Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2826

Search results for: radiation protection

2826 Status of Radiation Protection at Radiation Oncology, BPKM Cancer Hospital, Nepal

Authors: Surendra B. Chand, P. P. Chaurasia, M. P. Adhikari, R. N. Yadav


Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate all the safety procedures toward the radiation protection for workers in the radiation oncology department. Materials and Methods: The annual thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) reports for five years of the staffs were evaluated, radiation surveys were done in the control consoles, radiotherapy machines room and waiting areas of all machines using Aloka survey meter. Results: The five years TLD reports shows that the whole body dose of the individual staffs is found within the annual dose limit except the accidental exposures. Radiation exposures in the working areas are also safe limits. Conclusion: The radiation safety practices for radiation protection are satisfactory and the radiation workers of the departments are found working within the safe limit.

Keywords: radiation protection, safety, ICRP, dose limits, TLD, radiation devices

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2825 Determining the Effectiveness of Radiation Shielding and Safe Time for Radiation Worker by Employing Monitoring of Accumulation Dose in the Operator Room of CT Scan

Authors: Risalatul Latifah, Bunawas Bunawas, Lailatul Muqmiroh, Anggraini D. Sensusiati


Along with the increasing frequency of the use of CT-Scan for radiodiagnostics purposes, it is necessary to study radiation protection. This study examined aspects of radiation protection of workers. This study tried using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) for evaluating radiation shielding and estimating safe time for workers during CT Scan examination. Six TLDs were placed on door, wall, and window inside and outside of the CT Scan room for 1 month. By using TLD monitoring, it could be seen how much radiation was exposed in the operator room. The results showed the effective dose at door, window, and wall was respectively 0.04 mSv, 0.05 mSv, and 0.04 mSv. With these values, it could be evaluated the effectiveness of radiation shielding on doors, glass and walls were respectively 90.6%, 95.5%, and 92.2%. By applying the dose constraint and the estimation of the accumulated dose for one month, radiation workers were still safe to perform the irradiation for 180 patients.

Keywords: CT scan room, TLD, radiation worker, dose constraint

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2824 Simulation of Hamming Coding and Decoding for Microcontroller Radiation Hardening

Authors: Rehab I. Abdul Rahman, Mazhar B. Tayel


This paper presents a method of hardening the 8051 microcontroller, that able to assure reliable operation in the presence of bit flips caused by radiation. Aiming at avoiding such faults in the 8051 microcontroller, Hamming code protection was used in its SRAM memory and registers. A VHDL code and its simulation have been used for this hamming code protection.

Keywords: radiation, hardening, bitflip, hamming

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2823 Awareness regarding Radiation Protection among the Technicians Practicing in Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal

Authors: Jayanti Gyawali, Deepak Adhikari, Mukesh Mallik, Sanjay Sah


Radiation is defined as an emission or transmission of energy in form of waves or particles through space or material medium. The major imaging tools used in diagnostic radiology is based on the use of ionizing radiation. A cross-sectional study was carried out during July- August, 2015 among technicians in 15 different hospitals of Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal to assess awareness regarding radiation protection and their current practice. The researcher was directly engaged for data collection using self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. The findings of the study are presented in socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, current practice of respondents and knowledge regarding radiation protection. The result of this study demonstrated that despite the importance of radiation and its consequent hazards, the level of knowledge among technicians is only 60.23% and their current practice is 76.84%. The difference in the mean score of knowledge and practice might have resulted due to technicians’s regular work and lack of updates. The study also revealed that there is no significant (p>0.05) difference in knowledge level of technicians practicing in different hospitals. But the mean difference in practice scores of different hospital is significant (p<0.05) i.e. i.e. the cancer hospital with large volumes of regular radiological cases and radiation therapies for cancer treatment has better practice in comparison to other hospitals. The deficiency in knowledge of technicians might alter the expected benefits, compared to the risk involved, and can cause erroneous medical diagnosis and radiation hazard. Therefore, this study emphasizes the need for all technicians to update themselves with the appropriate knowledge and current practice about ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.

Keywords: technicians, knowledge, Nepal, radiation

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2822 Reduction of Physician's Radiation Dose during Cardiac Catheterization Procedures Using Lead-Free Sterile Radiation Shields

Authors: Mohammad O. Diab, Sahera A. Saleh, Mustapha M. Dichari, Nijez Aloulou, Omar Hamoui, Feras Chehade


This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of lead-free sterile radiation shield (Radionex) in the reduction of physician's exposure dose during interventional cardiology procedures. Cardiac catheterization procedures are often associated with high radiation doses and high levels of secondary radiation emitted by the patient's body. This study compares physician exposure dose rate during cardiac catheterization procedures done through the femoral artery with sterile radiation shielding to same procedures made without the shielding. The mean operator radiation dose rate without using the shield was found to be 18.4µSv/min compared to a mean dose rate of 5.1 µSv/min when using the shield, rendering a reduction of 72.5% of radiation received by the physician. Sterile radiation shielding is consequently an effective addition to a cardiac catheterization lab radiation protection system.

Keywords: cardiac catheterization, physician exposure dose, sterile radiation shielding, lead-free sterile radiation shields

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2821 Ontology-Driven Generation of Radiation Protection Procedures

Authors: Chamseddine Barki, Salam Labidi, Hanen Boussi Rahmouni


In this article, we present the principle and suitable methodology for the design of a medical ontology that highlights the radiological and dosimetric knowledge, applied in diagnostic radiology and radiation-therapy. Our ontology, which we named «Onto.Rap», is the subject of radiation protection in medical and radiology centers by providing a standardized regulatory oversight. Thanks to its added values of knowledge-sharing, reuse and the ease of maintenance, this ontology tends to solve many problems. Of which we name the confusion between radiological procedures a practitioner might face while performing a patient radiological exam. Adding to it, the difficulties they might have in interpreting applicable patient radioprotection standards. Here, the ontology, thanks to its concepts simplification and expressiveness capabilities, can ensure an efficient classification of radiological procedures. It also provides an explicit representation of the relations between the different components of the studied concept. In fact, an ontology based-radioprotection expert system, when used in radiological center, could implement systematic radioprotection best practices during patient exam and a regulatory compliance service auditing afterwards.

Keywords: knowledge, ontology, radiation protection, radiology

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2820 The Benefits of Security Culture for Improving Physical Protection Systems at Detection and Radiation Measurement Laboratory

Authors: Ari S. Prabowo, Nia Febriyanti, Haryono B. Santosa


Security function that is called as Physical Protection Systems (PPS) has functions to detect, delay and response. Physical Protection Systems (PPS) in Detection and Radiation Measurement Laboratory needs to be improved continually by using internal resources. The nuclear security culture provides some potentials to support this research. The study starts by identifying the security function’s weaknesses and its strengths of security culture as a purpose. Secondly, the strengths of security culture are implemented in the laboratory management. Finally, a simulation was done to measure its effectiveness. Some changes were happened in laboratory personnel behaviors and procedures. All became more prudent. The results showed a good influence of nuclear security culture in laboratory security functions.

Keywords: laboratory, physical protection system, security culture, security function

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2819 Characterization of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Created by Multiple Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: Clement Temaneh-Nyah, Josiah Makiche, Josephine Nujoma


This paper considers the characterisation of a complex electromagnetic environment due to multiple sources of electromagnetic radiation as a five-dimensional surface which can be described by a set of several surface sections including: instant EM field intensity distribution maps at a given frequency and altitude, instantaneous spectrum at a given location in space and the time evolution of the electromagnetic field spectrum at a given point in space. This characterization if done over time can enable the exposure levels of Radio Frequency Radiation at every point in the analysis area to be determined and results interpreted based on comparison of the determined RFR exposure level with the safe guidelines for general public exposure given by recognised body such as the International commission on non-ionising radiation protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA).

Keywords: complex electromagnetic environment, electric field strength, mathematical models, multiple sources

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2818 Comparative Study of Radiation Protection in a Hospital Environment

Authors: Lahoucine Zaama, Sanae Douama


In this work, we present the results of a dosimetry study in a Moroccan radiology department . The results are compared with those of a similar study in France. Furthermore, it determines the coefficient of transmission of the lead sheets of different thicknesses depending on the voltage (KV) in a direct exposure. The objective of this study is to choose the thickness of the radiation means to determine the leaf sample sealed with the smallest percentage value radiation transmission, and that in the context of optimization. Thus the comparison among the studies is essential to consider conduct studies and research in this framework to achieve the goal of optimization.

Keywords: radiology, dosimetry, radiation, dose, transmission

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2817 Therapeutic Effects of Toll Like Receptor 9 Ligand CpG-ODN on Radiation Injury

Authors: Jianming Cai


Exposure to ionizing radiation causes severe damage to human body and an safe and effective radioprotector is urgently required for alleviating radiation damage. In 2008, flagellin, an agonist of TLR5, was found to exert radioprotective effects on radiation injury through activating NF-kB signaling pathway. From then, the radioprotective effects of TLR ligands has shed new lights on radiation protection. CpG-ODN is an unmethylated oligonucleotide which activates TLR9 signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that CpG-ODN has therapeutic effects on radiation injuries induced by γ ray and 12C6+ heavy ion particles. Our data showed that CpG-ODN increased the survival rate of mice after whole body irradiation and increased the number of leukocytes as well as the bone marrow cells. CpG-ODN also alleviated radiation damage on intestinal crypt through regulating apoptosis signaling pathway including bcl2, bax, and caspase 3 etc. By using a radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis model, we found that CpG-ODN could alleviate structural damage, within 20 week after whole–thorax 15Gy irradiation. In this model, Th1/Th2 imbalance induced by irradiation was also reversed by CpG-ODN. We also found that TGFβ-Smad signaling pathway was regulated by CpG-ODN, which accounts for the therapeutic effects of CpG-ODN in radiation-induced pulmonary injury. On another hand, for high LET radiation protection, we investigated protective effects of CpG-ODN against 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation and found that after CpG-ODN treatment, the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induced by 12C6+ irradiation was reduced. CpG-ODN also reduced the expression of Bax and caspase 3, while increased the level of bcl2. Then we detected the effect of CpG-ODN on heavy ion induced immune dysfunction. Our data showed that CpG-ODN increased the survival rate of mice and also the leukocytes after 12C6+ irradiation. Besides, the structural damage of immune organ such as thymus and spleen was also alleviated by CpG-ODN treatment. In conclusion, we found that TLR9 ligand, CpG-ODN reduced radiation injuries in response to γ ray and 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation. On one hand, CpG-ODN inhibited the activation of apoptosis induced by radiation through regulating bcl2, bax and caspase 3. On another hand, through activating TLR9, CpG-ODN recruit MyD88-IRAK-TRAF6 complex, activating TAK1, IRF5 and NF-kB pathway, and thus alleviates radiation damage. This study provides novel insights into protection and therapy of radiation damages.

Keywords: TLR9, CpG-ODN, radiation injury, high LET radiation

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2816 Porosity and Ultraviolet Protection Ability of Woven Fabrics

Authors: Polona Dobnik Dubrovski, Abhijit Majumdar


The increasing awareness of negative effects of ultraviolet radiation and regular, effective protection are actual themes in many countries. Woven fabrics as clothing items can provide convenient personal protection however not all fabrics offer sufficient UV protection. Porous structure of the material has a great effect on UPF. The paper is focused on an overview of porosity in woven fabrics, including the determination of porosity parameters on the basis of an ideal geometrical model of porous structure. Our experiment was focused on 100% cotton woven fabrics in a grey state with the same yarn fineness (14 tex) and different thread densities (to achieve relative fabric density between 59 % and 87 %) and different type of weaves (plain, 4-end twill, 5-end satin). The results of the research dealing with the modelling of UPF and the influence of volume and open porosity of tested samples on UPF are exposed. The results show that open porosity should be lower than 12 % to achieve good UV protection according to AS/NZ standard of tested samples. The results also indicate that there is no direct correlation between volume porosity and UPF, moreover, volume porosity namely depends on the type of weave and affects UPF as well. Plain fabrics did not offer any UV protection, while twill and satin fabrics offered good UV protection when volume porosity was less than 64 % and 66 %, respectively.

Keywords: fabric engineering, UV radiation, porous materials, woven fabric construction, modelling

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2815 Design and Analysis of Shielding Magnetic Field for Active Space Radiation Protection

Authors: Chaoyan Huang, Hongxia Zheng


For deep space exploration and long duration interplanetary manned missions, protection of astronauts from cosmic radiation is an unavoidable problem. However, passive shielding can be little effective for protecting particles which energies are greater than 1GeV/nucleon. In this study, active magnetic protection method is adopted. Taking into account the structure and size of the end-cap, eight shielding magnetic field configurations are designed based on the Hoffman configuration. The shielding effect of shielding magnetic field structure, intensity B and thickness L on H particles with 2GeV energy is compared by test particle simulation. The result shows that the shielding effect is better with the linear type magnetic field structure in the end-cap region. Furthermore, two magnetic field configurations with better shielding effect are investigated through H and He galactic cosmic spectra. And the shielding effect of the linear type configuration adopted in the barrel and end-cap regions is best.

Keywords: galactic cosmic rays, active protection, shielding magnetic field configuration, shielding effect

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2814 Radiation Protection and Licensing for an Experimental Fusion Facility: The Italian and European Approaches

Authors: S. Sandri, G. M. Contessa, C. Poggi


An experimental nuclear fusion device could be seen as a step toward the development of the future nuclear fusion power plant. If compared with other possible solutions to the energy problem, nuclear fusion has advantages that ensure sustainability and security. In particular considering the radioactivity and the radioactive waste produced, in a nuclear fusion plant the component materials could be selected in order to limit the decay period, making it possible the recycling in a new reactor after about 100 years from the beginning of the decommissioning. To achieve this and other pertinent goals many experimental machines have been developed and operated worldwide in the last decades, underlining that radiation protection and workers exposure are critical aspects of these facilities due to the high flux, high energy neutrons produced in the fusion reactions. Direct radiation, material activation, tritium diffusion and other related issues pose a real challenge to the demonstration that these devices are safer than the nuclear fission facilities. In Italy, a limited number of fusion facilities have been constructed and operated since 30 years ago, mainly at the ENEA Frascati Center, and the radiation protection approach, addressed by the national licensing requirements, shows that it is not always easy to respect the constraints for the workers' exposure to ionizing radiation. In the current analysis, the main radiation protection issues encountered in the Italian Fusion facilities are considered and discussed, and the technical and legal requirements are described. The licensing process for these kinds of devices is outlined and compared with that of other European countries. The following aspects are considered throughout the current study: i) description of the installation, plant and systems, ii) suitability of the area, buildings, and structures, iii) radioprotection structures and organization, iv) exposure of personnel, v) accident analysis and relevant radiological consequences, vi) radioactive wastes assessment and management. In conclusion, the analysis points out the needing of a special attention to the radiological exposure of the workers in order to demonstrate at least the same level of safety as that reached at the nuclear fission facilities.

Keywords: fusion facilities, high energy neutrons, licensing process, radiation protection

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2813 Addressing Public Concerns about Radiation Impacts by Looking Back in Nuclear Accidents Worldwide

Authors: Du Kim, Nelson Baro


According to a report of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), there are approximately 437 nuclear power stations are in operation in the present around the world in order to meet increasing energy demands. Indeed, nearly, a third of the world’s energy demands are met through nuclear power because it is one of the most efficient and long-lasting sources of energy. However, there are also consequences when a major event takes place at a nuclear power station. Over the past years, a few major nuclear accidents have occurred around the world. According to a report of International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES), there are six nuclear accidents that are considered to be high level (risk) of the events: Fukushima Dai-chi (Level 7), Chernobyl (Level 7), Three Mile Island (Level 5), Windscale (Level 5), Kyshtym (Level 6) and Chalk River (Level 5). Today, many people still have doubt about using nuclear power. There is growing number of people who are against nuclear power after the serious accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-chi nuclear power plant in Japan. In other words, there are public concerns about radiation impacts which emphasize Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) Issues, Radiation Health Effects, Radiation Protection and Social Impacts. This paper will address those keywords by looking back at the history of these major nuclear accidents worldwide, based on INES. This paper concludes that all major mistake from nuclear accidents are preventable due to the fact that most of them are caused by human error. In other words, the human factor has played a huge role in the malfunction and occurrence of most of those events. The correct handle of a crisis is determined, by having a good radiation protection program in place, it’s what has a big impact on society and determines how acceptable people are of nuclear.

Keywords: linear-no-threshold (LNT) issues, radiation health effects, radiation protection, social impacts

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2812 Environmental Impact Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Mobile Base Station in Central Area of KSA

Authors: Mohammed Abdullah Alrajhi


The rapid growth in the number of mobile phone subscribers has resulted in an increased number of mobile base stations all over the world. Generally, mobile base stations are existing in huge numbers in populated areas than in non-populated ones to serve the largest number of users. The total number of mobile subscriptions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia reached around 50 million at the end of 2014, with a penetration rate of 165.1% according to the quarterly electronic newsletter issued by the Communications and Information Technology Commission. The current investigation was conducted primarily to measure the level of electromagnetic fields emitted from 400 mobile base stations for the purpose of environmental safety and radiation protection in light of national guidelines for public exposure as well as the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The outcomes of this investigation provide valuable comments and recommendation for safety and protection of electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile base stations.

Keywords: electromagnetic fields, mobile, safety, protection, ICNIRP

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2811 The Analysis of Personalized Low-Dose Computed Tomography Protocol Based on Cumulative Effective Radiation Dose and Cumulative Organ Dose for Patients with Breast Cancer with Regular Chest Computed Tomography Follow up

Authors: Okhee Woo


Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate 2-year cumulative effective radiation dose and cumulative organ dose on regular follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with breast cancer and to establish personalized low-dose CT protocol. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was performed on the patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed and managed consistently on the basis of routine breast cancer follow-up protocol between 2012-01 and 2016-06. Based on ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) 103, the cumulative effective radiation doses of each patient for 2-year follow-up were analyzed using the commercial radiation management software (Radimetrics, Bayer healthcare). The personalized effective doses on each organ were analyzed in detail by the software-providing Monte Carlo simulation. Results: A total of 3822 CT scans on 490 patients was evaluated (age: 52.32±10.69). The mean scan number for each patient was 7.8±4.54. Each patient was exposed 95.54±63.24 mSv of radiation for 2 years. The cumulative CT radiation dose was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.00). The HER-2 positive patients were more exposed to radiation compared to estrogen or progesterone receptor positive patient (p = 0.00). There was no difference in the cumulative effective radiation dose with different age groups. Conclusion: To acknowledge how much radiation exposed to a patient is a starting point of management of radiation exposure for patients with long-term CT follow-up. The precise and personalized protocol, as well as iterative reconstruction, may reduce hazard from unnecessary radiation exposure.

Keywords: computed tomography, breast cancer, effective radiation dose, cumulative organ dose

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2810 Evaluation of Radio Protective Potential of Indian Bamboo Leaves

Authors: Mansi Patel, Priti Mehta


Background: Ionizing radiations have detrimental effects on humans, and the growing technological encroachment has increased human exposure to it enormously. So, the safety issues have emphasized researchers to develop radioprotector from natural resources having minimal toxicity. A substance having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activity can be a potential candidate for radioprotection. One such plant with immense potential i.e. Bamboo was selected for the present study. Purpose: The study aims to evaluate the potential of Indian bamboo leaves for protection against the clastogenic effect of gamma radiation. Methods: The protective effect of bamboo leaf extract against gamma radiation-induced genetic damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) was evaluated in vitro using Cytokinesis blocked micronuclei assay (CBMN). The blood samples were pretreated with varying concentration of extract 30 min before the radiation exposure (4Gy & 6Gy). The reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was observed for the irradiated and control groups. The effect of various concentration of bamboo leaf extract (400,600,800 mg/kg) on the development of radiation induced sickness and altered mortality in mice exposed to 8 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation was studied. The developed symptoms were clinically scored by multiple endpoints for 30 days. Results: Treatment of HPBLs with varying concentration of extract before exposure to a different dose of γ- radiation resulted in significant (P < 0.0001) decline of radiation induced micronuclei. It showed dose dependent and concentration driven activity. The maximum protection ~ 70% was achieved at nine µg/ml concentration. Extract treated whole body irradiated mice showed 50%, 83.3% and 100% survival for 400, 600, and 800mg/kg with 1.05, 0.43 and 0 clinical score respectively when compared to Irradiated mice having 6.03 clinical score and 0% survival. Conclusion: Our findings indicate bamboo leaf extract reduced the radiation induced cytogenetic damage. It has also increased the survival ratio and reduced the radiation induced sickness and mortality when exposed to a lethal dose of gamma radiation.

Keywords: bamboo leaf extract, Cytokinesis blocked micronuclei (CBMN) assay, ionizing radiation, radio protector

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2809 The Analysis of Solar Radiation Exergy in Hakkari

Authors: Hasan Yildizhan


According to the Solar Energy Potential Atlas (GEPA) prepared by Turkish Ministry of Energy, Hakkari is ranked first in terms of sunshine duration and it is ranked eighth in terms of solar radiation energy. Accordingly, Hakkari has a rich potential of investment with regard to solar radiation energy. The part of the solar radiation energy arriving on the surface of the earth which is transposable to useful work is determined by means of exergy analysis. In this study, the radiation exergy values for Hakkari have been calculated and evaluated by making use of the monthly average solar radiation energy and temperature values measured by General Directorate of State Meteorology.

Keywords: solar radiation exergy, Hakkari, solar energy potential, Turkey

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2808 A Study on the Annual Doses Received by the Workers of Some Medical Practices

Authors: Eltayeb Hamad Elneel Yousif


This paper describes occupational radiation doses of workers in non-destructive testing (NDT) and some medical practices during the year 2007. The annual doses received by the workers of a public hospital are presented in this report. The Department is facilitated with HARSHAW Reader model 6600 and assigned the rule of personal monitoring to contribute in controlling and reducing the doses received by radiation workers. TLD cards with two TLD chips type LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) were calibrated to measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Around 150 medical radiation workers were monitored throughout the year. Each worker received a single TLD card worn on the chest above lead apron and returned for laboratory reading every two months. The average annual doses received by the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology were evaluated. The annual doses for individual radiation workers ranged between 0.55-4.42 mSv, 0.48-1.86 mSv, and 0.48-0.91 mSv for the workers of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology, respectively. The mean dose per worker was 1.29±1, 1.03±0.4, and 0.69±0.2 mSv, respectively. The results showed compliance with international dose limits. Our results reconfirm the importance of personal dosimetry service in assuring the radiation protection of medical staff in developing countries.

Keywords: radiation medicine, non-destructive testing, TLD, public hospital

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2807 A Fuzzy Inference Tool for Assessing Cancer Risk from Radiation Exposure

Authors: Bouharati Lokman, Bouharati Imen, Bouharati Khaoula, Bouharati Oussama, Bouharati Saddek


Ionizing radiation exposure is an established cancer risk factor. Compared to other common environmental carcinogens, it is relatively easy to determine organ-specific radiation dose and, as a result, radiation dose-response relationships tend to be highly quantified. Nevertheless, there can be considerable uncertainty about questions of radiation-related cancer risk as they apply to risk protection and public policy, and the interpretations of interested parties can differ from one person to another. Examples of tools used in the analysis of the risk of developing cancer due to radiation are characterized by uncertainty. These uncertainties are related to the history of exposure and different assumptions involved in the calculation. We believe that the results of statistical calculations are characterized by uncertainty and imprecision. Having regard to the physiological variation from one person to another. In this study, we develop a tool based on fuzzy logic inference. As fuzzy logic deals with imprecise and uncertain, its application in this area is adequate. We propose a fuzzy system with three input variables (age, sex and body attainable cancer). The output variable expresses the risk of infringement rate of each organ. A base rule is established from recorded actual data. After successful simulation, this will instantly predict the risk of infringement rate of each body following chronic exposure to 0.1 Gy.

Keywords: radiation exposure, cancer, modeling, fuzzy logic

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2806 Effectiveness of the Resistance to Irradiance Test on Sunglasses Standards

Authors: Mauro Masili, Liliane Ventura


It is still controversial in the literature the ultraviolet (UV) radiation effects on the ocular media, but the World Health Organization has established safe limits on the exposure of eyes to UV radiation based on reports in literature. Sunglasses play an important role in providing safety, and their lenses should provide adequate UV filters. Regarding UV protection for ocular media, the resistance-to-irradiance test for sunglasses under many national standards requires irradiating lenses for 50 uninterrupted hours with a 450 W solar simulator. This artificial aging test may provide a corresponding evaluation of exposure to the sun. Calculating the direct and diffuse solar irradiance at a vertical surface and the corresponding radiant exposure for the entire year, we compare the latter with the 50-hour radiant exposure of a 450 W xenon arc lamp from a solar simulator required by national standards. Our calculations indicate that this stress test is ineffective in its present form. We provide evidence of the need to re-evaluate the parameters of the tests to establish appropriate safe limits against UV radiation. This work is potentially significant for scientists and legislators in the field of sunglasses standards to improve the requirements of sunglasses quality and safety.

Keywords: ISO 12312-1, solar simulator, sunglasses standards, UV protection

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2805 Solar Radiation Studies for Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Sidra A. Shaikh, M. A. Ahmed, M. W. Akhtar


Global and diffuse solar radiation studies have been carried out for Islamabad (Lat: 330 43’ N, Long: 370 71’) to access the solar potential of the area using sunshine hour data. A detailed analysis of global solar radiation values measured using several methods is presented. These values are then compared with the NASA SSE model. The variation in direct and diffuse components of solar radiation is observed in summer and winter months for Islamabad along with the clearness index KT. The diffuse solar radiation is found maximum in the month of July. Direct and beam radiation is found to be high in the month of April to June. From the results it appears that with the exception of monsoon months, July and August, solar radiation for electricity generation can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year. Finally, the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean percent error (MPE) for global solar radiation are also presented.

Keywords: solar potential, global and diffuse solar radiation, Islamabad, errors

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2804 A Study of The Factors Predicting Radiation Exposure to Contacts of Saudi Patients Treated With Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine (I-131)

Authors: Khalid A. Salman, Shereen Wagih, Tariq Munshi, Musaed Almalki, Safwan Zatari, Zahid Khan


Aim: To measure exposure levels to family members and caregivers of Saudi patients treated with low dose I131 therapy, and household radiation exposure rate to predict different factors that can affect radiation exposure. Patients and methods: All adult self dependent patients with hyperthyroidism or cancer thyroid referred for low dose radioactive I131 therapy on outpatient basis are included. Radiation protection procedures are given to the participant and family members in details. TLD’s were dispensed to each participant in sufficient quantity for his/her family members living in the household. TLD’s are collected at fifth days post-dispense from patients who agreed to have a home visit during which the household is inspected and level of radiation contamination of surfaces was measured. Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the current study, with a mean age of 43.1± 17.1 years Out of them 25 patients (78%) are females. I131 therapy was given in twenty patients (63%) for cancer thyroid of and for toxic goiter in the remaining twelve patients (37%), with an overall mean I131 dose of 24.1 ± 7.5mCi that is relatively higher in the former. The overall number of household family members and helpers of patients are 139, out of them77 are females (55.4%) & 62 are males (44.6%) with a mean age of 29.8± 17.6. The mean period of contact with the patient is 7.6 ±5.6hours. The cumulative radiation exposure shows that radiation exposure to all family members is below the exposure constraint (1mSv), with a range of 109 to 503uSv, and a mean value of 220.9±91 uSv. Numerical data shows a little higher exposure rate for family members of those who receive higher dose of I131 (patients with thyroid cancer) and household members who spent longer time with the patient, yet, the difference is statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Besides, no significant correlation was found between the degree of cumulative exposure of the family members to their gender, age, socioeconomic standard, educational level and residential factors. In the 21 home visits all data from bedrooms, reception areas and kitchens are below hazardous limits (0.5uSv/h) apart from bathrooms that give a slightly higher reading of 0.57±0.39 uSv/h in those with cancer thyroid who receive a higher radiation dose. A statistically significant difference was found between radiation exposure rate in bathrooms used by the patient versus those used by family members only, with a mean value of exposure rate of 0.701±0.21 uSv/h and 0.17±0.82 uSv/h respectively, with a p-value of 0.018 (<0.05). Conclusion: Family members of patients treated with low dose I131 on outpatient basis have a good compliance to radiation protection instruction if given properly with a cumulative radiation exposure rate evidently beyond the radiation exposure constraints of 1 mSv. Given I131 dose, hours spent with the patient, age, gender, socioeconomic standard, educational level and residential factors have no significant correlation with the cumulative radiation exposure. The patient bathroom exhibits more radiation exposure rate, needing more strict instructions for patient bathroom use and health hygiene.

Keywords: family members, radiation exposure, radioactive iodine therapy, radiation safety

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2803 Effect of Plasma Treatment on UV Protection Properties of Fabrics

Authors: Sheila Shahidi


UV protection by fabrics has recently become a focus of great interest, particularly in connection with environmental degradation or ozone layer depletion. Fabrics provide simple and convenient protection against UV radiation (UVR), but not all fabrics offer sufficient UV protection. To describe the degree of UVR protection offered by clothing materials, the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) is commonly used. UV-protective fabric can be generated by application of a chemical finish using normal wet-processing methodologies. However, traditional wet-processing techniques are known to consume large quantities of water and energy and may lead to adverse alterations of the bulk properties of the substrate. Recently, usage of plasmas to generate physicochemical surface modifications of textile substrates has become an intriguing approach to replace or enhance conventional wet-processing techniques. In this research work the effect of plasma treatment on UV protection properties of fabrics was investigated. DC magnetron sputtering was used and the parameters of plasma such as gas type, electrodes, time of exposure, power and, etc. were studied. The morphological and chemical properties of samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Furrier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The transmittance and UPF values of the original and plasma-treated samples were measured using a Shimadzu UV3101 PC (UV–Vis–NIR scanning spectrophotometer, 190–2, 100 nm range). It was concluded that, plasma which is an echo-friendly, cost effective and dry technique is being used in different branches of the industries, and will conquer textile industry in the near future. Also it is promising method for preparation of UV protection textile.

Keywords: fabric, plasma, textile, UV protection

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2802 Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter

Authors: Priyanka R. Oberoi, Chandra B. Maurya, Prakash A. Mahanwar


Ionizing radiation can cause a drastic change in the physical and chemical properties of the material exposed. Numerous medical devices are sterilized by ionizing radiation. In the current research paper, an attempt was made to develop precise and inexpensive polymeric film dosimeter which can be used for controlling radiation dosage. Polymeric film containing (pH sensitive dye) indicator dye Bromophenol blue (BPB) was casted to check the effect of Gamma radiation on its optical and physical properties. The film was exposed to gamma radiation at 4 kGy/hr in the range of 0 to 300 kGy at an interval of 50 kGy. Release of vinyl acetate from an emulsion on high radiation reacts with the BPB fading the color of the film from blue to light blue and then finally colorless, indicating a change in pH from basic to acidic form. The change was characterized by using CIE l*a*b*, ultra-violet spectroscopy and FT-IR respectively.

Keywords: bromophenol blue, dosimeter, gamma radiation, polymer

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2801 Estimation of Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation Studies of Islamabad, Capital City of Pakistan

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Maliha Afshan, Adeel Tahir


Global and diffuse solar radiation studies have been carried out for the Capital city of Pakistan, Islamabad ( latitude 330 43’N and Longitude 370 71’E) to assess the solar potential of the area. The global and diffuse solar radiation were carried out using sunshine hour data for the above-mentioned area. Monthly total solar radiation is calculated through regression constants a and b through declination angle of the sun and sunshine hours and KT that is cloudiness index are used to calculate the diffuse solar radiation. Result obtained shows variation in the direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months for Islamabad. Diffuse solar radiation was found maximum in July, i.e., 32% whereas direct or beam radiation was found to be high in April to June, i.e., 73%. During July, August, and December, the sky was found cloudy. From the result, it appears that with the exception of monsoon month July and August the solar energy can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year in Islamabad.

Keywords: global radiation, Islamabad, diffuse radiation, sky condition, sunshine hour

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2800 Radiation Hardness Materials Article Review

Authors: S. Abou El-Azm, U. Kruchonak, M. Gostkin, A. Guskov, A. Zhemchugov


Semiconductor detectors are widely used in nuclear physics and high-energy physics experiments. The application of semiconductor detectors could be limited by their ultimate radiation resistance. The increase of radiation defects concentration leads to significant degradation of the working parameters of semiconductor detectors. The investigation of radiation defects properties in order to enhance the radiation hardness of semiconductor detectors is an important task for the successful implementation of a number of nuclear physics experiments; we presented some information about radiation hardness materials like diamond, sapphire and CdTe. Also, the results of measurements I-V characteristics, charge collection efficiency and its dependence on the bias voltage for different doses of high resistivity (GaAs: Cr) and Si at LINAC-200 accelerator and reactor IBR-2 are presented.

Keywords: semiconductor detectors, radiation hardness, GaAs, Si, CCE, I-V, C-V

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2799 Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Growth of Ulva Pertusa Kjellman Seedling

Authors: HengJiang Cai, RuiJin Zhang, JinSong Gui


Enhanced UV-B (280-320nm) radiation resulting from ozone depletion was one of the global environmental problems. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on marine macro-algae were exposed to be the greatest in shallow intertidal environments because the macro-alga was often at or above the water during low tide. Ulva pertusa Kjellman was belonged to Chlorophyta (Phylum), Ulvales (Order), Ulvaceae (Family) which was widely distributed in the western Pacific coast, and the resources were extremely rich in China. Therefore, the effects of UV-B radiation on the growth of Ulva pertusa seedling were studied in this research. Ulva pertusa seedling appearances were mainly characterized by rod shapes and tadpole shapes. The percentage of rod shapes was 90.68%±2.50%. UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth of Ulva pertusa seedling, and the growth inhibition was more significant with the increased doses of UV-B radiation treatment. The relative inhibition rates of Ulva pertusa seedling length were16.11%, 24.98%and 39.04% respectively on the 30th day at different doses (30.96, 61.92 and 123.84 Jm-2d-1) of UV-B radiation. Ulva pertusa seedling had emerged death under UV-B radiation, and the death rates were increased with the increased doses of UV-B radiation treatment. Physiology and biochemistry of Ulva pertusa seedling could be affected by UV-B radiation treatment. The SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity was increased at low-dose UV-B radiation (30.96 Jm-2d-1), while was decreased at high-dose UV-B radiation (61.92 and 123.84 Jm-2d-1). UV-B radiation could inhibit CAT (catalase) activity all the while. It speculated that the reasons for growth inhibition and death of Ulva pertusa seedling were excess ROS (reactive oxygen species), which produced by UV-B radiation.

Keywords: growth, physiology and biochemistry, Ulva pertusa Kjellman, UV-B radiation

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2798 Models to Estimate Monthly Mean Daily Global Solar Radiation on a Horizontal Surface in Alexandria

Authors: Ahmed R. Abdelaziz, Zaki M. I. Osha


Solar radiation data are of great significance for solar energy system design. This study aims at developing and calibrating new empirical models for estimating monthly mean daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface in Alexandria, Egypt. Day length hours, sun height, day number, and declination angle calculated data are used for this purpose. A comparison between measured and calculated values of solar radiation is carried out. It is shown that all the proposed correlations are able to predict the global solar radiation with excellent accuracy in Alexandria.

Keywords: solar energy, global solar radiation, model, regression coefficient

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2797 Radiation Protection Assessment of the Emission of a d-t Neutron Generator: Simulations with MCNP Code and Experimental Measurements in Different Operating Conditions

Authors: G. M. Contessa, L. Lepore, G. Gandolfo, C. Poggi, N. Cherubini, R. Remetti, S. Sandri


Practical guidelines are provided in this work for the safe use of a portable d-t Thermo Scientific MP-320 neutron generator producing pulsed 14.1 MeV neutron beams. The neutron generator’s emission was tested experimentally and reproduced by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Simulations were particularly accurate, even generator’s internal components were reproduced on the basis of ad-hoc collected X-ray radiographic images. Measurement campaigns were conducted under different standard experimental conditions using an LB 6411 neutron detector properly calibrated at three different energies, and comparing simulated and experimental data. In order to estimate the dose to the operator vs. the operating conditions and the energy spectrum, the most appropriate value of the conversion factor between neutron fluence and ambient dose equivalent has been identified, taking into account both direct and scattered components. The results of the simulations show that, in real situations, when there is no information about the neutron spectrum at the point where the dose has to be evaluated, it is possible - and in any case conservative - to convert the measured value of the count rate by means of the conversion factor corresponding to 14 MeV energy. This outcome has a general value when using this type of generator, enabling a more accurate design of experimental activities in different setups. The increasingly widespread use of this type of device for industrial and medical applications makes the results of this work of interest in different situations, especially as a support for the definition of appropriate radiation protection procedures and, in general, for risk analysis.

Keywords: instrumentation and monitoring, management of radiological safety, measurement of individual dose, radiation protection of workers

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