Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Tonga Agadi Danladi

13 Comparative Analysis between Wired and Wireless Technologies in Communications: A Review

Authors: Jafaru Ibrahim, Tonga Agadi Danladi, Haruna Sani

Abstract:

Many telecommunications industry are looking for new ways to maximize their investment in communication networks while ensuring reliable and secure information transmission. There is a variety of communications medium solutions, the two must popularly in used are wireless technology and wired options, such as copper and fiber-optic cable. Wired network has proven its potential in the olden days but nowadays wireless communication has emerged as a robust and most intellect and preferred communication technique. Each of these types of communication medium has their advantages and disadvantages according to its technological characteristics. Wired and wireless networking has different hardware requirements, ranges, mobility, reliability and benefits. The aim of the paper is to compare both the Wired and Wireless medium on the basis of various parameters such as usability, cost, efficiency, flexibility, coverage, reliability, mobility, speed, security etc.

Keywords: cost, mobility, reliability, speed, security, wired, wireless

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12 Empirical Prediction of the Effect of Rain Drops on Dbs System Operating in Ku-Band (Case Study of Abuja)

Authors: Tonga Agadi Danladi, Ajao Wasiu Bamidele, Terdue Dyeko

Abstract:

Recent advancement in microwave communications technologies especially in telecommunications and broadcasting have resulted in congestion on the frequencies below 10GHz. This has forced microwave designers to look for high frequencies. Unfortunately for frequencies greater than 10GHz rain becomes one of the main factors of attenuation in signal strength. At frequencies from 10GHz upwards, rain drop sizes leads to outages that compromises the availability and quality of service this making it a critical factor in satellite link budget design. Rain rate and rain attenuation predictions are vital steps to be considered when designing microwave satellite communication link operating at Ku-band frequencies (112-18GHz). Unreliable rain rates data in the tropical regions of the world like Nigeria from radio communication group of the international Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) makes it difficult for microwave engineers to determine a realistic rain margin that needs to be accommodated in satellite link budget design in such region. This work presents an empirical tool for predicting the amount of signal due to rain on DBS signal operating at the Ku-band.

Keywords: attenuation, Ku-Band, microwave communication, rain rates

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11 Insights on the Social-Economic Implications of the Blue Economy Concept on Coastal Tourism in Tonga

Authors: Amelia Faotusia

Abstract:

The blue economy concept was coined by Pacific nations in recognition of the importance of sustainably managing their extensive marine territories. This is especially important for major ocean-based economic sectors of Pacific economies, such as coastal tourism. There is an absence of research, however, on the key ways in which the blue economy concept has emerged in discourse and public policy in Pacific countries, as well as how it articulates with coastal tourism. This research helps to fill such a gap with a specific focus on Tonga through the application of a post-positivist research approach to conduct a desktop study of relevant national documents and qualitative interviews with relevant government staff, civil society organizations, and tourism operators. The findings of the research reflect the importance of institutional integration and partnerships for a successful blue economy transition and are presented in the form of two case studies corresponding to two sub-sectors of Tonga’s coastal tourism sector: (i) the whale-watching and swimming industry, and (ii) beach resorts and restaurants. A thematic analysis applied to the interview data of both cases then enabled the identification of key areas and issues for socio-economic policy intervention and recommendations in support of blue economy transitions in Tonga’s coastal tourism sector. Examples of the relevant areas and issues that emerged included the importance of foreign direct investment, local market access, community-based special management areas, as well as the need to address the anthropogenic impacts of tropical cyclones, whale tourism, plastic litter on coastal assets, and ecosystems. Policy and practical interventions in support of addressing such issues include a proposed restructuring of the whale-watching and swimming licensing system; integration of climate resilience, adaptation, and capacity building as priorities of local blue economy interventions; as well as strengthening of the economic sustainability dimension of blue economy policies. Finally, this research also revealed the need for further specificity and research on the influence and value of local Tongan culture and traditional knowledge, particularly within existing customary marine tenure systems, on Tonga’s national and sectoral blue economy policies and transitions.

Keywords: blue economy, coastal tourism, integrated ocean management, ecosystem resilience

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10 The Nutritional Value of Peanut Seeds Grown in Wetlands Var, Petite Kaloise

Authors: Ati Sabrina, Arbouche Fodil

Abstract:

Petite Kaloise is an endemic variety of peanut in El Kala region preceding was grown dry around the three lakes (Mellah, obeira, and Tonga) was threatened by extinctions whose study of its nutritional value allows us to initiate its recovery and revive its culture. the results of the study showed that the rate of the mineral is low due to the absence of fertilization , the fat is between (48.79, 32.33, and 43.07) % respectively for sites (EL KALA, Frine, and OUM TEBOUL). Nitrogen matter is of the order of 29.86 %. lignin remains low, the rate is around 3.94 % promoting good digestibility of organic matter.

Keywords: digestible, lakes, petite kaloise, nutritional value

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9 Literacy in First and Second Language: Implication for Language Education

Authors: Inuwa Danladi Bawa

Abstract:

One of the challenges of African states in the development of education in the past and the present is the problem of literacy. Literacy in the first language is seen as a strong base for the development of second language; they are mostly the language of education. Language development is an offshoot of language planning; so the need to develop literacy in both first and second language affects language education and predicts the extent of achievement of the entire education sector. The need to balance literacy acquisition in first language for good conditioning the acquisition of second language is paramount. Likely constraints that includes; non-standardization, underdeveloped and undeveloped first languages are among many. Solutions to some of these include the development of materials and use of the stages and levels of literacy acquisition. This is with believed that a child writes well in second language if he has literacy in the first language.

Keywords: first language, second language, literacy, english language, linguistics

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8 Wavelet Based Residual Method of Detecting GSM Signal Strength Fading

Authors: Danladi Ali, Onah Festus Iloabuchi

Abstract:

In this paper, GSM signal strength was measured in order to detect the type of the signal fading phenomenon using one-dimensional multilevel wavelet residual method and neural network clustering to determine the average GSM signal strength received in the study area. The wavelet residual method predicted that the GSM signal experienced slow fading and attenuated with MSE of 3.875dB. The neural network clustering revealed that mostly -75dB, -85dB and -95dB were received. This means that the signal strength received in the study is a weak signal.

Keywords: one-dimensional multilevel wavelets, path loss, GSM signal strength, propagation, urban environment

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7 Review: Wavelet New Tool for Path Loss Prediction

Authors: Danladi Ali, Abdullahi Mukaila

Abstract:

In this work, GSM signal strength (power) was monitored in an indoor environment. Samples of the GSM signal strength was measured on mobile equipment (ME). One-dimensional multilevel wavelet is used to predict the fading phenomenon of the GSM signal measured and neural network clustering to determine the average power received in the study area. The wavelet prediction revealed that the GSM signal is attenuated due to the fast fading phenomenon which fades about 7 times faster than the radio wavelength while the neural network clustering determined that -75dBm appeared more frequently followed by -85dBm. The work revealed that significant part of the signal measured is dominated by weak signal and the signal followed more of Rayleigh than Gaussian distribution. This confirmed the wavelet prediction.

Keywords: decomposition, clustering, propagation, model, wavelet, signal strength and spectral efficiency

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6 Neural Network Based Path Loss Prediction for Global System for Mobile Communication in an Urban Environment

Authors: Danladi Ali

Abstract:

In this paper, we measured GSM signal strength in the Dnepropetrovsk city in order to predict path loss in study area using nonlinear autoregressive neural network prediction and we also, used neural network clustering to determine average GSM signal strength receive at the study area. The nonlinear auto-regressive neural network predicted that the GSM signal is attenuated with the mean square error (MSE) of 2.6748dB, this attenuation value is used to modify the COST 231 Hata and the Okumura-Hata models. The neural network clustering revealed that -75dB to -95dB is received more frequently. This means that the signal strength received at the study is mostly weak signal

Keywords: one-dimensional multilevel wavelets, path loss, GSM signal strength, propagation, urban environment and model

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5 Gaualofa: Tsunami Impact and Samoan Grief Recovery

Authors: Byron Malaela Sotiata Seiuli

Abstract:

When a disaster strike, the resultant impact and devastation forces many people, particularly those directly affected, to re-examine the core dimensions of life that do not come from other life events. The way people respond to and try give meaning to their experiences resultant from the ruptures of trauma remains vital in grief recovery. On 29 October 2009, an earthquake of 8.3 magnitudes generated a galulolo (tsunami) wave that destroyed parts of American Samoa, Tonga and Samoa (previously Western Samoa). Aside from the physical and natural devastation, many people lost their lives and their livelihood. For health professionals who were called upon to provide psychosocial support, this calamity provided an ideal setting to examine and explore how those directly impacted recovered from the calamity. The experiences of a Samoan couple, Fia and Ola, becomes the key focus of this article, one that situates their mourning patterns and recovery journey in the context of Samoan culture. Examining grief from this perspective creates a cultural space to extend indigenous understanding on the complexities of grieving and customarily responses of Samoan people, like this couple, to disaster recovery.

Keywords: Fa'asamoa, galulolo, tsunami disaster, trauma and grief recovery, pacific psychology

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4 Soil-Vegetation Relationship in the Watersheds of the Tonga and OubeïRa Lakes, Algeria

Authors: Nafaa Zaafour

Abstract:

Located at the north eastern of Algeria, the National Park of El-Kala (PNEK) is a set of landscapes whose bioclimatic stages of vegetation extend from sub-humid to humid. In order to know the soil occupation in this complex, an initiated ecological soil cartography using a stratified sampling plan of vegetation had made, the study area occupies two-thirds of the northern National Park of El Kala, it has been divided into 380 plots of 1km2 of which, 76 were the subject of a detailed floristic inventory and sampling of soils. The inventory of vegetation carried out on different sites has allowed identifying several plant groups that share the soil cover with the following distribution: The group of cork oak, this formation occupies the biggest part of the area, it develops mainly on Incepttisols, Alfisols and Mollisols; The group of kermes oak, occupies a large area, it grows on Mollisols and Alfisols; The group of maritime pine, it occupies the same soils as the Kermes Oak; The group of Mirbeck oak, installed on Regosols, it is located in the Eastern part, on the Algerian-Tunisian border; The group of eucalyptus, it grows mainly on Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols; The group of wetland, it grows along the banks of lakes and rivers, which primarily develops on Histosols soil Mollisols and Vertisols; The cultures, distributed mainly around the lakes occupy several soil types on Histosols, the Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols. This great diversity of vegetation is linked not only to the soil variability but also to climate, hydrological and geological variability.

Keywords: Algeria, cartography, soil, vegetation

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3 The Attitude of Parents and Teachers towards Multilingual Medium of Instruction in Lower Primary School Classrooms: The Case of Kapiri District Schools of Zambia

Authors: E. Machinyise

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of parents and teachers towards multilingual medium of instruction in lower primary schools of Zambia. In 2013, the Government of Zambia formulated a language policy which stipulates that regional familiar languages should be used as the medium of instruction (MOI) from grade one to four in all public primary schools, while English is introduced as a subject in the second grade. This study investigated the views of parents and teachers on the use of multilingual medium of instruction in lower primary schools in order to accommodate learners who are not native speakers of regional familiar languages as well as the second languages which are official languages used in class. The study revealed that most parents suggested that teachers who teach lower primary school classes should be conversant with at least the four major local languages of Zambia (Bemba, Nyanja, Tonga and Lozi). In the same vain other parents felt that teachers teaching lower grades should not only be familiar with the regional official language but should be able to speak other dialects found in the region. Teachers teaching in lower primary grade felt that although it is difficult to speak all languages of learners in class, it is important for a teacher of lower grade class to try to accommodate children who are not speakers of the familiar languages by addressing them in the language they understand. Both teachers and parents highlighted a number of advantages of teaching children in their mother tongues. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the collection of data for this study. 30 teachers from selected public primary schools and 20 parents of Kapiri district and five lecturers of teacher training colleges in Central province were selected for this study. The researcher also observed class lessons in lower primary schools of Kapiri district. This study revealed that both parents and teachers are of the views that teachers teaching lower primary classes should use multilingual medium of instruction in lower primary classes so as to accommodated children of different linguistic backgrounds.

Keywords: familiar languages, medium of instruction, multilingual medium of instruction, native speakers

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2 A Study on the Magnetic and Submarine Geology Structure of TA22 Seamount in Lau Basin, Tonga

Authors: Soon Young Choi, Chan Hwan Kim, Chan Hong Park, Hyung Rae Kim, Myoung Hoon Lee, Hyeon-Yeong Park

Abstract:

We performed the marine magnetic, bathymetry and seismic survey at the TA22 seamount (in the Lau basin, SW Pacific) for finding the submarine hydrothermal deposits in October 2009. We acquired magnetic and bathymetry data sets by suing Overhouser Proton Magnetometer SeaSPY (Marine Magnetics Co.), Multi-beam Echo Sounder EM120 (Kongsberg Co.). We conducted the data processing to obtain detailed seabed topography, magnetic anomaly, reduction to the pole (RTP) and magnetization. Based on the magnetic properties result, we analyzed submarine geology structure of TA22 seamount with post-processed seismic profile. The detailed bathymetry of the TA22 seamount showed the left and right crest parts that have caldera features in each crest central part. The magnetic anomaly distribution of the TA22 seamount regionally displayed high magnetic anomalies in northern part and the low magnetic anomalies in southern part around the caldera features. The RTP magnetic anomaly distribution of the TA22 seamount presented commonly high magnetic anomalies in the each caldera central part. Also, it represented strong anomalies at the inside of caldera rather than outside flank of the caldera. The magnetization distribution of the TA22 seamount showed the low magnetization zone in the center of each caldera, high magnetization zone in the southern and northern east part. From analyzed the seismic profile map, The TA22 seamount area is showed for the inferred small mounds inside each caldera central part and it assumes to make possibility of sills by the magma in cases of the right caldera. Taking into account all results of this study (bathymetry, magnetic anomaly, RTP, magnetization, seismic profile) with rock samples at the left caldera area in 2009 survey, we suppose the possibility of hydrothermal deposits at mounds in each caldera central part and at outside flank of the caldera representing the low magnetization zone. We expect to have the better results by combined modeling from this study data with the other geological data (ex. detailed gravity, 3D seismic, petrologic study results and etc).

Keywords: detailed bathymetry, magnetic anomaly, seamounts, seismic profile, SW Pacific

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1 Feasibility of Washing/Extraction Treatment for the Remediation of Deep-Sea Mining Trailings

Authors: Kyoungrean Kim

Abstract:

Importance of deep-sea mineral resources is dramatically increasing due to the depletion of land mineral resources corresponding to increasing human’s economic activities. Korea has acquired exclusive exploration licenses at four areas which are the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone in the Pacific Ocean (2002), Tonga (2008), Fiji (2011) and Indian Ocean (2014). The preparation for commercial mining of Nautilus minerals (Canada) and Lockheed martin minerals (USA) is expected by 2020. The London Protocol 1996 (LP) under International Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Seabed Authority (ISA) will set environmental guidelines for deep-sea mining until 2020, to protect marine environment. In this research, the applicability of washing/extraction treatment for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings was mainly evaluated in order to present preliminary data to develop practical remediation technology in near future. Polymetallic nodule samples were collected at the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone in the Pacific Ocean, then stored at room temperature. Samples were pulverized by using jaw crusher and ball mill then, classified into 3 particle sizes (> 63 µm, 63-20 µm, < 20 µm) by using vibratory sieve shakers (Analysette 3 Pro, Fritsch, Germany) with 63 µm and 20 µm sieve. Only the particle size 63-20 µm was used as the samples for investigation considering the lower limit of ore dressing process which is tens to 100 µm. Rhamnolipid and sodium alginate as biosurfactant and aluminum sulfate which are mainly used as flocculant were used as environmentally friendly additives. Samples were adjusted to 2% liquid with deionized water then mixed with various concentrations of additives. The mixture was stirred with a magnetic bar during specific reaction times and then the liquid phase was separated by a centrifugal separator (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) under 4,000 rpm for 1 h. The separated liquid was filtered with a syringe and acrylic-based filter (0.45 µm). The extracted heavy metals in the filtered liquid were then determined using a UV-Vis spectrometer (DR-5000, Hach, USA) and a heat block (DBR 200, Hach, USA) followed by US EPA methods (8506, 8009, 10217 and 10220). Polymetallic nodule was mainly composed of manganese (27%), iron (8%), nickel (1.4%), cupper (1.3 %), cobalt (1.3%) and molybdenum (0.04%). Based on remediation standards of various countries, Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) were selected as primary target materials. Throughout this research, the use of rhamnolipid was shown to be an effective approach for removing heavy metals in samples originated from manganese nodules. Sodium alginate might also be one of the effective additives for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings such as polymetallic nodules. Compare to the use of rhamnolipid and sodium alginate, aluminum sulfate was more effective additive at short reaction time within 4 h. Based on these results, sequencing particle separation, selective extraction/washing, advanced filtration of liquid phase, water treatment without dewatering and solidification/stabilization may be considered as candidate technologies for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings.

Keywords: deep-sea mining tailings, heavy metals, remediation, extraction, additives

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