Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14659

Search results for: water resource management

14659 Sustainable Water Resource Management and Challenges in Indian Agriculture

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Isaac, Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

India, having a vast cultivable area and regional climatic variability, encounters water Resource Management Problems at various levels. The agricultural production of India needs to be increased to meet out projected population growth. Sustainable water resource is the only option to ensure food security, especially in northern Indian states, where the ground and surface water resources are fast depleting. Various tools and technologies available for management of scarce water resources have been discussed. It was concluded that multiple use of water, adopting latest water management options, identification of climate adoptable cropping and farming systems, can enhance water productivity and would encounter the fast growing water management and water shortage problems in Indian agriculture.

Keywords: water resource management, sustainable, water management technologies, water productivity, agriculture

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14658 Impact of Climate Change on Water Resource Systems in Taiwan

Authors: Chia-Ling Chang, Hao-Bo Chang

Abstract:

Global climate change alters rainfall characteristics, while the variation of these characteristics further influences environmental conditions, such as hydrologic responses, landslide areas, and the amounts of diffuse pollution. The variations of environmental conditions may impact the stability of water resource systems. The objective of this study is to assess the present conditions of major water resource systems in Taiwan. The impact of climate change on each system is also discussed herein. Compared to the water resource systems in northern Taiwan, the ratio of the precipitation during the rainy season to that during the dry season has a larger increase in southern Taiwan. This variation of hydrologic condition impacts the stability of water resource systems and increases the risk of normal water supply. The findings in this work can be important references for water resource management.

Keywords: basin management, climate change, water resource system, water resource management

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14657 Irrigation Challenges, Climate Change Adaptation and Sustainable Water Usage in Developing Countries. A Case Study, Nigeria

Authors: Faith Eweluegim Enahoro-Ofagbe

Abstract:

Worldwide, every nation is experiencing the effects of global warming. In developing countries, due to the heavy reliance on agriculture for socioeconomic growth and security, among other things, these countries are more affected by climate change, particularly with the availability of water. Floods, droughts, rising temperatures, saltwater intrusion, groundwater depletion, and other severe environmental alterations are all brought on by climatic change. Life depends on water, a vital resource; these ecological changes affect all water use, including agriculture and household water use. Therefore adequate and adaptive water usage strategies for sustainability are essential in developing countries. Therefore, this paper investigates Nigeria's challenges due to climate change and adaptive techniques that have evolved in response to such issues to ensure water management and sustainability for irrigation and provide quality water to residents. Questionnaires were distributed to respondents in the study area, central Nigeria, for quantitative evaluation of sustainable water resource management techniques. Physicochemical analysis was done, collecting soil and water samples from several locations under investigation. Findings show that farmers use different methods, ranging from intelligent technologies to traditional strategies for water resource management. Also, farmers need to learn better water resource management techniques for sustainability. Since more residents obtain their water from privately held sources, the government should enforce legislation to ensure that private borehole construction businesses treat water sources of poor quality before the general public uses them.

Keywords: developing countries, irrigation, strategies, sustainability, water resource management, water usage

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14656 The Role of Social Capital in Community-Based Water Resources Management in Kenya's Polycentric Water Resource Governance System

Authors: Brenda Margaret Behan

Abstract:

Kenya is a water-stressed country with highly varied socio-ecological environments in its devolved county system, and is currently implementing a polycentric water governance system; this paper examines the importance of social capital in community-based natural resource management and its role in supporting good water governance systems in the Kenya context. Through a robust literature review of theory and case studies, specific aspects of social capital are examined to determine their importance in the implementation of local community-based water management arrangements which support and complement the more formal institutions outlined in the 2002 and 2016 Water Acts of Kenya. Water is an increasingly important and scarce resource not only for Kenya, but for many communities across the globe, and lessons learned in the Kenya context can be useful for other countries and communities faced with similar challenges. Changing climates, increasing populations, and increased per capita consumption of water is contributing to a situation in which the management of water resources will be vital to community resilience. Community-based natural resource management is widely recognized as a building block and component of wider water resource management systems, and when properly conducted can provide a way to enable sustainable use of resources and empower communities. Greater attention to the social and cultural norms and traditional institutions associated with a community’s social capital can lead to better results for Kenya’s polycentric governance of water. The key findings and recommendations from this research show that in Kenya, traditional institutions need to be understood and integrated into governance systems; social values and cultural norms have a significant impact on the implementation of community-based water management efforts; and social capital is a dynamic concept which influences and is influenced by policies and practices. The community-based water management approach will continue to be a key cornerstone for Kenya’s polycentric water governance structure, especially in the more remote arid and semi-arid lands; thus, the successful integration of social capital aspects into planning and implementation will contribute to a strengthened, sustainable, and more equitable national water governance system. Specific observations and recommendations from this study will help practitioners and policymakers to better craft community-based interventions.

Keywords: community-based natural resource management, social capital, traditional institutions, water governance

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14655 Assessing the Impact of Human Behaviour on Water Resource Systems Performance: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: N. J. Shanono, J. G. Ndiritu

Abstract:

The poor performance of water resource systems (WRS) has been reportedly linked to not only climate variability and the water demand dynamics but also human behaviour-driven unlawful activities. Some of these unlawful activities that have been adversely affecting water sector include unauthorized water abstractions, water wastage behaviour, refusal of water re‐use measures, excessive operational losses, discharging untreated or improperly treated wastewater, over‐application of chemicals by agricultural users and fraudulent WRS operation. Despite advances in WRS planning, operation, and analysis incorporating such undesirable human activities to quantitatively assess their impact on WRS performance remain elusive. This study was then inspired by the need to develop a methodological framework for WRS performance assessment that integrates the impact of human behaviour with WRS performance assessment analysis. We, therefore, proposed a conceptual framework for assessing the impact of human behaviour on WRS performance using the concept of socio-hydrology. The framework identifies and couples four major sources of WRS-related values (water values, water systems, water managers, and water users) using three missing links between human and water in the management of WRS (interactions, outcomes, and feedbacks). The framework is to serve as a database for choosing relevant social and hydrological variables and to understand the intrinsic relations between the selected variables to study a specific human-water problem in the context of WRS management.

Keywords: conceptual framework, human behaviour; socio-hydrology; water resource systems

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14654 Rural Water Management Strategies and Irrigation Techniques for Sustainability. Nigeria Case Study; Kwara State

Authors: Faith Eweluegim Enahoro-Ofagbe

Abstract:

Water is essential for sustaining life. As a limited resource, effective water management is vital. Water scarcity has become more common due to the effects of climate change, land degradation, deforestation, and population growth, especially in rural communities, which are more susceptible to water-related issues such as water shortage, water-borne disease, et c., due to the unsuccessful implementation of water policies and projects in Nigeria. Since rural communities generate the majority of agricultural products, they significantly impact on water management for sustainability. The development of methods to advance this goal for residential and agricultural usage in the present and the future is a challenge for rural residents. This study evaluated rural water supply systems and irrigation management techniques to conserve water in Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria. Suggesting some measures to conserve water resources for sustainability, off-season farming, and socioeconomic security that will remedy water degradation, unemployment which is one of the causes of insecurity in the country, by considering the use of fabricated or locally made irrigation equipment, which are affordable by rural farmers, among other recommendations. Questionnaires were distributed to respondents in the study area for quantitative evaluation of irrigation methods practices. For physicochemical investigation, samples were also gathered from their available water sources. According to the study's findings, 30 percent of farmers adopted intelligent irrigation management techniques to conserve water resources, saving 45% of the water previously used for irrigation. 70 % of farmers practice seasonal farming. Irrigation water is drawn from river channels, streams, and unlined and unprotected wells. 60% of these rural residents rely on private boreholes for their water needs, while 40% rely on government-supplied rural water. Therefore, the government must develop additional water projects, raise awareness, and offer irrigation techniques that are simple to adapt for water management, increasing socio-economic productivity, security, and water sustainability.

Keywords: water resource management, sustainability, irrigation, rural water management, irrigation management technique

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14653 Policy Monitoring and Water Stakeholders Network Analysis in Shemiranat

Authors: Fariba Ebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani

Abstract:

Achieving to integrated Water management fundamentally needs to effective relation, coordination, collaboration and synergy among various actors who have common but different responsibilities. In this sense, the foundation of comprehensive and integrated management is not compatible with centralization and top-down strategies. The aim of this paper is analysis institutional network of water relevant stakeholders and water policy monitoring in Shemiranat. In this study collaboration networks between informal and formal institutions co-management process have been investigated. Stakeholder network analysis as a quantitative method has been implicated in this research. The results of this study indicate that institutional cohesion is medium; sustainability of institutional network is about 40 percent (medium). Additionally the core-periphery index has measured in this study according to reciprocity index. Institutional capacities for integrated natural resource management in regional level are measured in this study. Furthermore, the necessity of centrality reduction and promote stakeholders relations and cohesion are emphasized to establish a collaborative natural resource governance.

Keywords: policy monitoring, water management, social network, stakeholder, shemiranat

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14652 The Sustainable Governance of Aquifer Injection Using Treated Coal Seam Gas Water in Queensland, Australia: Lessons for Integrated Water Resource Management

Authors: Jacqui Robertson

Abstract:

The sustainable governance of groundwater is of the utmost importance in an arid country like Australia. Groundwater has been relied on by our agricultural and pastoral communities since the State was settled by European colonialists. Nevertheless, the rapid establishment of a coal seam gas (CSG) industry in Queensland, Australia, has had extensive impacts on the pre-existing groundwater users. Managed aquifer recharge of important aquifers in Queensland, Australia, using treated coal seam gas produced water has been used to reduce the impacts of CSG development in Queensland Australia. However, the process has not been widely adopted. Negative environmental outcomes are now acknowledged as not only engineering, scientific or technical problems to be solved but also the result of governance failures. An analysis of the regulatory context for aquifer injection using treated CSG water in Queensland, Australia, using Ostrom’s Common Pool Resource (CPR) theory and a ‘heat map’ designed by the author, highlights the importance of governance arrangements. The analysis reveals the costs and benefits for relevant stakeholders of artificial recharge of groundwater resources in this context. The research also reveals missed opportunities to further active management of the aquifer and resolve existing conflicts between users. The research illustrates the importance of strategically and holistically evaluating innovations in technology that impact water resources to reveal incentives that impact resource user behaviors. The paper presents a proactive step that can be adapted to support integrated water resource management and sustainable groundwater development.

Keywords: managed aquifer recharge, groundwater regulation, common-pool resources, integrated water resource management, Australia

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14651 Development of Groundwater Management Model Using Groundwater Sustainability Index

Authors: S. S. Rwanga, J. M. Ndambuki, Y. Woyessa

Abstract:

Development of a groundwater management model is an important step in the exploitation and management of any groundwater aquifer as it assists in the long-term sustainable planning of the resource. The current study was conducted in Central Limpopo province of South Africa with the overall objective of determining how much water can be withdrawn from the aquifer without producing nonreversible impacts on the groundwater quantity, hence developing a model which can sustainably protect the aquifer. The development was done through the computation of Groundwater Sustainability Index (GSI). Values of GSI close to unity and above indicated overexploitation. In this study, an index of 0.8 was considered as overexploitation. The results indicated that there is potential for higher abstraction rates compared to the current abstraction rates. GSI approach can be used in the management of groundwater aquifer to sustainably develop the resource and also provides water managers and policy makers with fundamental information on where future water developments can be carried out.

Keywords: development, groundwater, groundwater sustainability index, model

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14650 The Application of System Approach to Knowledge Management and Human Resource Management Evidence from Tehran Municipality

Authors: Vajhollah Ghorbanizadeh, Seyed Mohsen Asadi, Mirali Seyednaghavi, Davoud Hoseynpour

Abstract:

In the current era, all organizations need knowledge to be able to manage the diverse human resources. Creative, dynamic and knowledge-based Human resources are important competitive advantage and the scarcest resource in today's knowledge-based economy. In addition managers with skills of knowledge management must be aware of human resource management science. It is now generally accepted that successful implementation of knowledge management requires dynamic interaction between knowledge management and human resource management. This is emphasized at systematic approach to knowledge management as well. However human resource management can be complementary of knowledge management because human resources management with the aim of empowering human resources as the key resource organizations in the 21st century, the use of other resources, creating and growing and developing today. Thus, knowledge is the major capital of every organization which is introduced through the process of knowledge management. In this context, knowledge management is systematic approach to create, receive, organize, access, and use of knowledge and learning in the organization. This article aims to define and explain the concepts of knowledge management and human resource management and the importance of these processes and concepts. Literature related to knowledge management and human resource management as well as related topics were studied, then to design, illustrate and provide a theoretical model to explain the factors affecting the relationship between knowledge management and human resource management and knowledge management system approach, for schematic design and are drawn.

Keywords: systemic approach, human resources, knowledge, human resources management, knowledge management

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14649 Rules in Policy Integration, Case Study: Victoria Catchment Management

Authors: Ratri Werdiningtyas, Yongping Wei, Andrew Western

Abstract:

This paper contributes to on-going attempts at bringing together land, water and environmental policy in catchment management. A tension remains in defining the boundaries of policy integration. Most of Integrated Water Resource Management is valued as rhetoric policy. It is far from being achieved on the ground because the socio-ecological system has not been understood and developed into complete and coherent problem representation. To clarify the feature of integration, this article draws on institutional fit for public policy integration and uses these insights in an empirical setting to identify the mechanism that can facilitate effective public integration for catchment management. This research is based on the journey of Victoria’s government from 1890-2016. A total of 274 Victorian Acts related to land, water, environment management published in those periods has been investigated. Four conditions of integration have been identified in their co-evolution: (1) the integration policy based on reserves, (2) the integration policy based on authority interest, (3) policy based on integrated information and, (4) policy based coordinated resource, authority and information. Results suggest that policy coordination among their policy instrument is superior rather than policy integration in the case of catchment management.

Keywords: catchment management, co-evolution, policy integration, phase

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14648 Water Demand Modelling Using Artificial Neural Network in Ramallah

Authors: F. Massri, M. Shkarneh, B. Almassri

Abstract:

Water scarcity and increasing water demand especially for residential use are major challenges facing Palestine. The need to accurately forecast water consumption is useful for the planning and management of this natural resource. The main objective of this paper is to (i) study the major factors influencing the water consumption in Palestine, (ii) understand the general pattern of Household water consumption, (iii) assess the possible changes in household water consumption and suggest appropriate remedies and (iv) develop prediction model based on the Artificial Neural Network to the water consumption in Palestinian cities. The paper is organized in four parts. The first part includes literature review of household water consumption studies. The second part concerns data collection methodology, conceptual frame work for the household water consumption surveys, survey descriptions and data processing methods. The third part presents descriptive statistics, multiple regression and analysis of the water consumption in the two Palestinian cities. The final part develops the use of Artificial Neural Network for modeling the water consumption in Palestinian cities.

Keywords: water management, demand forecasting, consumption, ANN, Ramallah

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14647 Linking Corporate Entrepreneurship with Human Resources Management Practices

Authors: R. Maalej, I. Amami, S. Saadaoui

Abstract:

Within the growing body of literature on corporate entrepreneurship, there is a need to understand the relationship between human resource management and corporate entrepreneurship. This paper outlines the linkage between human resource management practices with corporate entrepreneurship. In response, we propose a review of the literature that is based on a conceptual reading of corporate entrepreneurship, human resource management practices and the relationship between them.

Keywords: human resource management, human resources management practices, corporate entrepreneurship, entrepreneur

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14646 Exploring the Application of Human Resource Management Bundles: A Case Study

Authors: Maniam Kaliannan

Abstract:

Studies on best practice or “bundles” of human resource management aims at providing a ‘universal solution’ to organizations yet critics challenge this view and place importance on the architecture of human resource processes in response to the dynamic needs of organizations. This paper identifies these best practices and explores how the applications of selected human resource management practices to a case study help solved their human resource problems. The case study includes insights on the problems faced; the approach taken to identify its root causes and explores how selected human resource management practices helped managed the overall predicament. The case study results supports the importance of aligning ‘bundles’ of practices with organizational architecture and ensuring that the architecture of human resource practices evolve with the changing needs of organizations. In addition, a framework based on the events of the case study is proposed to systematically manage their human resources

Keywords: bundles, best practices, human resource management, organizational architecture, framework

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14645 Concerted Strategies for Sustainable Water Resource Management in Semi-Arid Rajasthan State of India

Authors: S. K. Maanju, K. Saha, Sonam Yadav

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization growth and multi-faceted regional level industrialization is posing serious threat to natural groundwater resource in State of Rajasthan which constitute major semi-arid part of India. The groundwater resources of the State are limited and cannot withstand the present rate of exploitation for quite a long time. Recharging of groundwater particularly in the western part, where annual precipitation does not exceed a few centimeters, is extremely slow and cannot replenish the exploited quantum. Hence, groundwater in most of the parts of this region has become an exhausting resource. In major parts water table is lowering down rapidly and continuously. The human beings of this semi-arid region are used to suffering from extreme climatic conditions of arid to semi-arid nature and acute shortage of water. The quality of groundwater too in many areas of this region is not up to the standards prescribed by the health organizations like WHO and BIS. This semi-arid region is one of the highly fluoride contaminated area of India as well as have excess, nitrates, sulphates, chlorides and total dissolved solids at various locations. Therefore, concerted efforts are needed towards sustainable development of groundwater in this State of India.

Keywords: Rajasthan, water, exploitation, sustainable, development and resource

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14644 Some Aspects of Water Resources Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions, Case Study of Western Iran

Authors: Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi

Abstract:

Water resource management is of global significance as it plays a key role in the socioeconomic development of all nations. On account of the fact that Iran is situated in a highly pressurized belt in the world, precipitation is limited, so that the average annual precipitation in the country is about 250 mm, only about one third to one quarter of the world average for rainfall. Karkheh basin is located in the semiarid and arid regions of Western Iran, an area with severe water scarcity. 70 % of rainfall is directly evaporated. The potential annual evaporation of the southern and northern regions is 3,600 mm 1,800 mm, respectively. In this paper, Some aspects of water resources management for this region, the specifications of the Karkheh reservoir dam & hydroelectric power plant as the biggest dam in history of Iran with total volume of reservoir 7.3 Bm3 are illustrated. Also the situation of water availability in the basin, surface and groundwater potential are considered.

Keywords: Iran, water availability, water resources, Zagros

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14643 Fuzzy Neuro Approach for Integrated Water Management System

Authors: Stuti Modi, Aditi Kambli

Abstract:

This paper addresses the need for intelligent water management and distribution system in smart cities to ensure optimal consumption and distribution of water for drinking and sanitation purposes. Water being a limited resource in cities require an effective system for collection, storage and distribution. In this paper, applications of two mostly widely used particular types of data-driven models, namely artificial neural networks (ANN) and fuzzy logic-based models, to modelling in the water resources management field are considered. The objective of this paper is to review the principles of various types and architectures of neural network and fuzzy adaptive systems and their applications to integrated water resources management. Final goal of the review is to expose and formulate progressive direction of their applicability and further research of the AI-related and data-driven techniques application and to demonstrate applicability of the neural networks, fuzzy systems and other machine learning techniques in the practical issues of the regional water management. Apart from this the paper will deal with water storage, using ANN to find optimum reservoir level and predicting peak daily demands.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, peak daily demand prediction, water management and distribution

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14642 Resource Management Framework in Cloud Computing

Authors: Gagandeep Kaur, Sonal Chawla

Abstract:

In a Cloud Computing environment, resource provisioning, resource allocation and resource scheduling is the most complex issues these days. Cloud User expects the best resource utilization and Cloud Provider expects revenue maximization by considering budget and time constraints. In this research paper, Resource Management Framework has been proposed to allocate the resources to Cloud Users and Cloud Providers in Cloud environment. The main aim of the proposed work is to provide the resources and services to Cloud Providers and Cloud Users in an efficient and effective manner. The proposed framework has been simulated and tested using the CloudSim simulator tool.

Keywords: cloud computing, resource allocation, auction, provisioning

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14641 Effect of Solid Waste on the Sustainability of the Water Resource Quality in the Gbarain Catchment of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Authors: Davidson E. Egirani, Nanfe R. Poyi, Napoleon Wessey

Abstract:

This paper would report on the effect of solid waste on water resource quality in the Gbarain catchment of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The Gbarain catchment presently hosts two waste-dump sites located along the flanks of a seasonal flow stream and perennially waterlogged terrain. The anthropogenic activity has significantly affected the quality of surface and groundwater in the Gbarain catchment. These wastes have made the water resource environment toxic leading to the poisoning of aquatic life. The contaminated water resources could lead to serious environmental and human health challenges such as low agricultural yields to loss of vital human organs. The contamination is via geological processes such as seepage and direct infiltration of contaminants into watercourses. The results obtained from field and experimental investigations followed by modeling, and graphical interpretation indicate heavy metal load and fecal pollution in some of the groundwater. The metal load, Escherichia coli, and total coliforms counts exceed the international and regional recommended limits. The contaminate values include Lead (> 0.01 mg/L), Mercury (> 0.006 mg/L), Manganese (> 0.4 mg/L and Escherichia coli (> 0 per 100ml) of the samples. Land use planning, enactment, and implementation of environmental laws are necessary for this region, for effective surface water and groundwater resource management.

Keywords: aquatic life, solid waste, environmental health, human health, waste-dump site, water-resource environment

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14640 A Review on Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms to Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Production

Authors: Nkechi Neboh, Josiah Adeyemo, Abimbola Enitan, Oludayo Olugbara

Abstract:

Evolutionary algorithms are techniques extensively used in the planning and management of water resources and systems. It is useful in finding optimal solutions to water resources problems considering the complexities involved in the analysis. River basin management is an essential area that involves the management of upstream, river inflow and outflow including downstream aspects of a reservoir. Water as a scarce resource is needed by human and the environment for survival and its management involve a lot of complexities. Management of this scarce resource is necessary for proper distribution to competing users in a river basin. This presents a lot of complexities involving many constraints and conflicting objectives. Evolutionary algorithms are very useful in solving this kind of complex problems with ease. Evolutionary algorithms are easy to use, fast and robust with many other advantages. Many applications of evolutionary algorithms, which are population based search algorithm, are discussed. Different methodologies involved in the modeling and simulation of water management problems in river basins are explained. It was found from this work that different evolutionary algorithms are suitable for different problems. Therefore, appropriate algorithms are suggested for different methodologies and applications based on results of previous studies reviewed. It is concluded that evolutionary algorithms, with wide applications in water resources management, are viable and easy algorithms for most of the applications. The results suggested that evolutionary algorithms, applied in the right application areas, can suggest superior solutions for river basin management especially in reservoir operations, irrigation planning and management, stream flow forecasting and real-time applications. The future directions in this work are suggested. This study will assist decision makers and stakeholders on the best evolutionary algorithm to use in varied optimization issues in water resources management.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithm, multi-objective, reservoir operation, river basin management

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14639 Role of Strategic Human Resource Practices and Knowledge Management Capacity

Authors: Ploychompoo Kittikunchotiwut

Abstract:

This study examines the relationships between human resource practices, knowledge management capacity, and innovation performance. The data were collected by using a questionnaire from 241 firms in the hotels in Thailand. The hypothesized relationships among variables are examined by using ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis. The findings show that human resource practices have a positive effect on knowledge management capacity. Besides, knowledge management capacity was found to positively affect innovation performance. Finally, the limitations of the study and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: human resource practices, knowledge management capacity, innovation performance

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14638 The South African Polycentric Water Resource Governance-Management Nexus: Parlaying an Institutional Agent and Structured Social Engagement

Authors: J. H. Boonzaaier, A. C. Brent

Abstract:

South Africa, a water scarce country, experiences the phenomenon that its life supporting natural water resources is seriously threatened by the users that are totally dependent on it. South Africa is globally applauded to have of the best and most progressive water laws and policies. There are however growing concerns regarding natural water resource quality deterioration and a critical void in the management of natural resources and compliance to policies due to increasing institutional uncertainties and failures. These are in accordance with concerns of many South African researchers and practitioners that call for a change in paradigm from talk to practice and a more constructive, practical approach to governance challenges in the management of water resources. A qualitative theory-building case study through longitudinal action research was conducted from 2014 to 2017. The research assessed whether a strategic positioned institutional agent can be parlayed to facilitate and execute WRM on catchment level by engaging multiple stakeholders in a polycentric setting. Through a critical realist approach a distinction was made between ex ante self-deterministic human behaviour in the realist realm, and ex post governance-management in the constructivist realm. A congruence analysis, including Toulmin’s method of argumentation analysis, was utilised. The study evaluated the unique case of a self-steering local water management institution, the Impala Water Users Association (WUA) in the Pongola River catchment in the northern part of the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Exploiting prevailing water resource threats, it expanded its ancillary functions from 20,000 to 300,000 ha. Embarking on WRM activities, it addressed natural water system quality assessments, social awareness, knowledge support, and threats, such as: soil erosion, waste and effluent into water systems, coal mining, and water security dimensions; through structured engagement with 21 different catchment stakeholders. By implementing a proposed polycentric governance-management model on a catchment scale, the WUA achieved to fill the void. It developed a foundation and capacity to protect the resilience of the natural environment that is critical for freshwater resources to ensure long-term water security of the Pongola River basin. Further work is recommended on appropriate statutory delegations, mechanisms of sustainable funding, sufficient penetration of knowledge to local levels to catalyse behaviour change, incentivised support from professionals, back-to-back expansion of WUAs to alleviate scale and cost burdens, and the creation of catchment data monitoring and compilation centres.

Keywords: institutional agent, water governance, polycentric water resource management, water resource management

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14637 Outcome-Based Water Resources Management in the Gash River Basin, Eastern Sudan

Authors: Muna Mohamed Omer Mirghani

Abstract:

This paper responds to one of the key national development strategies and a typical challenge in the Gash Basin as well as in different parts of Sudan, namely managing water scarcity in view of climate change impacts in minor water systems sustaining over 50% of the Sudan population. While now focusing on the Gash river basin, the ultimate aim is to replicate the same approach in similar water systems in central and west Sudan. The key objective of the paper is the identification of outcome-based water governance interventions in Gash Basin, guided by the global Sustainable Development Goal six (SDG 6 on water and sanitation) and the Sudan water resource policy framework. The paper concluded that improved water resources management of the Gash Basin is a prerequisite for ensuring desired policy outcomes of groundwater use and flood risk management purposes. Analysis of various water governance dimensions in the Gash indicated that the operationalization of a Basin-level institutional reform is critically focused on informed actors and adapted practices through knowledge and technologies along with the technical data and capacity needed to make that. Adapting the devolved Institutional structure at state level is recommended to strengthen the Gash basin regulatory function and improve compliance of groundwater users.

Keywords: water governance, Gash Basin, integrated groundwater management, Sudan

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14636 Environmental Quality On-Line Monitoring Based on Enterprises Resource Planning on Implementation ISO 14001:2004

Authors: Ahmad Badawi Saluy

Abstract:

This study aims to develop strategies for the prevention or elimination of environmental pollution as well as changes in external variables of the environment in order to implement the environmental management system ISO 14001:2004 by integrating analysis of environmental issues data, RKL-RPL transactional data and regulation as part of ERP on the management dashboard. This research uses a quantitative descriptive approach with analysis method comparing with air quality standard (PP 42/1999, LH 21/2008), water quality standard (permenkes RI 416/1990, KepmenLH 51/2004, kepmenLH 55/2013 ), and biodiversity indicators. Based on the research, the parameters of RPL monitoring have been identified, among others, the quality of emission air (SO₂, NO₂, dust, particulate) due to the influence of fuel quality, combustion performance in a combustor and the effect of development change around the generating area. While in water quality (TSS, TDS) there was an increase due to the flow of water in the cooling intake carrying sedimentation from the flow of Banjir Kanal Timur. Including compliance with the ISO 14001:2004 clause on application design significantly contributes to the improvement of the quality of power plant management.

Keywords: environmental management systems, power plant management, regulatory compliance , enterprises resource planning

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14635 Gariep Dam Basin Management for Satisfying Ecological Flow Requirements

Authors: Dimeji Abe, Nonso Okoye, Gideon Ikpimi, Prince Idemudia

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Multi-reservoir optimization operation has been a critical issue for river basin management. Water, as a scarce resource, is in high demand and the problems associated with the reservoir as its storage facility are enormous. The complexity in balancing the supply and demand of this prime resource has created the need to examine the best way to solve the problem using optimization techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the multi-objective meta-heuristic algorithm for the operation of Gariep Dam for satisfying ecological flow requirements. This study uses an evolutionary algorithm called backtrack search algorithm (BSA) to determine the best way to optimise the dam operations of hydropower production, flood control, and water supply without affecting the environmental flow requirement for the survival of aquatic bodies and sustain life downstream of the dam. To achieve this objective, the operations of the dam that corresponds to different tradeoffs between the objectives are optimized. The results indicate the best model from the algorithm that satisfies all the objectives without any constraint violation. It is expected that hydropower generation will be improved and more water will be available for ecological flow requirements with the use of the algorithm. This algorithm also provides farmers with more irrigation water as well to improve their business.

Keywords: BSA evolutionary algorithm, metaheuristics, optimization, river basin management

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14634 An Integrated Assessment (IA) of Water Resources in the Speightstown Catchment, Barbados Using a GIS-Based Decision Support System

Authors: Anuradha Maharaj, Adrian Cashman

Abstract:

The cross-cutting nature of water as a resource translates into the need for a better understanding of its movement, storage and loss at all points in the hydro-socioeconomic cycle. An integrated approach to addressing the issue of sustainability means quantitatively understanding: the linkages within this cycle, the role of water managers in resource allocation, and the critical factors influencing its scarcity. The Water Evaluation and Planning Tool (WEAP) is an integrative model that combines the catchment-scale hydrologic processes with a water management model, driven by environmental requirements and socioeconomic demands. The concept of demand priorities is included to represent the areas of greatest use within a given catchment. Located on Barbados’ West Coast, Speightstown and the surrounding areas encompass a well-developed tourist, residential and agricultural area. The main water resource for this area, and the rest of the island, is that of groundwater. The availability of groundwater in Barbados may be adversely affected by the projected changes in climate, such as reduced wet season rainfall. Economic development and changing sector priorities together with climate related changes have the potential to affect water resource abundance and by extension the allocation of resources for example in the Speightstown area. In order to investigate the potential impacts on the Speightstown area specifically, a WEAP Model of the study area was developed to estimate the present available water (baseline reference scenario 2000-2010). From this baseline scenario, it is envisioned that an exploration into projected changes in availability in the near term (2035-2045) and medium/long term (2065-2075) time frames will be undertaken. The generated estimations can assist water managers to better evaluate the status of and identify trends in water use and formulate adaptation measures to offset future deficits.

Keywords: water evaluation and planning system (WEAP), water availability, demand and supply, water allocation

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14633 Redefining Problems and Challenges of Natural Resource Management in Indonesia

Authors: Amalia Zuhra

Abstract:

Indonesia is very rich with its natural resources. Natural resource management becomes a challenge for Indonesia. Improper management will make the natural resources run out and future generations will not be able to enjoy the natural wealth. A good rule of law and proper implementation determines the success of the management of a country's natural resources. This paper examines the need to redefine problems and challenges in the management of natural resources in Indonesia in the context of law. The purpose of this article is to overview the latest issues and challenges in natural resource management and to redefine legal provisions related to environmental management and human rights protection so that the management of natural resources in the present and future will be more sustainable. This paper finds that sustainable management of natural resources is absolutely essential. The aspect of environmental protection and human rights must be elaborated more deeply so that the management of natural resources can be done maximally without harming not only people but also the environment.

Keywords: international environmental law, human rights law, natural resource management, sustainable development

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14632 Geographical Information System for Sustainable Management of Water Resources

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Nino Machavariani, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Chikhradze, Davit Kartvelishvili

Abstract:

Fresh water deficit is one of the most important global problems today. In the countries with scarce water resources, they often become a reason of armed conflicts. The peaceful settlement of relations connected with management and water consumption issues within and beyond the frontiers of the country is an important guarantee of the region stability. The said problem is urgent in Georgia as well because of its water objects are located at the borders and the transit run-off that is 12% of the total one. Fresh water resources are the major natural resources of Georgia. Despite of this, water supply of population at its Eastern part is an acute issue. Southeastern part of the country has been selected to carry out the research. This region is notable for deficiency of water resources in the country. The region tends to desertification which aggravates fresh water problem even more and presumably may lead to migration of local population from the area. The purpose of study was creation geographical information system (GIS) of water resources. GIS contains almost all layers of different content (water resources, springs, channels, hydrological stations, population water supply, etc.). The results of work provide an opportunity to identify the resource potential of the mentioned region, control and manage it, carry out monitoring and plan regional economy.

Keywords: desertification, GIS, irrigation, water resources

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14631 Hydrologic Balance and Surface Water Resources of the Cheliff-Zahrez Basin

Authors: Mehaiguene Madjid, Touhari Fadhila, Meddi Mohamed

Abstract:

The Cheliff basin offers a good hydrological example for the possibility of studying the problem which elucidated in the future, because of the unclearity in several aspects and hydraulic installation. Thus, our study of the Cheliff basin is divided into two principal parts: The spatial evaluation of the precipitation: also, the understanding of the modes of the reconstitution of the resource in water supposes a good knowledge of the structuring of the precipitation fields in the studied space. In the goal of a good knowledge of revitalizes them in water and their management integrated one judged necessary to establish a precipitation card of the Cheliff basin for a good understanding of the evolution of the resource in water in the basin and that goes will serve as basis for all study of hydraulic planning in the Cheliff basin. Then, the establishment of the precipitation card of the Cheliff basin answered a direct need of setting to the disposition of the researchers for the region and a document of reference that will be completed therefore and actualized. The hydrological study, based on the statistical hydrometric data processing will lead us to specify the hydrological terms of the assessment hydrological and to clarify the fundamental aspects of the annual flow, seasonal, extreme and thus of their variability and resources surface water.

Keywords: hydrological assessment, surface water resources, Cheliff, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
14630 Water Crisis Management in a Tourism Dependent Community

Authors: Aishath Shakeela

Abstract:

At a global level, water stewardship, water stress and water security are crucial factors in tourism planning and development considerations. Challenges associated with water is of particular concern to the Maldives as there is limited availability of freshwater, high dependency on desalinated water, and high unit cost associated with desalinating water. While the Maldives is promoted as an example of sustainable tourism, a key sustainability challenge facing tourism dependent communities is the efficient use and management of available water resources. A water crisis event in the capital island of Maldives highlighted how precarious water related issues are in this tourism dependent destination. Applying netnography, the focus of this working paper is to present community perceptions of how government policies addressed Malé Water and Sewerage Company (MWSC) water crisis event.

Keywords: crisis management, government policies, Maldives, tourism, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 421