Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4621

Search results for: construction of irrigation district

4621 Irrigation Water Quality Evaluation in Jiaokou Irrigation District, Guanzhong Basin

Authors: Qiying Zhang, Panpan Xu, Hui Qian

Abstract:

Groundwater is an important water resource in the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In the present study, 141 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for various physicochemical parameters to assess the irrigation water quality using six indicators (sodium percentage (Na%), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index (PI), and potential salinity (PS)). The results show that the patterns for the average cation and anion concentrations were in decreasing orders of Na > Mg2 > Ca2 > Kand SO42 > HCO3 > Cl > NO3 > CO32 > F, respectively. The values of Na%, MH, and PS show that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation. The same conclusion is drawn from the USSL and Wilcox diagrams. PS values indicate that Cland SO42have a great influence on irrigation water in Jiaokou Irrigation District. RSC and PI values indicate that more than half of groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation. The finding is beneficial for the policymakers for future water management schemes to achieve a sustainable development goal.

Keywords: groundwater chemistry, Guanzhong Basin, irrigation water quality evaluation, Jiaokou Irrigation District

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4620 A Model Approach of Good Practice Based on the Project Management Body of Knowledge® Guide in the Project Owner

Authors: Claudia Marcela Munoz Gonzalez, Diego Fernando Hernandez Losada, Hugo Alberto Herrera Fonseca

Abstract:

The project owner's role in the public-private investment consists of controlling and verifying the correct execution of the project's objectives and resources. Likewise, it is a discipline little explored in the academic field, whereby this work wishes to contribute with a model of good practices based on the project management methodology proposed by the Project Management Body of Knowledge® Guide. In the same way, highlight what are the controls that an integral project owner should take into account in its exercise and application, through the stages in which its contract runs. This proposal aims to structure its practice and integrate its functions according to a project management methodology. In addition, these practices will be applied in a case study of projects in the agricultural sector, particularly in the construction of irrigation district in Cundinamarca, Colombia.

Keywords: controls, construction of irrigation district, PMBOK®, project owner

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
4619 Assessing Smallholder Rice and Vegetable Farmers’ Constraints and Needs to Adopt Small-Scale Irrigation in South Tongu District, Ghana

Authors: Tamekloe Michael Kossivi, Kenichi Matsui

Abstract:

Irrigation access is one of the essential rural development investment options that can significantly improve smallholder farmers’ agriculture productivity. Investment in irrigation infrastructural development to supply adequate water could improve food security, growth in income for farmers, poverty alleviation, and improve business and livelihood. This paper assesses smallholder farmers’ constraints and the needs to adopt small-scale irrigation for crops production in the South Tongu District of Ghana. The data collection involved database search, questionnaire survey, interview, and field work. The structured questionnaire survey was administered from September to November 2020 among 120 respondents in six purposively sampled irrigation communities in the District. The questions focused on small-scale irrigation development constraints and needs. As a result, we found that the respondents relied mainly on rainfall for agriculture production. They did not have adequate irrigation access. Even though the District is blessed with open arable lands and rich water sources for rice and vegetable production on a massive scale, water sources like the Lower Volta River, Tordzi River, and Avu Lagoon were not close enough to the respondents. The respondents faced inadequate credit support (100%), unreliable rainfall (76%), insufficient water supply (54%), and unreliable water delivery challenges on their farms (53%). Physical constraints for the respondents to adopt irrigation included flood (77%), drought (93%), inadequate irrigation technology (59%), and insufficient technical know-how (65%). Farmers were interested in investing in irrigation infrastructural development to enhance productivity on their farms only if they own the farmlands. External support from donors on irrigation systems did not allow smallholder farmers to control irrigation facilities.

Keywords: constraints, food security, needs, smallholder farmers, small-scale irrigation

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4618 Irrigation Water Quality Evaluation Based on Multivariate Statistical Analysis: A Case Study of Jiaokou Irrigation District

Authors: Panpan Xu, Qiying Zhang, Hui Qian

Abstract:

Groundwater is main source of water supply in the Guanzhong Basin, China. To investigate the quality of groundwater for agricultural purposes in Jiaokou Irrigation District located in the east of the Guanzhong Basin, 141 groundwater samples were collected for analysis of major ions (K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42-, Cl-, HCO3-, and CO32-), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS). Sodium percentage (Na%), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard (MH), and potential salinity (PS) were applied for irrigation water quality assessment. In addition, multivariate statistical techniques were used to identify the underlying hydrogeochemical processes. Results show that the content of TDS mainly depends on Cl-, Na+, Mg2+, and SO42-, and the HCO3- content is generally high except for the eastern sand area. These are responsible for complex hydrogeochemical processes, such as dissolution of carbonate minerals (dolomite and calcite), gypsum, halite, and silicate minerals, the cation exchange, as well as evaporation and concentration. The average evaluation levels of Na%, RSC, MH, and PS for irrigation water quality are doubtful, good, unsuitable, and injurious to unsatisfactory, respectively. Therefore, it is necessary for decision makers to comprehensively consider the indicators and thus reasonably evaluate the irrigation water quality.

Keywords: irrigation water quality, multivariate statistical analysis, groundwater, hydrogeochemical process

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4617 Sustainable Smart Contraction: China Eco-district Evolution Research and Future Exploration

Authors: Xincheng He, Weijun Gao, Gangwei Cai

Abstract:

In the process of rapid urbanization, large-scale industrial production, and unreasonable planning and construction have caused various ecological and environmental problems, while hindered the sustainable development of cities. The ecological district not only realizes the coordinated development of society, economy, and environment but also conforms to the trend of smart contraction of the development of cities in China from the periphery to the center. This paper reviews the development of China's ecological district, including the full life cycle process of policy, planning, implementation, and operation. Based on sorting out the concept, connotation, and development status of China’s ecological district, the relationship between the construction of the ecological district and the sustainable city is discussed. Summarizing the development trend of the ecological district, the ecological district should combine the construction of smart cities, actively respond to the digital information era, and improve the construction of the ecological district system. It proposes that the future direction of city's sustainable development needs to change from a thematic focus on ecology to the common urbanization of humanity, society, and nature. Focusing on people-oriented, ecological, and digital future communities will become an important construction method for the city's sustainable smart contraction.

Keywords: eco-district, smart contraction, sustainable development, future community

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4616 Enhancement of Mulberry Leaf Yield and Water Productivity in Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India

Authors: Narayanappa Devakumar, Chengalappa Seenappa

Abstract:

The field experiments were conducted during Rabi 2013 and summer 2014 at College of Sericulture, Chintamani, Chickaballapur district, Karnataka, India to find out the response of mulberry to different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching. The results showed that leaf yield and water productivity of mulberry were significantly influenced by different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching. Subsurface drip with lower level of irrigation at 0.8 CPE (Cumulative Pan Evaporation) recorded higher leaf yield and water productivity (42857 kg ha-1 yr-1and 364.41 kg hacm-1) than surface drip with higher level of irrigation at 1.0 CPE (38809 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 264.10 kg hacm-1) and micro spray jet (39931 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 271.83 kg hacm-1). Further, subsurface drip recorded minimum water used to produce one kg of leaf and to earn one rupee of profit (283 L and 113 L) compared to surface drip (390 L and 156 L) and micro spray jet (379 L and 152 L) irrigation methods. Mulberry leaf yield increased and water productivity decreased with increased levels of irrigation. However, these results indicated that irrigation of mulberry with subsurface drip increased leaf yield and water productivity by saving 20% of irrigation water than surface drip and micro spray jet irrigation methods in Eastern Dry Zone (EDZ) of Karnataka.

Keywords: cumulative pan evaporation, mulaberry, subsurface drip irrigation, water productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
4615 Effectiveness of Management Transfer Programs for Managing Irrigation Resources in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Farmer- and Agency-Managed Schemes from Nepal

Authors: Tirtha Raj Dhakal, Brian Davidson, Bob Farquharson

Abstract:

Irrigation management transfer has been taken as the important policy instrument for effective irrigation resource management in many developing countries. The change in governance of the irrigation schemes for its day-to-day operation and maintenance has been centered in recent Nepalese irrigation policies also. However, both farmer- and agency-managed irrigation schemes in Nepal are performing well below than expected. This study tries to link the present concerns of poor performance of both forms of schemes with the institutions for its operation and management. Two types of surveys, management and farm surveys; were conducted as a case study in the command area of Narayani Lift Irrigation Project (agency-managed) and Khageri Irrigation System (farmer-managed) of Chitwan District. The farm survey from head, middle and tail regions of both schemes revealed that unequal water distribution exists in these regions in both schemes with greater percentage of farmers experiencing this situation in agency managed scheme. In both schemes, the cost recovery rate was very low, even below five percent in Lift System indicating poor operation and maintenance of the schemes. Also, the institution on practice in both schemes is unable to create any incentives for farmers’ willingness to pay as well as for its economical use in the farm. Thus, outcomes from the study showed that only the management transfer programs may not achieve the goal of efficient irrigation resource management. This may suggest water professionals to rethink about the irrigation policies for refining institutional framework irrespective of the governance of schemes for improved cost recovery and better water distribution throughout the irrigation schemes.

Keywords: cost recovery, governance, institution, irrigation management transfer, willingness to pay

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
4614 Sunflower Irrigation with Two Different Types of Soil Moisture Sensors

Authors: C. D. Papanikolaou, V. A. Giouvanis, E. A. Karatasiou, D. S. Dimakas, M. A. Sakellariou-Makrantonaki

Abstract:

Irrigation is one of the most important cultivation practices for each crop, especially in areas where rainfall is enough to cover the crop water needs. In such areas, the farmers must irrigate in order to achieve high economical results. The precise irrigation scheduling contributes to irrigation water saving and thus a valuable natural resource is protected. Under this point of view, in the experimental field of the Laboratory of Agricultural Hydraulics of the University of Thessaly, a research was conducted during the growing season of 2012 in order to evaluate the growth, seed and oil production of sunflower as well as the water saving, by applying different methods of irrigation scheduling. Three treatments in four replications were organized. These were: a) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on the Penman-Monteith (PM) method (control); b) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil moisture sensor (SMS); and c) surface drip irrigation, where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil potential sensor (WM).

Keywords: irrigation, energy production, soil moisture sensor, sunflower, water saving

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4613 Risk and Vulnerability Assessment of Agriculture on Climate Change: Bangnampriao District, Thailand

Authors: Charuvan Kasemsap

Abstract:

This research was studied in Bangnampriao District, Chachernsao Province, Thailand. The primary data relating to flooding, drought, and saline intrusion problem on agriculture were collected by surveying, focus group, and in-depth interview with agricultural officers, technical officers of irrigation department, and local government leader of Bangnampriao District. The likelihood and consequence of risk were determined the risk index by risk assessment matrix. In addition, the risk index and the total coping capacity scores were investigated the vulnerability index by vulnerability matrix. It was found that the high-risk drought and saline intrusion was dramatically along Bang Pakong River owing to the end destination of Chao Phraya Irrigation system of Central Thailand. This leads yearly the damage of rice paddy, mango tree, orchard, and fish pond. Therefore, some agriculture avoids rice growing during January to May, and also pumps fresh water from a canal into individual storage pond. However, Bangnampriao District will be strongly affected by the impacts of climate change. Monthly precipitations are expected to decrease in number; dry seasons are expected to be more in number and longer in duration. Thus, the risk and vulnerability of agriculture are also increasing. Adaptation strategies need to be put in place in order to enhance the resilience of the agriculture.

Keywords: agriculture, bangnampriao, climate change, risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
4612 Effect of Sugar Mill Effluent on Growth, Yield and Soil Properties of Ratoon Cane in Cauvery Command Area

Authors: G. K. Madhu, S. Bhaskar, M. S. Dinesh, R. Manii, C. A. Srinivasamurthy

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in the premises of M/s Sri Chamundeshwari Sugars Ltd., Bharathinagar, Mandya District Pvt. Ltd., during 2014 to study the effect of sugar mill effluent (SME) on growth, yield and soil properties of ratoon cane with eight treatments replicated thrice using RCBD design. Significantly higher growth parameters like cane height (249.77 cm) and number of tillers per clump (12.22) were recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower growth attributes were recorded in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Significantly higher cane yield (104. 93 t -1) was recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower cane yield (87.40 t ha-1) was observed in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Soil properties like pH (7.84) was higher in treatment receiving Alternate irrigation with freshwater and sugar mill effluent + RDF. But EC was significantly higher in treatment which received Cycle of1 irrigation with freshwater + 2 irrigations with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments.

Keywords: sugar mill effluent, sugarcane, irrigation, cane yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
4611 Smart Irrigation System

Authors: Levent Seyfi, Ertan Akman, Tuğrul C. Topak

Abstract:

In this study, irrigation automation with electronic sensors and its control with smartphones were aimed. In this context, temperature and soil humidity measurements of the area irrigated were obtained by temperature and humidity sensors. A micro controller (Arduino) was utilized for accessing values of these parameters and controlling the proposed irrigation system. The irrigation system could automatically be worked according to obtained measurement values. Besides, a GSM module used together with Arduino provided that the irrigation system was in connection to smartphones. Thus, the irrigation system can be remotely controlled. Not only can we observe whether the irrigation system is working or not via developed special android application but also we can see temperature and humidity measurement values. In addition to this, if desired, the irrigation system can be remotely and manually started or stopped regardless of measured sensor vales thanks to the developed android application. In addition to smartphones, the irrigation system can be alternatively controlled via the designed website (www.sulamadenetim.com).

Keywords: smartphone, Android Operating System, sensors, irrigation System, arduino

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4610 Quantity, Quality and Water Productivity of Mulberry Leaf Influenced by Different Methods, Levels of Irrigation and Mulching in Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India

Authors: Chengalappa Seenappa, Narayanappa Devkumar, Narayanappa Nagaraja

Abstract:

Mulberry leaf is the major economic component in sericulture and quality of leaf produced per unit area has a direct effect on quality of cocoon. Among all the agronomical inputs, irrigation water has highest impact on mulberry leaf quantity and quality. The water productivity in sericulture in the country is inadequate and inefficient though India has the largest irrigated area. There is a need of proper irrigation methods and conservation practices to ensure efficiency and economy in water use. Hence, this field experiment was conducted at College of Sericulture, Chintamani, Chickaballapur district, Karnataka, India during 2013 and 2014 to know the quantity, quality and water productivity of mulberry influenced by different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching in Eastern Dry Zone (EDZ) of Karnataka, India. The results revealed that the mulberry leaf quantity, quality and water productivity were significantly influenced by different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching. Subsurface drip irrigation at 0.8 CPE (Cumulative Pan Evaporation) recorded higher leaf yield, chlorophyll, relative water, protein content and water productivity (42857 kg ha-1 yr-1, 8.54, 65.80%, 22.27% and 364.41 kg hacm-1, respectively) than surface drip at 1.0 CPE (38809 kg ha-1 yr-1, 7.34, 62.76%, 17.75% and 264 10 kg hacm-1, respectively) and micro spray jet at 1.0 CPE (39931 kg ha-1 yr-1, 7.96, 63.50%, 19.00%, 35617 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 271.83 kg hacm-1, respectively). Mulching treatment recorded maximum leaf yield, chlorophyll, relative water, protein content and water productivity (38035 kg ha-1 yr-1, 7.12, 62.11%, 16.14% and 330 kg hacm-1, respectively) compared to without mulching. These results clearly indicated that subsurface drip irrigation at lower level of irrigation (0.8 CPE) and mulching increased the quantity, quality and water productivity of mulberry leaf than surface drip and micro spray jet irrigation at higher level of irrigation (1.0 CPE) by saving 20 per cent of water. Therefore, in the coming days subsurface drip irrigation in mulberry cultivation may be more appropriate to realise higher yield, quality and water productivity in EDZ of Karnataka, India.

Keywords: subsurface drip irrigation, mulching, water productivity, mulberry

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
4609 Alternate Furrow Irrigation and Potassium Fertilizer on Seed Yield, Water Use Efficiency and Fatty Acids of Rapeseed

Authors: A. Bahrani

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of restricted irrigation systems and different potassium fertilizer on water use efficiency and yield of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), an experiment was conducted in an arid area in Khuzestan, Iran in 2013. The main plots consisted of three irrigation methods: FI (full irrigation), alternate furrow irrigation (AFI) and fixed furrow irrigation (FFI). Each subplot received three rates of K fertiliser application: 0, 150 or 300 kg ha-1. The results showed that the plots receiving the full irrigation resulted in significantly higher grain yields, 1000-kernel weight and grain number per pod than both alternate treatments. However, the highest WUE were obtained in alternate furrow irrigation and 300 kg K ha-1 and the lowest one was found in the FI treatment and 0 kg K ha-1. Potassium application increased RWC in alternate furrow irrigation and fixed furrow irrigation than FI treatment. Maximum oil content was observed in those treatments where full irrigation was applied while minimum oil content was produced in FFI irrigated treatments. Potassium fertilizer also increased grain oil by 15 % than control. Deficit irrigation reduced oleic acid and erucic acid. However, oleic acid and linoleic acid increased with increasing of potassium.

Keywords: erucic acid, irrigation methods, linoleic acid, oil percent, oleic acid

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4608 Drip Irrigation Timing and Its Effect on Tomato Yield for a Two-Day Schedule

Authors: T. Kizza, M. Muyinda

Abstract:

Irrigation schedules are normally given in terms of frequency (irrigation days). Specific timings within a given day are not usually included. This study examined the effect of irrigation timing for a two-day irrigation schedule of a surface drip-irrigated tomato field on yield. It was carried out for three dry seasons; July-Sept 2016, Jan-April 2017 and Jan-March 2018, at MuZARDI research station. Four irrigation treatments; T1 morning (8.00hrs), T2 noon (12:00hrs), T3 evening (17:00hr) and T4, a combination of morning and evening, were evaluated. The irrigation duration was one hour for T1-T3 and split into 30 minutes for T4. First season results indicated noon watering as having the best yield over other treatments at 51.59t/ha followed closely by morning watering at 50.6t/ha. Plants watered at noon had the highest number of fruits at 19/plant with an average weight of 94g/fruit. Plants watered in the morning had fruits with the highest average weight at 111.2g/fruit but they were the lowest number at 16 fruits/plant. The three-season data indicated the highest yield at 45.9t/ha for morning watering, followed by noon watering at 44.3t/ha and the least yield was for evening watering at 40.9t/ha. Watering tomatoes in the morning will give optimum yields for a two-day irrigation schedule.

Keywords: drip irrigation, irrigation schedule, irrigation timing, tomato yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
4607 Effects of Irrigation Intervals on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Black Carrot Leaves (Daucus carota L.)

Authors: Hakan Arslan, Deniz Ekinci, Alper Gungor, Gurkan Bilir, Omer Tas, Mehmet Altun

Abstract:

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the agricultural production worldwide. In this study, Leaf samples were taken from the carrot plants grown under drought stress conditions during the harvesting period. The plants were irrigated in three irrigation interval (4, 6 and 8 days) and Irrigation water regime was set up in pots. The changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in leaves of black carrot were investigated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, SOD) were varied significantly with irrigation intervals. The highest value of GR, GST and SOD were determined in the irrigation interval of 6 days. All antioxidant activity values were decreased in 8 days of irrigation interval. As a result of the study, it has been suggested that optimum irrigation intervals for plants can be used in antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant enzyme, carrot, drought, irrigation interval

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4606 Characterization of Banana Based Farming Systems in the Arumeru District, Arusha- Tanzania

Authors: Siah Koka, Rony Swennen

Abstract:

Arumeru district is located in Arusha region in Upper Pangani basin in Tanzania. Economically it is dominated with agricultural activities. Banana, coffee, maize, beans, tomatoes, and cassava are the most important food and cash crops. This paper characterized the banana-based farming system of Arumeru district, evaluates its sustainability as well as research needs. The household questionnaire was performed on-site and on farm observation. Transect walk also involved to identify different agro- ecological zones. Results show that farm holdings (home gardens) are smaller than a hectare (0.7 ha) and continue to fragment as population continues to grow. Banana cultivation is the backbone of the farming systems present both in the upland and plains. In the upper belt banana found their place in the forest, which form the home garden structure typical to East African highland banana production systems. However, in the plains, cultivation is done in monoculture and depends heavily on irrigation. We found slightly less cultivars present and hypothetically more pest and disease pressure. This was mainly seen for Fusarium oxysporum species, which eradicates susceptible cultivars such as Mchare cultivars rapidly given the method of irrigation. The smaller permanent upland home garden plots provide thus a more suitable environment where banana perform better. It should be noted that findings indicated good performance to occur in the less suitable plains too. Good management is believed to be the most influencing factor, although our survey failed in identifying them. Population pressure is currently pushing the sustainable system in the uplands to its boundaries. Nutrient mining, deforestation and changing rain patterns threat production not only on Mt. Meru but on a global scale.

Keywords: Arumeru district, banana-based farming system, Tanzania, Arumeru district

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4605 Study of Structural Health Monitoring System for Vam Cong Cable-Stayed Bridge

Authors: L. M. Chinh

Abstract:

Vam Cong Bridge beside Can Tho Bridge is the next cable-stayed bridge spanning the Hau River, connecting Lap Vo district with Thot Not district. After construction by the end of 2018, the Vam Cong Bridge with Cao Lanh Bridge will help to improve the road network in this region of Mekong Delta. For this bridge, the SHM system also had designed for two stages – construction stage and exploitation stage. At the moment over 65% of the bridge construction had completed, and the bridge will be completed at the end of 2018. During the construction stage, the SHM system had been install to monitor behaviors of the bridge. Based on the study of the design documentation of the SHM system of the Vam Cong Bridge and site visit during construction work, many designs and installation errors have been detected. In this paper author thoroughly analyzed the pros and cons of this SHM system, simultaneously make conclusions and recommendations for this system. Specially concentrated on the possibility of implementing the acoustic emission method (AE) into this SHM system, which is an alternative to the further development of the system, enabling a full and cost-effective solution for the bridge management, which is of utmost importance for the service life and safe operation of the bridge.

Keywords: SHM system, design and installation, Vam Cong bridge, construction stage, acoustic emission method (AE)

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4604 Viability of Irrigation Water Conservation Practices in the Low Desert of California

Authors: Ali Montazar

Abstract:

California and the Colorado River Basin are facing increasing uncertainty concerning water supplies. The Colorado River is the main source of irrigation water in the low desert of California. Currently, due to an increasing water-use competition and long-term drought at the Colorado River Basin, efficient use of irrigation water is one of the highest conservation priorities in the region. This study aims to present some of current irrigation technologies and management approaches in the low desert and assess the viability and potential of these water management practices. The results of several field experiments are used to assess five water conservation practices of sub-surface drip irrigation, automated surface irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, tail-water recovery system, and deficit irrigation strategy. The preliminary results of several ongoing studies at commercial fields are presented, particularly researches in alfalfa, sugar beets, kliengrass, sunflower, and spinach fields. The findings indicate that all these practices have significant potential to conserve water (an average of 1 ac-ft/ac) and enhance the efficiency of water use (15-25%). Further work is needed to better understand the feasibility of each of these applications and to help maintain profitable and sustainable agricultural production system in the low desert as water and labor costs, and environmental issues increase.

Keywords: automated surface irrigation, deficit irrigation, low desert of California, sprinkler irrigation, sub-surface drip irrigation, tail-water recovery system

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4603 Remote Sensing and GIS Based Methodology for Identification of Low Crop Productivity in Gautam Buddha Nagar District

Authors: Shivangi Somvanshi

Abstract:

Poor crop productivity in salt-affected environment in the country is due to insufficient and untimely canal supply to agricultural land and inefficient field water management practices. This could further degrade due to inadequate maintenance of canal network, ongoing secondary soil salinization and waterlogging, worsening of groundwater quality. Large patches of low productivity in irrigation commands are occurring due to waterlogging and salt-affected soil, particularly in the scarcity rainfall year. Satellite remote sensing has been used for mapping of areas of low crop productivity, waterlogging and salt in irrigation commands. The spatial results obtained for these problems so far are less reliable for further use due to rapid change in soil quality parameters over the years. The existing spatial databases of canal network and flow data, groundwater quality and salt-affected soil were obtained from the central and state line departments/agencies and were integrated with GIS. Therefore, an integrated methodology based on remote sensing and GIS has been developed in ArcGIS environment on the basis of canal supply status, groundwater quality, salt-affected soils, and satellite-derived vegetation index (NDVI), salinity index (NDSI) and waterlogging index (NSWI). This methodology was tested for identification and delineation of area of low productivity in the Gautam Buddha Nagar district (Uttar Pradesh). It was found that the area affected by this problem lies mainly in Dankaur and Jewar blocks of the district. The problem area was verified with ground data and was found to be approximately 78% accurate. The methodology has potential to be used in other irrigation commands in the country to obtain reliable spatial data on low crop productivity.

Keywords: remote sensing, GIS, salt affected soil, crop productivity, Gautam Buddha Nagar

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4602 The Use of a Geographical Information System in the Field of Irrigation (Moyen-Chéliff)

Authors: Benhenni Abdellaziz

Abstract:

Irrigation is a limiting factor for agricultural production and socio-economic development of many countries in arid and semiarid in the world. However, the sustainability of irrigation systems requires a rational management of the water resource that is becoming increasingly rare in these regions. The objective of this work is to apply a geographic information system (GIS) coupled to a model for calculating crop water requirements (CROPWATER) for the management of irrigation water in irrigated area and offer managers with an effective tool to better manage water resources in these areas. The application area of GIS is the irrigated perimeter of Western Middle Cheliff which is located in a semi-arid region (Middle Cheliff). The scope in question is a considerable agrarian dynamics and an increased need for irrigation of most crops.

Keywords: geographical information, irrigation, economical, use rational

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4601 Impact of Lined/Unlined Canal on Groundwater Recharge in the Lower Bhavani Basin, Tamilnadu, India

Authors: K. Mirudhula, R. Saravanan

Abstract:

Bhavani basin is the fourth largest Sub Basin in the Cauvery basin. The entire command area of all three major canals that takes off from the Bhavani river falls within the Erode District i.e. Lower Bhavani Project (LBP), Kodiveri and Kalingarayan canals. The LBP canal is a major source of irrigation in Erode District. Many of these canals are unlined and leakage takes place from them. Thus the seepage from the canal helps in recharging the wells in the area, enabling to get adequate water supply for the crops when water was not released from Bhavanisagar Dam. In this study, the groundwater recharge is determined by groundwater flow modeling using Visual MODFLOW model. For this purpose, three major natural sources of groundwater recharge are taken into consideration such as rainfall infiltration, canal seepage and return flow of irrigation. The model was run and ZONEBUDGET gives an idea about the amount of recharge from lined/unlined canal to the field. Unlined canal helps to recharge the groundwater about 20% more than the lined canal. The analysis reveals that the annual rainfall also has rapidly changed in this region. In the LBP canal Head reach meets their requirement with available quantity of water from the canal system. Tail end reach does not receive the required quantity of water because of seepage loss and conveyance loss. Hence the lined canal can be provided for full length of the main canal. Branch canals and minor distributaries are suggested to maintain the canals with unlined canal system.

Keywords: lower Bhavani basin, erode, groundwater flow modeling, irrigation practice, lined canal system

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4600 Multi-Agent System for Irrigation Using Fuzzy Logic Algorithm and Open Platform Communication Data Access

Authors: T. Wanyama, B. Far

Abstract:

Automatic irrigation systems usually conveniently protect landscape investment. While conventional irrigation systems are known to be inefficient, automated ones have the potential to optimize water usage. In fact, there is a new generation of irrigation systems that are smart in the sense that they monitor the weather, soil conditions, evaporation and plant water use, and automatically adjust the irrigation schedule. In this paper, we present an agent based smart irrigation system. The agents are built using a mix of commercial off the shelf software, including MATLAB, Microsoft Excel and KEPServer Ex5 OPC server, and custom written code. The Irrigation Scheduler Agent uses fuzzy logic to integrate the information that affect the irrigation schedule. In addition, the Multi-Agent system uses Open Platform Connectivity (OPC) technology to share data. OPC technology enables the Irrigation Scheduler Agent to communicate over the Internet, making the system scalable to a municipal or regional agent based water monitoring, management, and optimization system. Finally, this paper presents simulation and pilot installation test result that show the operational effectiveness of our system.

Keywords: community water usage, fuzzy logic, irrigation, multi-agent system

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4599 Preparedness of the Mae Hong Son Province for the Aging Society

Authors: Siwaporn Mahathamnuchock, Krit Phanpanya

Abstract:

This survey study aims 1) to investigate the preparation of Mae Hong Son people for entering into the aging society 2) to study awareness of public health preparedness for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization. The samples used in this study were people aged 55-60 years in Mae Hong Province. Located at Khun Yuam Sub district, Khun Yuam District, Pang Ma Pha Sub district, Pang Ma Pha District, Thung Yao Sub district, Pai District, Mae ka Tuan Sub district, Sob Moei District, Mae Sariang Sub district, Mae Sariang District, Mae Tho Sub district, Mae La Noi District. And Huai Pha Sub district, Muang Mae Hong District. The data were collected from 1,088 people by Stratified sampling Method. The instrument used in this study were 36 items of questionnaire that contains three parts: 1) Sample’s general information 2) The Interview of Mae Hong Son people’s preparation before entering aging society. 3) The Interview about preparedness of health for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization. Then analyzed the data by using percentage and standard deviation. The research found that Mae Hong Son people are preparing for an aging society as followed; psychological, residence, physical health, careers and leisure time on a large scale with an average of 3.81 (SD=0.88), 3.66 (SD=0.99), 3.53(SD=1.04) and 3.51(SD=0.89), respectively. However finances and saving were prepared on moderate scale with an average of 2.84(SD=0.89) and in the awareness of public health preparedness for the aging society of Mae Hong Son Province Administrative Organization were moderate with an average of 2.99 (SD=1.07).

Keywords: aging society, preparedness, perception, Mae Hong Son province

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4598 An Alternative Institutional Design for Efficient Management of Nepalese Irrigation Systems

Authors: Tirtha Raj Dhakal, Brian Davidson, Bob Farquharson

Abstract:

Institutional design is important if water resources are to be managed efficiently. In Nepal, the supply of water in both farmer- and agency-managed irrigation systems is inefficient because of the weak institutional frameworks. This type of inefficiency is linked with collective problems such as non-excludability of irrigation water, inadequate recognition of property rights and externalities. Irrigation scheme surveys from Nepal as well as existing literature revealed that the Nepalese irrigation sector is facing many issues such as low cost recovery, inadequate maintenance of the schemes and inefficient allocation and utilization of irrigation water. The institutional practices currently in place also fail to create/force any incentives for farmers to use water efficiently and to pay for its use. This, thus, compels the need of refined institutional framework that can address the collective problems and improve irrigation efficiency.

Keywords: agency-managed, cost recovery, farmer-managed, institutional design

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4597 Pros and Cons of Different Types of Irrigation Systems for Date Palm Production in Sebha, Libya

Authors: Ahmad Aridah, Maria Fay Rola-Rubzen, Zora Singh

Abstract:

This study investigated the effectiveness of various types of irrigation systems in regards to the impact that these have on the productivity of date palms in the semi-arid and arid region of Sebha, Southwest Libya. The date palm is an economically important crop in Libya and contributes to the agriculture industry, foreign exchange earnings, farmers’ income, and employment in the country. The date palm industry relies on large amounts of water for growing the crop. Farmers in Southwest Libya use a variety of irrigation systems, but the quality and quantity of water varies between systems and this affects the productivity and income of farmers. Using survey data from 210 farmers, this study estimated and assessed the pros and cons of different types of irrigation systems for date palm production under various irrigation systems currently used in Sebha, Libya. The number of years farmers have used irrigation, the area, irrigation water consumption, time of irrigation, number of farm workers (including family labour) and inputs used were measured for surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation methods. Findings from this research provide new insights into the advantages and disadvantages of the various irrigation systems, problems encountered by farmers and the factors that affect the quality and quantity of the irrigation system. The paper discussed proposed solutions to deal with the problems including timing of irrigation, canal maintenance, repair of wells and water control.

Keywords: Libya, factors, irrigation method, date palm

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
4596 Earthquake Effect in Micro Hydro Sector: Case Study of Dulakha District, Nepal

Authors: Keshav Raj Dhakal, Jit Bahadur Rokaya Chhetri

Abstract:

The Micro Hydro (MH) is one of the successful technology in Rural Nepal. Out of 75 district, 59 districts have installed 1287 MH projects with a total capacity of 24 Mega Watt (MW). Now, the challenge is how to sustain them. Dolakha is a prominent district for sustainable endues of power to sustain the MH projects. A total of 37 MH projects have been constructed with producing 886 Kilo Watt (KW) of energy in the district. This study traces out the impact of earthquake in MH sector in Dolakha district. It shows that 59 % of projects have been affected by devastating earthquake in April and May, 2015 where 29 % are completely damaged. Most of the damages are in civil structures like Penstock, forebay, power house, Canal, Intake. Transmission and distribution line have been partially damaged. This paper analysis failure of the civil structural component of MH projects and its financial consequence to the community. This study recommends that a disaster impact assessment is essential before construction of MH projects.

Keywords: micro hydro, earthquake, structural failure, financial consequence

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
4595 Response of Summer Sesame to Irrigation Regimes and Nitrogen Levels

Authors: Kalpana Jamdhade, Anita Chorey, Bharti Tijare, V. M. Bhale

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2011 at Agronomy research farm, Dr. PDKV, Akola, to study the effect of irrigation regime and nitrogen levels on growth and productivity of summer sesame. The experiment was laid out in split plot Design in which three irrigation scheduling on the basis of IW/CPE ratio viz., irrigation at 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 IW/CPE ratios (I1, I2 and I3, respectively) and one irrigation scheduling based on critical growth stages of sesame (I4), in main plot and three nitrogen levels 0, 30 and 60 kg N ha-1 (N0, N1 and N2, respectively) in subplot. The result showed that plant height, number of leaves plant-1, leaf area and dry matter accumulation were maximum in irrigation scheduling at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio, which significantly superior over 0.6 IW/CPE ratio and irrigation at critical growth stages but were statistically at par with irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio. Nitrogen levels, application of 60 kg N ha-1 was recorded significantly superior all growth parameters over treatment 30 kg N ha-1 and 0 kg N ha-1. In case of yield attributes viz., No. of capsules plant-1, Test wt., grain yield and Stalk yield (qha-1) were maximum in irrigation scheduling at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio and were significantly superior over 0.8 IW/CPE ratio, 0.6 IW/CPE ratio and irrigation at critical growth stages. Application of 60 kg N ha-1 increased all yield attributing characters over application of 30 and 0 kg N ha-1. In case of economics of crop same trend was found and the highest B:C ration was obtained in irrigation scheduling at 1.0 IW/CPE ratio. Whereas, application of 30 kg N ha-1 was recorded highest B:C ration over application of 60 and 0 kg N ha-1. Interaction effect of irrigation and nitrogen levels were found to be non significant in summer season.

Keywords: irrigation regimes, nitrogen levels, summer sesame, agricultural technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
4594 Overcoming the Problems Affecting Drip Irrigation System through the Design of an Efficient Filtration and Flushing System

Authors: Stephen A. Akinlabi, Esther T. Akinlabi

Abstract:

The drip irrigation system is one of the important areas that affect the livelihood of farmers directly. The use of drip irrigation system has been the most efficient system compared to the other types of irrigations systems because the drip irrigation helps to save water and increase the productivity of crops. But like any other system, it can be considered inefficient when the filters and the emitters get clogged while in operation. The efficiency of the entire system is reduced when the emitters are clogged and blocked. This consequently impact and affect the farm operations which may result in scarcity of farm products and increase the demand. This design work focuses on how to overcome some of the challenges affecting drip irrigation system through the design of an efficient filtration and flushing system.

Keywords: drip irrigation system, filters, soil texture, mechanical engineering design, analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
4593 Improved Water Productivity by Deficit Irrigation: Implications for Water Saving in Orange, Olive and Vineyard Orchards in Arid Conditions of Tunisia

Authors: K. Nagaz, F. El Mokh, M. Masmoudi, N. Ben Mechlia, M. O. Baba Sy, G. Ghiglieri

Abstract:

Field experiments on deficit irrigation (DI) were performed in Médenine, Tunisia on drip-irrigated olive, orange and grapevine orchards during 2013 and 2014. Four irrigation treatments were compared: full irrigation (FI), which was irrigated at 100% of ETc for the whole season; two deficit irrigation (DI) strategies -DI75 and DI50- which received, respectively, 25 and 50% less water than FI; and traditional farming management (FM) - with water input much less than actually needed. The traditional farming (FM) applied 11, 18, 30 and 33% less water than the FI treatment, respectively, in orange, grapevine and table and oil olive orchards, indicating that the farmers practices represent a form of unintended deficit irrigation. Yield was reduced when deficit irrigation was applied and there were significant differences between DI75, DI50 and FM treatments. Significant differences were not observed between DI50 and FM treatments even though numerically smaller yield was observed in the former (DI50) as compared to the latter (FM). The irrigation water productivity (IWP) was significantly affected by irrigation treatments. The smallest IWP was recorded under the FI treatment, while the largest IWP was obtained under the deficit irrigation treatment (DI50). The DI50 and FM treatments reduced the economic return compared to the full treatment (FI), while the DI75 treatment resulted in a better economic return in respect to DI50 and FM. Full irrigation (FI) could be recommended for olive, orange and grapevine irrigation under the arid climate of Tunisia. Nevertheless, the treatment DI75 can be applied as a strategy under water scarcity conditions in commercial olive, orange and grapevine orchards allowing water savings up to 25% but with some reduction in yield and net return. The results would be helpful in adopting deficit irrigation in ways that enhance net financial returns.

Keywords: water productivity, deficit irrigation, drip irrigation, orchards

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
4592 Studies on Irrigation and Nutrient Interactions in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

Authors: S. M. Jogdand, D. D. Jagtap, N. R. Dalal

Abstract:

Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is one of the most important commercially cultivated fruit crop in India. It stands on second position amongst citrus group after mandarin. Irrigation and fertigation are vital importance of sweet orange orchard and considered to be the most critical cultural operations. The soil acts as the reservoir of water and applied nutrients, the interaction between irrigation and fertigation leads to the ultimate quality and production of fruits. The increasing cost of fertilizers and scarcity of irrigation water forced the farmers for optimum use of irrigation and nutrients. The experiment was conducted with object to find out irrigation and nutrient interaction in sweet orange to optimize the use of both the factors. The experiment was conducted in medium to deep soil. The irrigation level I3,drip irrigation at 90% ER (effective rainfall) and fertigation level F3 80% RDF (recommended dose of fertilizer) recorded significantly maximum plant height, plant spread, canopy volume, number of fruits, weight of fruit, fruit yield kg/plant and t/ha followed by F2 , fertigation with 70% RDF. The interaction effect of irrigation and fertigation on growth was also significant and the maximum plant height, E-W spread, N-S spread, canopy volume, highest number of fruits, weight of fruit and yield kg/plant and t/ha was recorded in T9 i.e. I3F3 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 80% of RDF followed by I3F2 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 70% of RDF.

Keywords: sweet orange, fertigation, irrigation, interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 103