Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5872

Search results for: transfer function

5872 A Transfer Function Representation of Thermo-Acoustic Dynamics for Combustors

Authors: Myunggon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon


In this paper, we present a transfer function representation of a general one-dimensional combustor. The input of the transfer function is a heat rate perturbation of a burner and the output is a flow velocity perturbation at the burner. This paper considers a general combustor model composed of multiple cans with different cross sectional areas, along with a non-zero flow rate.

Keywords: combustor, dynamics, thermoacoustics, transfer function

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5871 Nonlinear Triad Interactions in Magnetohydrodynamic Plasma Turbulence

Authors: Yasser Rammah, Wolf-Christian Mueller


Nonlinear triad interactions in incompressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D-MHD) turbulence are studied by analyzing data from high-resolution direct numerical simulations of decaying isotropic (5123 grid points) and forced anisotropic (10242 x256 grid points) turbulence. An accurate numerical approach toward analyzing nonlinear turbulent energy transfer function and triad interactions is presented. It involves the direct numerical examination of every wavenumber triad that is associated with the nonlinear terms in the differential equations of MHD in the inertial range of turbulence. The technique allows us to compute the spectral energy transfer and energy fluxes, as well as the spectral locality property of energy transfer function. To this end, the geometrical shape of each underlying wavenumber triad that contributes to the statistical transfer density function is examined to infer the locality of the energy transfer. Results show that the total energy transfer is local via nonlocal triad interactions in decaying macroscopically isotropic MHD turbulence. In anisotropic MHD, turbulence subject to a strong mean magnetic field the nonlinear transfer is generally weaker and exhibits a moderate increase of nonlocality in both perpendicular and parallel directions compared to the isotropic case. These results support the recent mathematical findings, which also claim the locality of nonlinear energy transfer in MHD turbulence.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, transfer density function, locality function, direct numerical simulation (DNS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
5870 Heat Transfer Studies on CNT Nanofluids in a Turbulent Flow Heat Exchanger

Authors: W. Rashmi, M. Khalid, O. Seiksan, R. Saidur, A. F. Ismail


Nanofluids have received much more attention since its discovery. They are believed to be promising coolants in heat transfer applications due to their enhanced thermal conductivity and heat transfer characteristics. In this study, the enhancement in heat transfer of CNT-nanofluids under turbulent flow conditions is investigated experimentally. Carbon nanotube (CNTs) concentration was varied between 0.051-0.085 wt%. The nanofluid suspension was stabilized by gum arabic (GA) through a process of homogenisation and sonication. The flow rates of cold fluid (water) is varied from 1.7-3 L/min and flow rates of the hot fluid is varied between 2-3.5 L/min. Thermal conductivity, density and viscosity of the nanofluids were also measured as a function of temperature and CNT concentration. The experimental results are validated with theoretical correlations for turbulent flow available in the literature. Results showed an enhancement in heat transfer range between 9-67% as a function of temperature and CNT concentration.

Keywords: nanofluids, carbon nanotubes (CNT), heat transfer enhancement, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
5869 Robust Stabilization against Unknown Consensus Network

Authors: Myung-Gon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


This paper considers a robust stabilization problem of a single agent in a multi-agent consensus system composed of identical agents, when the network topology of the system is completely unknown. It is shown that the transfer function of an agent in a consensus system can be described as a multiplicative perturbation of the isolated agent transfer function in frequency domain. Applying known robust stabilization results, we present sufficient conditions for a robust stabilization of an agent against unknown network topology.

Keywords: single agent control, multi-agent system, transfer function, graph angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
5868 A New Analytic Solution for the Heat Conduction with Time-Dependent Heat Transfer Coefficient

Authors: Te Wen Tu, Sen Yung Lee


An alternative approach is proposed to develop the analytic solution for one dimensional heat conduction with one mixed type boundary condition and general time-dependent heat transfer coefficient. In this study, the physic meaning of the solution procedure is revealed. It is shown that the shifting function takes the physic meaning of the reciprocal of Biot function in the initial time. Numerical results show the accuracy of this study. Comparing with those given in the existing literature, the difference is less than 0.3%.

Keywords: analytic solution, heat transfer coefficient, shifting function method, time-dependent boundary condition

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5867 Analytical Design of Fractional-Order PI Controller for Decoupling Control System

Authors: Truong Nguyen Luan Vu, Le Hieu Giang, Le Linh


The FOPI controller is proposed based on the main properties of the decoupling control scheme, as well as the fractional calculus. By using the simplified decoupling technique, the transfer function of decoupled apparent process is firstly separated into a set of n equivalent independent processes in terms of a ratio of the diagonal elements of original open-loop transfer function to those of dynamic relative gain array and the fraction – order PI controller is then developed for each control loops due to the Bode’s ideal transfer function that gives the desired fractional closed-loop response in the frequency domain. The simulation studies were carried out to evaluate the proposed design approach in a fair compared with the other existing methods in accordance with the structured singular value (SSV) theory that used to measure the robust stability of control systems under multiplicative output uncertainty. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method consistently performs well with fast and well-balanced closed-loop time responses.

Keywords: ideal transfer function of bode, fractional calculus, fractional order proportional integral (FOPI) controller, decoupling control system

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5866 Heat Transfer and Diffusion Modelling

Authors: R. Whalley


The heat transfer modelling for a diffusion process will be considered. Difficulties in computing the time-distance dynamics of the representation will be addressed. Incomplete and irrational Laplace function will be identified as the computational issue. Alternative approaches to the response evaluation process will be provided. An illustration application problem will be presented. Graphical results confirming the theoretical procedures employed will be provided.

Keywords: heat, transfer, diffusion, modelling, computation

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
5865 Image Enhancement of Histological Slides by Using Nonlinear Transfer Function

Authors: D. Suman, B. Nikitha, J. Sarvani, V. Archana


Histological slides provide clinical diagnostic information about the subjects from the ancient times. Even with the advent of high resolution imaging cameras the image tend to have some background noise which makes the analysis complex. A study of the histological slides is done by using a nonlinear transfer function based image enhancement method. The method processes the raw, color images acquired from the biological microscope, which, in general, is associated with background noise. The images usually appearing blurred does not convey the intended information. In this regard, an enhancement method is proposed and implemented on 50 histological slides of human tissue by using nonlinear transfer function method. The histological image is converted into HSV color image. The luminance value of the image is enhanced (V component) because change in the H and S components could change the color balance between HSV components. The HSV image is divided into smaller blocks for carrying out the dynamic range compression by using a linear transformation function. Each pixel in the block is enhanced based on the contrast of the center pixel and its neighborhood. After the processing the V component, the HSV image is transformed into a colour image. The study has shown improvement of the characteristics of the image so that the significant details of the histological images were improved.

Keywords: HSV space, histology, enhancement, image

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5864 Fractional Order Sallen-Key Filters

Authors: Ahmed Soltan, Ahmed G. Radwan, Ahmed M. Soliman


This work aims to generalize the integer order Sallen-Key filters into the fractional-order domain. The analysis in the case of two different fractional-order elements introduced where the general transfer function becomes four terms which are unusual in the conventional case. In addition, the effect of the transfer function parameters on the filter poles and hence the stability is introduced and closed forms for the filter critical frequencies are driven. Finally, different examples of the fractional order Sallen-Key filter design are presented with circuit simulations using ADS where a great matching between the numerical and simulation results is obtained.

Keywords: Sallen-Key, fractance, stability, low-pass filter, analog filter

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5863 Development of Numerical Method for Mass Transfer across the Moving Membrane with Selective Permeability: Approximation of the Membrane Shape by Level Set Method for Numerical Integral

Authors: Suguru Miyauchi, Toshiyuki Hayase


Biological membranes have selective permeability, and the capsules or cells enclosed by the membrane show the deformation by the osmotic flow. This mass transport phenomenon is observed everywhere in a living body. For the understanding of the mass transfer in a body, it is necessary to consider the mass transfer phenomenon across the membrane as well as the deformation of the membrane by a flow. To our knowledge, in the numerical analysis, the method for mass transfer across the moving membrane has not been established due to the difficulty of the treating of the mass flux permeating through the moving membrane with selective permeability. In the existing methods for the mass transfer across the membrane, the approximate delta function is used to communicate the quantities on the interface. The methods can reproduce the permeation of the solute, but cannot reproduce the non-permeation. Moreover, the computational accuracy decreases with decreasing of the permeable coefficient of the membrane. This study aims to develop the numerical method capable of treating three-dimensional problems of mass transfer across the moving flexible membrane. One of the authors developed the numerical method with high accuracy based on the finite element method. This method can capture the discontinuity on the membrane sharply due to the consideration of the jumps in concentration and concentration gradient in the finite element discretization. The formulation of the method takes into account the membrane movement, and both permeable and non-permeable membranes can be treated. However, searching the cross points of the membrane and fluid element boundaries and splitting the fluid element into sub-elements are needed for the numerical integral. Therefore, cumbersome operation is required for a three-dimensional problem. In this paper, we proposed an improved method to avoid the search and split operations, and confirmed its effectiveness. The membrane shape was treated implicitly by introducing the level set function. As the construction of the level set function, the membrane shape in one fluid element was expressed by the shape function of the finite element method. By the numerical experiment, it was found that the shape function with third order appropriately reproduces the membrane shapes. The same level of accuracy compared with the previous method using search and split operations was achieved by using a number of sampling points of the numerical integral. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed by solving several model problems.

Keywords: finite element method, level set method, mass transfer, membrane permeability

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5862 Effect of the Applied Bias on Miniband Structures in Dimer Fibonacci Inas/Ga1-Xinxas Superlattices

Authors: Z. Aziz, S. Terkhi, Y. Sefir, R. Djelti, S. Bentata


The effect of a uniform electric field across multibarrier systems (InAs/InxGa1-xAs) is exhaustively explored by a computational model using exact airy function formalism and the transfer-matrix technique. In the case of biased DFHBSL structure a strong reduction in transmission properties was observed and the width of the miniband structure linearly decreases with the increase of the applied bias. This is due to the confinement of the states in the miniband structure, which becomes increasingly important (Wannier-Stark Effect).

Keywords: dimer fibonacci height barrier superlattices, singular extended state, exact airy function, transfer matrix formalism

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5861 Heat Transfer Investigation in a Dimple Plate Heat Exchanger Using Ionic Liquid and Ionanofluid

Authors: Divya P. Soman, S. Karthika, P. Kalaichelvi, T. K. Radhakrishnan


Heat transfer characteristics of ionic liquid solution as cold fluid in plate heat exchanger with dimple plate geometry was studied. The ionic liquid solution used in this study was 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in water. The present experimental study is to understand the heat transfer behavior of different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide concentrations (0.1 and 0.2% w/w) in water. In addition, the heat transfer activity of ionanofluid as cold fluid was investigated. The ionanofluid was prepared by dispersing 0.3% w/w Al2O3 in the ionic liquid solution as base fluid. Experiments were also conducted to determine thermophysical properties of ionanofluid. The empirical correlations as a function of temperature were developed to predict the thermophysical properties. Finally, the heat transfer performance of ionic liquid solution, ionanofluid, nanofluid and water were compared. The impact of hot fluid’s (water) Reynolds number on overall heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of cold fluids were analyzed. The nanofluid and ionanofluid were found to possess better heat transfer behavior than water and ionic liquid solution. Heat transfer augmentation was observed for ionanofluid when compared with the base fluid (0.1% w/w ionic liquid solution).

Keywords: ionic liquid, nanofluid, ionanofluid, dimple plate heat exchanger, Nusselt number, overall heat transfer coefficient

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5860 Design of Multi-Loop Controller for Minimization of Energy Consumption in the Distillation Column

Authors: Vinayambika S. Bhat, S. Shanmuga Priya, I. Thirunavukkarasu, Shreeranga Bhat


An attempt has been made to design a decoupling controller for systems with more inputs more outputs with dead time in it. The de-coupler is designed for the chemical process industry 3×3 plant transfer function with dead time. The Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) based controller has also been designed here for the 2×2 distillation column transfer function. The developed control techniques were simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink. Also, the stability of the process was analyzed, together with the presence of various perturbations in it. Time domain specifications like setting time along with overshoot and oscillations were analyzed to prove the efficiency of the de-coupler method. The load disturbance rejection was tested along with its performance. The QFT control technique was synthesized based on the stability and performance specifications in the presence of uncertainty in time constant of the plant transfer function through sequential loop shaping technique. Further, the energy efficiency of the distillation column was improved by proper tuning of the controller. A distillation column consumes 3% of the total energy consumption of the world. A suitable control technique is very important from an economic point of view. The real time implementation of the process is under process in our laboratory.

Keywords: distillation, energy, MIMO process, time delay, robust stability

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5859 Formation of Miniband Structure in Dimer Fibonacci GaAs/Ga1-XAlXAs Superlattices

Authors: Aziz Zoubir, Sefir Yamina, Djelti Redouan, Bentata Samir


The effect of a uniform electric field across multibarrier systems (GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs) is exhaustively explored by a computational model using exact Airy function formalism and the transfer-matrix technique. In the case of biased Dimer Fibonacci Height Barrier superlattices (DFHBSL) structure a strong reduction in transmission properties was observed and the width of the miniband structure linearly decreases with the increase of the applied bias. This is due to the confinement of the states in the miniband structure, which becomes increasingly important (Wannier-Stark effect).

Keywords: Dimer Fibonacci Height Barrier superlattices, singular extended states, exact Airy function, transfer matrix formalism

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5858 Effect of the Applied Bias on Mini-Band Structures in Dimer Fibonacci InAs/Ga1-XInXAs Superlattices

Authors: Z. Aziz, S. Terkhi, Y. Sefir, R. Djelti, S. Bentata


The effect of a uniform electric field across multi-barrier systems (InAs/InxGa1-xAs) is exhaustively explored by a computational model using exact Airy function formalism and the transfer-matrix technique. In the case of biased DFHBSL structure a strong reduction in transmission properties was observed and the width of the mini-band structure linearly decreases with the increase of the applied bias. This is due to the confinement of the states in the mini-band structure, which becomes increasingly important (Wannier-Stark Effect).

Keywords: dimer fibonacci height barrier superlattices, singular extended state, exact Airy function and transfer matrix formalism, bioinformatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
5857 Transfer Learning for Protein Structure Classification at Low Resolution

Authors: Alexander Hudson, Shaogang Gong


Structure determination is key to understanding protein function at a molecular level. Whilst significant advances have been made in predicting structure and function from amino acid sequence, researchers must still rely on expensive, time-consuming analytical methods to visualise detailed protein conformation. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to make accurate (≥80%) predictions of protein class and architecture from structures determined at low (>3A) resolution, using a deep convolutional neural network trained on high-resolution (≤3A) structures represented as 2D matrices. Thus, we provide proof of concept for high-speed, low-cost protein structure classification at low resolution, and a basis for extension to prediction of function. We investigate the impact of the input representation on classification performance, showing that side-chain information may not be necessary for fine-grained structure predictions. Finally, we confirm that high resolution, low-resolution and NMR-determined structures inhabit a common feature space, and thus provide a theoretical foundation for boosting with single-image super-resolution.

Keywords: transfer learning, protein distance maps, protein structure classification, neural networks

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5856 Multilayer Thermal Screens for Greenhouse Insulation

Authors: Clara Shenderey, Helena Vitoshkin, Mordechai Barak, Avraham Arbel


Greenhouse cultivation is an energy-intensive process due to the high demands on cooling or heating according to external climatic conditions, which could be extreme in the summer or winter seasons. The thermal radiation rate inside a greenhouse depends mainly on the type of covering material and greenhouse construction. Using additional thermal screens under a greenhouse covering combined with a dehumidification system improves the insulation and could be cost-effective. Greenhouse covering material usually contains protective ultraviolet (UV) radiation additives to prevent the film wear, insect harm, and crop diseases. This paper investigates the overall heat transfer coefficient, or U-value, for greenhouse polyethylene covering contains UV-additives and glass covering with or without a thermal screen supplement. The hot-box method was employed to evaluate overall heat transfer coefficients experimentally as a function of the type and number of the thermal screens. The results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases with increasing the number of thermal screens as a hyperbolic function. The overall heat transfer coefficient highly depends on the ability of the material to reflect thermal radiation. Using a greenhouse covering, i.e., polyethylene films or glass, in combination with high reflective thermal screens, i.e., containing about 98% of aluminum stripes or aluminum foil, the U-value reduces by 61%-89% in the first case, whereas by 70%-92% in the second case, depending on the number of the thermal screen. Using thermal screens made from low reflective materials may reduce the U-value by 30%-57%. The heat transfer coefficient is an indicator of the thermal insulation properties of the materials, which allows farmers to make decisions on the use of appropriate thermal screens depending on the external and internal climate conditions in a greenhouse.

Keywords: energy-saving thermal screen, greenhouse cover material, heat transfer coefficient, hot box

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5855 University-Industry Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Offices in Emerging Economies

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez


The aim of this paper is to get insight on the nature of university-industry technology transfer (UITT) and technology transfer offices (TTOs) activity at universities in the case of emerging economies. In relation to the process of transferring knowledge/technology in the case of emerging economies, knowledge/technology transfer in these economies are more reactive than in developed economies due to differences in maturity of technologies. It is assumed in this paper that knowledge/technology transfer is a complex phenomenon, and thus the paper contributes to get insight on the nature of UITT and TTOs creation in the case of emerging economies by using a system dynamics model of knowledge/technology transfer in these countries. The paper recognizes the differences between industrialized countries and emerging economies on these phenomena.

Keywords: university-industry technology transfer, technology transfer offices, technology transfer models, emerging economies

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5854 The Implementation of Secton Method for Finding the Root of Interpolation Function

Authors: Nur Rokhman


A mathematical function gives relationship between the variables composing the function. Interpolation can be viewed as a process of finding mathematical function which goes through some specified points. There are many interpolation methods, namely: Lagrange method, Newton method, Spline method etc. For some specific condition, such as, big amount of interpolation points, the interpolation function can not be written explicitly. This such function consist of computational steps. The solution of equations involving the interpolation function is a problem of solution of non linear equation. Newton method will not work on the interpolation function, for the derivative of the interpolation function cannot be written explicitly. This paper shows the use of Secton method to determine the numerical solution of the function involving the interpolation function. The experiment shows the fact that Secton method works better than Newton method in finding the root of Lagrange interpolation function.

Keywords: Secton method, interpolation, non linear function, numerical solution

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5853 Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Mixing Enhancement by Stimulation of Ferrofluid under Magnetic Field

Authors: Neda Azimi, Masoud Rahimi, Faezeh Mohammadi


Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to investigate the effect of ferrofluid stimulation on hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of two immiscible liquid phases in a Y-micromixer. The main purpose of this work was to develop a numerical model that is able to simulate hydrodynamic of the ferrofluid flow under magnetic field and determine its effect on mass transfer characteristics. A uniform external magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the flow direction. The volume of fluid (VOF) approach was used for simulating the multiphase flow of ferrofluid and two-immiscible liquid flows. The geometric reconstruction scheme (Geo-Reconstruct) based on piecewise linear interpolation (PLIC) was used for reconstruction of the interface in the VOF approach. The mass transfer rate was defined via an equation as a function of mass concentration gradient of the transported species and added into the phase interaction panel using the user-defined function (UDF). The magnetic field was solved numerically by Fluent MHD module based on solving the magnetic induction equation method. CFD results were validated by experimental data and good agreements have been achieved, which maximum relative error for extraction efficiency was about 7.52 %. It was showed that ferrofluid actuation by a magnetic field can be considered as an efficient mixing agent for liquid-liquid two-phase mass transfer in microdevices.

Keywords: CFD modeling, hydrodynamic, micromixer, ferrofluid, mixing

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5852 Heat and Mass Transfer of Triple Diffusive Convection in a Rotating Couple Stress Liquid Using Ginzburg-Landau Model

Authors: Sameena Tarannum, S. Pranesh


A nonlinear study of triple diffusive convection in a rotating couple stress liquid has been analysed. It is performed to study the effect of heat and mass transfer by deriving Ginzburg-Landau equation. Heat and mass transfer are quantified in terms of Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers, which are obtained as a function of thermal and solute Rayleigh numbers. The obtained Ginzburg-Landau equation is Bernoulli equation, and it has been elucidated numerically by using Mathematica. The effects of couple stress parameter, solute Rayleigh numbers, and Taylor number on the onset of convection and heat and mass transfer have been examined. It is found that the effects of couple stress parameter and Taylor number are to stabilize the system and to increase the heat and mass transfer.

Keywords: couple stress liquid, Ginzburg-Landau model, rotation, triple diffusive convection

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5851 Jet Impingement Heat Transfer on a Rib-Roughened Flat Plate

Authors: A. H. Alenezi


Cooling by impingement jet is known to have a significant high local and average heat transfer coefficient which make it widely used in industrial cooling systems. The heat transfer characteristics of an impinging jet on rib-roughened flat plate has been investigated numerically. This paper was set out to investigate the effect of rib height on the heat transfer rate. Since the flow needs to have enough spacing after passing the rib to allow reattachment especially for high Reynolds numbers, this study focuses on finding the optimum rib height which would be the best to maximize the heat transfer rate downstream the plate. This investigation employs a round nozzle with hydraulic diameter (Dh) of 13.5 mm, Jet-to-target distance of (H/D) of 4, rib location=1.5D and and finally jet angels of 45˚ and 90˚ under the influence of Re =10,000.

Keywords: jet impingement, CFD, turbulence model, heat transfer

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5850 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb


The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

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5849 Analysis of Combined Heat Transfer through the Core Materials of VIPs with Various Scattering Properties

Authors: Jaehyug Lee, Tae-Ho Song


Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) can achieve very low thermal conductivity by evacuating its inner space. Heat transfer in the core materials of highly-evacuated VIP occurs by conduction through the solid structure and radiation through the pore. The effect of various scattering modes in combined conduction-radiation in VIP is investigated through numerical analysis. The discrete ordinates interpolation method (DOIM) incorporated with the commercial code FLUENT® is employed. It is found that backward scattering is more effective in reducing the total heat transfer while isotropic scattering is almost identical with pure absorbing/emitting case of the same optical thickness. For a purely scattering medium, the results agree well with additive solution with diffusion approximation, while a modified term is added in the effect of optical thickness to backward scattering is employed. For other scattering phase functions, it is also confirmed that backwardly scattering phase function gives a lower effective thermal conductivity. Thus, the materials with backward scattering properties, with radiation shields are desirable to lower the thermal conductivity of VIPs.

Keywords: combined conduction and radiation, discrete ordinates interpolation method, scattering phase function, vacuum insulation panel

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5848 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Protruded Rectangular Fin

Authors: Tarique Jamil Khan, Swapnil Pande


The investigation deals with the study of heat transfer enhancement using protruded square fin. This study is enough to determine whether protrusion in forced convection is enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. It includes the results after performing experiments by using a plane rectangular fin of aluminum material and the same dimension rectangular fin of the same material but having protruded circular shape extended normally. The fins made by a sand casting method. The results clearly mentioned that the protruded surface is effective enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. This research investigates a modern fin topologies heat transfer characteristics that will clearly outdated the conventional fin to increase the rate of heat transfer. Protruded fins improve the rate of heat transfer compared to solid fin by varying shape of the protrusion in diameter and height.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, forced convection, protruted fin, rectangular fin

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5847 All-Optical Function Based on Self-Similar Spectral Broadening for 2R Regeneration in High-Bit-Rate Optical Transmission Systems

Authors: Leila Graini


In this paper, we demonstrate basic all-optical functions for 2R regeneration (Re-amplification and Re-shaping) based on self-similar spectral broadening in low normal dispersion and highly nonlinear fiber (ND-HNLF) to regenerate the signal through optical filtering including the transfer function characteristics, and output extinction ratio. Our approach of all-optical 2R regeneration is based on those of Mamyshev. The numerical study reveals the self-similar spectral broadening very effective for 2R all-optical regeneration; the proposed design presents high stability compared to a conventional regenerator using SPM broadening with reduction of the intensity fluctuations and improvement of the extinction ratio.

Keywords: all-optical function, 2R optical regeneration, self-similar broadening, Mamyshev regenerator

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5846 Epilepsy Seizure Prediction by Effective Connectivity Estimation Using Granger Causality and Directed Transfer Function Analysis of Multi-Channel Electroencephalogram

Authors: Mona Hejazi, Ali Motie Nasrabadi


Epilepsy is a persistent neurological disorder that affects more than 50 million people worldwide. Hence, there is a necessity to introduce an efficient prediction model for making a correct diagnosis of the epileptic seizure and accurate prediction of its type. In this study we consider how the Effective Connectivity (EC) patterns obtained from intracranial Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings reveal information about the dynamics of the epileptic brain and can be used to predict imminent seizures, as this will enable the patients (and caregivers) to take appropriate precautions. We use this definition because we believe that effective connectivity near seizures begin to change, so we can predict seizures according to this feature. Results are reported on the standard Freiburg EEG dataset which contains data from 21 patients suffering from medically intractable focal epilepsy. Six channels of EEG from each patients are considered and effective connectivity using Directed Transfer Function (DTF) and Granger Causality (GC) methods is estimated. We concentrate on effective connectivity standard deviation over time and feature changes in five brain frequency sub-bands (Alpha, Beta, Theta, Delta, and Gamma) are compared. The performance obtained for the proposed scheme in predicting seizures is: average prediction time is 50 minutes before seizure onset, the maximum sensitivity is approximate ~80% and the false positive rate is 0.33 FP/h. DTF method is more acceptable to predict epileptic seizures and generally we can observe that the greater results are in gamma and beta sub-bands. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices.

Keywords: effective connectivity, Granger causality, directed transfer function, epilepsy seizure prediction, EEG

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5845 Exergy Losses Relation with Driving Forces in Heat Transfer Process

Authors: S. Ali Ashrafizadeh, M. Amidpour, N. Hedayat


Driving forces along with transfer coefficient affect on heat transfer rate, on the other hand, with regard to the relation of these forces with irriversibilities they are effective on exergy losses. Therefore, the driving forces can be used as a relation between heat transfer rate, transfer coefficients and exergy losses. In this paper, first, the relation of the exergetic efficiency and resistant forces is obtained, next the relation between exergy efficiency, relative driving force, heat transfer rate and heat resistances is considered. In all cases, results are argued graphically. Finally, a case study inspected by obtained results.

Keywords: heat transfer, exergy losses, exergetic efficiency, driving forces

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5844 SVM-Based Modeling of Mass Transfer Potential of Multiple Plunging Jets

Authors: Surinder Deswal, Mahesh Pal


The paper investigates the potential of support vector machines based regression approach to model the mass transfer capacity of multiple plunging jets, both vertical (θ = 90°) and inclined (θ = 60°). The data set used in this study consists of four input parameters with a total of eighty eight cases. For testing, tenfold cross validation was used. Correlation coefficient values of 0.971 and 0.981 (root mean square error values of 0.0025 and 0.0020) were achieved by using polynomial and radial basis kernel functions based support vector regression respectively. Results suggest an improved performance by radial basis function in comparison to polynomial kernel based support vector machines. The estimated overall mass transfer coefficient, by both the kernel functions, is in good agreement with actual experimental values (within a scatter of ±15 %); thereby suggesting the utility of support vector machines based regression approach.

Keywords: mass transfer, multiple plunging jets, support vector machines, ecological sciences

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5843 Forster Energy Transfer and Optoelectronic Properties of (PFO/TiO2)/Fluorol 7GA Hybrid Thin Films

Authors: Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji Jumali


Forster energy transfer between poly (9,9'-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO)/TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a donor and Fluorol 7GA as an acceptor has been studied. The energy transfer parameters were calculated by using mathematical models. The dominant mechanism responsible for the energy transfer between the donor and acceptor molecules was Forster-type, as evidenced by large values of quenching rate constant, energy transfer rate constant and critical distance of energy transfer. Moreover, these composites which were used as an emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes, were investigated in terms of current density–voltage and electroluminescence spectra.

Keywords: energy transfer parameters, forster-type, electroluminescence, organic light emitting diodes

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