Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2979

Search results for: trace element

2979 Trace Element Phytoremediation Potential of Mangrove Plants in Indian Sundarban

Authors: Ranju Chowdhury, Santosh K. Sarkar


Trace element accumulation potential of ten mangrove species in individual plant tissues (leaves, bark and root/pneumatophore) along with host sediments was carried out at 2 study sites of diverse environmental stresses of Indian Sundarban Wetland, a UNESCO world heritage site. The study was undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to investigate the extent of accumulation and the distribution of trace metals in plant tissues (ii) to determine whether sediment trace metal levels are correlated with trace metal levels in tissues and (iii) to find out the suitable candidate for phytoremediation species. Mangrove sediments showed unique potential in many- fold increase for most trace metals than plant tissues due to their inherent physicochemical properties. The concentrations of studied 11 trace elements (expressed in µg g -1) showed wide range of variations in host sediment with the following descending order: Fe (2865.31-3019.62) > Mn (646.04- 648.47 > Cu (35.03- 41.55) > Zn (32.51- 36.33) > Ni (34.4- 36.60) > Cr (27.5- 29.54) > Pb (11.6- 20.34) > Co (6.79- 8.55) > As (3.22- 4.41) > Cd (0.19- 0.22) > Hg (0.06- 0.07). The ranges of concentration of trace metals (expressed in µg g -1) for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in plant tissues were 0.006- 0.31, 0.02- 2.97, 0.10- 4.80, 0.13- 6.49, 4.46- 48.30, 9.20- 938.13, 0.02- 0.13, 9.8- 1726.24, 5.41- 11.34, 0.04 - 7.64, 3.81- 52.20 respectively. Among all trace elements, Cd and Zn were highly bioaccumulated in Excoecaria agallocha (2.97 and 52.20 µg g -1 respectively). The bio- concentration factor (BCF) showed its maximum value (15.5) in E. agallocha for Cd, suggesting that it can be considered as a high-efficient plant for trace metal bioaccumulation. Therefore, phytoremediation could be extensively used for the removal of the toxic contaminants for sustainable management of Sundarban coastal regions.

Keywords: Indian Sundarban, mangroves, phytoremediation, trace elements

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2978 Oxidation States of Trace Elements in Synthetic Corundum

Authors: Ontima Yamchuti, Waruntorn Kanitpanyacharoen, Chakkaphan Sutthirat, Wantana Klysuban, Penphitcha Amonpattarakit


Natural corundum occurs in various colors due to impurities or trace elements in its structure. Sapphire and ruby are essentially the same mineral, corundum, but valued differently due to their red and blue varieties, respectively. Color is one of the critical factors used to determine the value of natural and synthetic corundum. Despite the abundance of research on impurities in natural corundum, little is known about trace elements in synthetic corundum. This project thus aims to quantify trace elements and identify their oxidation states in synthetic corundum. A total of 15 corundum samples in red, blue, and yellow, synthesized by melt growth process, were first investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to determine the composition. Electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) was used to identify the types of trace elements. Results confirm that all synthetic corundums contain crystalline Al₂O₃ and a wide variety type of trace element, particularly Cr, Fe, and Ti. In red, yellow, and blue corundums respectively. To further determine their oxidation states, synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure spectrometry (XANES) was used to observe absorbing energy of each element. XANES results show that red synthetic corundum has Cr³⁺ as a major trace element (62%). The pre-edge absorption energy of Cr³⁺ is at 6001 eV. In addition, Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ are dominant oxidation states of yellow synthetic corundum while Ti³⁺and Ti⁴⁺ are dominant oxidation states of blue synthetic corundum. the average absorption energy of Fe and Ti is 4980 eV and 7113 eV respectively. The presence of Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺, Cr³⁺, Ti³⁺, and Ti⁴⁺ in synthetic corundums in this study is governed by comparison absorption energy edge with standard transition. The results of oxidation states in this study conform with natural corundum. However yellow synthetic corundums show difference oxidation state of trace element compared with synthetic in electron spin resonance spectrometer method which found that Ni³⁺ is a dominant oxidation state.

Keywords: corundum, trace element, oxidation state, XANES technique

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2977 Seasonal Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites and Their Association with Trace Element Contents in Sera of Sheep, Grazing Forages and Soils of Sialkot District, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Hafiz M. Rizwan, Muhammad S. Sajid, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Saqib


Gastro-intestinal (GI) helminths infection in sheep causes a substantial loss in terms of productivity and constitutes serious economic losses in the world. Different types of forages are rich in trace element contents and may act as a natural resource to improve the trace element deficiencies leading to immunity boost-up in general and against gastrointestinal parasitic infections in particular. In the present study, the level of trace elements (Cu, Co, Mn, Zn) determined in sera of different breeds of sheep, available feedstuffs, respective soil samples and their association with GI helminths in Sialkot district, Punjab, Pakistan. Almost similar prevalence of GI helminths was recorded (32.81%) during spring 2015 and (32.55%) during autumn 2014. The parasitic species identified from the microscopically scanned faecal samples of district Sialkot were Fasciola (F.) hepatica, F. gigantica, Haemonchus contortus, Eimeria crandallis, Gongylonema pulchrum, Oesophagostomum sp., Trichuris ovis, Strongyles sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. Among variables like age, sex, and breed, only sex was found significant in district Sialkot. A significant (P < 0.05) variation in the concentration of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co was recorded in collected forages species. Soils of grazing field showed insignificant (P > 0.05) variation among soils of different tehsils of Sialkot district. Statistically, sera of sheep showed no variation (P > 0.05) during autumn 2014, While, variation (P < 0.05) among different tehsils of Sialkot district during spring 2015 except Co. During autumn 2014 the mean concentration of Cu, Zn, and Co in sera was inversely proportional to the mean EPG of sheep while during spring 2015 only Zn was inversely proportional to the mean EPG of sheep. The trace element-rich forages preferably Zn were effective ones against helminths infection. The trace element-rich forages will be recommended for their utilization as an alternate to improve the trace element deficiencies in sheep which ultimately boost up the immunity against gastrointestinal parasitic infections.

Keywords: coprological examination, gastro-intestinal parasites, prevalence, sheep, trace elements

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2976 Spatial Variation of Trace Elements in Suspended Sediments from Urban River

Authors: Daniel Macedo Neto, Sandro Froehner, Juan Sanez


Suspended sediments (SS) are an environmental constituent able to represent the effects of land use changes on watersheds. One important consideration of land use change is its implication on trace element loading. Water bodies have the capacity to retain trace elements. Spatial variation in trace elements concentrations can be associated with land occupation and sources of pollution. In this work, the spatial variation of trace elements in suspended sediments from an urban river was assessed. Time-integrated fluvial suspended sediment samples were installed in three different sites of Barigui River. The suspend solids were collected every 30 days, from May 2015 to August 2015 (total samples 12). Site P1 covers 44 km2 drainage area and has low land occupation, whilst P2 cover an area of 87 km2 and it is totally urban as P3, which area is higher than 130 km2. Trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, P, Pb and Zn) were analysed by ICP-ES. All elements analyzed showed a similar pattern, i.e., the concentration raise with the urbanization, exception for As (P1=7.75; P2=5.75; P3=5.60mg/kg). There was increase in concentration for Cd (P1=0.75; P2=0.78; P3=1.45mg/kg), Cr (P1=59.50; P2=101.75; P3=102.00 mg/kg), Zn (P1=142.25; P2=152.50; P3=223.00mg/kg), P (P1=937.50; P2=1,545.00; P3=2,355.00 mg/kg) and for Pb (P1=31.25; P2=32.75; P3=39.17±2.56 mg/kg). The variation in concentrations were as follow -27.74% (As), +93.33% (Cd), +71.43% (Cr), +151.20% (P), +25.33% (Pb) e +56.77% (Zn). Cd, Cr, P, Pb and Zn presented a clear trend of increasing the concentration from upstream to downstream. Such variation is more notorious for P, Cd and Cr, possibly due the urbanization.

Keywords: trace elements, erosion, urbanization, suspended sediments

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2975 The Establishment and Application of TRACE/FRAPTRAN Model for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: S. W. Chen, W. K. Lin, J. R. Wang, C. Shih, H. T. Lin, H. C. Chang, W. Y. Li


Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) is a BWR/6 type NPP and located on the northern coast of Taiwan. First, Kuosheng NPP TRACE model were developed in this research. In order to assess the system response of Kuosheng NPP TRACE model, startup tests data were used to evaluate Kuosheng NPP TRACE model. Second, the over pressurization transient analysis of Kuosheng NPP TRACE model was performed. Besides, in order to confirm the mechanical property and integrity of fuel rods, FRAPTRAN analysis was also performed in this study.

Keywords: TRACE, safety analysis, BWR/6, FRAPTRA

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2974 The Relationship between Trace Elements in Groundwater Linked to a History of Volcanic Activity in La Pampa and Buenos Aires Provinces, Argentina

Authors: Maisarah Jaafar, Neil I. Ward


Volcanic and geothermal activity can result in the release of arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), iron, selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) into natural waters. Several studies have reported high levels of these elements in surface and groundwater in Argentina. The main focus has been on As associated with volcanic ash deposits. This study reports the trace element levels of groundwater from an agricultural region of south-eastern La Pampa and southern Buenos Aires provinces, Argentina which have reported high levels of human health problems (bone/teeth disorders, depression, arthritis, etc). Fifty-eight groundwater samples were collected from wells adjacent to Ruta 35 and an Agilent 7700x inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) were used for total elemental analysis. Physicochemical analysis confirmed pH range of 7.05-8.84 and variable conductivity (988-3880 µS/cm) with total dissolved solid content of 502-1989 mg/l. The majority water samples are in an oxidizing environment (Eh= 45-146 mV). Total As levels ranged from (µg/l): 13.08 – 319.4 for La Pampa (LP) and 39.6 – 189.4 for Buenos Aires (BA); all above the WHO Guideline for Drinking Water, 10 µg/l As. Interestingly, Mo (LP: 1.85 – 85.39 µg/l; BA: 4.61– 55.55 µg/l;), Se (LP: 1.2 – 16.59 µg/l; BA: 0.3– 6.94 µg/l;) and U (LP: 1.85 – 85.39 µg/l; BA: 4.61– 55.55 µg/l;) levels are lower than reported values for northern La Pampa. Inter-elemental correlation displayed positive statistically significant between As-Mo, A-Se, As-U while negative statistically significant between As-Mn and As-Fe. This confirms that the source of the trace element is similar to that reported for other region of Argentina, namely volcanic ash deposition.

Keywords: Argentina, groundwater, trace element, volcanic activity

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2973 Total-Reflection X-Ray Spectroscopy as a Tool for Element Screening in Food Samples

Authors: Hagen Stosnach


The analytical demands on modern instruments for element analysis in food samples include the analysis of major, trace and ultra-trace essential elements as well as potentially toxic trace elements. In this study total reflection, X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) is presented as an analytical technique, which meets the requirements, defined by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC) regarding the limit of quantification, repeatability, reproducibility and recovery for most of the target elements. The advantages of TXRF are the small sample mass required, the broad linear range from µg/kg up to wt.-% values, no consumption of gases or cooling water, and the flexible and easy sample preparation. Liquid samples like alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverages can be analyzed without any preparation. For solid food samples, the most common sample pre-treatment methods are mineralization, direct deposition of the sample onto the reflector without/with minimal treatment, mainly as solid suspensions or after extraction. The main disadvantages are due to the possible peaks overlapping, which may lower the accuracy of quantitative analysis and the limit in the element identification. This analytical technique will be presented by several application examples, covering a broad range of liquid and solid food types.

Keywords: essential elements, toxic metals, XRF, spectroscopy

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2972 Trace Logo: A Notation for Representing Control-Flow of Operational Process

Authors: M. V. Manoj Kumar, Likewin Thomas, Annappa


Process mining research discipline bridges the gap between data mining and business process modeling and analysis, it offers the process-centric and end-to-end methods/techniques for analyzing information of real-world process detailed in operational event-logs. In this paper, we have proposed a notation called trace logo for graphically representing control-flow perspective (order of execution of activities) of process. A trace logo consists of a stack of activity names at each position, sizes of the activity name indicates their frequency in the traces and the total height of the activity depicts the information content of the position. A trace logo created from a set of aligned traces generated using Multiple Trace Alignment technique.

Keywords: consensus trace, process mining, multiple trace alignment, trace logo

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2971 Risk Assessment of Trace Element Pollution in Gymea Bay, NSW, Australia

Authors: Yasir M. Alyazichi, Brian G. Jones, Errol McLean, Hamd N. Altalyan, Ali K. M. Al-Nasrawi


The main purpose of this study is to assess the sediment quality and potential ecological risk in marine sediments in Gymea Bay located in south Sydney, Australia. A total of 32 surface sediment samples were collected from the bay. Current track trajectories and velocities have also been measured in the bay. The resultant trace elements were compared with the adverse biological effect values Effect Range Low (ERL) and Effect Range Median (ERM) classifications. The results indicate that the average values of chromium, arsenic, copper, zinc, and lead in surface sediments all reveal low pollution levels and are below ERL and ERM values. The highest concentrations of trace elements were found close to discharge points and in the inner bay, and were linked with high percentages of clay minerals, pyrite and organic matter, which can play a significant role in trapping and accumulating these elements. The lowest concentrations of trace elements were found to be on the shoreline of the bay, which contained high percentages of sand fractions. It is postulated that the fine particles and trace elements are disturbed by currents and tides, then transported and deposited in deeper areas. The current track velocities recorded in Gymea Bay had the capability to transport fine particles and trace element pollution within the bay. As a result, hydrodynamic measurements were able to provide useful information and to help explain the distribution of sedimentary particles and geochemical properties. This may lead to knowledge transfer to other bay systems, including those in remote areas. These activities can be conducted at a low cost, and are therefore also transferrable to developing countries. The advent of portable instruments to measure trace elements in the field has also contributed to the development of these lower cost and easily applied methodologies available for use in remote locations and low-cost economies.

Keywords: current track velocities, gymea bay, surface sediments, trace elements

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2970 Linkage between Trace Element Distribution and Growth Ring Formation in Japanese Red Coral (Paracorallium japonicum)

Authors: Luan Trong Nguyen, M. Azizur Rahman, Yusuke Tamenori, Toshihiro Yoshimura, Nozomu Iwasaki, Hiroshi Hasegawa


This study investigated the distribution of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and strontium (Sr) using micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) along the annual growth rings in the skeleton of Japanese red coral Paracorallium japonicum. The Mg, P and S distribution in µ-XRF mapping images correspond to the dark and light bands along the annual growth rings observed in microscopic images of the coral skeleton. The µ-XRF mapping data showed a positive correlation (r = 0.6) between P and S distribution in the coral skeleton. A contrasting distribution pattern of S and Mg along the axial skeleton of P. japonicum indicates a weak negative correlation (r = -0.2) between these two trace elements. The distribution pattern of S, P and Mg reveals linkage between their distributions and the formation of dark/light bands along the annual growth rings in the axial skeleton of P. japonicum. Sulfur and P were distributed in the organic matrix rich dark bands, while Mg was distributed in the light bands of the annual growth rings.

Keywords: µ-XRF, trace element, precious coral, Paracorallium japonicum

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2969 Using TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP Codes to Analyze the Load Rejection Transient of ABWR

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. C. Chang, A. L. Ho, J. H. Yang, S. W. Chen, C. Shih


The purpose of the study is to analyze the load rejection transient of ABWR by using TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP codes. This study has some steps. First, using TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP codes establish the model of ABWR. Second, the key parameters are identified to refine the TRACE/PARCS/SNAP model further in the frame of a steady state analysis. Third, the TRACE/PARCS/SNAP model is used to perform the load rejection transient analysis. Finally, the FSAR data are used to compare with the analysis results. The results of TRACE/PARCS are consistent with the FSAR data for the important parameters. It indicates that the TRACE/PARCS/SNAP model of ABWR has a good accuracy in the load rejection transient.


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2968 Spatial Distribution and Source Identification of Trace Elements in Surface Soil from Izmir Metropolitan Area

Authors: Melik Kara, Gulsah Tulger Kara


The soil is a crucial component of the ecosystem, and in industrial and urban areas it receives large amounts of trace elements from several sources. Therefore, accumulated pollutants in surface soils can be transported to different environmental components, such as deep soil, water, plants, and dust particles. While elemental contamination of soils is caused mainly by atmospheric deposition, soil also affects the air quality since enriched trace elemental contents in atmospheric particulate matter originate from resuspension of polluted soils. The objectives of this study were to determine the total and leachate concentrations of trace elements in soils of city area in Izmir and characterize their spatial distribution and to identify the possible sources of trace elements in surface soils. The surface soil samples were collected from 20 sites. They were analyzed for total element concentrations and leachate concentrations. Analyses of trace elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ho, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr) were carried out using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). The elemental concentrations were calculated along with overall median, kurtosis, and skewness statistics. Elemental composition indicated that the soil samples were dominated by crustal elements such as Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and the sea salt element, Na which is typical for Aegean region. These elements were followed by Ti, P, Mn, Ba and Sr. On the other hand, Zn, Cr, V, Pb, Cu, and Ni (which are anthropogenic based elements) were measured as 61.6, 39.4, 37.9, 26.9, 22.4, and 19.4 mg/kg dw, respectively. The leachate element concentrations were showed similar sorting although their concentrations were much lower than total concentrations. In the study area, the spatial distribution patterns of elemental concentrations varied among sampling sites. The highest concentrations were measured in the vicinity of industrial areas and main roads. To determine the relationships among elements and to identify the possible sources, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) was applied to the data. The analysis resulted in six factors. The first factor exhibited high loadings of Co, K, Mn, Rb, V, Al, Fe, Ni, Ga, Se, and Cr. This factor could be interpreted as residential heating because of Co, K, Rb, and Se. The second factor associated positively with V, Al, Fe, Na, Ba, Ga, Sr, Ti, Se, and Si. Therefore, this factor presents mixed city dust. The third factor showed high loadings with Fe, Ni, Sb, As, Cr. This factor could be associated with industrial facilities. The fourth factor associated with Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn which are the marker elements of traffic. The fifth factor presents crustal dust, due to its high correlation with Si, Ca, and Mg. The last factor is loaded with Pb and Cd emitted from industrial activities.

Keywords: trace elements, surface soil, source apportionment, Izmir

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2967 Using TRACE and SNAP Codes to Establish the Model of Maanshan PWR for SBO Accident

Authors: B. R. Shen, J. R. Wang, J. H. Yang, S. W. Chen, C. Shih, Y. Chiang, Y. F. Chang, Y. H. Huang


In this research, TRACE code with the interface code-SNAP was used to simulate and analyze the SBO (station blackout) accident which occurred in Maanshan PWR (pressurized water reactor) nuclear power plant (NPP). There are four main steps in this research. First, the SBO accident data of Maanshan NPP were collected. Second, the TRACE/SNAP model of Maanshan NPP was established by using these data. Third, this TRACE/SNAP model was used to perform the simulation and analysis of SBO accident. Finally, the simulation and analysis of SBO with mitigation equipments was performed. The analysis results of TRACE are consistent with the data of Maanshan NPP. The mitigation equipments of Maanshan can maintain the safety of Maanshan in the SBO according to the TRACE predictions.

Keywords: pressurized water reactor (PWR), TRACE, station blackout (SBO), Maanshan

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2966 Characterization of Thixoformed AlSi12 Alloy with the Addition of Trace Amounts of Silver

Authors: Nursen Saklakoglu, Adnan Turker


The main objective of this study is to reveal the effect of the Thixoforming process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the AlSi12 alloy with trace amounts of silver. It is concluded that Thixoforming has an important effect on the morphology of intermetallics and Si formation, as well as globular α-Al morphology. The intermetallics have been fractured during thixoforming. It is believed that the fine distribution of the intermetallics is one mechanism for the improved mechanical properties of Thixoformed alloys. The discrete Si particles have been observed during both isothermal heating to the semi-solid range and Thixoforming, also have an important effect on mechanical properties. The Thixoforming process has a greater effect on hardness than the addition of Ag does.

Keywords: AlSi alloys, intermetallic phases, mechanical properties trace element, silver, thixoforming

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2965 TRACE/FRAPTRAN Analysis of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant Dry-Storage System

Authors: J. R. Wang, Y. Chiang, W. Y. Li, H. T. Lin, H. C. Chen, C. Shih, S. W. Chen


The dry-storage systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Taiwan have become one of the major safety concerns. There are two steps considered in this study. The first step is the verification of the TRACE by using VSC-17 experimental data. The results of TRACE were similar to the VSC-17 data. It indicates that TRACE has the respectable accuracy in the simulation and analysis of the dry-storage systems. The next step is the application of TRACE in the dry-storage system of Kuosheng NPP (BWR/6). Kuosheng NPP is the second BWR NPP of Taiwan Power Company. In order to solve the storage of the spent fuels, Taiwan Power Company developed the new dry-storage system for Kuosheng NPP. In this step, the dry-storage system model of Kuosheng NPP was established by TRACE. Then, the steady state simulation of this model was performed and the results of TRACE were compared with the Kuosheng NPP data. Finally, this model was used to perform the safety analysis of Kuosheng NPP dry-storage system. Besides, FRAPTRAN was used tocalculate the transient performance of fuel rods.

Keywords: BWR, TRACE, FRAPTRAN, dry-storage

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2964 Total and Leachable Concentration of Trace Elements in Soil towards Human Health Risk, Related with Coal Mine in Jorong, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Arie Pujiwati, Kengo Nakamura, Noriaki Watanabe, Takeshi Komai


Coal mining is well known to cause considerable environmental impacts, including trace element contamination of soil. This study aimed to assess the trace element (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) contamination of soil in the vicinity of coal mining activities, using the case study of Asam-asam River basin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, and to assess the human health risk, incorporating total and bioavailable (water-leachable and acid-leachable) concentrations. The results show the enrichment of As and Co in soil, surpassing the background soil value. Contamination was evaluated based on the index of geo-accumulation, Igeo and the pollution index, PI. Igeo values showed that the soil was generally uncontaminated (Igeo ≤ 0), except for elevated As and Co. Mean PI for Ni and Cu indicated slight contamination. Regarding the assessment of health risks, the Hazard Index, HI showed adverse risks (HI > 1) for Ni, Co, and As. Further, Ni and As were found to pose unacceptable carcinogenic risk (risk > 1.10-5). Farming, settlement, and plantation were found to present greater risk than coal mines. These results show that coal mining activity in the study area contaminates the soils by particular elements and may pose potential human health risk in its surrounding area. This study is important for setting appropriate countermeasure actions and improving basic coal mining management in Indonesia.

Keywords: coal mine, risk, trace elements, soil

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2963 Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Sediments along the Ganges River Estuary, India

Authors: Priyanka Mondal, Santosh K. Sarkar


The present study investigated the spatiotemporal distribution and ecological risk assessment of trace elements of surface sediments (top 0 - 5 cm; grain size ≤ 0.63 µm) in relevance to sediment quality characteristics along the Ganges River Estuary, India. Sediment samples were collected during ebb tide from intertidal regions covering seven sampling sites of diverse environmental stresses. The elements were analyzed with the help of ICPAES. This positive, mixohaline, macro-tidal estuary has global significance contributing ecological and economic services. Presence of fine-clayey particle (47.03%) enhances the adsorption as well as transportation of trace elements. There is a remarkable inter-metallic variation (mg kg-1 dry weight) in the distribution pattern in the following manner: Al (31801± 15943) > Fe (23337± 7584) > Mn (461±147) > S(381±235) > Zn(54 ±18) > V(43 ±14) > Cr(39 ±15) > As (34±15) > Cu(27 ±11) > Ni (24 ±9) > Se (17 ±8) > Co(11 ±3) > Mo(10 ± 2) > Hg(0.02 ±0.01). An overall trend of enrichment of majority of trace elements was very much pronounced at the site Lot 8, ~ 35km upstream of the estuarine mouth. In contrast, the minimum concentration was recorded at site Gangasagar, mouth of the estuary, with high energy profile. The prevalent variations in trace element distribution are being liable for a set of cumulative factors such as hydrodynamic conditions, sediment dispersion pattern and textural variations as well as non-homogenous input of contaminants from point and non-point sources. In order to gain insight into the trace elements distribution, accumulation, and their pollution status, geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and enrichment factor (EF) were used. The Igeo indicated that surface sediments were moderately polluted with As (0.60) and Mo (1.30) and strongly contaminated with Se (4.0). The EF indicated severe pollution of Se (53.82) and significant pollution of As (4.05) and Mo (6.0) and indicated the influx of As, Mo and Se in sediments from anthropogenic sources (such as industrial and municipal sewage, atmospheric deposition, agricultural run-off, etc.). The significant role of the megacity Calcutta in relevance to the untreated sewage discharge, atmospheric inputs and other anthropogenic activities is worthwhile to mention. The ecological risk for different trace elements was evaluated using sediment quality guidelines, effects range low (ERL), and effect range median (ERM). The concentration of As, Cu and Ni at 100%, 43% and 86% of the sampling sites has exceeded the ERL value while none of the element concentration exceeded ERM. The potential ecological risk index values revealed that As at 14.3% of the sampling sites would pose relatively moderate risk to benthic organisms. The effective role of finer clay particles for trace element distribution was revealed by multivariate analysis. The authors strongly recommend regular monitoring emphasizing on accurate appraisal of the potential risk of trace elements for effective and sustainable management of this estuarine environment.

Keywords: pollution assessment, sediment contamination, sediment quality, trace elements

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2962 Nutrient and Trace Element Content in Some Wild Boletus Taxa from Marmara Region (Turkey)

Authors: Murad Aydin Şanda, Hasan Hüseyin Doğan, Öyküm Öztürk


Element contents were analysed in some wild Boletus taxa [Boletus fechtnerii, Boletus edulis, Boletus dupainii, Boletus calopus, Boletus pulverulentus, Boletus rhodoxanthus] from Marmara region of Turkey by ICP-AES equipment. The element uptake levels were observed at different amounts in each Boletus species. The highest Fe, Ca, Ni, Cd, and Cr concentrations were determined as 4927, 1927, 3.56, 2.69 and 2.63 in B. fechtnerii respectively. B. dupainii has highest K, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentrations as 41910, 2757, 476, and 125 respectively, whereas B. calopus has highest P, Cu, and B concentrations as 4982, 48.6, and 28.3 respectively. B. edulis has highest Na and S contents as 1666 and 5544 respectively. Although B. pulverulentus has only the highest Al content as 871, on the other hand B. rhodoxanthus has highest Mo concentrations as 0.86

Keywords: Boletus, element, macrofungi, Turkey

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2961 Simultaneous Analysis of 25 Trace Elements in Micro Volume of Human Serum by Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Siok-Fong Chin, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Rahman Jamal


In recent years, trace elements have gained importance as biomarkers in many chronic diseases. Unfortunately, the requirement for sample volume increases according to the extent of investigation for diagnosis or elucidating the mechanism of the disease. Here, we describe the method development and validation for simultaneous determination of 25 trace elements (lithium (Li), beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), gallium (Ga), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), caesium (Cs), barium (Ba), mercury (Hg), thallium (Tl), lead (Pb), uranium (U)) using just 20 µL of human serum. Serum samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (ratio 1:1, v/v) and analysed using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Seronorm®, a human-derived serum control material was used as quality control samples. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were consistently < 15% for all elements. The validated method was later applied to 30 human serum samples to evaluate its suitability. In conclusion, we have successfully developed and validated a precise and accurate analytical method for determining 25 trace elements requiring very low volume of human serum.

Keywords: acid digestion, ICP-MS, trace element, serum

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2960 Association of Phytomineral Supplementation with the Seasonal Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Grazing Sheep in the Scenario of Climate Change

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Ashfaq Ahmad Chatta, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Saqib


Changes in the climate are posing threats to the livestock community throughout the globe. Agro-grazing animals and natural vegetation as their forages are the most important components of animal production. Climate and local conditions not only determine the nature and kind of plants, their distribution, composition and nutritive value in different cropping belts and grazing sites but also influence number and kinds of grazing animals. Phytomineral supplementation can act as an indirect tool to boost-up immunological profile of animals leading to the development of resilience against parasitic infections. The present study correlates the trace element (Cu, Co, Mn, Zn) profile of grazing sheep, feedstuffs, respective soils and their GI helminths in a selected district of Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan. Ten species of GI helminths were found during the survey. A significant (P < 0.05) variation in the concentrations (conc.) of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co was recorded in a total of 16 collected forages. During autumn, mean conc. of Cu, Zn and Co in sera were inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden; while, during spring, only Zn was inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden in grazing sheep. During autumn the highest conc. of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co were recorded in Echinochloa colona, Amaranthus viridis, Cannabis sativa, and Brachiaria ramose and during spring in Cichorium intybus, Cynodon dactylon, Parthenium hysterophorus and Coronopus didymus respectively. The trace element-rich forages, preferably Zn, found effective against helminth infection are advisable supplemental remedies to improve the trace element profile in grazing sheep. This mitigation strategy may ultimately improve the resilience against GI helminth infections especially in the resource poor countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: coprological examination, Trace elements, Sheep, Gastro-intestinal parasites, Prevalence, Sialkot, Pakistan

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2959 Some Trace and Toxic Metal Content of Crude Ethanol Leaf Extract of Globimetula Oreophila (Hook. F) Danser Azadirachta Indica Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

Authors: Dauda G., Bila Ha Sani Y. M., Magaji M. G., Musa A. M., Hassan H. S.


Introduction: Globimetula oreophila is a parasitic plant with a known therapeutic value that is widely used in the treatment of various ailments, including malaria, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, epilepsy and as a diuretic agent. Objectives: The present study is aimed at analyzing and documenting the level of trace and toxic metals in the crude ethanol leaf extract of G. oreophila. Methods: After collection and authentication, the leaves were air-dried, mashed into powder, weighed and extracted using aqueous ethanol (70%). The crude extract (0.5g) was digested with HNO₃: HCl (3:1); then heated to 2000C and analyzed for its metal content by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results: Fe had the highest concentration (32.73mg/kg), while Pb was not detected. The concentrations of Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd detected were 5.97, 10.8, 8.01 and 0.9mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Cd, Fe and Ni were above the permissible limit of FAO/WHO. Conclusion: The results also show that the analyzed plant is a beneficial source of appropriate and essential trace metals. However, the leaf of G. oreophila in the present study was probably unsafe for long-term use because of the level of Fe, Ni, and Cd concentration.

Keywords: Globimetula oreophila, minerals, trace element, crude extract

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2958 Evaluation of Some Trace Elements in Biological Samples of Egyptian Viral Hepatitis Patients under Nutrition Therapy

Authors: Tarek Elnimr, Reda Morsy, Assem El Fert, Aziza Ismail


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis or liver cancer. Disease caused by the hepatitis virus, the virus can cause hepatitis infection, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. A growing body of evidence indicates that many trace elements play important roles in a number of carcinogenic processes that proceed with various mechanisms. To examine the status of trace elements during the development of hepatic carcinoma, we determined the iron, copper, zinc and selenium levels in some biological samples of patients at different stages of viral hepatic disease. We observed significant changes in the iron, copper, zinc and selenium levels in the biological samples of patients hepatocellular carcinoma, relative to those of healthy controls. The mean hair, nail, RBC, serum and whole blood copper levels in patients with hepatitis virus were significantly higher than that of the control group. In contrast the mean iron, zinc, and selenium levels in patients having hepatitis virus were significantly lower than those of the control group. On the basis of this study, we identified the impact of natural supplements to improve the treatment of viral liver damage, using the level of some trace elements such as, iron, copper, zinc and selenium, which might serve as biomarkers for increases survival and reduces disease progression. Most of the elements revealed diverse and random distribution in the samples of the donor groups. The correlation study pointed out significant disparities in the mutual relationships among the trace elements in the patients and controls. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of the element data manifested diverse apportionment of the selected elements in the scalp hair, nail and blood components of the patients compared with the healthy counterparts.

Keywords: hepatitis, hair, nail, blood components, trace element, nutrition therapy, multivariate analysis, correlation, ICP-MS

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2957 The SBO/LOCA Analysis of TRACE/SNAP for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. T. Lin, Y. Chiang, H. C. Chen, C. Shih


Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is located on the northern coast of Taiwan. Its nuclear steam supply system is a type of BWR/6 designed and built by General Electric on a twin unit concept. First, the methodology of Kuosheng NPP SPU (Stretch Power Uprate) safety analysis TRACE/SNAP model was developed in this research. Then, in order to estimate the safety of Kuosheng NPP under the more severe condition, the SBO (Station Blackout) + LOCA (Loss-of-Coolant Accident) transient analysis of Kuosheng NPP SPU TRACE/SNAP model was performed. Besides, the animation model of Kuosheng NPP was presented using the animation function of SNAP with TRACE/SNAP analysis results.

Keywords: TRACE, safety analysis, BWR/6, severe accident

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2956 The Analysis and Simulation of TRACE in the Ultimate Response Guideline for Chinshan BWR/4 Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. T. Lin, H. C. Chen, C. Shih, S. W. Chen, S. C. Chiang, C. C. Liu


In this research, TRACE model of Chinshan BWR/4 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has been developed for the simulation and analysis of Ultimate Response Guideline (URG). The main actions of URG are the depressurization and low pressure water injection of reactor and containment venting. This research focuses to verify the URG efficiency under Fukushima-like conditions. Trace analysis results show that the URG can keep the PCT below the criteria 1088.7 K under Fukushima-like conditions. It indicated that Chinshan NPP was safe.

Keywords: BWR, trace, safety analysis, URG

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2955 The Main Steamline Break Transient Analysis for Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Using TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP Codes

Authors: H. C. Chang, J. R. Wang, A. L. Ho, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, C. Shih, L. C. Wang


To confirm the reactor and containment integrity of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR), we perform the analysis of main steamline break (MSLB) transient by using the TRACE, PARCS, and SNAP codes. The process of the research has four steps. First, the ABWR nuclear power plant (NPP) model is developed by using the above codes. Second, the steady state analysis is performed by using this model. Third, the ABWR model is used to run the analysis of MSLB transient. Fourth, the predictions of TRACE and PARCS are compared with the data of FSAR. The results of TRACE/PARCS and FSAR are similar. According to the TRACE/PARCS results, the reactor and containment integrity of ABWR can be maintained in a safe condition for MSLB.

Keywords: advanced boiling water reactor, TRACE, PARCS, SNAP

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2954 Modeling Thin Shell Structures by a New Flat Shell Finite Element

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Ashraf Ayoub, Ounis Abdelhafid, Chebili Rachid


In this paper, a new computationally-efficient rectangular flat shell finite element named 'ACM_RSBEC' is presented. The formulated element is obtained by superposition of a new rectangular membrane element 'RSBEC' based on the strain approach and the well known plate bending element 'ACM'. This element can be used for the analysis of thin shell structures, no matter how the geometrical shape might be. Tests on standard problems have been examined. The convergence of the new formulated element is also compared to other types of quadrilateral shell elements. The presented shell element ‘ACM_RSBEC’ has been demonstrated to be effective and useful in analysing thin shell structures.

Keywords: finite element, flat shell element, strain based approach, static condensation

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2953 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the Elemental Analysis Medicinal Plants from India Used in the Treatment of Heart Diseases

Authors: B. M. Pardeshi


Introduction: Minerals and trace elements are chemical elements required by our bodies for numerous biological and physiological processes that are necessary for the maintenance of health. Medicinal plants are highly beneficial for the maintenance of good health and prevention of diseases. They are known as potential sources of minerals and vitamins. 30 to 40% of today’s conventional drugs used in the medicinal and curative properties of various plants are employed in herbal supplement botanicals, nutraceuticals and drug. Aim: The authors explored the mineral element content of some herbs, because mineral elements may have significant role in the development and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, and a close connection between the presence or absence of mineral elements and inflammatory mediators was noted. Methods: Present study deals with the elemental analysis of medicinal plants by Instrumental Neutron activation Analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Medicinal herbals prescribed for skin diseases were purchased from markets and were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using 252Cf Californium spontaneous fission neutron source (flux* 109 n s-1) and the induced activities were counted by γ-ray spectrometry and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques (Perkin Elmer 3100 Model) available at Department of Chemistry University of Pune, India, was used for the measurement of major, minor and trace elements. Results: 15 elements viz. Al, K, Cl, Na, Mn by INAA and Cu, Co, Pb Ni, Cr, Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg and Cd by AAS were analyzed from different medicinal plants from India. A critical examination of the data shows that the elements Ca , K, Cl, Al, and Fe are found to be present at major levels in most of the samples while the other elements Na, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ca, Zn, Hg and Cd are present in minor or trace levels. Conclusion: The beneficial therapeutic effect of the studied herbs may be related to their mineral element content. The elemental concentration in different medicinal plants is discussed.

Keywords: instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, medicinal plants, trace elemental analysis, mineral contents

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2952 A Review: Role of Chromium in Broiler

Authors: Naveed Zahra, Zahid Kamran, Shakeel Ahmad


Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effect of heat stress results in reduction in the productive performance of poultry with high incidences of mortality. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry production through dietary manipulation. Supplementation with Chromium (Cr) might have some positive effects on some aspect of blood parameters and broilers performance. Chromium (Cr) the element whose trivalent Cr (III) organic state is present in trace amounts in animal feed and water is found to be a key element in evading heat stress and thus cutting down the heavy expenditure on air conditioning in broiler sheds. Chromium, along with other essential minerals is lost due to increased excretion during heat stress and thus its inclusion in broiler diet is kind of mandatory in areas of hot climate. Chromium picolinate in broiler diet has shown a hike in growth rate including muscle gain with body fat reduction under environmental stress. Fat reduction is probably linked to the ability of chromium to increase the sensitivity of the insulin receptors on tissues and thus the uptake of sugar from blood increases which decreases the amount of glucose to be converted to amino acids and stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides. Organic chromium has also shown to increase lymphocyte proliferation rate and antioxidant levels. So, the immune competency, muscle gain and fat reduction along with evasion of heat stress are good enough signs that indicate the fruitful inclusion of dietary chromium for broiler. This promising element may bring the much needed break in the local poultry industry. The task is now to set the exact dose of the element in the diet that would be useful enough and still not toxic to broiler. In conclusion there is a growing body of evidence which suggest that chromium may be an essential trace element for livestock and poultry. The nutritional requirement for chromium may vary with different species and physiological state within a species.

Keywords: broiler, chromium, heat stress, performance

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2951 Trace Network: A Probabilistic Relevant Pattern Recognition Approach to Attribution Trace Analysis

Authors: Jian Xu, Xiaochun Yun, Yongzheng Zhang, Yafei Sang, Zhenyu Cheng


Network attack prevention is a critical research area of information security. Network attack would be oppressed if attribution techniques are capable to trace back to the attackers after the hacking event. Therefore attributing these attacks to a particular identification becomes one of the important tasks when analysts attempt to differentiate and profile the attacker behind a piece of attack trace. To assist analysts in expose attackers behind the scenes, this paper researches on the connections between attribution traces and proposes probabilistic relevance based attribution patterns. This method facilitates the evaluation of the plausibility relevance between different traceable identifications. Furthermore, through analyzing the connections among traces, it could confirm the existence probability of a certain organization as well as discover its affinitive partners by the means of drawing relevance matrix from attribution traces.

Keywords: attribution trace, probabilistic relevance, network attack, attacker identification

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2950 The Model Establishment and Analysis of TRACE/FRAPTRAN for Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant Spent Fuel Pool

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. T. Lin, Y. S. Tseng, W. Y. Li, H. C. Chen, S. W. Chen, C. Shih


TRACE is developed by U.S. NRC for the nuclear power plants (NPPs) safety analysis. We focus on the establishment and application of TRACE/FRAPTRAN/SNAP models for Chinshan NPP (BWR/4) spent fuel pool in this research. The geometry is 12.17 m × 7.87 m × 11.61 m for the spent fuel pool. In this study, there are three TRACE/SNAP models: one-channel, two-channel, and multi-channel TRACE/SNAP model. Additionally, the cooling system failure of the spent fuel pool was simulated and analyzed by using the above models. According to the analysis results, the peak cladding temperature response was more accurate in the multi-channel TRACE/SNAP model. The results depicted that the uncovered of the fuels occurred at 2.7 day after the cooling system failed. In order to estimate the detailed fuel rods performance, FRAPTRAN code was used in this research. According to the results of FRAPTRAN, the highest cladding temperature located on the node 21 of the fuel rod (the highest node at node 23) and the cladding burst roughly after 3.7 day.

Keywords: TRACE, FRAPTRAN, BWR, spent fuel pool

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