in this regard. Methods: This retrospective observational study examined the medical records of infants under 6 months presenting to a mixed urban ED between January 2013 and December 2014. The infants deemed to have non-specific complaints or diagnoses by the emergency clinicians were selected for analysis. The ones with clear systemic diagnoses were excluded. Among all relevant clinical information and investigation results, utilization of Standard Paediatric Observation Chart (SPOC) was particularly scrutinized in these medical records. This specific chart was developed by the expert clinicians in local health department. It categorizes important clinical signs into some color-coded zones as a visual cue for serious implication of some abnormalities. An infant is regarded as SPOC positive when fulfills 1 red zone or 2 yellow zones criteria, and the attending clinician would be prompted to investigate and treat for potential serious conditions accordingly. Results: Eight hundred and thirty-five infants met the inclusion criteria for this project. The ones admitted to the hospital for further management were more likely to have SPOC positive criteria than the discharged infants (Odds ratio: 12.26, 95% CI: 8.04 – 18.69). Similarly, Sepsis alert criteria on SPOC were positive in a higher percentage of patients with serious infections (56.52%) in comparison to those with mild conditions (15.89%) (p < 0.001). The SPOC sepsis criteria had a sensitivity of 56.5% (95% CI: 47.0% - 65.7%) and a moderate specificity of 84.1% (95% CI: 80.8% - 87.0%) to identify serious infections. Applying to this infant population, with a 17.4% prevalence of serious infection, the positive predictive value was only 42.8% (95% CI: 36.9% - 49.0%). However, the negative predictive value was high at 90.2% (95% CI: 88.1% - 91.9%). Conclusions: Standard Paediatric Observation Chart has been applied as a useful clinical tool in the clinical practice to help identify and manage young sick infants in ED effectively.

Keywords: infants, clinical tool, non-specific complaints, Standard Paediatric Observation Chart

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16 Building Academic Success and Resilience in Social Work Students: An Application of Self-Determination Theory

Authors: Louise Bunce, Jill Childs, Adam J. Lonsdale, Naomi King

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A major concern for the Social Work profession concerns the frequency of burn-out and high turnover of staff. The characteristic of resilience has been identified as playing a crucial role in social workers’ ability to have a satisfying and successful career. Thus a critical role for social work education is to develop resilience in social work students. We currently need to know more about how to train resilient social workers who will also increase the academic standing of the profession. The specific aim of this research was to quantify characteristics that may contribute towards resilience and academic success among student social workers in order to mitigate against the problems of burn-out and low academic standing. These three characteristics were competence (effectiveness at mastering the environment), autonomy (sense of control and free will), and relatedness (interacting and connecting with others), as specified in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). When these three needs are satisfied, we experience higher degrees of motivation to succeed and wellbeing. Thus when these three needs are met in social work students, they have the potential to raise academic standards and promote wellbeing characteristics that contribute to the development of resilience. The current study tested the hypothesis that higher levels of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as defined by SDT, will predict levels of academic success and resilience in social work students. Two hundred and ten social work students studying at a number of universities completed well-established questionnaires to assess autonomy, competence, and relatedness, level of academic performance and resilience (The Brief Resilience Scale). In this scale, students rated their agreement with items e.g., ‘I bounce back quickly after hard times’ and ‘I usually come through difficult times with little struggle’. After controlling for various factors, including age, gender, ethnicity, and course (undergraduate or postgraduate) preliminary analysis revealed that the components of SDT provided useful predictive value for academic success and resilience. In particular, autonomy and competence provided a useful predictor of academic success while relatedness was a particularly useful predictor of resilience. This study demonstrated that SDT provides a valuable framework for helping to understand what predicts academic success and resilience among social work students. This is relevant because the psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness can be affected by external social and cultural pressures, thus they can be improved by the right type of supportive teaching practices and educational environments. These findings contribute to the growing evidence-base to help build an academic and resilient social worker student body and workforce.

Keywords: Education, Resilience, self-determination theory, student social workers

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15 Substitutional Inference in Poetry: Word Choice Substitutions Craft Multiple Meanings by Inference

Authors: J. Marie Hicks

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The art of the poetic conjoins meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm. Perhaps the reader might read this opening sentence as 'The art of the poetic combines meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm,' which holds a similar message, but is not quite the same. The reader understands that these factors are combined in this literary form, but to gain a sense of the conjoining of these factors, the reader is forced to consider that these aspects of poetry are not simply combined, but actually adjoin, abut, skirt, or touch in the poetic form. This alternative word choice is an example of substitutional inference. Poetry is, ostensibly, a literary form where language is used precisely or creatively to evoke specific images or emotions for the reader. Often, the reader can predict a coming rhyme or descriptive word choice in a poem, based on previous rhyming pattern or earlier imagery in the poem. However, there are instances when the poet uses an unexpected word choice to create multiple meanings and connections. In these cases, the reader is presented with an unusual phrase or image, requiring that they think about what that image is meant to suggest, and their mind also suggests the word they expected, creating a second, overlying image or meaning. This is what is meant by the term 'substitutional inference.' This is different than simply using a double entendre, a word or phrase that has two meanings, often one complementary and the other disparaging, or one that is innocuous and the other suggestive. In substitutional inference, the poet utilizes an unanticipated word that is either visually or phonetically similar to the expected word, provoking the reader to work to understand the poetic phrase as written, while unconsciously incorporating the meaning of the line as anticipated. In other words, by virtue of a word substitution, an inference of the logical word choice is imparted to the reader, while they are seeking to rationalize the word that was actually used. There is a substitutional inference of meaning created by the alternate word choice. For example, Louise Bogan, 4th Poet Laureate of the United States, used substitutional inference in the form of homonyms, malapropisms, and other unusual word choices in a number of her poems, lending depth and greater complexity, while actively engaging her readers intellectually with her poetry. Substitutional inference not only adds complexity to the potential interpretations of Bogan’s poetry, as well as the poetry of others, but provided a method for writers to infuse additional meanings into their work, thus expressing more information in a compact format. Additionally, this nuancing enriches the poetic experience for the reader, who can enjoy the poem superficially as written, or on a deeper level exploring gradations of meaning.

Keywords: poetic inference, poetic word play, substitutional inference, word substitution

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14 Chloride Ion Channels Play a Role in Mediating Immune Response during Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Louise Robson, Richmond Muimo, Hani M. Alothaid

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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease that affects respiratory function and in EU it affects about 1 in 2,500 live births with an average 40-year life expectancy. This disease caused by mutations within the gene encoding the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) chloride channel leading to dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport and chronic lung inflammation, suggesting functional alterations of immune cells. In airways, CFTR been found to form a functional complex with S100A10 and AnxA2 in a cAMP/PKA dependent manner. The multiprotein complex of AnxA2-S100A10 and CFTR is also regulated by calcineurin. The aim of this study was i) to investigate whether chloride ion (Cl−) channels are activated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS from PA), ii) if this activation is regulated by cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway and iii) to investigate the role of LPS-activated Cl− channels in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells. Human peripheral blood monocytes were used in the study. Whole-cell patch records showed that LPS from PA can activate Cl− channels, including CFTR and outwardly-rectifying Cl− channel (ORCC). This activation appears to require an intact PKA/calcineurin signalling pathway. The Gout in the presence of LPS was significantly inhibited by diisothiocyanatostilbene-disulfonic acid (DIDS), an ORCC blocker (p<0.001). The Gout was further suppressed by CFTR(inh)-172, a specific inhibitor for CFTR channels (p<0.001). Monocytes pre-incubated with PKA inhibitor or calcineurin inhibitor before stimulated with LPS from PA that were resulted in DIDS and CFTR(inh)-172 insensitive currents. Activation of both ORCC and CFTR was however, observed in response to monocytes exposure to LPS. Additionally, ELISA showed that the CFTR and ORCC play a role in mediating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β upon exposure of monocytes to LPS. However, this secretion was significantly inhibited due to CFTR and ORCC inhibition. However, Cl− may play a role in IL-1β release independent of cAMP/PKA/calcineurin signalling due to the enhancement of IL-1β secretion even when cAMP/PKA/calcineurin pathway was inhibited. In conclusion, our data confirmed that LPS from PA activates Cl− channels in human peripheral blood monocytes. Our data also confirmed that Cl− channels were involved in IL-1β release in monocytes upon exposure to LPS. However, it has been found that PKA and calcineurin does not seem to influence the Cl− dependent cytokine release.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pKa, annexin A2, CFTR, S100A10, PP2B, outwardly-rectifying Cl− channel

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13 A Comparative Human Rights Analysis of Deprivation of Citizenship as a Counterterrorism Instrument: An Evaluation of Belgium

Authors: Louise Reyntjens

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In response to Islamic-inspired terrorism and the growing trend of foreign fighters, European governments are increasingly relying on the deprivation of citizenship as a security tool. This development fits within a broader securitization of immigration, where the terrorist threat is perceived as emanating from abroad. As a result, immigration law became more and more ‘securitized’. The European migration crisis has reinforced this trend. This research evaluates the deprivation of citizenship from a human rights perspective. For this, the author selected four European countries for a comparative study: Belgium, France, the United Kingdom and Sweden. All these countries face similar social and security issues, vitalizing (the debate on) deprivation of citizenship as a counterterrorism tool. Yet, they adopt a very different approach on this: The United Kingdom positions itself on the repressive side of the spectrum. Sweden on the other hand, also ‘securitized’ its immigration policy after the recent terrorist hit in Stockholm but remains on the tolerant side of the spectrum. Belgium and France are situated in between. This contribution evaluates the deprivation of citizenship in Belgium. Belgian law has provided the possibility to strip someone of their Belgian citizenship since 1919. However, the provision long remained a dead letter. The 2015 Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris sparked a series of legislative changes, elevating the deprivation measure to a key security tool in Belgian law. Yet, the measure raises profound human rights issues. Firstly, it infringes the right to private and family life. As provided by Article 8 (2) European Court of Human Right (ECHR), this right can be limited if necessary for national security and public safety. Serious questions can however be raised about the necessity for the national security of depriving an individual of its citizenship. Behavior giving rise to this measure will generally be governed by criminal law. From a security perspective, criminal detention will thus already provide in removing the individual from society. Moreover, simply stripping an individual of its citizenship and deporting them constitutes a failure of criminal law’s responsibility to prosecute criminal behavior. Deprivation of citizenship is also discriminatory, because it differentiates, without a legitimate reason, between those liable to deprivation and those who are not. It thereby installs a secondary class of citizens, violating the European Court of Human Right’s principle that no distinction can be tolerated between children on the basis of the status of their parents. If followed by expulsion, deprivation also seriously jeopardizes the right to life and prohibition of torture. This contribution explores the human rights consequences of citizenship deprivation as a security tool in Belgium. It also offers a critical view on its efficacy for protecting national security.

Keywords: Human Rights, Immigration Law, Counterterrorism Strategies, Belgium, deprivation of citizenship

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12 A Comparative Human Rights Analysis of the Securitization of Migration in the Fight against Terrorism in Europe: An Evaluation of Belgium

Authors: Louise Reyntjens

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The last quarter of the twentieth century was characterized by the emergence of a new kind of terrorism: religiously-inspired terrorism. Islam finds itself at the heart of this new wave, considering the number of international attacks committed by Islamic-inspired perpetrators. With religiously inspired terrorism as an operating framework, governments increasingly rely on immigration law to counter such terrorism. Immigration law seems particularly useful because its core task consists of keeping ‘unwanted’ people out. Islamic terrorists more often than not have an immigrant background and will be subject to immigration law. As a result, immigration law becomes more and more ‘securitized’. The European migration crisis has reinforced this trend. The research explores the human rights consequences of immigration law’s securitization in Europe. For this, the author selected four European countries for a comparative study: Belgium, France, the United Kingdom and Sweden. All these countries face similar social and security issues but respond very differently to them. The United Kingdom positions itself on the repressive side of the spectrum. Sweden on the other hand also introduced restrictions to its immigration policy but remains on the tolerant side of the spectrum. Belgium and France are situated in between. This contribution evaluates the situation in Belgium. Through a series of legislative changes, the Belgian parliament (i) greatly expanded the possibilities of expelling foreign nationals for (vaguely defined) reasons of ‘national security’; (ii) abolished almost all procedural protection associated with this decision (iii) broadened, as an extra security measure, the possibility of depriving individuals condemned of terrorism of their Belgian nationality. Measures such as these are obviously problematic from a human rights perspective; they jeopardize the principle of legality, the presumption of innocence, the right to protection of private and family life and the prohibition on torture. Moreover, this contribution also raises questions about the efficacy of immigration law’s suitability as a counterterrorism instrument. Is it a legitimate step, considering the type of terrorism we face today? Or, is it merely a strategic move, considering the broader maneuvering space immigration law offers and the lack of political resistance governments receive when infringing the rights of foreigners? Even more so, figures demonstrate that today’s terrorist threat does not necessarily stem from outside our borders. Does immigration law then still absorb - if it has ever done so (completely) - the threat? The study’s goal is to critically assess, from a human rights perspective, the counterterrorism strategies European governments have adopted. As most governments adopt a variation of the same core concepts, the study’s findings will hold true even beyond the four countries addressed.

Keywords: Human Rights, Immigration Law, Counterterrorism Strategies, Belgium

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