Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: H. M. Kamari

4 Structural and Leaching Properties of Irradiated Lead Commercial Glass by Using XRD, Ultrasonic, UV-VIS and AAS Technique

Authors: N. H. Alias, S. A. Aziz, Y. Abdullah, H. M. Kamari, S. Sani, M. P. Ismail, N. U. Saidin, N. A. A. Salim, N. E. E. Abdullah

Abstract:

Gamma (γ) irradiation study has been investigated on the 6 rectangular shape of the standard X-Ray lead glass with 5/16” thick, providing 2.00 mm lead shielding value; at selected Sievert doses (C1; 0, C2; 0.07, C3; 0.035, C4; 0.07, C5; 0.105 and C6; 0.14) by using (XRD) X-ray Diffraction techniques, ultrasonic and (UV-VIS) Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. Concentration of lead in 0.5 N acid nitric (HNO3) environments is then studied by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) as to observe the glass corrosion behavior after irradiation at room temperature. This type of commercial glass is commonly used as radiation shielding glass in medical application.

Keywords: gamma irradiation, lead glass, leaching, structural

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3 Gamma Irradiation Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite Glasses

Authors: Azuraida Amat, Halimah Mohamed Kamari, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Ishak Mansor

Abstract:

The changes of the optical and structural properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite glasses pre and post gamma irradiation were studied. Six glass samples, with different compositions [(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]1-x (Bi2O3)x prepared by melt quenching method were irradiated with 25kGy gamma radiation at room temperature. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the structural bonding in the prepared glass samples due to exposure, while UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the changes in the optical properties before and after irradiation. Gamma irradiation causes a profound changes in the peak intensity as shown by FTIR spectra which is due to the breaking of the network bonding. Before gamma irradiation, the optical band gap, Eg value decreased from 2.44 eV to 2.15 eV with the addition of Bismuth content. The value kept decreasing (from 2.18 eV to 2.00 eV) following exposure to gamma radiation due to the increase of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and the increase of defects in the glass. In conclusion, the glass with high content of Bi2O3 (0.30Bi) give the smallest Eg and show less changes in FTIR spectra after gamma irradiation, which indicate that this glass is more resistant to gamma radiation compared to other glasses.

Keywords: boro-tellurite, bismuth, gamma radiation, optical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
2 Translation Directionality: An Eye Tracking Study

Authors: Elahe Kamari

Abstract:

Research on translation process has been conducted for more than 20 years, investigating various issues and using different research methodologies. Most recently, researchers have started to use eye tracking to study translation processes. They believed that the observable, measurable data that can be gained from eye tracking are indicators of unobservable cognitive processes happening in the translators’ mind during translation tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate directionality in translation processes through using eye tracking. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) processing the target text requires more cognitive effort than processing the source text, in both directions of translation; 2) L2 translation tasks on the whole require more cognitive effort than L1 tasks; 3) cognitive resources allocated to the processing of the source text is higher in L1 translation than in L2 translation; 4) cognitive resources allocated to the processing of the target text is higher in L2 translation than in L1 translation; and 5) in both directions non-professional translators invest more cognitive effort in translation tasks than do professional translators. The performance of a group of 30 male professional translators was compared with that of a group of 30 male non-professional translators. All the participants translated two comparable texts one into their L1 (Persian) and the other into their L2 (English). The eye tracker measured gaze time, average fixation duration, total task length and pupil dilation. These variables are assumed to measure the cognitive effort allocated to the translation task. The data derived from eye tracking only confirmed the first hypothesis. This hypothesis was confirmed by all the relevant indicators: gaze time, average fixation duration and pupil dilation. The second hypothesis that L2 translation tasks requires allocation of more cognitive resources than L1 translation tasks has not been confirmed by all four indicators. The third hypothesis that source text processing requires more cognitive resources in L1 translation than in L2 translation and the fourth hypothesis that target text processing requires more cognitive effort in L2 translation than L1 translation were not confirmed. It seems that source text processing in L2 translation can be just as demanding as in L1 translation. The final hypothesis that non-professional translators allocate more cognitive resources for the same translation tasks than do the professionals was partially confirmed. One of the indicators, average fixation duration, indicated higher cognitive effort-related values for professionals.

Keywords: translation processes, eye tracking, cognitive resources, directionality

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1 Reading Comprehension in Profound Deaf Readers

Authors: S. Raghibdoust, E. Kamari

Abstract:

Research show that reduced functional hearing has a detrimental influence on the ability of an individual to establish proper phonological representations of words, since the phonological representations are claimed to mediate the conceptual processing of written words. Word processing efficiency is expected to decrease with a decrease in functional hearing. In other words, it is predicted that hearing individuals would be more capable of word processing than individuals with hearing loss, as their functional hearing works normally. Studies also demonstrate that the quality of the functional hearing affects reading comprehension via its effect on their word processing skills. In other words, better hearing facilitates the development of phonological knowledge, and can promote enhanced strategies for the recognition of written words, which in turn positively affect higher-order processes underlying reading comprehension. The aims of this study were to investigate and compare the effect of deafness on the participants’ abilities to process written words at the lexical and sentence levels through using two online and one offline reading comprehension tests. The performance of a group of 8 deaf male students (ages 8-12) was compared with that of a control group of normal hearing male students. All the participants had normal IQ and visual status, and came from an average socioeconomic background. None were diagnosed with a particular learning or motor disability. The language spoken in the homes of all participants was Persian. Two tests of word processing were developed and presented to the participants using OpenSesame software, in order to measure the speed and accuracy of their performance at the two perceptual and conceptual levels. In the third offline test of reading comprehension which comprised of semantically plausible and semantically implausible subject relative clauses, the participants had to select the correct answer out of two choices. The data derived from the statistical analysis using SPSS software indicated that hearing and deaf participants had a similar word processing performance both in terms of speed and accuracy of their responses. The results also showed that there was no significant difference between the performance of the deaf and hearing participants in comprehending semantically plausible sentences (p > 0/05). However, a significant difference between the performances of the two groups was observed with respect to their comprehension of semantically implausible sentences (p < 0/05). In sum, the findings revealed that the seriously impoverished sentence reading ability characterizing the profound deaf subjects of the present research, exhibited their reliance on reading strategies that are based on insufficient or deviant structural knowledge, in particular in processing semantically implausible sentences, rather than a failure to efficiently process written words at the lexical level. This conclusion, of course, does not mean to say that deaf individuals may never experience deficits at the word processing level, deficits that impede their understanding of written texts. However, as stated in previous researches, it sounds reasonable to assume that the more deaf individuals get familiar with written words, the better they can recognize them, despite having a profound phonological weakness.

Keywords: deafness, reading comprehension, reading strategy, word processing, subject and object relative sentences

Procedia PDF Downloads 257