Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 76

Search results for: Isaac Mugume

76 Reducing Uncertainty in Climate Projections over Uganda by Numerical Models Using Bias Correction

Authors: Isaac Mugume

Abstract:

Since the beginning of the 21st century, climate change has been an issue due to the reported rise in global temperature and changes in the frequency as well as severity of extreme weather and climatic events. The changing climate has been attributed to rising concentrations of greenhouse gases, including environmental changes such as ecosystems and land-uses. Climatic projections have been carried out under the auspices of the intergovernmental panel on climate change where a couple of models have been run to inform us about the likelihood of future climates. Since one of the major forcings informing the changing climate is emission of greenhouse gases, different scenarios have been proposed and future climates for different periods presented. The global climate models project different areas to experience different impacts. While regional modeling is being carried out for high impact studies, bias correction is less documented. Yet, the regional climate models suffer bias which introduces uncertainty. This is addressed in this study by bias correcting the regional models. This study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting model under different representative concentration pathways and correcting the products of these models using observed climatic data. This study notes that bias correction (e.g., the running-mean bias correction; the best easy systematic estimator method; the simple linear regression method, nearest neighborhood, weighted mean) improves the climatic projection skill and therefore reduce the uncertainty inherent in the climatic projections.

Keywords: bias correction, climatic projections, numerical models, representative concentration pathways

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
75 A Comparative Analysis of the Performance of COSMO and WRF Models in Quantitative Rainfall Prediction

Authors: Isaac Mugume, Charles Basalirwa, Daniel Waiswa, Mary Nsabagwa, Triphonia Jacob Ngailo, Joachim Reuder, Sch¨attler Ulrich, Musa Semujju

Abstract:

The Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are considered powerful tools for guiding quantitative rainfall prediction. A couple of NWP models exist and are used at many operational weather prediction centers. This study considers two models namely the Consortium for Small–scale Modeling (COSMO) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It compares the models’ ability to predict rainfall over Uganda for the period 21st April 2013 to 10th May 2013 using the root mean square (RMSE) and the mean error (ME). In comparing the performance of the models, this study assesses their ability to predict light rainfall events and extreme rainfall events. All the experiments used the default parameterization configurations and with same horizontal resolution (7 Km). The results show that COSMO model had a tendency of largely predicting no rain which explained its under–prediction. The COSMO model (RMSE: 14.16; ME: -5.91) presented a significantly (p = 0.014) higher magnitude of error compared to the WRF model (RMSE: 11.86; ME: -1.09). However the COSMO model (RMSE: 3.85; ME: 1.39) performed significantly (p = 0.003) better than the WRF model (RMSE: 8.14; ME: 5.30) in simulating light rainfall events. All the models under–predicted extreme rainfall events with the COSMO model (RMSE: 43.63; ME: -39.58) presenting significantly higher error magnitudes than the WRF model (RMSE: 35.14; ME: -26.95). This study recommends additional diagnosis of the models’ treatment of deep convection over the tropics.

Keywords: comparative performance, the COSMO model, the WRF model, light rainfall events, extreme rainfall events

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
74 Sustainable Water Resource Management and Challenges in Indian Agriculture

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Isaac, Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

India, having a vast cultivable area and regional climatic variability, encounters water Resource Management Problems at various levels. The agricultural production of India needs to be increased to meet out projected population growth. Sustainable water resource is the only option to ensure food security, especially in northern Indian states, where the ground and surface water resources are fast depleting. Various tools and technologies available for management of scarce water resources have been discussed. It was concluded that multiple use of water, adopting latest water management options, identification of climate adoptable cropping and farming systems, can enhance water productivity and would encounter the fast growing water management and water shortage problems in Indian agriculture.

Keywords: water resource management, sustainable, water management technologies, water productivity, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
73 Spatial Variation of WRF Model Rainfall Prediction over Uganda

Authors: Isaac Mugume, Charles Basalirwa, Daniel Waiswa, Triphonia Ngailo

Abstract:

Rainfall is a major climatic parameter affecting many sectors such as health, agriculture and water resources. Its quantitative prediction remains a challenge to weather forecasters although numerical weather prediction models are increasingly being used for rainfall prediction. The performance of six convective parameterization schemes, namely the Kain-Fritsch scheme, the Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme, the Grell-Deveny scheme, the Grell-3D scheme, the Grell-Fretas scheme, the New Tiedke scheme of the weather research and forecast (WRF) model regarding quantitative rainfall prediction over Uganda is investigated using the root mean square error for the March-May (MAM) 2013 season. The MAM 2013 seasonal rainfall amount ranged from 200 mm to 900 mm over Uganda with northern region receiving comparatively lower rainfall amount (200–500 mm); western Uganda (270–550 mm); eastern Uganda (400–900 mm) and the lake Victoria basin (400–650 mm). A spatial variation in simulated rainfall amount by different convective parameterization schemes was noted with the Kain-Fritsch scheme over estimating the rainfall amount over northern Uganda (300–750 mm) but also presented comparable rainfall amounts over the eastern Uganda (400–900 mm). The Betts-Miller-Janjic, the Grell-Deveny, and the Grell-3D underestimated the rainfall amount over most parts of the country especially the eastern region (300–600 mm). The Grell-Fretas captured rainfall amount over the northern region (250–450 mm) but also underestimated rainfall over the lake Victoria Basin (150–300 mm) while the New Tiedke generally underestimated rainfall amount over many areas of Uganda. For deterministic rainfall prediction, the Grell-Fretas is recommended for rainfall prediction over northern Uganda while the Kain-Fritsch scheme is recommended over eastern region.

Keywords: convective parameterization schemes, March-May 2013 rainfall season, spatial variation of parameterization schemes over Uganda, WRF model

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
72 Vulnerability of Indian Agriculture to Climate Change: A Study of the Himalayan Region State

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Isaac, Monisha Isaac

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Climate variability and changes are the emerging challenges for Indian agriculture with the growing population to ensure national food security. A study was conducted to assess the Climatic Change effects in medium to low altitude areas of the Himalayan region causing changes in land use and cereal crop productivity with the various climatic parameters. The rainfall and temperature changes from 1951 to 2013 were studied at four locations of varying altitudes, namely Hardwar, Rudra Prayag, Uttar Kashi and Tehri Garwal. It was observed that there is noticeable increment in temperature on all the four locations. It was surprisingly observed that the mean rainfall intensity of 30 minutes duration has increased at the rate of 0.1 mm/hours since 2000. The study shows that the combined effect of increasing temperature, rainfall, runoff and urbanization at the mid-Himalayan region is causing an increase in various climatic disasters and changes in agriculture patterns. A noticeable change in cropping patterns, crop productivity and land use change was observed. Appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies are necessary to ensure that sustainable and climate-resilient agriculture. Appropriate information is necessary for farmers, as well as planners and decision makers for developing, disseminating and adopting climate-smart technologies.

Keywords: climate variability, agriculture, land use, mitigation strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
71 Association between Dental Caries and Asthma among 12-15 Years Old School Children Studying in Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Wajeeha Zahid, Shafquat Rozi, Farhan Raza, Masood Kadir

Abstract:

Background: Dental caries affects the overall health and well-being of children. Findings from various international studies regarding the association of dental caries with asthma are inconsistent. With the increasing burden of caries and childhood asthma, it becomes imperative for an underdeveloped country like Pakistan where resources are limited to identify whether there is a relationship between the two. This study aims to identify an association between dental caries and asthma. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 544 children aged 12-15 years recruited from five private schools in Karachi. Information on asthma was collected through the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed questions regarding child’s demographics, physician diagnoses of asthma, type of medication administered, family history of asthma and allergies, dietary habits and oral hygiene behavior. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT Index (Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth) index The data was analyzed using Cox proportional Hazard algorithm and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% CI were reported. Results: This study comprises of 306 (56.3%) boys and 238 (43.8%) girls. The mean age of children was 13.2 ± (0.05) years. The total number of children with carious teeth (DMFT > 0) were 166/544 (30.5%), and the decayed component contributed largely (22.8%) to the DMFT score. The prevalence of physician’s diagnosed asthma was 13%. This study identified almost 7% asthmatic children using the internationally validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) tool and 8 children with childhood asthma were identified by parent interviews. Overall prevalence of asthma was 109/544 (20%). The prevalence of caries in asthmatic children was 28.4% as compared to 31% among non-asthmatic children. The adjusted prevalence ratio of dental caries in asthmatic children was 0.8 (95% CI 0.59-1.29). After adjusting for carious food intake, age, oral hygiene index and dentist visit, the association between asthma and dental caries turned out to be non-significant. Conclusion: There was no association between asthma and dental caries among children who participated in this study.

Keywords: asthma, caries, children, school-based

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
70 Application of Molecular Markers for Crop Improvement

Authors: Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

Use of molecular markers for selecting plants with desired traits has been started long back. Due to their heritable characteristics, they are useful for identification and characterization of specific genotypes. The study involves various types of molecular markers used to select multiple desired characters in plants, their properties, and advantages to improve crop productivity in adverse climatological conditions for the purpose of providing food security to fast-growing global population. The study shows that genetic similarities obtained from molecular markers provide more accurate information and the genetic diversity can be better estimated from the genetic relationship obtained from the dendrogram. The information obtained from markers assisted characterization is more suitable for the crops of economic importance like sugarcane.

Keywords: molecular markers, crop productivity, genetic diversity, genotype

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
69 Determinants of E-Government Services Adoption from the African Students’ Perspective

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah, Jianing Mi, Cheng Feng

Abstract:

The patronage of e-government services (demand side of e-government) is vital to the successful implementation of e-government initiatives. The purpose of this study is to explore the predictors determining the willingness of African students in China to adopt and use e-government services. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) will be used as the theoretical foundation for this research. Research instrument will be developed and administered to 500 African students in China. Factors such as performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and culture will be investigated to determine its significant impact on the willingness to use e-government services. This study is a research in progress. The outcome of this study will provide valuable recommendations to improve the provision of public services through e-government.

Keywords: e-government, e-government services, predictors, UTAUT

Procedia PDF Downloads 490
68 Kiira EV Project Transition from Student to Professional Team through Project-Based Skills Development

Authors: Doreen Orishaba, Paul Isaac Musasizi, Richard Madanda, Sandy Stevens Tickodri-Togboa

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The world of academia tends to be a very insular place. Consequently, scholars who successfully completed their undergraduate and graduate studies are unpleasantly surprised at how challenging the transition to corporate life can get. This is a global trend even as the students who juggle work with attending some of the most demanding and best graduate programs may not easily adjust to and confirm to the professionalism required for corporate management of the industry. This paper explores the trends in the transition of Kiira EV Project from a predominantly student team to a professional team of a national pride program through mentorship and apprenticeship. The core disciplines within the Kiira EV Project include Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Industrial Design.

Keywords: mentorship, apprenticeship, professional, development

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
67 An Adjusted Network Information Criterion for Model Selection in Statistical Neural Network Models

Authors: Christopher Godwin Udomboso, Angela Unna Chukwu, Isaac Kwame Dontwi

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In selecting a Statistical Neural Network model, the Network Information Criterion (NIC) has been observed to be sample biased, because it does not account for sample sizes. The selection of a model from a set of fitted candidate models requires objective data-driven criteria. In this paper, we derived and investigated the Adjusted Network Information Criterion (ANIC), based on Kullback’s symmetric divergence, which has been designed to be an asymptotically unbiased estimator of the expected Kullback-Leibler information of a fitted model. The analyses show that on a general note, the ANIC improves model selection in more sample sizes than does the NIC.

Keywords: statistical neural network, network information criterion, adjusted network, information criterion, transfer function

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66 Comparative International Law and Feminist Legal Studies, Uniting to Make a Difference in Addressing the Disempowerment of Women

Authors: Isaac Kfir

Abstract:

In thinking about the role of the law and its impact on socially constructed norms and identities, scholars have come to explore a multitude of issues to do with equality, empowerment, and views. The aim of this contribution is threefold. Firstly, offer a descriptive framework of feminist legal studies (FLS) through a review of the evolution of the field in the context of equality, rights, and justice. Secondly, encourage those working on equality, rights, and justice in respect to ‘women’s issues’ to engage in international comparative legal studies. Third, to highlight that those seeking solutions to disempowerment and discrimination must recognize that they need to contend with claims that one is seeking to undermine cultural norms. Therefore, one effective way for feminists to address this situation is by relying more on the international legal mechanism, which reflects basic legal tenets as to the universality of equality, rights, and justice, that can then help shape the domestic setting.

Keywords: international comparative law, feminist legal studies, equality, rights, justice

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
65 Electronic Government Services Adoption from Multi-Nationalities Perspectives

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah, Jianing Mi, Cheng Feng

Abstract:

Electronic government is the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by the government to improve public service delivery to citizens and businesses. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors influencing the adoption and use of e-government services from different nationalities perspectives. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) will be used as the theoretical framework for the study. A questionnaire would be developed and administered to 500 potential respondents who are students from different nationalities in China. Predictors such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, computer self-efficacy, trust in both the internet and government, social influence and perceived service quality would be examined with regard to their impact on the intention to use e-government services. This research is currently at the design and implementation stage. The completion of this study will provide useful insights into understanding factors impacting the decision to use e-government services from a cross and multi nationalities perspectives.

Keywords: different nationalities, e-government, e-government services, technology acceptance model (TAM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
64 A Virtual Electrode through Summation of Time Offset Pulses

Authors: Isaac Cassar, Trevor Davis, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu

Abstract:

Retinal prostheses have been successful in eliciting visual responses in implanted subjects. As these prostheses progress, one of their major limitations is the need for increased resolution. As an alternative to increasing the number of electrodes, virtual electrodes may be used to increase the effective resolution of current electrode arrays. This paper presents a virtual electrode technique based upon time-offsets between stimuli. Two adjacent electrodes are stimulated with identical pulses with too short of pulse widths to activate a neuron, but one has a time offset of one pulse width. A virtual electrode of twice the pulse width was then shown to appear in the center, with a total width capable of activating a neuron. This can be used in retinal implants by stimulating electrodes with pulse widths short enough to not elicit responses in neurons, but with their combined pulse width adequate to activate a neuron in between them.

Keywords: electrical stimulation, neuroprosthesis, retinal implant, retinal prosthesis, virtual electrode

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
63 Perceived Ease-of-Use and Intention to Use E-Government Services in Ghana: The Moderating Role of Perceived Usefulness

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah

Abstract:

Public sector organizations, ministries, departments and local government agencies are adopting e-government as a means to provide efficient and quality service delivery to citizens. The purpose of this research paper is to examine the extent to which perceived usefulness (PU) of e-government services moderates between perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) of e-government services and intention to use (IU) e-government services in Ghana. A structured research questionnaire instrument was developed and administered to 700 potential respondents in Ghana, of which 693 responded, representing 99% of the questionnaires distributed. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as the theoretical framework for the study. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to capture and analyze the data. The results indicate that even though predictors such as PU and PEOU are main determiners of citizens’ intention to adopt and use e-government services in Ghana, it failed to show that PEOU and IU e-government services in Ghana is significantly moderated by the PU of e-government services. The implication of this finding on theory and practice is further discussed.

Keywords: e-government services, intention to use, moderating role, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, Ghana, technology acceptance model

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
62 Citizens’ Readiness to Adopt and Use Electronic Voting System in Ghana

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah

Abstract:

The adoption and application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in government administration through e-government is expected to permeate all sectors of state/ public institutions as well as democratic institutions. One of such public institutions is the Electoral Commission of Ghana mandated by the 1992 Constitution to hold all public elections including presidential and parliamentary elections. As Ghana holds its 7th General Elections since 1992, on 7th November 2016, there are demands from key stakeholders for the Election Management Body, which is the Electoral Commission (EC) of Ghana to adopt and implement an electronic voting system. This case study, therefore, attempts to contribute significantly to the debate by examining influencing factors that would impact on citizen’s readiness to adopt and use an electronic voting system in Ghana. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as a theoretical framework for this study, out of which a research model and hypotheses were developed. Importantly, the outcome of this research finding would form a basis for appropriate policy recommendation for consideration of Government and EC of Ghana.

Keywords: citizens readiness, e-government, electronic voting, technology acceptance model (TAM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
61 E-Government, China Internet Plus, and the One Belt One Road Initiative: The Africa Connection

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah, Mi Jianing

Abstract:

The lack of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) infrastructure in African countries is hampering the successful adoption, development and implementation of e-government in Africa. Electronic government is the use of ICTs to modernize government public administration processes and to provide government services to citizens with a purpose to enhance efficiency, accountability, and transparency in government’s interaction with the citizenry. ICT application in public administration has the potential to modernize and create smarter government and improvement in public service delivery. China’s Internet Plus policy and One Belt One Road strategy present a golden opportunity for countries in Africa to attract the huge financial investment through Chinese IT companies to develop and close Africa’s ICT infrastructure gap. This study recommends the establishment of One Belt One Road ICT Infrastructure Fund for Africa (OBOR ICT Fund for Africa) to enable countries in Africa to source solely for the purpose of ICT infrastructure development in the public sector/government machinery which would in turn promote the adoption and development of e-government in the public sectors of respective countries in Africa.

Keywords: e-government, public service delivery, internet plus, one belt one road initiative, China, Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
60 Aiding Water Flow in Irrigation Technology with a Pedal Operated Manual Pump

Authors: Isaac Ali Kwasu, Aje Tokan

Abstract:

The research was set to design a manually pedal operated water pump to aid water flow technology for irrigation activities for rural farmers. The development was carried out first by a prototype design to guide the fabrication. All items needed for the fabrication were used for the final product. The machine is operated manually by pedaling. This engages all the parts of the machine into active motion. Energy is generated and transfer finally to the pumping unit which is wired with plastic pipes. The pumping unit which is wired with PVC pipes, both linked to the water source and the reservoir respectively. The (rpm) revolution per minute of the machine is approximated at 3130 depending on the pedaling speed of the user. The machine does not have gear arrangement yet can give high (rpm) for effective performance. The pumping performance of the machine is 125 liters in one minute and can sustain small scale irrigation farming activities and to supplement water management system to sustain crop growth.

Keywords: pump, development, manual, flywheel, sprocket, pulley, machine, v belt, chain, hub, pipe, steel, mechanism, irrigation, prototype, fabrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
59 Development of a Drive Cycle Based Control Strategy for the KIIRA-EV SMACK Hybrid

Authors: Richard Madanda, Paul Isaac Musasizi, Sandy Stevens Tickodri-Togboa, Doreen Orishaba, Victor Tumwine

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New vehicle concepts targeting specific geographical markets are designed to satisfy a unique set of road and load requirements. The KIIRA-EV SMACK (KES) hybrid vehicle is designed in Uganda for the East African market. The engine and generator added to the KES electric power train serve both as the range extender and the power assist. In this paper, the design consideration taken to achieve the proper management of the on-board power from the batteries and engine-generator based on the specific drive cycle are presented. To harness the fuel- efficiency benefits of the power train, a specific control philosophy operating the engine and generator at the most efficient speed- torque and speed-power regions is presented. By using a suitable model developed in MATLAB using Simulink and Stateflow, preliminary results show that the steady-state response of the vehicle for a particular hypothetical drive cycle mimicking the expected drive conditions in the city and highway traffic is sufficient.

Keywords: control strategy, drive cycle, hybrid vehicle, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
58 Survey of Potential Adverse Health Effects of Mobile Phones, and Wireless Base Stations in Nigeria

Authors: Nureni A. Yekini, Isaac T. Babalola, Edwin E. Aighokhan, Agnes K. Akinwole, N. Stephen Igwe

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Survey was conducted to gather information on potential adverse health effects of Mobile Phones, and Telecommunication Tower Base Stations in Nigeria. Data was sourced from two sampled populations. Firstly from the people living in close proximity to base stations, and secondly from cell phone users. Questionnaire was used to gathered information from 574 people on thirteen non-specific health symptoms. Data obtained was presented and analyzed. The analysis shows that people living close to the based stations over a long period of time with or without cell phone, and also the heavy phone users with close proximity to the base stations are liable to have some potential health hazards, such as fatigue, sleep disturbances, headaches, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentrating, depression, memory loss, visual disruptions, irritability, hearing disruptions, skin problems, cardiovascular disorders, and dizziness.

Keywords: health hazards, wireless base stations, phone users, mobile phones, Nigeria

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57 Treatment Performance of Waste Stabilization Ponds: A Look at Physic-Chemical Parameters in Ghana

Authors: Emmanuel Adu-Ofori, Richard Amfo-Otu, Isaac O. A. Hodgson

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The study was conducted to determine the treatment performance of waste stabilization ponds in Akosombo. A total of 15 samples were taken for four consecutive months from the inlet, facultative pond and outlet of maturation pond. The samples were preserved and transported to Water Research Institute for laboratory analysis. The wastewater quality parameters analysed to assess the treatment performance were total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia and phosphate. The results of the laboratory analysis showed that the ponds achieved TSS, BOD and COD removals of about 30, 82 and 75 per cent respectively. Statistically, the BOD (t = 10.27, p = 6.68 x 10-6) and COD (t = 4.23, p = 0.0029) of the raw sewage were significantly different from the total effluent at 95% confidence interval. The ammonia and phosphate removal was as high as 92% and 84% respectively. The quality parameters analysed for the final effluent from the Waste Stabilisation Pond was within the EPA guideline values. The general treatment performances were very good with respect to the parameters studied and does not pose threat to the receiving water body. A further study to examine the bacteriological treatment performance was recommended.

Keywords: waste stabilization pond, wast water, treatment performance, nutrient, Ghana

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
56 A Comparative Analysis of Grade Weighted Average and Comprehensive Examination Result of Non Board Passers and Board Passers

Authors: Rob Gesley Capistrano, Jasper James Isaac, Rose Mae Moralda, Therese Anne Peleo, Danica Rillo, Maria Virginia Santillian

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One of the valuable things that shows the intelligence among individuals is the academic background specifically their Grade Weighted Average and the significant result of the Comprehensive Examination. The general objective of the researchers to this study is to determine if there is a significant difference between General Weighted Average and Comprehensive Examination Result of Psychometrician Board Passers and Non-Board Passers. The respondents of this study composed of board passers and non-board passers. The researchers used purposive sampling technique. The result utilized by using T-test Independent Sample to determine the comparison of General Weighted Average and Comprehensive Examination Result of Board Passers and Non Board Passers. At the end, it concluded that the General Weighted Average of Board Passers and Non-Board Passers shows that there is no significant difference, but the average showed a minimal variation. The Comprehensive Examination Result of Board Passers and Non-Board Passers result revealed that there is a significant difference. The performance of comprehensive examination that will test the overall knowledge of an individual and will determine whose more proficient will likely to have a higher score. The result of the comprehensive examination had an impact in the passing performance of board examination.

Keywords: board passers, comprehensive examination result, grade weighted average, non board passers

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
55 Factors Influencing the Continuance Usage of Online Mobile Payment Apps: A Case Study of WECHAT Users in China

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah, Jianing Mi, Feng Cheng

Abstract:

This research paper seeks to investigate the factors determining the continuance usage of online mobile payment applications among WECHAT users in China. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory would both be applied as the theoretical foundation for this study. A developed instrument would be administered to the targeted sample of 1000 WECHAT Users in the City of Harbin, China, through an online questionnaire administration platform. Factors such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived service quality, social influence, trust in the internet, internet self-efficacy, relative advantage, compatibility, and complexity would be explored to determine its significant impact on the continuance intention to use mobile payment apps. This study is at the development and implementation stage. The successful completion of this research article would not only provide an insightful understanding of the factors influencing the decision of WECHAT users in China to use mobile payment applications but also enrich the e-commerce adoption literature.

Keywords: diffusion of innovation (DOI), e-commerce, mobile payment, technology acceptance model (TAM), WECHAT

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
54 Feed Value of Selected Nigerian Browse Plants: Chemical Composition and in vitro Digestibility

Authors: Isaac Samuel

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the in-vitro degradation of selected Nigerian browse plants consumed by small ruminants on free range in northern guinea savannah region of Nigeria using in vitro gas production, proximate composition, fibre components, methane gas production and dry matter degradation as tools. The leaves samples of the selected browse plants were collected, processed and incubated using in vitro gas dry matter degradation techniques. Results obtained showed variation in the rate of degradation. The result obtained from chemical analysis showed that the CP content of A. occidentale (26.49%) was higher than F. thonningi (23.58%), M. indica (20.58%) and T. catappa (18.61%). Both ADF and NDF of A. occidentale (40.00 and 50.00) were as well higher than F. thonningi (20.00 and 40.00), M. indica (20.00 and 40.00) and T.catappa (20.00 and 42.00). Results from in vitro gas production however showed that T. catappa (23.67ml/DM) has a significantly higher (p<0.05) value than F.thonningi (20.67ml/DM), A. occidentale (16.67ml/DM), and M. indica(14.00ml/DM) at 72 hours of incubation. Methane gas production and in vitro gas production can be used to predict dry matter degradation and nutritive value of feedstuff for small ruminants. A. occidentale with the least methane gas production and highest crude protein (CP) content might have the most nutritive value among the browse plants investigated.

Keywords: in vitro, degradation, browse, gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
53 Analysis of Geotechnical Parameters from Geophysical Information

Authors: Adewoyin O. Olusegun, Akinwumi I. Isaac

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In some part of the world where legislations related to site investigations before constructions are not strictly enforced, the expenses and time required for carrying out a comprehensive geotechnical investigation to characterize a site can discourage prospective private residential building developers. Another factor that can discourage a developer is the fact that most of the geotechnical tests procedures utilized during site investigations, to a certain extent, alter the existing environment of the site. This study suggests a quick, non-destructive and non-intrusive method of obtaining key subsoil geotechnical properties necessary for foundation design for proposed engineering facilities. Seismic wave velocities generated from near surface refraction method was used to determine the bulk density of soil, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus and allowable bearing capacity of a competent layer that can bear structural load at the particular study site. Also, regression equations were developed in order to directly obtain the bulk density of soil, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus and allowable bearing capacity from the compressional wave velocities. The results obtained correlated with the results of standard geotechnical investigations carried out.

Keywords: characterize, environment, geophysical, geotechnical, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
52 DNA-Based Analysis of Gut Content of Zygoribatula sp (Acari: Oribatida) and Scheloribates sp (Acari: Oribatida), under the Canopy of Prosopis Laevigata, in a Semiarid Land

Authors: Daniel Isaac Sanchez Chavez, Salvador Rodríguez Zaragoza, Patricia Velez Aguilar

Abstract:

In arid and semi-arid regions, plants are essential in the functional activity and productivity, modifying the microclimatic conditions of their environment, which allows many organisms to grow under them. Within these organisms, oribatid mites play a key role in reintegrating nutrients into the soil through the consumption of soil fungi. However, oribatid mites feed on a vast array of fungal species, which is likely to have strong impacts on their population dynamics and their environment. So, in this study, the aim was to determine the gut content of the abundant oribatid mites Zygoribatula sp and Scheloribates sp, under the canopy of the bush P. laevigata in a semi-arid zone through DNA-based analysis. The results showed the presence in the gut of both mites of different fungal taxa. Fungi, such as Aspergillus sp and Mortierella sp, probably served as a food despite the production of deterrent compounds or structures from both fungal species. Saccharomyces sp might serve as well as a food source; however, it might be part of their microbial endosymbionts. On the other hand, the presence of Beauveria sp indicates a probable pathogenicity interaction, instead of fungal consumption, since this fungus is known to be entomopathogenic. Finally, the results might indicate a feeding preference to certain soil fungi according to diverse features from both taxa.

Keywords: microenvironment, endosymbionts, Oribatida, fungi

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
51 Effect of Nanoparticles Concentration, pH and Agitation on Bioethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743: An Optimization Study

Authors: Adeyemi Isaac Sanusi, Gueguim E. B. Kana

Abstract:

Nanoparticles have received attention of the scientific community due to their biotechnological potentials. They exhibit advantageous size, shape and concentration-dependent catalytic, stabilizing, immunoassays and immobilization properties. This study investigates the impact of metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743. Nine different nanoparticles were synthesized using precipitation method and microwave treatment. The nanoparticles synthesized were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fermentation processes were carried out at varied NPs concentrations (0 – 0.08 wt%). Highest ethanol concentrations were achieved after 24 h using Cobalt NPs (5.07 g/l), Copper NPs (4.86 g/l) and Manganese NPs (4.74 g/l) at 0.01 wt% NPs concentrations, which represent 13%, 8.7% and 5.4% increase respectively over the control (4.47 g/l). The lowest ethanol concentration (0.17 g/l) was obtained when 0.08 wt% of Silver NPs was used. And lower ethanol concentrations were observed at higher NPs concentration. Ethanol concentration decrease after 24 h for all the processes. In all set up with NPs, the pH was observed to be stable and the stability was directly proportional to nanoparticles concentrations. These findings suggest that the presence of some of the NPs in the bioprocesses has catalytic and pH stabilizing potential. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743 was enhanced in the presence of Cobalt NPs, Copper NPs and Manganese NPs. Optimization study using response surface methodology (RSM) will further elucidate the impact of these nanoparticles on bioethanol production.

Keywords: agitation, bioethanol, nanoparticles concentration, optimization, pH value

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50 Epidemiological Survey of Feline Leukemia Virus in Domestic Cats on Tsushima Island, Japan: Tsushima Leopard Cats Are at Risk

Authors: Isaac Makundi, Kazuo Nishigaki

Abstract:

The Tsushima leopard cat (TLC) Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, designated a National Natural Monument of Japan, inhabits Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. TLC is considered a subspecies of P. bengalensis, and lives only on Tsushima Island. TLCs are threatened by various infectious diseases. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a serious infectious disease with a poor prognosis in cats. Therefore, the transmission of FeLV from Tsushima domestic cats (TDCs) to TLCs may threaten the TLC population. We investigated the FeLV infection status of both TDCs and TLCs on Tsushima Island by screening blood samples for FeLV p27 antigen and using PCR to amplify the full-length FeLV env gene. The prevalence of FeLV was 6.4% in TDCs and 0% in TLCs. We also demonstrated that the virus can replicate in the cells of TLCs, suggesting its potential cross-species transmission. The viruses in TDCs were classified as genotype I/clade 3, which is prevalent on a nearby island, based on previous studies of FeLV genotypes and FeLV epidemiology. The FeLV viruses identified on Tsushima Island can be further divided into two lineages within genotype I/clade 3, which are geographically separated in Kamijima and Shimojima, indicating that FeLV may have been transmitted to Tsushima Island at least twice. Monitoring FeLV infection in the TDC and TLC populations is highly recommended as part of the TLC surveillance and management strategy.

Keywords: epidemiology, Feline leukemia virus, Tsushima Island, wildlife management

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49 Communication Styles of Business Students: A Comparison of Four National Cultures

Authors: Tiina Brandt, Isaac Wanasika

Abstract:

Culturally diverse global companies need to understand cultural differences between leaders and employees from different backgrounds. Communication is culturally contingent and has a significant impact on effective execution of leadership goals. The awareness of cultural variations related to communication and interactions will help leaders modify their own behavior, and consequently improve the execution of goals and avoid unnecessary faux pas. Our focus is on young adults that have experienced cultural integration, culturally diverse surroundings in schools and universities, and cultural travels. Our central research problem is to understand the impact of different national cultures on communication. We focus on four countries with distinct national cultures and spatial distribution. The countries are Finland, Indonesia, Russia and USA. Our sample is based on business students (n = 225) from various backgrounds in the four countries. Their responses of communication and leadership styles were analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc test. Results indicate that culture impacts on communication behavior. Even young culturally-exposed adults with cultural awareness and experience demonstrate cultural differences in their behavior. Apparently, culture is a deeply seated trait that cannot be completely neutralized by environmental variables. Our study offers valuable input for leadership training programs and for expatriates when recognizing specific differences on leaders’ behavior due to culture.

Keywords: communication, culture, interaction, leadership

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48 Mineral Chemistry of Barium and Titanium-Bearing Biotite in Alkaline Trachyte from Upper Benue Valley (Northern Cameroon)

Authors: Fadimatou Ngounouno Yamgouota, Isaac Bertrand Gbambié Mbowoub, Ismaila Ngounounob

Abstract:

Barium and titanium bearing biotite from alkaline trachyte of Upper Benue valley, Northern Cameroon is studied. The iron enrichment index of mica (average I.E.=0.40) is intermediate between annite and phlogopite. The biotite phenocrysts contain up to 6.2 wt. % BaO and 9.8 wt. % TiO2. The BaO content of electron-microprobe mica is positively correlated with the Al2O3, TiO2, and FeO contents, and negatively correlated with the SiO2, K2O, and MgO contents. Ba and Ti rich micas are generally found in in SiO2 deficient rocks, whereas Ba and Ti bearing mica in this study occur in silica-saturated rocks. Most of the phenocrysts analysed have deficiencies in their octahedral and interlayer sites. Deficiencies in the octahedral sites may arise from the Ti vacancy and partly the Ti tschermakite substitution. On the other hand, deficiencies in the interlayer-site are due to the replacement of K by Ba. The substitution mechanism in the Upper Benue valley mica is characterized by Ba + 2Ti + 3Al =(K + Na + Ca) + 3(Mg + Fe + Mn) + 3Si, with an excellent correlation coefficient. Biotite compositions from the Upper Benue valley area fall between the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) and nickel-nickel-oxide (NNO) oxygen fugacity buffers. All these show that Upper Benue valley mica with high Ba and Ti contents may be formed from magmas rich in these elements.

Keywords: Benue valley, trachyte, biotite, mineral chemistry, enrichment

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47 Hydrogeophysical Investigations of Groundwater Resources and Demarcation of Saltwater-Freshwater Interface in Kilwa Kisiwani Island, Se Tanzania

Authors: Simon R. Melchioly, Ibrahimu C. Mjemah, Isaac M. Marobhe

Abstract:

The main objective of this research was to identify new potential sources of groundwater resources using geophysical methods and also to demarcate the saltwater - freshwater interface. Kilwa Kisiwani Island geologically is covered mostly by Quaternary alluvial sediments, sand, and gravel. The geophysical techniques employed during the research include Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES), Earth Resistivity Tomography (ERT), and Transient Electromagnetics (TEM). Two-dimensional interpolated geophysical results show that there exist freshwater lenses formations that are potential aquifers on the Island with resistivity values ranging from 11.68 Ωm to 46.71 Ωm. These freshwater lenses are underlain by formation with brackish water in which the resistivity values are varying between 3.89 Ωm and 1.6 Ωm. Saltwater with resistivity less than 1 Ωm is found at the bottom being overlaid by brackish saturated formation. VES resistivity results show that 89% (16 out of 18) of the VES sites are potential for groundwater resources drilling while TEM results indicate that 75% (12 out of 16) of TEM sites are potential for groundwater borehole drilling. The recommended drilling depths for potential sites in Kilwa Kisiwani Island show that the maximum depth is 25 m and the minimum being 10 m below ground surface. The aquifer structure in Kilwa Kisiwani Island is a shallow, unconfined freshwater lenses floating above the seawater and the maximum thickness of the aquifer is 25 m for few selected VES and TEM sites while the minimum thickness being 10 m.

Keywords: groundwater, hydrogeophysical, Kilwa Kisiwani, freshwater, saltwater, resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 115