Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 71

Search results for: legislations

71 The Cut, the Blood and Her Stained Femininity- an Analysis of Female Genital Mutilation

Authors: Indu Poornima

Abstract:

This paper aims at understanding the Socio-historical, political and economic dimensions of Female Genital Mutilation in Africa. After throwing light on the definition of FGM and scrutinizing the misconceptions associated with it, the paper progresses to analyze the following questions. a) How do communities performing FGM rationalize their act? b) Are the victims (women) themselves the strongest proponents of FGM ? and c) Are legislations against FGM by international organizations counter-productive?

Keywords: female genital mutilation, Africa, rationalizing the act, international legislations

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
70 An Exploration of Anti-Terrorism Laws in Nigeria

Authors: Sani Mohammed Adam

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This work seeks to review the security challenges facing Nigeria and explore the relevance of laws and policies in tackling the menace. The work looks at the adequacy of available legislations and the functionality of relevant institutions such as the Armed Forces, the Nigeria Police Force, the State Security Service, the Defence Intelligence Agency and the Nigerian Intelligence Agency etc. Comparisons would be made with other jurisdictions, such as inter alia, the Homeland Security in the USA and Counter Terrorism Laws of the United Kingdom. Recommendations would be made on how to strengthen both institutions and laws to curtail the growth of Terrorism in Nigeria.

Keywords: legislations, Nigeria, security, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
69 Hampering The 'Right to Know': Consequences of the Excessive Interpretation of the Notion of Exemption from the Right to Information

Authors: Tomasz Lewinski

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The right to know becomes gradually recognised as an increasing number of states adopts national legislations regarding access to state-held information. Laws differ from each other in the scope of the right to information (hereinafter: RTI). In all regimes of RTI, there are exceptions from the general notion of the right. States’ authorities too often use exceptions to justify refusals to requests for state-held information. This paper sets out how states hamper RTI basing on the notion of exception and by not providing an effective procedure that could redress unlawful denials. This paper bases on two selected examples of RTI incorporation into the national legal regime, United Kingdom, and South Africa. It succinctly outlines the international standard given in Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (hereinafter: ICCPR) and its influence on the RTI in selected countries. It shortly demonstrates as a background to further analysis the Human Rights Committee’s jurisprudence and standards articulated by successive Special Rapporteurs on freedom of opinion and expression. Subsequently, it presents a brief comparison of these standards with the regional standards, namely the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights. It critically discusses the regimes of exceptions in RTI legislations in respective national laws. It shows how excessive these regimes are, what implications they have for the transparency in general. Also, the objective is to divide exceptions enumerated in legislations of selected states in relation to exceptions provided in Article 19 of the ICCPR. Basing on the established division of exceptions by its natures, it compares both regimes of exceptions related to the principle of national security. That is to compare jurisprudence of domestic courts, and overview practices of states’ authorities applied to RTI requests. The paper evaluates remedies available in legislations, including contexts of the length and costs of the subsequent proceedings. This provides a general assessment of the given mechanisms and present potential risks of its ineffectiveness. The paper relies on examination of the national legislations, comments of the credible non-governmental organisations (e.g. The Public's Right to Know Principles on Freedom of Information Legislation by the Article 19, The Tshwane Principles on National Security and the Right to Information), academics and also the research of the relevant judgements delivered by domestic and international courts. Conclusion assesses whether selected countries’ legislations go in line with international law and trends, whether the jurisprudence of the regional courts provide appropriate benchmarks for national courts to address RTI issues effectively. Furthermore, it identifies the largest disadvantages of current legislations and to what outcomes it leads in domestic courts jurisprudences. In the end, it provides recommendations and policy arguments for states to improve transparency and support local organisations in their endeavours to establish more transparent states and societies.

Keywords: access to information, freedom of information, national security, right to know, transparency

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68 Climate Change and Health in Policies

Authors: Corinne Kowalski, Lea de Jong, Rainer Sauerborn, Niamh Herlihy, Anneliese Depoux, Jale Tosun

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Climate change is considered one of the biggest threats to human health of the 21st century. The link between climate change and health has received relatively little attention in the media, in research and in policy-making. A long term and broad overview of how health is represented in the legislation on climate change is missing in the legislative literature. It is unknown if or how the argument for health is referred in legal clauses addressing climate change, in national and European legislation. Integrating scientific based evidence into policies regarding the impacts of climate change on health could be a key step to inciting the political and societal changes necessary to decelerate global warming. This may also drive the implementation of new strategies to mitigate the consequences on health systems. To provide an overview of this issue, we are analyzing the Global Climate Legislation Database provided by the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment. This institution was established in 2008 at the London School of Economics and Political Science. The database consists of (updated as of 1st January 2015) legislations on climate change in 99 countries around the world. This tool offers relevant information about the state of climate related policies. We will use the database to systematically analyze the 829 identified legislations to identify how health is represented as a relevant aspect of climate change legislation. We are conducting explorative research of national and supranational legislations and anticipate health to be addressed in various forms. The goal is to highlight how often, in what specific terms, which aspects of health or health risks of climate change are mentioned in various legislations. The position and recurrence of the mention of health is also of importance. Data will be extracted with complete quotation of the sentence which mentions health, which will allow for second qualitative stage to analyze which aspects of health are represented and in what context. This study is part of an interdisciplinary project called 4CHealth that confronts results of the research done on scientific, political and press literature to better understand how the knowledge on climate change and health circulates within those different fields and whether and how it is translated to real world change.

Keywords: climate change, explorative research, health, policies

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67 The Standard of Best Interest of the Child in Custody Adjudication under the Malaysian Laws

Authors: Roslina Che Soh

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Best interest of the child has been the prevailing principle of the custody legislations of most nations in the world. The tremendous shift from parental rights to parental responsibilities throughout the centuries had made the principle of best interests of the child as the utmost matter which parents must uphold in child upbringing. Despite the commitment to this principle is significantly enshrined in the United Nation Convention on Rights of the Child, the content and application of the principle differs across borders. Differences persist notwithstanding many countries have experienced a substantial shift over the last several decades in the types of custodial arrangements that are thought to best serve children’s interests. The laws in Malaysia similarly uphold this principle but do not provide further deliberation on the principle itself. The principle is entirely developed by the courts through decided cases. Thus, this paper seeks to discuss the extent of the application of best interest of the child principle in custody disputes. In doing so, it attempts to provide an overview of the current laws and the approach of the Civil and the Shariah courts in Malaysia in applying the principle in determining custody disputes. For purposes of comparison, it briefly examines the legislations and the courts practices in Australia and England on this matter. The purpose is to determine the best standard to be adopted by Malaysia and to propose improvement to the laws whenever appropriate.

Keywords: child custody, best interest, Malaysian law, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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66 Prospects for an Integrated Public Transport System (IPTS) in Harare: An Institutional and Policy Analysis

Authors: Abdon O. Makore

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The study analyses policy and institutional implications with regard to the successful implementation of IPTS in Harare. IPTS has widely been recommended as a rich solution to chaotic public transport operations, yet studies to determine the suitability or applicability of this concept have not been done in light of the existing transport institutions and policy framework in Harare. A predominantly qualitative research approach was employed backed by a deep scrutiny of the NTP and other subsidiary legislations and plans in place so as to ascertain the views and perceptions of various stakeholders regarding the proposed concept. As such, key informant interviews, unstructured interviews, and questionnaires were vital tools in gathering data and these were effectively buttressed by observations, photography, and documentary analysis. The study revealed from a policy perspective that there are high prospects for the implementation of IPTS in Harare as the existing NTP, subsidiary legislations and plans do have provisions for the concept backed by keen interest of all responsible urban public transport authorities. However, there is lack of coherent and systematic approach among other responsible institutions, as such recommendations formulated advocated for institutional integration and strong political will for the ultimate success of the concept.

Keywords: integrated public transport system, policy, legislation, institutions

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65 Selection Standards for National Teams: Theory and Practice

Authors: Alexey Kulik

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This article deals with selection standards for national sport teams. The author examines the legal framework for selection criteria and suggests using the most honest criteria.

Keywords: national teams, standards of forming teams, selection standards, sport legislations

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64 Accessibility of Social Justice through Social Security in Indian Organisations: Analysis Based on Workforce

Authors: Neelima Rashmi Lakra

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India was among one of the highly developed economy up to 1850 due to its cottage industries. During the end of the 18th century, modern industrial enterprises began with the first cotton mill in Bombay, the jute mill near Calcutta and the coal mine in Raniganj. This was counted as the real beginning of industry in 1854 in India. Prior to this period people concentrated only to agriculture, menial service or handicraft, and the introduction of industries exposed them to the disciplines of factory which was very tedious for them. With increasing number of factories been setup adding on to mining and introduction of railway, World War Period (1914-19), Second World War Period (1939-45) and the Great Depression (1929-33) there were visible change in the nature of work for the people, which resulted in outburst of strike for various reasons in these factories. Here, with India’s independence there was emergence of public sector industries and labour legislations were introduced. Meanwhile, trade unions came to notice to the rescue of the oppressed but failed to continue till long. Soon after, with the New Economic Policy organisations came across to face challenges to perform their best, where social justice for the workmen was in question. On these backdrops, studies were found discussing the central human capabilities which could be addressed through Social Security schemes. Therefore, this study was taken up to look at the reforms and legislations mainly meant for the welfare of the labour. This paper will contribute to the large number of Indian population who are serving in public sectors in India since the introduction of industries and will complement the issue of social justice through social security measures among this huge crowd serving the nation. The objectives of the study include; to find out what labour Legislations have already been existing in India, the role of Trade Union Movement, to look at the effects of New Economic Policy on these reforms and its effects and measures taken for the workforce employed in the public sectors and finally, if these measures fulfil the social justice aspects for the larger society on whole. The methodology followed collection of data from books, journal articles, reports, company reports and manuals focusing mainly on Indian studies and the data was analysed following content analysis method. The findings showed the measures taken for Social Security, but there were also reflections of very few particular additions or amendments to these Acts and provisions with the onset of New Liberalisation Policy. Therefore, the study concluded examining the social justice aspects in the context of a developing economy and discussing the recommendations.

Keywords: public sectors, social justice, social security schemes, trade union movement

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63 Criminal Laws Associated with Cyber-Medicine and Telemedicine in Current Law Systems in the World

Authors: Shahryar Eslamitabar

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Currently, the internet plays an important role in the various scientific, commercial and service practices. Thanks to information and communication technology, the healthcare industry via the internet, generally known as cyber-medicine, can offer professional medical service in a wider geographical area. Having some appealing benefits such as convenience in offering healthcare services, improved accessibility to the services, enhanced information exchange, cost-effectiveness, time-saving, etc. Tele-health has increasingly developed innovative models of healthcare delivery. However, it presents many potential hazards to cyber-patients, inherent in the use of the system. First, there are legal issues associated with the communication and transfer of information on the internet. These include licensure, malpractice, liabilities and jurisdictions as well as privacy, confidentiality and security of personal data as the most important challenge brought about by this system. Additional items of concern are technological and ethical. Although, there are some rules to deal with pitfalls associated with cyber-medicine practices in the USA and some European countries, yet for all developments, it is being practiced in a legal vacuum in many countries. In addition to the domestic legislations to deal with potential problems arisen from the system, it is also imperative that some international or regional agreement should be developed to achieve the harmonization of laws among countries and states. This article discusses some implications posed by the practice of cyber-medicine in the healthcare system according to the experience of some developed countries using a comparative study of laws. It will also review the status of tele-health laws in Iran. Finally, it is intended to pave the way to outline a plan for countries like Iran, with newly-established judicial system for health laws, to develop appropriate regulations through providing some recommendations.

Keywords: tele-health, cyber-medicine, telemedicine, criminal laws, legislations, time-saving

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62 Criminal Protection Objectivity of the Child's Right to Life and Physical and Psychological Safety

Authors: Hezha Hewa, Taher Sur

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Nowadays, child affairs is a matter of both national and international interests. This issue is regarded a vital topic for various scientific fields across ages, and for all the communities without exception. However, the nature of child caring may vary due to the verities in science perspectives. So, considering child's affairs from different perspectives is helpful to have a complementary image about this matter. The purpose behind selecting this topic is to keep a balance between the victim on the one hand, and the guardian and the offender on the other hand, (i.e.) to avoid any kind of excessiveness either in the protection of the child and its rights not in the punishment of the offender. This is achieved through considering various legal materials in the Iraqi legislation and in the comparative legislations that are concerned with the child's issue and the extent to which the child makes use of these rights. The scope of this study involves the crimes that are considered as aggressions against the child's right to life, and the crimes that are dangerous to their physical and psychological safety. So, this study comprehensively considers the intentional murder of child, child murder to avoid disgrace, child kidnapping, child abandonment, physical abuse for the sake of punishment or not, child circumcision, verbal violence, and abstaining from leaving a child with a person who has the right of custody. This study ends with the most significant concluding points that have been derived throughout this study, which are: Unlike the Iraqi legislation, the Egyptian legislation defines the child in the Article 2 of the Child Law No. 12 of 1996 amended by the Law No. 126 of 2008 that the child is a person who does not exceed 18 years of age. Some legislation does not provide special criminal protection for child intentional murder, as in the Iraqi and the Egyptian legislation. However, some others have provided special criminal protection for a child, as in French and Syrian legislations. Child kidnapping is regarded as one of the most dangerous crimes that affects the child and the family as well, as it may expose the child's life to danger or to death. The most significant recommendations from the researcher are: The Iraqi legislation is recommended to take the necessary measures to establish a particular legislation for the child by including all the legal provisions that are associated with this weak creature, and make use of the Egyptian legislator’s experience as a pioneer in this respect. Both the Iraqi legislation and the Egyptian legislation are recommended to enact special laws to protect a child from the crimes of intentional murder, as the crime of child murder is currently subjected to the same provisions consider for adult murder.

Keywords: child, criminal, penal, law, safety

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61 A Critical Examination of the Iranian National Legal Regulation of the Ecosystem of Lake Urmia

Authors: Siavash Ostovar

Abstract:

The Iranian national Law on the Ramsar Convention (officially known as the Convention of International Wetlands and Aquatic Birds' Habitat Wetlands) was approved by the Senate and became a law in 1974 after the ratification of the National Council. There are other national laws with the aim of preservation of environment in the country. However, Lake Urmia which is declared a wetland of international importance by the Ramsar Convention in 1971 and designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1976 is now at the brink of total disappearance due mainly to the climate change, water mismanagement, dam construction, and agricultural deficiencies. Lake Urmia is located in the north western corner of Iran. It is the third largest salt water lake in the world and the largest lake in the Middle East. Locally, it is designated as a National Park. It is, indeed, a unique lake both nationally and internationally. This study investigated how effective the national legal regulation of the ecosystem of Lake Urmia is in Iran. To do so, the Iranian national laws as Enforcement of Ramsar Convention in the country including three nationally established laws of (i) Five sets of laws for the programme of economic, social and cultural development of Islamic Republic of Iran, (ii) The Iranian Penal Code, (iii) law of conservation, restoration and management of the country were investigated. Using black letter law methods, it was revealed that (i) regarding the national five sets of laws; the benchmark to force the implementation of the legislations and policies is not set clearly. In other words, there is no clear guarantee to enforce these legislations and policies at the time of deviation and violation; (ii) regarding the Penal Code, there is lack of determining the environmental crimes, determining appropriate penalties for the environmental crimes, implementing those penalties appropriately, monitoring and training programmes precisely; (iii) regarding the law of conservation, restoration and management, implementation of this regulation is adjourned to preparation, announcement and approval of several categories of enactments and guidelines. In fact, this study used a national environmental catastrophe caused by drying up of Lake Urmia as an excuse to direct the attention to the weaknesses of the existing national rules and regulations. Finally, as we all depend on the natural world for our survival, this study recommended further research on every environmental issue including the Lake Urmia.

Keywords: conservation, environmental law, Lake Urmia, national laws, Ramsar Convention, water management, wetlands

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60 Sustainable Development: The Human Rights Approach to Environmental Protection in South Africa

Authors: CM van der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank

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International and domestic environmental law has evolved quite rapidly in the last few decades. At the international level the Stockholm and Rio Declarations paved the way for a broad based consensus of the international community on environmental issues and principles. At the Domestic level also many states have incorporated environmental protection in their constitutions and even more states are doing the same at least in their domestic legislations. In this process of evolution environmental law has unleashed a number of novel principles such as; the participatory principle, the polluter pays principle, the precautionary principle, the inter-generational and intra-generational principles, the prevention principle, the sustainable development principle and so on.

Keywords: environment, human rights, international law, protection

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59 Community Forestry Programme through the Local Forest Users Group, Nepal

Authors: Daniyal Neupane

Abstract:

Establishment of community forestry in Nepal is a successful step in the conservation of forests. Community forestry programme through the local forest users group has shown its positive impacts in the society. This paper discusses an overview of the present scenario of the community forestry in Nepal. It describes the brief historical background, some important forest legislations, and organization of forest. The paper also describes the internal conflicts between forest users and district forest offices, and possible resolution. It also suggests some of the aspects of community forestry in which the research needs to be focused for the better management of the forests in Nepal.

Keywords: community forest, conservation of forest, local forest users group, better management, Nepal

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58 Development of Palm Kernel Shell Lightweight Masonry Mortar

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole

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There need to construct building walls with lightweight masonry bricks/blocks and mortar to reduce the weight and cost of cooling/heating of buildings in hot/cold climates is growing partly due to legislations on energy use and global warming. In this paper, the development of Palm Kernel Shell masonry mortar (PKSMM) prepared with Portland cement and crushed PKS fine aggregate (an agricultural waste) is demonstrated. We show that PKSMM can be used as a lightweight mortar for the construction of lightweight masonry walls with good thermal insulation efficiency than the natural river sand commonly used for masonry mortar production.

Keywords: building walls, fine aggregate, lightweight masonry mortar, palm kernel shell, wall thermal insulation efficacy

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57 Soil Remediation Technologies towards Green Remediation Strategies

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

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As a result of diverse industrial activities, pollution from numerous contaminant affects both groundwater and soils. Many contaminated sites have been discovered in industrialized countries and their remediation is a priority in environmental legislations. The aim of this paper is to provide the evolution of remediation from consolidated invasive technologies to environmental friendly green strategies. Many clean-up technologies have been used. Nowadays the technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on eliminating the source of pollution, but the aim of remediation includes also the recovery of soil quality. “Green remediation”, a strategy based on “soft technologies”, appears the key to tackle the issue of remediation of contaminated sites with the greatest attention to environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality.

Keywords: bioremediation, Green Remediation, phytoremediation, remediation technologies, soil

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56 Striving towards an Ambush Free Olympics: Effective Strategies and Intellectual Property Legislations

Authors: Mahit T. Anand

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The modern Olympic Games present an unparalleled platform for companies to gain worldwide visibility. The increasing popularity of such an event supplemented by large sums of money paid by sponsors for the privilege of being associated with the Olympic Games has spawned its own particular brand of unfair competition, called ‘ambush marketing’. This research examines the practice of ambush marketing which has long been troubling the International Olympic Committee (I.O.C.) and its corporate sponsors. It emphasizes on implementing stringent legislative reforms by the host nations and to carry out effective ‘Brand Protection Programs’ for the upcoming Winter Olympics due to begin in February 2014 at Sochi, Russia and the Summer Olympics at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2016. The research is carried out in the backdrop of out-standing legislative enactments made by the previous host nations and effective ‘Brand Protection Program’ formulated by their respective organizing committees.

Keywords: ambush marketing, international olympic committee (IOC), official sponsors, trademark

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55 Developing a HSE-Finacial Indicator Model in Oil Industry

Authors: Reza Safari, Ali Rajabzadeh Ghatari, Raheleh Hossseinzadeh Mahabadi

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In the present world, there are different pressures on firms such as competition, legislations, social etc. these pressures force the firms to follow “survival” as their primary goal and then growth. One of the main factors that helps firms to reach their goals is proper financial performance. To find out about the financial performance, a firm should monitors its financial performance. Financial performance affected by many factors. This research seeks to clear which financial performance indicators are most important according to Environmental situation of a firm and what are their priorities. To do so, environmental indicators specified as presented on OECD Key Environmental Indicators 2008 and so the financial performance indicators such as Profitability, Liquidity, Gearing, Investor ratios, and etc. At this stage, the affections questioned through questionnaires. After gaining the results, data analyzed using Promethee technique. By using decision matrixes extracted from those techniques an expert system designed. This expert system suggests the suitable financial performance indicators and their ranking by receiving the environment situation given environment indicators weight.

Keywords: environment indicators, financial performance indicators, promethee, expert system

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54 Impact on Vegetables Irrigated with Municipal and Industrial Wastewater from Korangi Drain near IoBM, Karachi

Authors: Nida Rabab

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The present study was conducted to assess the Impact on Vegetables Irrigated with Municipal and Industrial wastewater from Korangi Drain near IoBM, Karachi. Some vegetables are grown using sewage and industrial wastewater laden with alarmingly high levels of heavy metals and bacteriological contamination. Maximum concentration of lead was found in spinach 8.20 mg/l as against safe limits of 0.01 mg/l and maximum nickel concentration was found in banana 3.114 mg/l as against 0.02 mg/l, whereas all vegetables were invariably bacteriologically contaminated much beyond safe limits. Appropriate legislations in Sindh and competent manpower for rigorous monitoring to gage the harmful impact on vegetables grown with untreated municipal and industrial wastewater to effectively combat the problems of growing vegetables. The emptying of untreated municipal and industrial wastewater through Korangi Drain in fresh water bodies into Karachi cost should be banned to save the coast becoming hypoxic causing irreparable loss to marine life.

Keywords: laden, concentration, hypoxic, vegetables

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53 Trafficking in Children as a Qualified Form of the Crime of Trafficking in Human Beings

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

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Trafficking in children, especially vulnerable victims, is a qualified form of committing the crime of human trafficking, and a special form of abuse and violation of children's rights. Given that trafficking in children is dangerous, but also a specific form of crime in relation to trafficking in human beings, this paper will in the first part indicate the forms of trafficking in children (trafficking in children for sexual exploitation, child pornography, and pedophilia, exploitation of labor, begging, performance of criminal acts, adoption, marriage and participation in armed conflicts). The second part references the international documents which regulate this matter as well as the solutions in national criminal legislations of Republic of Croatia and Republic of Serbia. It points to the essential features and characteristics of the victims, according to sex, age, and citizenship, as well as the age of children at the stage of solicitation and recruitment and the status of the family from which the child comes from. The work includes a special emphasis on international police cooperation in the fight against trafficking in children. Concluding remarks set out proposals de lege ferenda that can be of significant impact, particularly on prevention, and then also on repression in combating this serious crime.

Keywords: trafficking in children, trafficking in human beings, child as a victim of human trafficking, children’s rights

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52 Employers' Occupational Health and Safety Training Obligations in Framework Directive and Training Procedure and Rules in Turkey

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca, Berrin Gökçek

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Employers occupational safety and health training obligations are regulated in 89/391/EEC Framework Directive and also in 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law in Turkey. The main objective of this research is to determine and evaluate the employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in Framework Directive in comparison with the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law and to examine training principles in Turkey. For this purpose, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations examined in Framework Directive and Occupational Health and Safety Law. This study carried out through comparative scanning model and literature model. The research data were collected through European Agency and ministry legislations. As a result, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law are compatible with the 89/391/EEC numbered Framework Directive and training principles are determined by in different ways like the trained workers, training issues, training period, training time, and trainers. In this study, employers’ training obligations are evaluated in detail.

Keywords: directive, occupational health and safety, training, work accidences

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51 Challenges Affecting the Livelihoods of Small-Scale, Aggregate Miners, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Ndivhudzannyi Rembuluwani, Francis Dacosta, Emmanuel Mhlongo

Abstract:

The small-scale rock aggregate sector of the mining industry is a major source of employment for a significant number of people, particularly in remote rural areas, where alternative livelihoods are rare. It contributes to local economy by generating income and producing major and essential materials for the building, construction, and other industries. However, the sector is confronted with many challenges that hamper productivity and growth. The problems that confront this sector includes: health and safety, environmental impacts, low production and low adherence to mining legislations. This study investigated the challenges confronting selected small-scale rock aggregate mines in the Vhembe District of Limpopo province of South Africa, assesses the health, safety, low production and environmental impacts associated with aggregate production and to develop an integrated approach of addressing the multi-faceted challenges.

Keywords: health and safety, legislative framework, productivity, rock aggregate, small-scale mining

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50 Access to Climate Change Information Through the Implementation of the Paris Agreement

Authors: Ana Cristina A. P. Carvalho, Solange Teles Da Silva

Abstract:

In April, 174 countries signed the Paris Agreement, a multilateral agreement on climate change which deals with greenhouse gas emissions, mitigation, adaptation, finance, access to information, transparency, among other subjects related to the environment. Since then, Parties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement. This paper aims to analyze the consequences of this new rule in terms of the implementation of the Agreement, collecting data from Brazilian and Canadian legislations in order to identify if these countries have rules complying with the Treaty, the steps that have been already taken and if they could be used as examples for other countries. The analysis will take into consideration the different kinds of climate change information, means of transparency, reliability of the data and how to spread the information. The methodology comprehends a comparative legal research based on both the Paris Agreement and domestic laws of Brazil and Canada, as well as on doctrine and Court decisions. The findings can contribute to the implementation of the Paris Agreement through compliance with this Treaty at countries’ domestic and policy level.

Keywords: climate change information, domestic legislation, Paris Agreement, public policy

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49 Muddle Effort for Organized Crime in India: Social Work Concern for Anti Human Trafficking Unit

Authors: Rajkamal Ajmeri, Leena Mehta

Abstract:

Growing magnitude of human trafficking is the indicatory symptom of ill society. Despite of many treaties, legislation and protocols control over human trafficking require additional attention. However, many Anti Human Trafficking Units (AHTU) are working throughout India but it is a fact that incidence pertaining to illegal human trade is not fully under control. Social work as discipline and practice base profession has a lot of concern about situation and the trafficked victims. United state put Indian in tier II watch list because they are not fully complying with the minimum standard of Trafficking Victims Protection laws but they are making a significant effort to bring themselves into compliance with those standards. In order to solve the issue, scientific research of experiences and opinions of government / non government machineries can play an effective role in raising the standard legislation for trafficked victims. Proper study can enhance understanding on various problems faced by government machineries. The study can help in developing the scientific model, which can effectively solve the problem in human trafficking field.

Keywords: human trafficking, legislations, victims, social work, government machinery

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48 CFD Simulation for Air-Borne Infection Analysis in AII-Room

Authors: Young Kwon Yang, In Sung Kang, Jung Ha Hwang, Jin Chul Park

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The present study is a foundational study for performance improvements on isolation wards to prevent proliferation of secondary infection of infectious diseases such as SARS, H1N1, and MERS inside hospitals. Accordingly, the present study conducted an analysis of the effect of sealing mechanisms and filling of openings on ensuring air tightness performance in isolation wards as well as simulation on air currents in improved isolation wards. The study method is as follows. First, previous studies on aerial infection type and mechanism were reviewed, and the review results were utilized as basic data of analysis on simulation of air current. Second, national and international legislations and regulations in relation to isolation wards as well as case studies on developed nations were investigated in order to identify the problems in isolation wards in Korea and improvement plans. Third, construction and facility plans were compared and analyzed between general and isolation wards focusing on large general hospitals in Korea, thereby conducting comparison and analysis on the performance and effects of air-tightness of general and isolation wards through CFD simulations. The study results showed that isolation wards had better air-tightness performance than that of general wards.

Keywords: AII Room, air-borne infection, CFD, computational fluid dynamics

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47 Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism

Authors: Covadonga Mallada Fernández

Abstract:

Economic development and globalization of international markets have created a favourable atmosphere for the emergence of new forms of crime such as money laundering or financing of terrorism, which may contribute to destabilized and damage economic systems. In particular, money laundering have acquired great importance since the 11S attacks, what has caused on the one hand, the establishment and development of preventive measures and, on the other hand, a progressive hardening of penal measures. Since then, the regulations imposed to fight against money laundering have been viewed as key components also in the fight against terrorist financing. Terrorism, at the beginning, was a “national” crime connected with internal problems of the State (for instance the RAF in Germany or ETA in Spain) but in the last 20 years has started to be an international problem that is connected with the defence and security of the States. Therefore, the new strategic concept for the defense and security of NATO has a comprehensive list of security threats to the Alliance, such as terrorism, international instability, money laundering or attacks on cyberspace, among others. With this new concept, money laundering and terrorism has become a priority in the national defense. In this work we will analyze the methods to combat these new threats to the national security. We will study the preventive legislations to combat money laundering and financing of terrorism, the UIF that exchange information between States, and the hawala-Banking.

Keywords: control of financial flows, money laundering, terrorism, financing of terrorism

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46 Analysis of Geotechnical Parameters from Geophysical Information

Authors: Adewoyin O. Olusegun, Akinwumi I. Isaac

Abstract:

In some part of the world where legislations related to site investigations before constructions are not strictly enforced, the expenses and time required for carrying out a comprehensive geotechnical investigation to characterize a site can discourage prospective private residential building developers. Another factor that can discourage a developer is the fact that most of the geotechnical tests procedures utilized during site investigations, to a certain extent, alter the existing environment of the site. This study suggests a quick, non-destructive and non-intrusive method of obtaining key subsoil geotechnical properties necessary for foundation design for proposed engineering facilities. Seismic wave velocities generated from near surface refraction method was used to determine the bulk density of soil, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus and allowable bearing capacity of a competent layer that can bear structural load at the particular study site. Also, regression equations were developed in order to directly obtain the bulk density of soil, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus and allowable bearing capacity from the compressional wave velocities. The results obtained correlated with the results of standard geotechnical investigations carried out.

Keywords: characterize, environment, geophysical, geotechnical, regression

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45 Views on Abortion and Case Law on International and European Levels: Past and Present Jurisprudence

Authors: Aurélie Cassiers

Abstract:

In this presentation, an overview is given of the freedom of states to legislate concerning abortion. Today, access to safe and legal abortion is still a hot topic in many countries in the world. Abortion policies try to strike a balance between women’s rights to self-determination and private life on the one hand, and the protection of the life of unborn children on the other. Each country has different religious, cultural and political views on abortion, and therefore specific legislations. However, citizens may submit a complaint at international courts when they find their national legislation too restrictive. The study is discussed of the development of the ECtHR, UNCHR, and IACHR case law, regarding the question of the ‘right to abort’ and indirectly of the protection of the unborn children. Each relevant case is analyzed to answer the following questions: Is the unborn child protected, and if so, how? Why does the woman want to abort and how is her interest or right protected? How is a fair balance reached between the different interests? Is the state completely free to write policies that restrict abortion? What are the factors to determine the margin of appreciation of the state? In conclusion, does this specific court recognize a right to abort, and if so, under which conditions? To conclude, this presentation shows that each court has its own perspective on and perception of abortion, and its own criteria to determine whether the state is complying with international norms regarding individual liberty and protection of the children.

Keywords: abortion, international courts, unborn children, women rights

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44 Implementing Pro-Poor Policies for Poverty Alleviation: The Case of the White Paper on Families in South Africa

Authors: P. Mbecke

Abstract:

The role of the government to tangibly alleviate poverty, improve and sustain the quality of people’s lives remains a “work in progress” twenty-two years after the dawn of democracy in South Africa despite a host of socio-economic programs and pro-poor policies and legislations. This paper assesses the development process and the implementation of the White Paper on Families in South Africa as one of the pro-poor policies intended to curb poverty and redress the imbalances of the apartheid regime. The paper is the result of a qualitative implementation research theory facilitated through in-depth interviews with social work managers complemented by literature and policy review techniques. It investigates the level of basic knowledge and understanding as well as the implementation challenges of the White Paper on Families as causes of its failure. The paper emphasizes the importance of the family-centered approach in the implementation of pro-poor policies. To facilitate the understanding of the White Paper on Families by its users, the Department of Social Development needs take stock of the identified challenges of its implementation so as to facilitate its success in fostering positive family well-being that will directly contributes to the overall socio-economic development of South Africa.

Keywords: poverty alleviation, pro-poor policy, social development, social welfare, South Africa

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43 Framework for Aligning Supply Chain Strategies and Organizational Strategies in an SOE Environment

Authors: R. Setino, I. M. Ambe, J. A Badenhorst-Weiss

Abstract:

The South African government supply chain management system is not adequately implemented in State Owned Enterprises (SOEs). There are weaknesses in the SOEs SCM enablers, strategies and policies. In addition, top management of SOEs still do not see SCM as strategic enough to deserve their attention, and therefore, there is very little support from top management, thus making it even difficult for SCM practitioners to execute their day to day functions, let alone delivering the letter and spirit of the relevant legislations. Supply chain strategies lack buy in from the top, and as a result senior SCM practitioners has not been involved in the corporate strategy. This has resulted in supply chain and corporate strategies being misaligned. Due to service delivery backlog, high level of corruption and continuous strikes across the country for better services it is inevitable that government leaders be more strategic about how South Africa can use SCM as a tool to improve service delivery. Consequently, there is a need to close the gap between the strategic level dealt by top management and the application of operational SCM concepts: the use of SCM concepts and, therefore, supply chain strategies – should be aligned with the corporate and business strategies in order to ensure the achievement of top level business objectives. This paper aims to explore supply chain practices in State Owned Enterprises (SOEs). The paper based on a conceptual review provides the status, trends and development and suggests a framework for aligning supply chain strategies and organizational strategies in an SOE environment.

Keywords: alignment, strategies, state owned enterprises, supply chain management, South Africa

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42 The Impact of Misogyny on Women's Leadership in the Local Sphere of Government: The Case of Dr. Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality

Authors: Josephine Eghonghon Ahiante, Barry Hanyane

Abstract:

To give effect to the constitutional rights of gender equality, the South African government instituted various legislative policy frameworks and legislations to equalise the public service. Nonetheless, gender inequality in senior management positions remains a rift in government institutions, particularly the local sphere of government. The methodology for gathering and analysing data for this study was based on both primary and secondary data sources, namely literature review, qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis, triangulation, and inductive and deductive thematic analysis. The study found that misogynist tendencies which are manifest in organisational culture suffocate the good intentions of government in ensuring social justices, leadership diversity, and women equality. It also demonstrates that traditional gender role expectation still informs the ground in which senior management positions are allocated, men perceive women as non-leadership fit and discriminate against them during recruitment, selection, and promotion into high positions. The analyses from the study portray that, while government legislation and framework has been instrumental in the leadership acceleration of women, much more has to be done to deconstruct internalised leadership stereotypes on women's gender roles and leadership requirements. The study recommends that gender bias training intervention is needed to teach public employees on management excellence.

Keywords: gender, leadership, misogyny, orgnisational cultural, patriachy

Procedia PDF Downloads 36