Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: N. H. Alias

26 Efficient Alias-Free Level Crossing Sampling

Authors: Negar Riazifar, Nigel G. Stocks


This paper proposes strategies in level crossing (LC) sampling and reconstruction that provide alias-free high-fidelity signal reconstruction for speech signals without exponentially increasing sample number with increasing bit-depth. We introduce methods in LC sampling that reduce the sampling rate close to the Nyquist frequency even for large bit-depth. The results indicate that larger variation in the sampling intervals leads to an alias-free sampling scheme; this is achieved by either reducing the bit-depth or adding jitter to the system for high bit-depths. In conjunction with windowing, the signal is reconstructed from the LC samples using an efficient Toeplitz reconstruction algorithm.

Keywords: alias-free, level crossing sampling, spectrum, trigonometric polynomial

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25 Structural and Leaching Properties of Irradiated Lead Commercial Glass by Using XRD, Ultrasonic, UV-VIS and AAS Technique

Authors: N. H. Alias, S. A. Aziz, Y. Abdullah, H. M. Kamari, S. Sani, M. P. Ismail, N. U. Saidin, N. A. A. Salim, N. E. E. Abdullah


Gamma (γ) irradiation study has been investigated on the 6 rectangular shape of the standard X-Ray lead glass with 5/16” thick, providing 2.00 mm lead shielding value; at selected Sievert doses (C1; 0, C2; 0.07, C3; 0.035, C4; 0.07, C5; 0.105 and C6; 0.14) by using (XRD) X-ray Diffraction techniques, ultrasonic and (UV-VIS) Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. Concentration of lead in 0.5 N acid nitric (HNO3) environments is then studied by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) as to observe the glass corrosion behavior after irradiation at room temperature. This type of commercial glass is commonly used as radiation shielding glass in medical application.

Keywords: gamma irradiation, lead glass, leaching, structural

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24 Heritage Tree Expert Assessment and Classification: Malaysian Perspective

Authors: B.-Y.-S. Lau, Y.-C.-T. Jonathan, M.-S. Alias


Heritage trees are natural large, individual trees with exceptionally value due to association with age or event or distinguished people. In Malaysia, there is an abundance of tropical heritage trees throughout the country. It is essential to set up a repository of heritage trees to prevent valuable trees from being cut down. In this cross domain study, a web-based online expert system namely the Heritage Tree Expert Assessment and Classification (HTEAC) is developed and deployed for public to nominate potential heritage trees. Based on the nomination, tree care experts or arborists would evaluate and verify the nominated trees as heritage trees. The expert system automatically rates the approved heritage trees according to pre-defined grades via Delphi technique. Features and usability test of the expert system are presented. Preliminary result is promising for the system to be used as a full scale public system.

Keywords: arboriculture, Delphi, expert system, heritage tree, urban forestry

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23 Particle Size Effect on Shear Strength of Granular Materials in Direct Shear Test

Authors: R. Alias, A. Kasa, M. R. Taha


The effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. Meanwhile, particles passing the standard 20 mm sieves were tested using large direct shear test (300 mm by 300 mm by 200 mm deep). The large direct shear tests and the small direct shear tests carried out using the same shearing rate of 0.09 mm/min and similar normal stresses of 100, 200, and 300 kPa. The results show that the peak and residual shear strength decreases as particle size increases.

Keywords: particle size, shear strength, granular material, direct shear test

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22 Board of Directors' Structure and Corporate Restructuring: A Preliminary Evidences

Authors: Norazlan Alias, Mohd. Hasimi Yaacob


This study examines the impact of governance structure via corporate restructuring decision on selected firm characteristics and performance. Results of selected ratios that represent corporate decision, governance structure and performance in pre and post restructuring are analyzed for some conclusions. This study uses annual data of companies that are consistently listed on the Main Board of Bursa Malaysia and announced completed corporate restructuring. The results show that only debt ratio is significantly different before and after asset restructuring. This study concludes that firms do not view corporate restructuring namely asset restructuring as an opportunity to simultaneous enhance governance structure that could also contribute enhance firm performance and board of directors’ structure subsequent to asset restructuring only has significantly influence on changing capital structure but not on firm performance.

Keywords: board of directors, capital structure, corporate restructuring, performance

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21 Achieving Sustainable Rapid Construction Using Lean Principles

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Vikneswaran Munikanan, Mohammed Alias Yusof


There is the need to take the holistic approach in achieving sustainable construction for a contemporary practice. Sustainable construction is the practice that involved method of human preservation of the environment, whether economically or socially through responsibility, management of resources and maintenance utilizing support. This paper shows the correlation of achieving rapid construction with sustainable concepts using lean principles. Lean principles being used widely in the manufacturing industry, but this research will demonstrate the principles into building construction. Lean principle offers the benefits of stabilizing work flow and elimination of unnecessary work. Therefore, this principle contributes to time and waste reduction. The correlation shows that pulling factor provides the improvement of progress curve and stabilizing the time-quality relation. The finding shows the lean principles offer the elements of rapid construction synchronized with the elements of sustainability.

Keywords: sustainable construction, rapid construction, time reduction, lean construction

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20 Detecting Heartbeat Architectural Tactic in Source Code Using Program Analysis

Authors: Ananta Kumar Das, Sujit Kumar Chakrabarti


Architectural tactics such as heartbeat, ping-echo, encapsulate, encrypt data are techniques that are used to achieve quality attributes of a system. Detecting architectural tactics has several benefits: it can aid system comprehension (e.g., legacy systems) and in the estimation of quality attributes such as safety, security, maintainability, etc. Architectural tactics are typically spread over the source code and are implicit. For large codebases, manual detection is often not feasible. Therefore, there is a need for automated methods of detection of architectural tactics. This paper presents a formalization of the heartbeat architectural tactic and a program analytic approach to detect this tactic in source code. The experiment of the proposed method is done on a set of Java applications. The outcome of the experiment strongly suggests that the method compares well with a manual approach in terms of its sensitivity and specificity, and far supersedes a manual exercise in terms of its scalability.

Keywords: software architecture, architectural tactics, detecting architectural tactics, program analysis, AST, alias analysis

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19 Architectural Building Safety and Health Performance Model for Stratified Low-Cost Housing: Education and Management Tool for Building Managers

Authors: Zainal Abidin Akasah, Maizam Alias, Azuin Ramli


The safety and health performances aspects of a building are the most challenging aspect of facility management. It requires a deep understanding by the building managers on the factors that contribute to health and safety performances. This study attempted to develop an explanatory architectural safety performance model for stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The proposed Building Safety and Health Performance (BSHP) model was tested empirically through a survey on 308 construction practitioners using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) tool. Statistical analysis results supports the conclusion that architecture, building services, external environment, management approaches and maintenance management have positive influence on safety and health performance of stratified low-cost housing in Malaysia. The findings provide valuable insights for construction industry to introduce BSHP model in the future where the model could be used as a guideline for training purposes of managers and better planning and implementation of building management.

Keywords: building management, stratified low-cost housing, safety, health model

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18 Waterproofing Agent in Concrete for Tensile Improvement

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Umi Nadiah Nor Ali, Mohammed Alias Yusof, Norazman Mohamad Nor, Vikneswaran Munikanan


In construction, concrete is one of the materials that can commonly be used as for structural elements. Concrete consists of cement, sand, aggregate and water. Concrete can be added with admixture in the wet condition to suit the design purpose such as to prolong the setting time to improve workability. For strength improvement, concrete is being added with other hybrid materials to increase strength; this is because the tensile strength of concrete is very low in comparison to the compressive strength. This paper shows the usage of a waterproofing agent in concrete to enhance the tensile strength. High tensile concrete is expensive because the concrete mix needs fiber and also high cement content to be incorporated in the mix. High tensile concrete being used for structures that are being imposed by high impact dynamic load such as blast loading that hit the structure. High tensile concrete can be defined as a concrete mix design that achieved 30%-40% tensile strength compared to its compression strength. This research evaluates the usage of a waterproofing agent in a concrete mix as an element of reinforcement to enhance the tensile strength. According to the compression and tensile test, it shows that the concrete mix with a waterproofing agent enhanced the mechanical properties of the concrete. It is also show that the composite concrete with waterproofing is a high tensile concrete; this is because of the tensile is between 30% and 40% of the compression strength. This mix is economical because it can produce high tensile concrete with low cost.

Keywords: high tensile concrete, waterproofing agent, concrete, rheology

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17 Innovation in Lean Thinking to Achieve Rapid Construction

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Vikneswaran Munikanan, Mohammed Alias Yusof


Lean thinking holds the potential for improving the construction sector, and therefore, it is a concept that should be adopted by construction sector players and academicians in the real industry. Bridging from that, a learning process for construction sector players regarding this matter should be the agenda in gaining the knowledge in preparation for their career. Lean principles offer opportunities for reducing lead times, eliminating non-value adding activities, reducing variability, and are facilitated by methods such as pull scheduling, simplified operations and buffer reduction. Thus, the drive for rapid construction, which is a systematic approach in enhancing efficiency to deliver a project using time reduction, while lean is the continuous process of eliminating waste, meeting or exceeding all customer requirements, focusing on the entire value stream and pursuing perfection in the execution of a constructed project. The methodology presented is shown to be valid through literature, interviews and questionnaire. The results show that the majority of construction sector players unfamiliar with lean thinking and they agreed that it can improve the construction process flow. With this background knowledge established and identified, best practices and recommended action are drawn.

Keywords: construction improvement, rapid construction, time reduction, lean construction

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16 Enhancing Learning Ability among Deaf Students by Using Photographic Images

Authors: Aidah Alias, Mustaffa Halabi Azahari, Adzrool Idzwan Ismail, Salasiah Ahmad


Education is one of the most important elements in a human life. Educations help us in learning and achieve new things in life. The ability of hearing gave us chances to hear voices and it is important in our communication. Hearing stories told by others; hearing news and music to create our creative and sense; seeing and hearing make us understand directly the message trying to deliver. But, what will happen if we are born deaf or having hearing loss while growing up? The objectives of this paper are to identify the current practice in teaching and learning among deaf students and to analyse an appropriate method in enhancing learning process among deaf students. A case study method was employed by using methods of observation and interview to selected deaf students and teachers. The findings indicated that the suitable method of teaching for deaf students is by using pictures and body movement. In other words, by combining these two medium of images and body movement, the best medium that the study suggested is by using video or motion pictures. The study concluded and recommended that video or motion pictures is recommended medium to be used in teaching and learning for deaf students.

Keywords: deaf, photographic images, visual communication, education, learning ability

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15 Indian Road Traffic Flow Analysis Using Blob Tracking from Video Sequences

Authors: Balaji Ganesh Rajagopal, Subramanian Appavu alias Balamurugan, Ayyalraj Midhun Kumar, Krishnan Nallaperumal


Intelligent Transportation System is an Emerging area to solve multiple transportation problems. Several forms of inputs are needed in order to solve ITS problems. Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) is a core and important ITS area of this modern era. This involves travel time forecasting, efficient road map analysis and cost based path selection, Detection of the vehicle in the dynamic conditions and Traffic congestion state forecasting. This Article designs and provides an algorithm for traffic data generation which can be used for the above said ATIS application. By inputting the real world traffic situation in the form of video sequences, the algorithm determines the Traffic density in terms of congestion, number of vehicles in a given path which can be fed for various ATIS applications. The Algorithm deduces the key frame from the video sequences and follows the Blob detection, Identification and Tracking using connected components algorithm to determine the correlation between the vehicles moving in the real road scene.

Keywords: traffic transportation, traffic density estimation, blob identification and tracking, relative velocity of vehicles, correlation between vehicles

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14 Exploring Individual and Team Approaches in Crafting Workplace Inclusivity for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Employees in Malaysia

Authors: Nor Wahiza Abdul Wahat, Nor Haniza Abdul Wahat, Siti Noormi Alias, Mohamad Sazali Shaari


This study prepares the groundwork for the development of a strategic model and instrument for workplace inclusivity for deaf and hard-of-hearing employees in Malaysia. In the past, scholars have discussed inclusivity of workplaces to the extent to which employees feel they are significantly part of the organizational processes. Such processes include access to information, connectedness to colleagues and team members as well as their ability to participate in and influence decision-making processes. A qualitative study was conducted to explore on experiences of employed deaf and hard-of-hearing employees in a few Malaysian organizations. Data were collected from two focus group discussions involving male and female deaf and hard of hearing employees. Three in-depth interviews were also conducted with employer representatives. Generated themes highlighted individual, and team approaches towards crafting workplace inclusivity for deaf and hard of hearing employees in Malaysia. The adaptiveness of deaf and hard-of-hearing employees and social inclusion by colleagues were among the emerged sub-themes. This study allowed the researchers to further develop workplace inclusivity instruments and models for the benefit of deaf and hard of hearing Malaysian employees, as well as their employers.

Keywords: deaf, hard of hearing, workplace inclusivity, disabilities

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13 An Automatic Speech Recognition of Conversational Telephone Speech in Malay Language

Authors: M. Draman, S. Z. Muhamad Yassin, M. S. Alias, Z. Lambak, M. I. Zulkifli, S. N. Padhi, K. N. Baharim, F. Maskuriy, A. I. A. Rahim


The performance of Malay automatic speech recognition (ASR) system for the call centre environment is presented. The system utilizes Kaldi toolkit as the platform to the entire library and algorithm used in performing the ASR task. The acoustic model implemented in this system uses a deep neural network (DNN) method to model the acoustic signal and the standard (n-gram) model for language modelling. With 80 hours of training data from the call centre recordings, the ASR system can achieve 72% of accuracy that corresponds to 28% of word error rate (WER). The testing was done using 20 hours of audio data. Despite the implementation of DNN, the system shows a low accuracy owing to the varieties of noises, accent and dialect that typically occurs in Malaysian call centre environment. This significant variation of speakers is reflected by the large standard deviation of the average word error rate (WERav) (i.e., ~ 10%). It is observed that the lowest WER (13.8%) was obtained from recording sample with a standard Malay dialect (central Malaysia) of native speaker as compared to 49% of the sample with the highest WER that contains conversation of the speaker that uses non-standard Malay dialect.

Keywords: conversational speech recognition, deep neural network, Malay language, speech recognition

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12 The Causes and Effects of Housing Project Abandonment in Malaysia

Authors: Abdul Aziz Abdullah, Anuar Alias, Khor Hooi Ting, Guan Ngah Mei


One of the major sectors which contribute significant growth to socio-economic development is the construction and development industry. This industry is most badly hurt during the 1997 and 2008 economic crisis thus causing many government and private projects to be deferred and abandoned. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes and effects of housing project abandonment in Malaysia. This objective is achieved through rigorous review of literatures and documents related to housing and abandoned housing project. The finding revealed there are several causes of housing project abandonment. The significant causes are: economic recession, inadequacy of finance, poor marketing and sales strategies, technical problems faced during construction, problems caused by compensations demanded by squatters for resettlement, insolvency of contractor, cost overrun and currency fluctuation amongst others. However the alarming effect of housing project is: house buyers of abandoned project have the monthly payment although the house is delivered to house buy. In other case house buyers have to entangle in many legal action with the financial institution. This finding provides the various ministries in the Government some insights on real causes and effects of abandoned project. Perhaps this finding can enhance the current solution the Ministry of Housing Local Government on addressing the prevailing issue of reviving existing abandoned project in the country.

Keywords: abandoned project, abandonment, housing project, ministry of housing and local government, causes and effect

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11 Study on the Key Stakeholders' Perception and Establishment of Sustainability Goals in the Green Building Projects: The Case of Malaysia

Authors: Nor Kalsum M. Isa, Mohd Yazid M. Yunos, Anuar Alias, Mazdi Marzuki, Kamarul Ismail, Mohd H. Ibrahim


Green building is an emerging concept with the ultimate target to achieve sustainable development by integrating sustainability goals and principles into project development. Basically, a green building is a building that is designed, constructed and operated to boost environmental, economic, health and productivity performance over conventional buildings. The buildings have been proven to be successful in contributing towards sustainability and project success. The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of sustainability application in building projects, looking towards project success from the perspective of Malaysian key project stakeholders. The study also aimed to explore the establishment of sustainability goals in the green building projects in Malaysia. The Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Concept of Sustainability was used as the foundation theoretical framework. Surveys, interviews and multiple case study methods were employed. A sample of 188 Malaysian building project stakeholders was selected for questionnaire surveys, and 15 stakeholders from three award-winning green building projects in Malaysia were involved in the interviews. The study found that the majority of the respondents were less aware that the sustainability integration in the building project can significantly affect cost reduction, schedule effectiveness and stakeholders’ satisfaction with the performance of buildings as at the same level as the quality performance. Of the four sustainability goals, the environmental aspect was given more priority than others in the development of the green building projects.

Keywords: green building, sustainability, project stakeholders, Malaysia

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10 Exploring Students’ Self-Evaluation on Their Learning Outcomes through an Integrated Cumulative Grade Point Average Reporting Mechanism

Authors: Suriyani Ariffin, Nor Aziah Alias, Khairil Iskandar Othman, Haslinda Yusoff


An Integrated Cumulative Grade Point Average (iCGPA) is a mechanism and strategy to ensure the curriculum of an academic programme is constructively aligned to the expected learning outcomes and student performance based on the attainment of those learning outcomes that is reported objectively in a spider web. Much effort and time has been spent to develop a viable mechanism and trains academics to utilize the platform for reporting. The question is: How well do learners conceive the idea of their achievement via iCGPA and whether quality learner attributes have been nurtured through the iCGPA mechanism? This paper presents the architecture of an integrated CGPA mechanism purported to address a holistic evaluation from the evaluation of courses learning outcomes to aligned programme learning outcomes attainment. The paper then discusses the students’ understanding of the mechanism and evaluation of their achievement from the generated spider web. A set of questionnaires were distributed to a group of students with iCGPA reporting and frequency analysis was used to compare the perspectives of students on their performance. In addition, the questionnaire also explored how they conceive the idea of an integrated, holistic reporting and how it generates their motivation to improve. The iCGPA group was found to be receptive to what they have achieved throughout their study period. They agreed that the achievement level generated from their spider web allows them to develop intervention and enhance the programme learning outcomes before they graduate.

Keywords: learning outcomes attainment, iCGPA, programme learning outcomes, spider web, iCGPA reporting skills

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9 Implementation of Complete Management Practices in Managing the Cocoa Pod Borer

Authors: B. Saripah, A. Alias


Cocoa Theobroma cacao (Linnaeus) (Malvales: Sterculiaceae) is subjected to be infested by various numbers of insect pests, and Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is the most serious pest of cocoa in Malaysia. The pest was indigenous to the South East Asia. Several control measures have been implemented and the chemicals have been a major approach if not unilateral, in the management of CPB. Despite extensive use of insecticides, CPB continues to cause an unacceptable level of damage; thus, the combination of several control approaches should be sought. The study was commenced for 12 months at three blocks; Block 18C with complete management practices which include insecticide application, pruning, fertilization and frequent harvesting, Block 17C was treated with frequent harvesting at intervals of 7-8 days, and Block 19C was served as control block. The results showed that the mean numbers of CPB eggs were recorded higher in Block 17C compared with Block 18C in all sampling occasions. Block 18C shows the lowest mean number of CPB eggs in both sampling plots, outside and core plots and it was found significantly different (p ≤ 0. 05) compared to the other blocks. The mean number of CPB eggs was fluctuated throughout sampling occasions, the lowest mean number of eggs was recorded in January (17C) and November (18C), while the highest was recorded in April (17C) and December 2012 (18C). Frequent spraying with insecticides at the adjacent block (18C) helps in reducing CPB eggs in the control block (Block 19C), although there was no spraying was implemented Block 19C. In summary, the combination of complete management practices at Block 18C seems to have some effect on the CPB population at Blocks 17 and 19C because all blocks are adjacent to each other.

Keywords: cocoa, theobroma cacao, cocoa pod borer, conopomorpha cramerella

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8 Sustainable Radiation Curable Palm Oil-Based Products for Advanced Materials Applications

Authors: R. Tajau, R. Rohani, M. S. Alias, N. H. Mudri, K. A. Abdul Halim, M. H. Harun, N. Mat Isa, R. Che Ismail, S. Muhammad Faisal, M. Talib, M. R. Mohamed Zin


Bio-based polymeric materials are increasingly used for a variety of applications, including surface coating, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering. These polymeric materials are ideal for the aforementioned applications because they are derived from natural resources, non-toxic, low-cost, biocompatible, and biodegradable, and have promising thermal and mechanical properties. The nature of hydrocarbon chains, carbon double bonds, and ester bonds allows various sources of oil (edible), such as soy, sunflower, olive, and oil palm, to fine-tune their particular structures in the development of innovative materials. Palm oil can be the most eminent raw material used for manufacturing new and advanced natural polymeric materials involving radiation techniques, such as coating resins, nanoparticles, scaffold, nanotubes, nanocomposites, and lithography for different branches of the industry in countries where oil palm is abundant. The radiation technique is among the most versatile, cost-effective, simple, and effective methods. Crosslinking, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), polymerisation, grafting, and degradation are among the radiation mechanisms. Exposure to gamma, EB, UV, or laser irradiation, which are commonly used in the development of polymeric materials, is used in these mechanisms. Therefore, this review focuses on current radiation processing technologies for the development of various radiation-curable bio-based polymeric materials with a promising future in biomedical and industrial applications. The key focus of this review is on radiation curable palm oil-based products, which have been published frequently in recent studies.

Keywords: palm oil, radiation processing, surface coatings, VOC

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7 Functional Role of Tyr12 in the Catalytic Activity of Zeta-Like Glutathione S-Transferase from Acidovorax sp. KKS102

Authors: D. Shehu, Z. Alias


Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are family of enzymes that function in the detoxification of variety of electrophilic substrates. In the present work, we report a novel zeta-like GST (designated as KKSG9) from the biphenyl/polychlorobiphenyl degrading organism Acidovorax sp. KKS102. KKSG9 possessed low sequence similarity but similar biochemical properties to zeta class GSTs. The gene for KKSG9 was cloned, purified and biochemically characterized. Functional analysis showed that the enzyme exhibits wider substrate specificity compared to most zeta class GSTs by reacting with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), p-nitrobenzyl chloride (NBC), ethacrynic acid (EA), hydrogen peroxide, and cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH). The enzyme also displayed dehalogenation function against dichloroacetate (a common substrate for zeta class GSTs) in addition to permethrin, and dieldrin. The functional role of Tyr12 was also investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant (Y12C) displayed low catalytic activity and dehalogenation function against all the substrates when compared with the wild type. Kinetic analysis using NBC and GSH as substrates showed that the mutant (Y12C) displayed a higher affinity for NBC when compared with the wild type, however, no significant change in GSH affinity was observed. These findings suggest that the presence of tyrosine residue in the motif might represent an evolutionary trend toward improving the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The enzyme as well could be useful in the bioremediation of various types of organochlorine pollutants.

Keywords: Acidovorax sp. KKS102, bioremediation, glutathione s-transferase, site-directed mutagenesis, zeta

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6 Biosignal Recognition for Personal Identification

Authors: Hadri Hussain, M.Nasir Ibrahim, Chee-Ming Ting, Mariani Idroas, Fuad Numan, Alias Mohd Noor


A biometric security system has become an important application in client identification and verification system. A conventional biometric system is normally based on unimodal biometric that depends on either behavioural or physiological information for authentication purposes. The behavioural biometric depends on human body biometric signal (such as speech) and biosignal biometric (such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and phonocardiogram or heart sound (HS)). The speech signal is commonly used in a recognition system in biometric, while the ECG and the HS have been used to identify a person’s diseases uniquely related to its cluster. However, the conventional biometric system is liable to spoof attack that will affect the performance of the system. Therefore, a multimodal biometric security system is developed, which is based on biometric signal of ECG, HS, and speech. The biosignal data involved in the biometric system is initially segmented, with each segment Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) method is exploited for extracting the feature. The Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is used to model the client and to classify the unknown input with respect to the modal. The recognition system involved training and testing session that is known as client identification (CID). In this project, twenty clients are tested with the developed system. The best overall performance at 44 kHz was 93.92% for ECG and the worst overall performance was ECG at 88.47%. The results were compared to the best overall performance at 44 kHz for (20clients) to increment of clients, which was 90.00% for HS and the worst overall performance falls at ECG at 79.91%. It can be concluded that the difference multimodal biometric has a substantial effect on performance of the biometric system and with the increment of data, even with higher frequency sampling, the performance still decreased slightly as predicted.

Keywords: electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram, hidden markov model, mel frequency cepstral coeffiecients, client identification

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5 Performance Comparison and Visualization of COMSOL Multiphysics, Matlab, and Fortran for Predicting the Reservoir Pressure on Oil Production in a Multiple Leases Reservoir with Boundary Element Method

Authors: N. Alias, W. Z. W. Muhammad, M. N. M. Ibrahim, M. Mohamed, H. F. S. Saipol, U. N. Z. Ariffin, N. A. Zakaria, M. S. Z. Suardi


This paper presents the performance comparison of some computation software for solving the boundary element method (BEM). BEM formulation is the numerical technique and high potential for solving the advance mathematical modeling to predict the production of oil well in arbitrarily shaped based on multiple leases reservoir. The limitation of data validation for ensuring that a program meets the accuracy of the mathematical modeling is considered as the research motivation of this paper. Thus, based on this limitation, there are three steps involved to validate the accuracy of the oil production simulation process. In the first step, identify the mathematical modeling based on partial differential equation (PDE) with Poisson-elliptic type to perform the BEM discretization. In the second step, implement the simulation of the 2D BEM discretization using COMSOL Multiphysic and MATLAB programming languages. In the last step, analyze the numerical performance indicators for both programming languages by using the validation of Fortran programming. The performance comparisons of numerical analysis are investigated in terms of percentage error, comparison graph and 2D visualization of pressure on oil production of multiple leases reservoir. According to the performance comparison, the structured programming in Fortran programming is the alternative software for implementing the accurate numerical simulation of BEM. As a conclusion, high-level language for numerical computation and numerical performance evaluation are satisfied to prove that Fortran is well suited for capturing the visualization of the production of oil well in arbitrarily shaped.

Keywords: performance comparison, 2D visualization, COMSOL multiphysic, MATLAB, Fortran, modelling and simulation, boundary element method, reservoir pressure

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4 Fabrication of a Potential Point-of-Care Device for Hemoglobin A1c: A Lateral Flow Immunosensor

Authors: Shu Hwang Ang, Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Yean Yean Chan, Yatimah Binti Alias, And Sook Mei Khor


With the high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus across the world, the morbidities and mortalities associated with Type 2 diabetes have significant impact on the production line for a nation. With routine scheduled clinical visits to manage Type 2 diabetes, diabetic patients with hectic lifestyles can have low clinical compliance. Hence, it often decreases the effectiveness of diabetic management personalized for each diabetic patient. Here, we report a useful developed point-of-care (POC) device that detect glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, biomarker for long-term Type 2 diabetic management). In fact, the established POC devices certified to be used in clinical setting are not only expensive ($ 8 to $10 per test), they also require skillful practitioners to perform sampling and interpretation. As a paper-based biosensor, the developed HbA1c biosensor utilized lateral flow principle to offer an alternative for cost-effective (approximately $2 per test) and end-user friendly device for household testing. Requiring as little as 2 L of finger-picked blood, the test can be performed at the household with just simple dilution and washings. With visual interpretation of numbers of test lines shown on the developed biosensor, it can be interpreted as easy as a urine pregnancy test, aided with scale of intensity provided. In summary, the developed HbA1c immunosensor has been tested to have high selectivity towards HbA1c, and is stable with reasonably good performance in clinical testing. Therefore, our developed HbA1c immunosensor has high potential to be an effective diabetic management tool to increase patient compliance and thus contain the progression of the diabetes.

Keywords: blood, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lateral flow, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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3 Development of PPy-M Composites Materials for Sensor Application

Authors: Yatimah Alias, Tilagam Marimuthu, M. R. Mahmoudian, Sharifah Mohamad


The rapid growth of science and technology in energy and environmental fields has enlightened the substantial importance of the conducting polymer and metal composite materials engineered at nano-scale. In this study, polypyrrole-cobalt composites (PPy-Co Cs) and polypyrrole-nickel oxide composites (PPy-NiO Cs) were prepared by a simple and facile chemical polymerization method with an aqueous solution of pyrrole monomer in the presence of metal salt. These composites then fabricated into non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose sensor. The morphology and composition of the composites are characterized by the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum and X-ray Powder Diffraction. The obtained results were compared with the pure PPy and metal oxide particles. The structural and morphology properties of synthesized composites are different from those of pure PPy and metal oxide particles, which were attributed to the strong interaction between the PPy and the metal particles. Besides, a favorable micro-environment for the electrochemical oxidation of H2O2 and glucose was achieved on the modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) coated with PPy-Co Cs and PPy-NiO Cs respectively, resulting in an enhanced amperometric response. Both PPy-Co/GCE and PPy-NiO/GCE give high response towards target analyte at optimum condition of 500 μl pyrrole monomer content. Furthermore, the presence of pyrrole monomer greatly increases the sensitivity of the respective modified electrode. The PPy-Co/GCE could detect H2O2 in a linear range of 20 μM to 80 mM with two linear segments (low and high concentration of H2O2) and the detection limit for both ranges is 2.05 μM and 19.64 μM, respectively. Besides, PPy-NiO/GCE exhibited good electrocatalytic behavior towards glucose oxidation in alkaline medium and could detect glucose in linear ranges of 0.01 mM to 0.50 mM and 1 mM to 20 mM with detection limit of 0.33 and 5.77 μM, respectively. The ease of modifying and the long-term stability of this sensor have made it superior to enzymatic sensors, which must kept in a critical environment.

Keywords: metal oxide, composite, non-enzymatic sensor, polypyrrole

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2 Evaluating the Factors Controlling the Hydrochemistry of Gaza Coastal Aquifer Using Hydrochemical and Multivariate Statistical Analysis

Authors: Madhat Abu Al-Naeem, Ismail Yusoff, Ng Tham Fatt, Yatimah Alias


Groundwater in Gaza strip is increasingly being exposed to anthropic and natural factors that seriously impacted the groundwater quality. Physiochemical data of groundwater can offer important information on changes in groundwater quality that can be useful in improving water management tactics. An integrative hydrochemical and statistical techniques (Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and factor analysis (FA)) have been applied on the existence ten physiochemical data of 84 samples collected in (2000/2001) using STATA, AquaChem, and Surfer softwares to: 1) Provide valuable insight into the salinization sources and the hydrochemical processes controlling the chemistry of groundwater. 2) Differentiate the influence of natural processes and man-made activities. The recorded large diversity in water facies with dominance Na-Cl type that reveals a highly saline aquifer impacted by multiple complex hydrochemical processes. Based on WHO standards, only (15.5%) of the wells were suitable for drinking. HCA yielded three clusters. Cluster 1 is the highest in salinity, mainly due to the impact of Eocene saline water invasion mixed with human inputs. Cluster 2 is the lowest in salinity also due to Eocene saline water invasion but mixed with recent rainfall recharge and limited carbonate dissolution and nitrate pollution. Cluster 3 is similar in salinity to Cluster 2, but with a high diversity of facies due to the impact of many sources of salinity as sea water invasion, carbonate dissolution and human inputs. Factor analysis yielded two factors accounting for 88% of the total variance. Factor 1 (59%) is a salinization factor demonstrating the mixing contribution of natural saline water with human inputs. Factor 2 measure the hardness and pollution which explained 29% of the total variance. The negative relationship between the NO3- and pH may reveal a denitrification process in a heavy polluted aquifer recharged by a limited oxygenated rainfall. Multivariate statistical analysis combined with hydrochemical analysis indicate that the main factors controlling groundwater chemistry were Eocene saline invasion, seawater invasion, sewage invasion and rainfall recharge and the main hydrochemical processes were base ion and reverse ion exchange processes with clay minerals (water rock interactions), nitrification, carbonate dissolution and a limited denitrification process.

Keywords: dendrogram and cluster analysis, water facies, Eocene saline invasion and sea water invasion, nitrification and denitrification

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1 Integrated Mathematical Modeling and Advance Visualization of Magnetic Nanoparticle for Drug Delivery, Drug Release and Effects to Cancer Cell Treatment

Authors: Norma Binti Alias, Che Rahim Che The, Norfarizan Mohd Said, Sakinah Abdul Hanan, Akhtar Ali


This paper discusses on the transportation of magnetic drug targeting through blood within vessels, tissues and cells. There are three integrated mathematical models to be discussed and analyze the concentration of drug and blood flow through magnetic nanoparticles. The cell therapy brought advancement in the field of nanotechnology to fight against the tumors. The systematic therapeutic effect of Single Cells can reduce the growth of cancer tissue. The process of this nanoscale phenomena system is able to measure and to model, by identifying some parameters and applying fundamental principles of mathematical modeling and simulation. The mathematical modeling of single cell growth depends on three types of cell densities such as proliferative, quiescent and necrotic cells. The aim of this paper is to enhance the simulation of three types of models. The first model represents the transport of drugs by coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) with 3D parabolic type in a cylindrical coordinate system. This model is integrated by Non-Newtonian flow equations, leading to blood liquid flow as the medium for transportation system and the magnetic force on the magnetic nanoparticles. The interaction between the magnetic force on drug with magnetic properties produces induced currents and the applied magnetic field yields forces with tend to move slowly the movement of blood and bring the drug to the cancer cells. The devices of nanoscale allow the drug to discharge the blood vessels and even spread out through the tissue and access to the cancer cells. The second model is the transport of drug nanoparticles from the vascular system to a single cell. The treatment of the vascular system encounters some parameter identification such as magnetic nanoparticle targeted delivery, blood flow, momentum transport, density and viscosity for drug and blood medium, intensity of magnetic fields and the radius of the capillary. Based on two discretization techniques, finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM), the set of integrated models are transformed into a series of grid points to get a large system of equations. The third model is a single cell density model involving the three sets of first order PDEs equations for proliferating, quiescent and necrotic cells change over time and space in Cartesian coordinate which regulates under different rates of nutrients consumptions. The model presents the proliferative and quiescent cell growth depends on some parameter changes and the necrotic cells emerged as the tumor core. Some numerical schemes for solving the system of equations are compared and analyzed. Simulation and computation of the discretized model are supported by Matlab and C programming languages on a single processing unit. Some numerical results and analysis of the algorithms are presented in terms of informative presentation of tables, multiple graph and multidimensional visualization. As a conclusion, the integrated of three types mathematical modeling and the comparison of numerical performance indicates that the superior tool and analysis for solving the complete set of magnetic drug delivery system which give significant effects on the growth of the targeted cancer cell.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, visualization, PDE models, magnetic nanoparticle drug delivery model, drug release model, single cell effects, avascular tumor growth, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 350