Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: land-use

16 Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Data Using Remote Sensing Technology

Authors: Kapil Pandey, Vishnu Goyal


Spatial and temporal data analysis is very well known in the field of satellite image processing. When spatial data are correlated with time, series analysis it gives the significant results in change detection studies. In this paper the GIS and Remote sensing techniques has been used to find the change detection using time series satellite imagery of Uttarakhand state during the years of 1990-2010. Natural vegetation, urban area, forest cover etc. were chosen as main landuse classes to study. Landuse/ landcover classes within several years were prepared using satellite images. Maximum likelihood supervised classification technique was adopted in this work and finally landuse change index has been generated and graphical models were used to present the changes.

Keywords: GIS, landuse/landcover, spatial and temporal data, remote sensing

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15 Impact of Landuse Change on Surface Temperature in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Abegunde Linda, Adedeji Oluwatola


It has become increasingly evident that large developments influence the climate within the immediate region and there are concerns that rising temperatures over developed areas could have negative impact and increase living discomfort within city boundaries. Temperature trends in Ibadan city have received minor attention, yet the area has experienced heavy urban expansion between 1972 and 2014. This research aims at examining the impact of landuse change on temperature knowing that the built environment absorbs and stores solar energy, the temperature in cities can be several degrees higher than in adjacent rural areas. This is known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The Landsat imagery were used to examine the landuse change for a time period of 42years (1972-2014) and Land surface temperature (LST) was obtained by converting the thermal band to a surface temperature map and zonal statistic analyses was further used to examine the relationship between landuse and temperature emission. The results showed that the settlement area increased by 200km2 while the area covered by vegetation also reduced to about 42.6% during the study period. The spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover and the settlement area has the highest emission of land surface temperature. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Ibadan city.

Keywords: landuse, LST, remote sensing, UHI

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14 Impact of Urbanization on Natural Drainage Pattern in District of Larkana, Sindh Pakistan

Authors: Sumaira Zafar, Arjumand Zaidi


During past few years, several floods have adversely affected the areas along lower Indus River. Besides other climate related anomalies, rapidly increasing urbanization and blockage of natural drains due to siltation or encroachments are two other critical causes that may be responsible for these disasters. Due to flat topography of river Indus plains and blockage of natural waterways, drainage of storm water takes time adversely affecting the crop health and soil properties of the area. Government of Sindh is taking a keen interest in revival of natural drainage network in the province and has initiated this work under Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority. In this paper, geospatial techniques are used to analyze landuse/land-cover changes of Larkana district over the past three decades (1980-present) and their impact on natural drainage system. Satellite derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and topographic sheets (recent and 1950) are used to delineate natural drainage pattern of the district. The urban landuse map developed in this study is further overlaid on drainage line layer to identify the critical areas where the natural floodwater flows are being inhibited by urbanization. Rainfall and flow data are utilized to identify areas of heavy flow, whereas, satellite data including Landsat 7 and Google Earth are used to map previous floods extent and landuse/cover of the study area. Alternatives to natural drainage systems are also suggested wherever possible. The output maps of natural drainage pattern can be used to develop a decision support system for urban planners, Sindh development authorities and flood mitigation and management agencies.

Keywords: geospatial techniques, satellite data, natural drainage, flood, urbanization

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13 Land Suitability Analysis for Maize Production in Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State Using GIS Techniques

Authors: Abegunde Linda, Adedeji Oluwatayo, Tope-Ajayi Opeyemi


Maize constitutes a major agrarian production for use by the vast population but despite its economic importance, it has not been produced to meet the economic needs of the country. Achieving optimum yield in maize can meaningfully be supported by land suitability analysis in order to guarantee self-sufficiency for future production optimization. This study examines land suitability for maize production through the analysis of the physic-chemical variations in soil properties over space using a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework. Physic-chemical parameters of importance selected include slope, landuse, and physical and chemical properties of the soil. Landsat imagery was used to categorize the landuse, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapping (SRTM) generated the slope and soil samples were analyzed for its physical and chemical components. Suitability was categorized into highly, moderately and marginally suitable based on Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) classification using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique of GIS. This result can be used by small scale farmers for efficient decision making in the allocation of land for maize production.

Keywords: AHP, GIS, MCE, suitability, Zea mays

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12 Urban Impervious and its Impact on Storm Water Drainage Systems

Authors: Ratul Das, Udit Narayan Das


Surface imperviousness in urban area brings significant changes in storm water drainage systems and some recent studies reveals that the impervious surfaces that passes the storm water runoff directly to drainage systems through storm water collection systems, called directly connected impervious area (DCIA) is an effective parameter rather than total impervious areas (TIA) for computation of surface runoff. In the present study, extension of DCIA and TIA were computed for a small sub-urban area of Agartala, the capital of state Tripura. Total impervious surfaces covering the study area were identified on the existing storm water drainage map from landuse map of the study area in association with field assessments. Also, DCIA assessed through field survey were compared to DCIA computed by empirical relationships provided by other investigators. For the assessment of DCIA in the study area two methods were adopted. First, partitioning the study area into four drainage sub-zones based on average basin slope and laying of existing storm water drainage systems. In the second method, the entire study area was divided into small grids. Each grid or parcel comprised of 20m× 20m area. Total impervious surfaces were delineated from landuse map in association with on-site assessments for efficient determination of DCIA within each sub-area and grid. There was a wide variation in percent connectivity of TIA across each sub-drainage zone and grid. In the present study, total impervious area comprises 36.23% of the study area, in which 21.85% of the total study area is connected to storm water collection systems. Total pervious area (TPA) and others comprise 53.20% and 10.56% of the total area, respectively. TIA recorded by field assessment (36.23%) was considerably higher than that calculated from the available land use map (22%). From the analysis of recoded data, it is observed that the average percentage of connectivity (% DCIA with respect to TIA) is 60.31 %. The analysis also reveals that the observed DCIA lies below the line of optimal impervious surface connectivity for a sub-urban area provided by other investigators and which indicate the probable reason of water logging conditions in many parts of the study area during monsoon period.

Keywords: Drainage, imperviousness, runoff, storm water.

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11 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Land Use Change and Green Cover Index

Authors: Poonam Sharma, Ankur Srivastav


Cities are complex and dynamic systems that constitute a significant challenge to urban planning. The increasing size of the built-up area owing to growing population pressure and economic growth have lead to massive Landuse/Landcover change resulted in the loss of natural habitat and thus reducing the green covers in urban areas. Urban environmental quality is influenced by several aspects, including its geographical configuration, the scale, and nature of human activities occurring and environmental impacts generated. Cities have transformed into complex and dynamic systems that constitute a significant challenge to urban planning. Cities and their sustainability are often discussed together as the cities stand confronted with numerous environmental concerns as the world becoming increasingly urbanized, and the cities are situated in the mesh of global networks in multiple senses. A rapid transformed urban setting plays a crucial role to change the green area of natural habitats. To examine the pattern of urban growth and to measure the Landuse/Landcover change in Gurgoan in Haryana, India through the integration of Geospatial technique is attempted in the research paper. Satellite images are used to measure the spatiotemporal changes that have occurred in the land use and land cover resulting into a new cityscape. It has been observed from the analysis that drastically evident changes in land use has occurred with the massive rise in built up areas and the decrease in green cover and therefore causing the sustainability of the city an important area of concern. The massive increase in built-up area has influenced the localised temperatures and heat concentration. To enhance the decision-making process in urban planning, a detailed and real world depiction of these urban spaces is the need of the hour. Monitoring indicators of key processes in land use and economic development are essential for evaluating policy measures.

Keywords: cityscape, geospatial techniques, green cover index, urban environmental quality, urban planning

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10 Reducing Flood Risk in a Megacity: Using Mobile Application and Value Capture for Flood Risk Prevention and Risk Reduction Financing

Authors: Dedjo Yao Simon, Takahiro Saito, Norikazu Inuzuka, Ikuo Sugiyama


The megacity of Abidjan is a coastal urban area where the number of floods reported and the associated impacts are on a rapid increase due to climate change, an uncontrolled urbanization, a rapid population increase, a lack of flood disaster mitigation and citizens’ awareness. The objective of this research is to reduce in the short and long term period, the human and socio-economic impact of the flood. Hydrological simulation is applied on free of charge global spatial data (digital elevation model, satellite-based rainfall estimate, landuse) to identify the flood-prone area and to map the risk of flood. A direct interview to a sample residents is used to validate the simulation results. Then a mobile application (Flood Locator) is prototyped to disseminate the risk information to the citizen. In addition, a value capture strategy is proposed to mobilize financial resource for disaster risk reduction (DRRf) to reduce the impact of the flood. The town of Cocody in Abidjan is selected as a case study area to implement this research. The mapping of the flood risk reveals that population living in the study area is highly vulnerable. For a 5-year flood, more than 60% of the floodplain is affected by a water depth of at least 0.5 meters; and more than 1000 ha with at least 5000 buildings are directly exposed. The risk becomes higher for a 50 and 100-year floods. Also, the interview reveals that the majority of the citizen are not aware of the risk and severity of flooding in their community. This shortage of information is overcome by the Flood Locator and by an urban flood database we prototype for accumulate flood data. Flood Locator App allows the users to view floodplain and depth on a digital map; the user can activate the GPS sensor of the mobile to visualize his location on the map. Some more important additional features allow the citizen user to capture flood events and damage information that they can send remotely to the database. Also, the disclosure of the risk information could result to a decrement (-14%) of the value of properties locate inside floodplain and an increment (+19%) of the value of property in the suburb area. The tax increment due to the higher tax increment in the safer area should be captured to constitute the DRRf. The fund should be allocated to the reduction of flood risk for the benefit of people living in flood-prone areas. The flood prevention system discusses in this research will minimize in the short and long term the direct damages in the risky area due to effective awareness of citizen and the availability of DRRf. It will also contribute to the growth of the urban area in the safer zone and reduce human settlement in the risky area in the long term. Data accumulated in the urban flood database through the warning app will contribute to regenerate Abidjan towards the more resilient city by means of risk avoidable landuse in the master plan.

Keywords: abidjan, database, flood, geospatial techniques, risk communication, smartphone, value capture

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9 Exploring the Capabilities of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A Data for Landslide Mapping

Authors: Ismayanti Magfirah, Sartohadi Junun, Samodra Guruh


Landslides are one of the most frequent and devastating natural disasters in Indonesia. Many studies have been conducted regarding this phenomenon. However, there is a lack of attention in the landslide inventory mapping. The natural condition (dense forest area) and the limited human and economic resources are some of the major problems in building landslide inventory in Indonesia. Considering the importance of landslide inventory data in susceptibility, hazard, and risk analysis, it is essential to generate landslide inventory based on available resources. In order to achieve this, the first thing we have to do is identify the landslides' location. The presence of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data gives new insights into land monitoring investigation. The free access, high spatial resolution, and short revisit time, make the data become one of the most trending open sources data used in landslide mapping. Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data have been used broadly for landslide detection and landuse/landcover mapping. This study aims to generate landslide map by integrating Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A data use change detection method. The result will be validated by field investigation to make preliminary landslide inventory in the study area.

Keywords: change detection method, landslide inventory mapping, Sentinel-1A, Sentinel-2A

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8 Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing of landscape Dynamics and Pattern Changes in Dire District, Southern Oromia, Ethiopia

Authors: K. Berhanu


Improper land use results in land degradation and decline in agricultural productivity. Hence, in order to get maximum benefits out of land, proper utilization of its resources is inevitable. The present study was aimed at identifying the landcover changes in the study area in the last 25 years and determines the extent and direction of change that has occurred. The study made use of Landsat TM 1986 and 2011 Remote Sensing Satellite Image for analysis to determine the extent and pattern of rangeland change. The results of the landuse/landcover change detection showed that in the last 25 years, 3 major changes were observed, grassland and open shrub-land resource significantly decreased at a rate of 17.1km2/year and 12 km2/year/, respectively. On the other hand in 25 years dense bushland, open bush land, dense shrubland and cultivated land has shown increment in size at a rate of 0.23km2/year,13.5 km2/year, 6.3 km2/year and 0.2 km2/year, respectively within 25 years. The expansion of unpalatable woody species significantly reduced the rangeland size and availability of grasses. The consequence of the decrease in herbaceous biomass production might result in high risk of food insecurity in the area unless proper interventions are made in time.

Keywords: GIS and remote sensing, Dire District, land use/land cover, land sat TM

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7 Application of RS and GIS Technique for Identifying Groundwater Potential Zone in Gomukhi Nadhi Sub Basin, South India

Authors: Punitha Periyasamy, Mahalingam Sudalaimuthu, Sachikanta Nanda, Arasu Sundaram


India holds 17.5% of the world’s population but has only 2% of the total geographical area of the world where 27.35% of the area is categorized as wasteland due to lack of or less groundwater. So there is a demand for excessive groundwater for agricultural and non agricultural activities to balance its growth rate. With this in mind, an attempt is made to find the groundwater potential zone in Gomukhi river sub basin of Vellar River basin, TamilNadu, India covering an area of 1146.6 Sq.Km consists of 9 blocks from Peddanaickanpalayam to Villupuram fall in the sub basin. The thematic maps such as Geology, Geomorphology, Lineament, Landuse, and Landcover and Drainage are prepared for the study area using IRS P6 data. The collateral data includes rainfall, water level, soil map are collected for analysis and inference. The digital elevation model (DEM) is generated using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and the slope of the study area is obtained. ArcGIS 10.1 acts as a powerful spatial analysis tool to find out the ground water potential zones in the study area by means of weighted overlay analysis. Each individual parameter of the thematic maps are ranked and weighted in accordance with their influence to increase the water level in the ground. The potential zones in the study area are classified viz., Very Good, Good, Moderate, Poor with its aerial extent of 15.67, 381.06, 575.38, 174.49 Sq.Km respectively.

Keywords: ArcGIS, DEM, groundwater, recharge, weighted overlay

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6 Eco-Environmental Vulnerability Evaluation in Mountain Regions Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System: A Case Study of Pasol Gad Watershed of Garhwal Himalaya, India

Authors: Suresh Kumar Bandooni, Mirana Laishram


The Mid Himalaya of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand (India) has a complex Physiographic features withdiversified climatic conditions and therefore it is suspect to environmental vulnerability. Thenatural disasters and also anthropogenic activities accelerate the rate of environmental vulnerability. To analyse the environmental vulnerability, we have used geoinformatics technologies and numerical models and it is adoptedby using Spatial Principal Component Analysis (SPCA). The model consist of many factors such as slope, landuse/landcover, soil, forest fire risk, landslide susceptibility zone, human population density and vegetation index. From this model, the environmental vulnerability integrated index (EVSI) is calculated for Pasol Gad Watershed of Garhwal Himalaya for the years 1987, 2000, and 2013 and the Vulnerability is classified into five levelsi.e. Very low, low, medium, high and very highby means of cluster principle. The resultsforeco-environmental vulnerability distribution in study area shows that medium, high and very high levels are dominating in the area and it is mainly caused by the anthropogenic activities and natural disasters. Therefore, proper management forconservation of resources is utmost necessity of present century. It is strongly believed that participation at community level along with social worker, institutions and Non-governmental organization (NGOs) have become a must to conserve and protect the environment.

Keywords: eco-environment vulnerability, spatial principal component analysis, remote sensing, geographic information system, institutions, Himalaya

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5 Ecosystem Services and Excess Water Management: Analysis of Ecosystem Services in Areas Exposed to Excess Water Inundation

Authors: Dalma Varga, Nora Hubayne H.


Nowadays, among the measures taken to offset the consequences of climate change, water resources management is one of the key tools, which can include excess water management. As a result of climate change’s effects and as a result of the frequent inappropriate landuse, more and more areas are affected by the excess water inundation. Hungary is located in the deepest part of the Pannonian Basin, which is exposed to water damage – especially lowland areas that are endangered by floods or excess waters. The periodical presence of excess water creates specific habitats in a given area, which have ecological, functional, and aesthetic values. Excess water inundation affects approximately 74% of Hungary’s lowland areas, of which about 46% is also under nature protection (such as national parks, protected landscape areas, nature conservation areas, Natura 2000 sites, etc.). These data prove that areas exposed to excess water inundation – which are predominantly characterized by agricultural land uses – have an important ecological role. Other research works have confirmed the presence of numerous rare and endangered plant species in drainage canals, on grasslands exposed to excess water, and on special agricultural fields with mud vegetation. The goal of this research is to define and analyze ecosystem services of areas exposed to excess water inundation. In addition to this, it is also important to determine the quantified indicators of these areas’ natural and landscape values besides the presence of protected species and the naturalness of habitats, so all in all, to analyze the various nature protections related to excess water. As a result, a practice-orientated assessment method has been developed that provides the ecological water demand, assimilates to ecological and habitat aspects, contributes to adaptive excess water management, and last but not least, increases or maintains the share of the green infrastructure network. In this way, it also contributes to reduce and mitigate the negative effects of climate change.

Keywords: ecosystem services, landscape architecture, excess water management, green infrastructure planning

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4 Water Quality Management Based on Hydrodynamic Approach, Landuse, and Human Intervention in Wulan Delta Central Java Indonesia: Problems Identification and Review

Authors: Lintang Nur Fadlillah, Muh Aris Marfai, M. Widyastuti


Delta is dynamics area which is influenced by marine and river. Increasing human population in coastal area and the need of life exert pressure in delta that provides various resources. Wulan Delta is one of active Delta in Central Java, Indonesia. It has been experienced multiple pressures because of natural factors and human factors. In order to provide scientific solution and to analyze the main driving force in river delta, we collected several evidences based on news, papers, and publications related to Wulan Delta. This paper presents a review and problems identification in Wulan Delta, based on hydrodynamic approach, land use, and human activities which influenced water quality in the delta. A comprehensive overview is needed to address best policies under local communities and government. The analysis based on driving forces which affect delta estuary and river mouth. Natural factor in particular hydrodynamic influenced by tides, waves, runoff, and sediment transport. However, hydrodynamic affecting mixing process in river estuaries. The main problem is human intervention in land which is land use exchange leads to several problems such us decreasing water quality. Almost 90% of delta has been transformed into fish pond by local communities. Yet, they have not apply any water management to treat waste water before flush it to the sea and estuary. To understand the environmental condition, we need to assess water quality of river delta. The assessment based on land use as non-point source pollution. In Wulan Delta there are no industries. The land use in Wulan Delta consist of fish pond, settlement, and agriculture. The samples must represent the land use, to estimate which land use are most influence in river delta pollution. The hydrodynamic condition such as high tides and runoff must be considered, because it will affect the mixing process and water quality as well. To determine the samples site, we need to involve local community, in order to give insight into them. Furthermore, based on this review and problem identification, recommendations and strategies for water management are formulated.

Keywords: delta, land use, water quality, management, hydrodynamics

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3 Post-Soviet LULC Analysis of Tbilisi, Batumi and Kutaisi Using of Remote Sensing and Geo Information System

Authors: Lela Gadrani, Mariam Tsitsagi


Human is a part of the urban landscape and responsible for it. Urbanization of cities includes the longest phase; thus none of the environment ever undergoes such anthropogenic impact as the area of large cities. The post-Soviet period is very interesting in terms of scientific research. The changes that have occurred in the cities since the collapse of the Soviet Union have not yet been analyzed best to our knowledge. In this context, the aim of this paper is to analyze the changes in the land use of the three large cities of Georgia (Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi). Tbilisi as a capital city, Batumi as a port city, and Kutaisi as a former industrial center. Data used during the research process are conventionally divided into satellite and supporting materials. For this purpose, the largest topographic maps (1:10 000) of all three cities were analyzed, Tbilisi General Plans (1896, 1924), Tbilisi and Kutaisi historical maps. The main emphasis was placed on the classification of Landsat images. In this case, we have classified the images LULC (LandUse / LandCover) of all three cities taken in 1987 and 2016 using the supervised and unsupervised methods. All the procedures were performed in the programs: Arc GIS 10.3.1 and ENVI 5.0. In each classification we have singled out the following classes: built-up area, water bodies, agricultural lands, green cover and bare soil, and calculated the areas occupied by them. In order to check the validity of the obtained results, additionally we used the higher resolution images of CORONA and Sentinel. Ultimately we identified the changes that took place in the land use in the post-Soviet period in the above cities. According to the results, a large wave of changes touched Tbilisi and Batumi, though in different periods. It turned out that in the case of Tbilisi, the area of developed territory has increased by 13.9% compared to the 1987 data, which is certainly happening at the expense of agricultural land and green cover, in particular, the area of agricultural lands has decreased by 4.97%; and the green cover by 5.67%. It should be noted that Batumi has obviously overtaken the country's capital in terms of development. With the unaided eye it is clear that in comparison with other regions of Georgia, everything is different in Batumi. In fact, Batumi is an unofficial summer capital of Georgia. Undoubtedly, Batumi’s development is very important both in economic and social terms. However, there is a danger that in the uneven conditions of urban development, we will eventually get a developed center - Batumi, and multiple underdeveloped peripheries around it. Analysis of the changes in the land use is of utmost importance not only for quantitative evaluation of the changes already implemented, but for future modeling and prognosis of urban development. Raster data containing the classes of land use is an integral part of the city's prognostic models.

Keywords: analysis, geo information system, remote sensing, LULC

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2 Creative Mapping Landuse and Human Activities: From the Inventories of Factories to the History of the City and Citizens

Authors: R. Tamborrino, F. Rinaudo


Digital technologies offer possibilities to effectively convert historical archives into instruments of knowledge able to provide a guide for the interpretation of historical phenomena. Digital conversion and management of those documents allow the possibility to add other sources in a unique and coherent model that permits the intersection of different data able to open new interpretations and understandings. Urban history uses, among other sources, the inventories that register human activities in a specific space (e.g. cadastres, censuses, etc.). The geographic localisation of that information inside cartographic supports allows for the comprehension and visualisation of specific relationships between different historical realities registering both the urban space and the peoples living there. These links that merge the different nature of data and documentation through a new organisation of the information can suggest a new interpretation of other related events. In all these kinds of analysis, the use of GIS platforms today represents the most appropriate answer. The design of the related databases is the key to realise the ad-hoc instrument to facilitate the analysis and the intersection of data of different origins. Moreover, GIS has become the digital platform where it is possible to add other kinds of data visualisation. This research deals with the industrial development of Turin at the beginning of the 20th century. A census of factories realized just prior to WWI provides the opportunity to test the potentialities of GIS platforms for the analysis of urban landscape modifications during the first industrial development of the town. The inventory includes data about location, activities, and people. GIS is shaped in a creative way linking different sources and digital systems aiming to create a new type of platform conceived as an interface integrating different kinds of data visualisation. The data processing allows linking this information to an urban space, and also visualising the growth of the city at that time. The sources, related to the urban landscape development in that period, are of a different nature. The emerging necessity to build, enlarge, modify and join different buildings to boost the industrial activities, according to their fast development, is recorded by different official permissions delivered by the municipality and now stored in the Historical Archive of the Municipality of Turin. Those documents, which are reports and drawings, contain numerous data on the buildings themselves, including the block where the plot is located, the district, and the people involved such as the owner, the investor, and the engineer or architect designing the industrial building. All these collected data offer the possibility to firstly re-build the process of change of the urban landscape by using GIS and 3D modelling technologies thanks to the access to the drawings (2D plans, sections and elevations) that show the previous and the planned situation. Furthermore, they access information for different queries of the linked dataset that could be useful for different research and targets such as economics, biographical, architectural, or demographical. By superimposing a layer of the present city, the past meets to the present-industrial heritage, and people meet urban history.

Keywords: digital urban history, census, digitalisation, GIS, modelling, digital humanities

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1 Effect of Varied Climate, Landuse and Human Activities on the Termite (Isoptera: Insecta) Diversity in Three Different Habitats of Shivamogga District, Karnataka, India

Authors: C. M. Kalleshwaraswamy, G. S. Sathisha, A. S. Vidyashree, H. B. Pavithra


Isoptera are an interesting group of social insects with different castes and division of labour. They are primarily wood-feeders, but also feed on a variety of other organic substrates, such as living trees, leaf litter, soil, lichens and animal faeces. The number of species and their biomass are especially large in tropics. In natural ecosystems, they perform a beneficial role in nutrient cycles by accelerating decomposition. The magnitude and dimension of ecological role played by termites is a function of their diversity, population density, and biomass. Termite assemblage composition has a strong response to habitat disturbance and may be indicative of quantitative changes in the decomposition process. Many previous studies in Western Ghat region of India suggest increased anthropogenic activities that adversely affect the soil macrofauna and diversity. Shivamogga district provides a good opportunity to study the effect of topography, cropping pattern, human disturbance on the termite fauna, thereby acquiring accurate baseline information for conservation decision making. The district has 3 distinct agro-ecological areas such as maidan area, semi-malnad and Western Ghat region. Thus, the district provides a unique opportunity to study the effect of varied climate and anthropogenic disturbance on the termite diversity. The standard protocol of belt transects method developed by Eggleton et al. (1997) was used for sampling termites. Sampling was done at monthly interval from September-2014 to August-2015 in Western Ghats, semi-malnad and maidan habitats. The transect was 100m long and 2m wide and divided into 20 contiguous sections, each 5 x 2m in each habitat. Within each section, all the probable microhabitats of termites were searched, which include dead logs, fallen tree, branch, sticks, leaf litter, vegetation etc.,. All the castes collected were labelled, preserved in 80% alcohol, counted and identified to species level. The number of encounters of a species in the transect was used as an indicator of relative abundance of species. The species diversity, species richness, density were compared in three different habitats such as Western Ghats, semi-malnad and maidan region. The study indicated differences in the species composition in the three different habitats. A total of 15 species were recorded which belonging to four sub family and five genera in three habitats. Eleven species viz., Odontotermes obesus, O. feae, O. anamallensis, O. bellahunisensis, O. adampurensis, O. boveni, Microcerotermes fletcheri, M. pakistanicus, Nasutitermes anamalaiensis, N. indicola, N. krishna were recorded in Western Ghat region. Similarly, 11 species viz., Odontotermes obesus, O. feae, O. anamallensis, O. bellahunisensis, O. hornii, O. bhagwathi, Microtermes obesi, Microcerotermes fletcheri, M. pakistanicus, Nasutitermes indicola and Pericapritermes sp. were recorded in semi-malnad habitat. However, only four species viz., O. obesus, O. feae, Microtemes obesi and Pericapritermes sp. species were recorded in maidan area. Shannon’s wiener diversity index (H) showed that Western Ghats had more species dominance (1.56) followed by semi- malnad (1.36) and lowest in maidan (0.89) habitats. Highest value of simpson’s index (D) was observed in Western Ghats habitat (0.70) with more diverse species followed by semi-malnad (0.58) and lowest in maidan (0.53). Similarly, evenness was highest (0.65) in Western Ghats followed by maidan (0.64) and least in semi-malnad habitat (0.54). Menhinick’s index (Dmn) value was ranging from 0.03 to 0.06 in different habitats in the study area. Highest index was observed in Western Ghats (0.06) followed by semi-malnad (0.05) and lowest in maidan (0.03). The study conclusively demonstrated that Western Ghat had highest species diversity compared to semi-malnad and maidan habitat indicating these two habitats are continuously subjected to anthropogenic disturbances. Efforts are needed to conserve the uncommon species which otherwise may become extinct due to human activities.

Keywords: anthropogenic disturbance, isoptera, termite species diversity, Western ghats

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