Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 533

Search results for: methyl orange

533 Solar Photocatalysis of Methyl Orange Using Multi-Ion Doped TiO2 Catalysts

Authors: Victor R. Thulari, John Akach, Haleden Chiririwa, Aoyi Ochieng


Solar-light activated titanium dioxide photocatalysts were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium (IV) isopropoxide with thiourea, followed by calcinations at 450 °C. The experiments demonstrated that methyl orange in aqueous solutions were successfully degraded under solar light using doped TiO2. The photocatalytic oxidation of a mono azo methyl-orange dye has been investigated in multi ion doped TiO2 and solar light. Solutions were irradiated by solar-light until high removal was achieved. It was found that there was no degradation of methyl orange in the dark and in the absence of TiO2. Varieties of laboratory prepared TiO2 catalysts both un-doped and doped using titanium (IV) isopropoxide and thiourea as a dopant were tested in order to compare their photoreactivity. As a result, it was found that the efficiency of the process strongly depends on the working conditions. The highest degradation rate of methyl orange was obtained at optimum dosage using commercially produced TiO2. Our work focused on laboratory synthesized catalyst and the maximum methyl orange removal was achieved at 81% with catalyst loading of 0.04 g/L, initial pH of 3 and methyl orange concentration of 0.005 g/L using multi-ion doped catalyst. The kinetics of photocatalytic methyl orange dye stuff degradation was found to follow a pseudo-first-order rate law. The presence of the multi-ion dopant (thiourea) enhanced the photoefficiency of the titanium dioxide catalyst.

Keywords: degradation, kinetics, methyl orange, photocatalysis

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532 Effect of Doping Ag and N on the Photo-Catalytic Activity of ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Degradation of Methyl Orange under UV and Visible Radiation

Authors: O. P. Yadav


Nano-size Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite photo-catalyst has been synthesized by chemical method and characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Photo-catalytic activity of as-synthesized nanomaterial has been studied using degradation of methyl orange as a probe under UV as well as visible radiations. Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite showed higher photo-catalytic activity than Ag- or N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO-CuO composite photo-catalysts. The observed highest activity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO-CuO among the studied photo-catalysts is attributed to the cumulative effects of lowering of band-gap energy and decrease of recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes owing to doped N and Ag, respectively. Effects of photo-catalyst load, pH and substrate initial concentration on degradation of methyl orange have also been studied. Photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange follows pseudo first order kinetics.

Keywords: degradation, nanocomposite, photocatalyst, spectroscopy, XRD

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531 Comparison Methyl Orange and Malachite Green Dyes Removal by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH as Adsorbents

Authors: Omid Moradi, Mostafa Rajabi


Graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), multi-walled carbon nanotubes MWCNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized carboxyl (MWCNT-COOH), and multi-walled carbon nanotube functionalized thiol (MWCNT-SH) were used as efficient adsorbents for the rapid removal two dyes methyl orange (MO) and malachite green (MG) from the aqueous phase. The impact of several influential parameters such as initial dye concentrations, contact time, temperature, and initial solution pH was well studied and optimized. The optimize time for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 25, and 60 min, respectively and The optimize time for adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were determined at 100, 100, 60, 15, and 60 min, respectively. The maximum removal efficiency for methyl orange dye by GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 2, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively and for malachite green dye were occurred at optimized pH 3, 3, 6, 9, and 6 of aqueous solutions, respectively. The effect of temperature showed that adsorption process of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic and for adsorption process of methyl orange dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were endothermic but while adsorption of methyl orange and malachite green dyes on MWCNT-COOH surface were exothermic.On increasing the initial concentration of methyl orange dye adsorption capacity on GO surface was decreased and on rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased and with increasing the initial concentration of malachite green dye on GO, rGO, MWCNT, MWCNT-COOH, and MWCNT-SH surfaces were increased.

Keywords: adsorption, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, methyl orange, malachite green, removal

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530 Synthesis, Characterization, Photocatalytic and Photovoltaic Performance of Ag-Doped ZnO2 Loaded on the Pt-Carbon Spheres

Authors: M. Mujahid, Omar A. Al-Hartomy


Ag-doped ZnO2 loaded on the Pt-carbon spheres have been synthesized and characterized by standard analytical techniques. i.e., UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In order to find the effect of loading of Ag doping on ZnO2, the concentration of Ag was varied from 0-3.5%. The XRD analysis showed that the obtained particles are anatase phase. The SEM images showed Ag-doped ZnO2 are loaded on the surface of the Pt-carbon spheres. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized particles was tested by studying the degradation of methyl orange dye and 4-chlorophenol as a function of time on irradiation in aqueous suspension. Ag-doped [email protected] sphere particle with platinum concentration of 3.0 % showed the highest photocatalytic activity as compared to the other Ag concentrations for the degradation of methyl orange and 4-chlorophenol.

Keywords: Ag-ZnO2, Pt-carbon spheres, degradation, methyl orange, 4-chlorophenol

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529 Synthesis and Spectrophotometric Study of Omeprazole Charge Transfer Complexes with Bromothymol Blue, Methyl Orange, and Picric Acid

Authors: Saeeda Nadir Ali, Najma Sultana, Muhammad Saeed Arayne


Charge transfer complexes of omeprazole with bromothymol blue, methyl orange, and picric acid in the Beer’s law ranges 7-56, 6-48, and 10-80 µg mL-1, exhibiting stoichiometric ratio 1:1, and maximum wavelength 400, 420 and 373 nm respectively have been studied in aqueous medium. ICH guidelines were followed for validation study. Spectroscopic parameters including oscillator’s strength, dipole moment, ionization potential, energy of complexes, resonance energy, association constant and Gibb’s free energy changes have also been investigated and Benesi-Hildebrand plot in each case has been obtained. In addition, the methods were fruitfully employed for omeprazole determination in pharmaceutical formulations with no excipients obstruction during analysis. Solid omeprazole complexes with all the acceptors were synthesized and then structure was elucidated by IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy.

Keywords: omeprazole, bromothymol blue, methyl orange and picric acid, charge transfer complexes

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528 Light Harvesting Titanium Nanocatalyst for Remediation of Methyl Orange

Authors: Brajesh Kumar, Luis Cumbal


An eco-friendly Citrus paradisi peel extract mediated synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles is reported under sonication. U.V.-vis, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering and X-ray analyses are performed to characterize the formation of TiO2 nanoparticles. It is almost spherical in shape, having a size of 60–140 nm and the XRD peaks at 2θ = 25.363° confirm the characteristic facets for anatase form. The synthesized nano catalyst is highly active in the decomposition of methyl orange (64 mg/L) in sunlight (~73%) for 2.5 hours.

Keywords: eco-friendly, TiO2 nanoparticles, citrus paradisi, TEM

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527 Comparative Isotherms Studies on Adsorptive Removal of Methyl Orange from Wastewater by Watermelon Rinds and Neem-Tree Leaves

Authors: Sadiq Sani, Muhammad B. Ibrahim


Watermelon rinds powder (WRP) and neem-tree leaves powder (NLP) were used as adsorbents for equilibrium adsorption isotherms studies for detoxification of methyl orange dye (MO) from simulated wastewater. The applicability of the process to various isotherm models was tested. All isotherms from the experimental data showed excellent linear reliability (R2: 0.9487-0.9992) but adsorptions onto WRP were more reliable (R2: 0.9724-0.9992) than onto NLP (R2: 0.9487-0.9989) except for Temkin’s Isotherm where reliability was better onto NLP (R2: 0.9937) than onto WRP (R2: 0.9935). Dubinin-Radushkevich’s monolayer adsorption capacities for both WRP and NLP (qD: 20.72 mg/g, 23.09 mg/g) were better than Langmuir’s (qm: 18.62 mg/g, 21.23 mg/g) with both capacities higher for adsorption onto NLP (qD: 23.09 mg/g; qm: 21.23 mg/g) than onto WRP (qD: 20.72 mg/g; qm: 18.62 mg/g). While values for Langmuir’s separation factor (RL) for both adsorbents suggested unfavourable adsorption processes (RL: -0.0461, -0.0250), Freundlich constant (nF) indicated favourable process onto both WRP (nF: 3.78) and NLP (nF: 5.47). Adsorption onto NLP had higher Dubinin-Radushkevich’s mean free energy of adsorption (E: 0.13 kJ/mol) than WRP (E: 0.08 kJ/mol) and Temkin’s heat of adsorption (bT) was better onto NLP (bT: -0.54 kJ/mol) than onto WRP (bT: -0.95 kJ/mol) all of which suggested physical adsorption.

Keywords: adsorption isotherms, methyl orange, neem leaves, watermelon rinds

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526 High Performance Methyl Orange Capture on Magnetic Nanoporous MCM-41 Prepared by Incipient Wetness Impregnation Method

Authors: Talib M. Albayati, Omar S. Mahdy, Ghanim M. Alwan


This work is aimed to prepare magnetic nanoporous material Fe/MCM-41 and study its Physical characterization in order to enhance the magnetic properties for study the operating conditions on separation efficiency of methyl orange (MO) from wastewater by adsorption process. The experimental results are analysed to select the best operating conditions for different studied parameters which were obtained for both adsorbents mesoporous material samples MCM-41 and magnetic Fe/MCM-41 as follow: constant temperature (20 ºC), pH: (2) adsorbent dosage (0.03 gm), contact time (10 minute) and concentrations (30 mg/L). The results are demonstrated that the adsorption processes can be well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model for pure MCM-41 with a higher correlation coefficient (0.999) and fitted by the freundlich isotherm model for magnetic Fe/MCM-41 with a higher correlation coefficient of (0.994).

Keywords: adsorption, nanoporous materials, mcm-41, magnetic material, wastewater, orange, wastewater

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525 Phytobeds with Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera for Treatment of Real Textile Effluent: An in situ Treatment, Anatomical Studies and Toxicity Evaluation

Authors: Suhas Kadam, Vishal Chandanshive, Niraj Rane, Sanjay Govindwar


Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera, and their co-plantation consortium FA were found to degrade methyl orange, simulated dye mixture, and real textile effluent. Wild plants of Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera with equal biomass showed 91 and 89% decolorization of methyl orange within 60 h at a concentration of 50 ppm, while 95% dye removal was achieved by consortium FA within 48 h. Floating phyto-beds with co-plantation (Fimbristylis dichotoma and Ammannia baccifera) for the treatment of real textile effluent in a constructed wetland was observed to be more efficient and achieved 79, 72, 77, 66 and 56% reductions in ADMI color value, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total dissolve solid and total suspended solid of textile effluent, respectively. High performance thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Ultra violet-Visible spectroscopy and enzymatic assays confirmed the phytotransformation of parent dye in the new metabolites. T-RFLP analysis of rhizospheric bacteria of Fimbristylis dichotoma, Ammannia baccifera, and consortium FA revealed the presence of 88, 98 and 223 genera which could have been involved in dye removal. Toxicity evaluation of products formed after phytotransformation of methyl orange by consortium FA on bivalves Lamellidens marginalis revealed less damage in the gills architecture when analyzed histologically. Toxicity measurement by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique revealed normal banding pattern in treated methyl orange sample suggesting less toxic nature of phytotransformed dye products.

Keywords: constructed wetland, phyto-bed, textile effluent, phytoremediation

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524 Investigation the Photocatalytic Properties of Fe3O4-ZnO Nanocomposites Prepared by Sonochemical Method

Authors: Atena Naeimi, Mehri-Sadat Ekrami-Kakhki


Fe3O4 is one of the important magnetic oxides with spinel structure; it has exhibited unique electric and magnetic properties based on the electron transfer between Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the octahedral sites. Fe3O4 have received considerable attention in various areas such as cancer therapy, drug targeting, enzyme immobilization catalysis, magnetic cell separation, magnetic refrigeration systems and super-paramagnetic materials. Fe3O4–ZnO nanostructures were synthesized via a surfactant-free ultrasonic reaction at room temperatures. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, time, and power on the size and morphology of the product was investigated. Alternating gradient force magnetometer shows that Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibit super-paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature. For preparation of nanocomposite 1 g of Fe3O4 nanostructures were dispersed in 100 mL of distilled water. 0.25 g of Zn (NO3)2 and 20 mL of NH3 solution 1 M were then slowly added to the solution under ultrasonic irradiation. The product was centrifuged, washed with distilled water and dried in the air. The photocatalytic behaviour of Fe3O4–ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated using the degradation of a methyl orange aqueous solution under ultraviolet light irradiation. As time increased, more and more methyl orange was adsorbed on the nanoparticles catalyst, until the absorption peak vanish. The methyl orange concentration decreased rapidly with increasing UV-irradiation time.

Keywords: nanocomposite, ultrasonic, paramagnetic, photocatalytic

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523 Assessment of Adsorption Properties of Neem Leaves Wastes for the Removal of Congo Red and Methyl Orange

Authors: Muhammad B. Ibrahim, Muhammad S. Sulaiman, Sadiq Sani


Neem leaves were studied as plant wastes derived adsorbents for detoxification of Congo Red (CR) and Methyl Orange (MO) from aqueous solutions using batch adsorption technique. The objectives involved determining the effects of the basic adsorption parameters are namely, agitation time, adsorbent dosage, adsorbents particle size, adsorbate loading concentrations and initial pH, on the adsorption process as well as characterizing the adsorbents by determining their physicochemical properties, functional groups responsible for the adsorption process using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersion X – ray spectroscopy (EDS). The adsorption behaviours of the materials were tested against Langmuir, Freundlich, etc. isotherm models. Percent adsorption increased with increase in agitation time (5 – 240 minutes), adsorbent dosage (100-500mg), initial concentration (100-300mg/L), and with decrease in particle size (≥75μm to ≤300μm) of the adsorbents. Both processes are dye pH-dependent, increasing or decreasing percent adsorption in acidic (2-6) or alkaline (8-12) range over the studied pH (2-12) range. From the experimental data the Langmuir’s separation factor (RL) suggests unfavourable adsorption for all processes, Freundlich constant (nF) indicates unfavourable process for CR and MO adsorption; while the mean free energy of adsorption

Keywords: adsorption, congo red, methyl orange, neem leave

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522 Batch Adsorption Studies for the Removal of Textile Dyes from Aqueous Solution on Three Different Pine Bark

Authors: B. Cheknane, F. Zermane


The main objective of the present study is the valorization of natural raw materials of plant origin for the treatment of textile industry wastewater. Selected bark was: maritime (MP), pinyon (PP) and Aleppo pine (AP) bark. The efficiency of these barks were tested for the removal of three dye; rhodamine B (RhB), Green Malachite (GM) and X Methyl Orange (MO). At the first time we focus to study the different parameters which can influence the adsorption processes such as: nature of the adsorbents, nature of the pollutants (dyes) and the effect of pH. Obtained results reveals that the speed adsorption is strongly influencing by the pH medium and the comparative study show that adsorption is favorable in the acidic medium with amount adsorbed of (Q=40mg/g) for rhodamine B and (Q=46mg/g) for orange methyl. Results of adsorption kinetics reveals that the molecules of GM are adsorbed better (Q=48mg/g) than the molecules of RhB (Q=46mg/g) and methyl orange (Q=18mg/g), with equilibrium time of 6 hours. The results of adsorption isotherms show clearly that the maritime pine bark is the most effective adsorbents with adsorbed amount of (QRhB=200mg/g) and (QMO=88mg/g) followed by pinyon pine (PP) with (QRhB=184mg/g) and (QMO=56mg/g) and finally Aleppo pine (AP) bark with (QRhB=131mg/g) and (QMO= 46mg/g). The different obtained isotherms were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich models and according to the adjustment coefficient values R2, the obtained isotherms are well represented by Freundlich model.

Keywords: maritime pine bark (MP), pinyon pine bark (PP), Aleppo pine (AP) bark, adsorption, dyes

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521 Efficacy of Methyl Eugenol and Food-Based Lures in Trapping Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Mango Homestead Trees

Authors: Juliana Amaka Ugwu


Trapping efficiency of methyl eugenol and three locally made food-based lures were evaluated in three locations for trapping of B. dorsalis on mango homestead trees in Ibadan South west Nigeria. The treatments were methyl eugenol, brewery waste, pineapple juice, orange juice, and control (water). The experiment was laid in a Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) and replicated three times in each location. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means were separated by Turkey’s test. The results showed that B. dorsalis was recorded in all locations of study. Methyl eugenol significantly (P < 0.05) trapped higher population of B. dorsalis in all the study area. The population density of B. dorsalis was highest during the ripening period of mango in all locations. The percentage trapped flies after 7 weeks were 77.85%-82.38% (methyl eugenol), 7.29%-8.64% (pineapple juice), 5.62-7.62% (brewery waste), 4.41%-5.95% (orange juice), and 0.24-0.47% (control). There were no significance differences (p > 0.05) on the population of B. dorsalis trapped in all locations. Similarly, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) on the population of flies trapped among the food attractants. However, the three food attractants significantly (p < 0.05) trapped higher flies than control. Methyl eugenol trapped only male flies while brewery waste and other food based attractants trapped both male and female flies. The food baits tested were promising attractants for trapping B. dorsalis on mango homestead tress, hence increased dosage could be considered for monitoring and mass trapping as management strategies against fruit fly infestation.

Keywords: attractants, trapping, mango, Bactrocera dorsalis

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520 Synthesis, Characterization of Organic and Inorganic Zn-Al Layered Double Hydroxides and Application for the Uptake of Methyl Orange from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Fatima Zahra Mahjoubi, Abderrahim Khalidi, Mohammed Abdennouri, Noureddine Barka


Zn-Al layered double hydroxides containing carbonate, nitrate and dodecylsulfate as the interlamellar anions have been prepared through a coprecipitation method. The resulting compounds were characterized using XRD, ICP, FTIR, TGA/DTA, TEM/EDX and pHPZC analysis. The XRD patterns revealed that carbonate and nitrate could be intercalated into the interlayer structure with basal spacing of 22.74 and 26.56 Å respectively. Bilayer intercalation of dodecylsulfate molecules was achieved in Zn-Al LDH with a basal spacing of 37.86 Å. The TEM observation indicated that the materials synthesized via coprecipitation present nanoscale LDH particle. The average particle size of Zn-AlCO3 is 150 to 200 nm. Irregular circular to hexagonal shaped particles with 30 to 40 nm in diameter was observed in the Zn-AlNO3 morphology. TEM image of Zn-AlDs display nanostructured sheet like particles with size distribution between 5 to 10 nm. The sorption characteristics and mechanisms of methyl orange dye on organic LDH were investigated and were subsequently compared with that on the inorganic Zn-Al layered double hydroxides. Adsorption experiments for MO were carried out as function of solution pH, contact time and initial dye concentration. The adsorption behavior onto inorganic LDHs was obviously influenced by initial pH. However, the adsorption capacity of organic LDH was influenced indistinctively by initial pH and the removal percentage of MO was practically constant at various value of pH. As the MO concentration increased, the curve of adsorption capacity became L-type onto LDHs. The adsorption behavior for Zn-AlDs was proposed by the dissolution of dye in a hydrophobic interlayer region (i.e., adsolubilization). The results suggested that Zn-AlDs could be applied as a potential adsorbent for MO removal in a wide range of pH.

Keywords: adsorption, dodecylsulfate, kinetics, layered double hydroxides, methyl orange removal

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519 Evaluation of the Discoloration of Methyl Orange Using Black Sand as Semiconductor through Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction

Authors: P. Acosta-Santamaría, A. Ibatá-Soto, A. López-Vásquez


Organic compounds in wastewaters coming from textile and pharmaceutical industry generated multiple harmful effects on the environment and the human health. One of them is the methyl orange (MeO), an azoic dye considered to be a recalcitrant compound. The heterogeneous photocatalysis emerges as an alternative for treating this type of hazardous compounds, through the generation of OH radicals using radiation and a semiconductor oxide. According to the author’s knowledge, catalysts such as TiO2 doped with metals show high efficiency in degrading MeO; however, this presents economic limitations on industrial scale. Black sand can be considered as a naturally doped catalyst because in its structure is common to find compounds such as titanium, iron and aluminum oxides, also elements such as zircon, cadmium, manganese, etc. This study reports the photocatalytic activity of the mineral black sand used as semiconductor in the discoloration of MeO by oxidation and reduction photocatalytic techniques. For this, magnetic composites from the mineral were prepared (RM, M1, M2 and NM) and their activity were tested through MeO discoloration while TiO2 was used as reference. For the fractions, chemical, morphological and structural characterizations were performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. M2 fraction showed higher MeO discoloration (93%) in oxidation conditions at pH 2 and it could be due to the presence of ferric oxides. However, the best result to reduction process was using M1 fraction (20%) at pH 2, which contains a higher titanium percentage. In the first process, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as electron donor agent. According to the results, black sand mineral can be used as natural semiconductor in photocatalytic process. It could be considered as a photocatalyst precursor in such processes, due to its low cost and easy access.

Keywords: black sand mineral, methyl orange, oxidation, photocatalysis, reduction

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518 Determination and Comparison of Some Elements in Different Types of Orange Juices and Investigation of Health Effect

Authors: F. Demir, A. S. Kipcak, O. Dere Ozdemir, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin


Fruit juices play important roles in human health as being a key part of nutrition.Juice and nectar are two categories of drinks with so many variations for consumers, regardless of age, lifestyle and taste preferences, which they can find their favorites. Juices contain 100% pulp when pulp content of ‘nectar’ changes between 25%-50%. In this study, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) contents in orange juice and nectar is determined for conscious consumption. For this purpose inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is used to find out potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) contents in orange juices and nectar. Furthermore, the daily intake of elements from orange juice and nectar that affects human health is also investigated. From the results of experiments K, Mg and P contents are found in orange juice as 1351; 73,25; 89,27 ppm and in orange nectar as 986; 33,76; 51,30 respectively.

Keywords: element, health, ICP-OES, orange juice

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517 Opportunity Cost of Producing Sugarcane, Sweet Orange and Soybean in Sri Lankan Context: An Economic Analysis

Authors: Tharsinithevy Kirupananthan


This study analyzed the decision on growing three different crops which suit dry zone of Sri Lanka using the opportunity cost concept in economics. The variable cost of production of sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean was 112,418.76, 13,463 and 10,928.08 Sri Lankan Rs. (LKR) per acre in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The yield of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean were 49.33 tons, 25,595 fruits, and 1032 kg per acre. The market price of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean were 4200 LKR/ton, LKR 14.66 per fruit and LKR 89.69 per kg. The market value or the total income of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean were LKR 207194.4, 283090.74, and 92560.08. The accounting profit of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean was 94,775.64, 269,627.74, and 81,632 LKR per acre. Therefore, the opportunity cost of sugarcane per acre in terms of accounting profit was LKR. 269,627.74 from sweet orange and LKR 81,632 from soybean. The highest opportunity cost per acre in terms of accounting profit was found when soybean is produced instead of sweet orange. The opportunity cost which compared among the crops in terms of market value for sugar cane per acre was LKR 283090.74 of sweet orange and LKR 92560.08 of soybean. The highest opportunity cost both in terms of accounting profit and market value was found when growing soybean instead of sweet orange by using the resource per acre of land. The economic profit of sugar cane production in place of sweet orange was LKR -188315.1 per acre. The highest economic profit LKR 177067.66 was found when sweet orange is produced in place of soybean. A positive value of economic profit was found in all combination of sweet orange production without considering the first harvest duration of the crop.

Keywords: agricultural economics, crop, opportunity cost, Sri Lanka

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516 Assay of Formulation of Fresh Cheese Using Lemon and Orange Juices as Clotting Agents

Authors: F. Bouchouka, S. Benamara


The present work is an attempt to prepare a fresh cheese using lemon juice and lemon juice / orange juice mixture as acidifying / clotting agents. A reference cheese is obtained by acidification with commercial vinegar. The analysis performed on the final product (fat, cheese yield, sensory analysis, rheological and bacteriological properties) confirmed the technical feasibility of a natural cheese, using a lemon juice and / or lemon juice / orange juice mixture as acidifying / clotting agents. In addition, a general acceptance test allowed to select the cheese sample acidified with lemon juice as the best, compared to the two other samples (lemon juice/orange juice acidification and commercial vinegar acidification).

Keywords: clotting agent, fresh cheese, juice, lemon, orange

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515 Methyl Red Dye Adsorption On PMMA/GO and PMMA/GO-Fe3O4 Nanocomposites: Equilibrium Isotherm Studies

Authors: Mostafa Rajabi, Kazem Mahanpoor


Performances of the methyl red (MR) dye adsorption on poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene oxide (PMMA/GO) and poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene oxide-Fe3O4 (PMMA/GO-Fe3O4) nanocomposites as adsorbents were investigated. Our results showed that for adsorption of MR dye on PMMA/GO-Fe3O4 and PMMA/GO nanocomposites, 80 minutes, 298 K, and pH 2 were the best contact time, temperature and pH value for process, respectively, because the optimum adsorption of the MR dye with both nanocomposite adsorbents were observed in these values of the parameters. The equilibrium study results showed that PMMA/GO-Fe3O4 and PMMA/GO were suitable adsorbents for MR dye removing and were best in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model.

Keywords: adsorption, isotherm, methyl methacrylate, methyl red, nanocomposite, nano magnetic Fe3O4

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
514 Effect of Tree Age on Fruit Quality of Different Cultivars of Sweet Orange

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Faheem Khadija, Zahoor Hussain, Raheel Anwar, M. Nawaz Khan, M. Raza Salik


Amongst citrus species, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) occupies a dominant position in the orange producing countries in the world. Sweet orange is widely consumed both as fresh fruit as well as juice and its global demand is attributed due to higher vitamin C and antioxidants. Fruit quality is most important for the external appearance and marketability of sweet orange fruit, especially for fresh consumption. There are so many factors affecting fruit quality, tree age is the most important one, but remains unexplored so far. The present study, we investigated the role of tree age on fruit quality of different cultivars of sweet oranges. The difference between fruit quality of 5-year young and 15-year old trees was discussed in the current study. In case of fruit weight, maximum fruit weight (238g) was recorded in 15-year old sweet orange cv. Sallustiana cultivar while minimum fruit weight (142g) was recorded in 5-year young tree of Succari sweet orange fruit. The results of the fruit diameter showed that the maximum fruit diameter (77.142mm) was recorded in 15-year old Sallustiana orange but the minimum fruit diameter (66.046mm) was observed in 5-year young tree of sweet orange cv. Succari. The minimum value of rind thickness (4.142mm) was noted in 15-year old tree of cv. Red blood. On the other hand maximum value of rind thickness was observed in 5-year young tree of cv. Sallustiana. The data regarding total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), TSS/TA, juice content, rind, flavedo thickness, pH and fruit diameter have also been discussed.

Keywords: age, cultivars, fruit, quality, sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L. Osbeck)

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513 Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in Orange Juices Product

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat


This research describes a voltammetric approach to determine amounts of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) in orange juice sample, using three screen printed electrode. The anodic currents of vitamin C were proportional to vitamin C concentration in the range of 0 – 10.0 mM with the limit of detection of 1.36 mM. The method was successfully employed with 2 µL of the working solution dropped on the electrode surface. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of vitamin C in packed orange juice without sample purification or complexion of sample preparation step.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, vitamin C, juice, voltammetry

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512 An Association Model to Correlate the Experimentally Determined Mixture Solubilities of Methyl 10-Undecenoate with Methyl Ricinoleate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: V. Mani Rathnam, Giridhar Madras


Fossil fuels are depleting rapidly as the demand for energy, and its allied chemicals are continuously increasing in the modern world. Therefore, sustainable renewable energy sources based on non-edible oils are being explored as a viable option as they do not compete with the food commodities. Oils such as castor oil are rich in fatty acids and thus can be used for the synthesis of biodiesel, bio-lubricants, and many other fine industrial chemicals. There are several processes available for the synthesis of different chemicals obtained from the castor oil. One such process is the transesterification of castor oil, which results in a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters. The main products in the above reaction are methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. To separate these compounds, supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) was used as a green solvent. SCCO₂ was chosen as a solvent due to its easy availability, non-toxic, non-flammable, and low cost. In order to design any separation process, the preliminary requirement is the solubility or phase equilibrium data. Therefore, the solubility of a mixture of methyl ricinoleate with methyl 10-undecenoate in SCCO₂ was determined in the present study. The temperature and pressure range selected for the investigation were T = 313 K to 333 K and P = 10 MPa to 18 MPa. It was observed that the solubility (mol·mol⁻¹) of methyl 10-undecenoate varied from 2.44 x 10⁻³ to 8.42 x 10⁻³ whereas it varied from 0.203 x 10⁻³ to 6.28 x 10⁻³ for methyl ricinoleate within the chosen operating conditions. These solubilities followed a retrograde behavior (characterized by the decrease in the solubility values with the increase in temperature) throughout the range of investigated operating conditions. An association theory model, coupled with regular solution theory for activity coefficients, was developed in the present study. The deviation from the experimental data using this model can be quantified using the average absolute relative deviation (AARD). The AARD% for the present compounds is 4.69 and 8.08 for methyl 10-undecenoate and methyl ricinoleate, respectively in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. The maximum solubility enhancement of 32% was observed for the methyl ricinoleate in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. The highest selectivity of SCCO₂ was observed to be 12 for methyl 10-undecenoate in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate.

Keywords: association theory, liquid mixtures, solubilities, supercritical carbon dioxide

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511 Production and Evaluation of Physicochemical, Nutritional, Sensorial and Microbiological Properties of Mixed Fruit Juice Blend Prepared from Apple, Orange and Mosambi

Authors: Himalaya Patir, Bitupon Baruah, Sanjay Gayary, Subhajit Ray


In recent age significant importance is given for the development of nutritious and health beneficial foods. Fruit juices collected from different fruits when blended that improves not only the physicochemical and nutritional properties but also enhance the sensorial or organoleptic properties. The study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical, nutritional, microbiological analysis and sensory evaluation of mixed fruit juice blend. Juice of orange (Citrus sinensis), apple (Malus domestica), mosambi (Citrus limetta) were blended in the ratio of sample-I (30% apple:30% orange:40% mosambi), sample-II ( 40% apple :30% orange :30% mosambi), sample-III (30% apple :40% orange :30% mosambi) , sample-IV (50% apple :30% orange :20% mosambi), sample-V (30% apple:20% orange:50% mosambi), sample-VI (20% apple :50% orange :30% mosambi) to evaluate all quality characteristics. Their colour characteristics in terms of hue angle, chroma and colour difference (∆E) were evaluated. The physico-chemical parameters analysis carried out were total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, acidity (FA), volatile acidity (VA), pH, and vitamin C. There were significant differences (p˂0.05) in the TSS of the samples. However, sample-V (30% apple: 20% orange: 50% mosambi) provides the highest TSS of 9.02gm and significantly differed from other samples (p˂0.05). Sample-IV (50% apple: 30% orange: 20% mosambi) was shown the highest titratable acidity (.59%) in comparison to other samples. The highest value of pH was found as 5.01 for sample-IV (50% apple: 30% orange: 20% mosambi). Sample-VI (20% apple: 50% orange :30% mosambi) blend has the highest hue angle, chroma and colour changes of 72.14,25.29 and 54.48 and vitamin C, i.e. Ascorbic acid (.33g/l) content compared to other samples. The nutritional compositions study showed that, sample- VI (20% apple: 50% orange: 30% mosambi) has the significantly higher carbohydrate (51.67%), protein (.78%) and ash (1.24%) than other samples, while sample-V (30% apple: 20% orange: 50% mosambi) has higher dietary fibre (12.84%) and fat (2.82%) content. Microbiological analysis of all samples in terms of total plate count (TPC) ranges from 44-60 in 101 dilution and 4-5 in 107 dilutions and was found satisfactory. Moreover, other pathogenic bacterial count was found nil. The general acceptability of the mixed fruit juice blend samples were moderately liked by the panellists, and sensorial quality studies showed that sample-V (30% apple: 20% orange: 50% mosambi) contains highest overall acceptability of 8.37 over other samples and can be considered good for consumption.

Keywords: microbiological, nutritional, physico-chemical, sensory properties

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510 The “Prologue” in Tommy Orange’S There, There: Reinventing the Introductory Section

Authors: Kristin Murray


The proposed paper exams prologues in 20th and 21st century American literature in order to show how Native American writer Tommy Orange’s Prologue in his 2018 novel There, Thereis different. In an interview about his 2018 novel There, There, explains he feels “a kind of burden to catch the general reader up with what really happened, because history has got it so wrong and still continue to” (Laubernds). Orange, thus, includes a “Prologue” in his novel to do this work, catching readers upon Native Americans and their history. Prologues are usually from the narrator’s voice, a character’s voice, or even from a fictionalized version of the author, but the tone of Orange’s “Prologue” is that of a non-fictional first-person essayist. Examining prologues in American literature posits Orange’s prologue outside the norm. This paper also examines other introductory sections, the preface, in particular. The research and examination reveal that Orange is adding his personal voice in the Prologue to the multiple narratorsof the novel, and his is the voice of a writer who knows that his audience comes to his novel with a plethora of misinformation. The truths he tells are horrifying and hopeful. He tells of Thanksgiving as a “land deal” and a “successful massacre,” but he also tellsreaders how urban Indians have found a sense of the land, even through concrete. Native American writers contributed and still contribute to the genre of autobiography in ways that have changed our understanding of this genre. This examination of Orange’s Prologue reveals the new and unexpected way to view this often under-examined introductory section, the prologue.

Keywords: native american literature, prologues, prefaces, 20th century american literature

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509 Effect of Asymmetric Amphiphilic Dicationic Ionic Liquids as Oil Spill Dispersants in Red Sea

Authors: Raghda El-Nagara, Maher I. Nessim, Carmen E. Elshafee, Renee I. Abdallah, Yasser M. Moustafa


Three asymmetric dicationic ionic liquids (ADILs), 1-(2-(1-dodecyl-2-methyl-1H-imidazolium-3-yl)ethyl)-3-methyl pyridinium bromide (IL₁), 1-(6-(1-dodecyl-2-methyl-1H-imidazolium-3-yl)hexyl)-3-methyl pyridinium bromide (IL₂) and 1-(10-(1-dodecyl-2-methyl-1H-imidazolium-3-yl)decyl)-3-methyl pyridinium bromide (IL₃) were synthesized with yield of 83.54, 84.12 & 83.05% respectively. They were elucidated via conventional tools of analysis (elemental analysis, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR). The thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the three ADILs possessed high thermal stability (up to 500ᵒC). Their critical micelle concentration (CMC) was investigated and exhibited values of 5.5-1*10⁻³ Mol./L. They were evaluated as oil spill dispersants were at different temperatures (10, 30 & 50ᵒC) with different concentrations (750, 1500, 2000, 3000 ppm). Data reveals that the efficiency is ranked as follows: IL₂ > IL₁ > IL₃, which showed high dispersion efficiency reached to 63% with the concentration of 1500 ppm.

Keywords: ionic liquids, amphiphilic, oil spill dispersants, dicationic, efficiency test

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508 Glycerol-Free Biodiesel Synthesis from Crude Mahua (Madhuca indica) Oil under Supercritical Methyl Acetate Using CO2 as a Co-Solvent

Authors: Antaram Sarve, Mahesh Varma, Shriram Sonawane


Conventional route of producing biodiesel with alcohol produces glycerol as side product which leads to oversupply and devaluation in the world market. Supercritical methyl acetate (SCMA) has been proven to convert triglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and triacetin, which is a valuable biodiesel additive as side product rather than glycerol. However, due to the low reactivity of supercritical methyl acetate on triglycerides, high reaction conditions are required to obtained maximum yields. The present study describes the renewable approach for the production of biodiesel from low-cost, high acid value mahua oil under supercritical methyl acetate condition using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a co-solvent. CO2 was employed to decrease high reaction conditions required for supercritical methyl acetate transesterification. The influence of process parameters such as temperature, oil to methyl acetate molar ratio, reaction time, and the CO2 pressure was evaluated. The properties of biodiesel produced were found to be superior compared to conventional biodiesel method. Furthermore, SCMA has a high tolerance towards free fatty acids (FFAs) which is crucial to allow the utilization of inexpensive waste oils as a biodiesel feedstock.

Keywords: supercritical methyl acetate, CO2, biodiesel, fuel properties

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507 Study of Intermolecular Interactions in Binary Mixtures of 1-Butyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Bis (Trifluoro Methyl Sulfonyl) Imide and 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Ethyl Sulphate at Different Temperature from 293.18 to 342.15 K

Authors: V. Lokesh, M. Manjunathan, S. Sairam, K. Saithsh Kumar, R. Anantharaj


The densities of pure and its binary mixtures of 1-Butyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis (trifluoro methyl sulfonyl) imide and 1–Ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium ethyl sulphate at different temperature, over the entire composition range were measured at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, 323.15, 328.15, 33.15, 338.15, 343.15 K. In this study, the liquid-liquid extraction procedure was used. From this experimental data, the excess molar volumes, apparent molar volume, partial molar volumes and the excess partial molar volumes have been calculated for over the whole composition range. Hence, the effect of temperature and composition on all derived thermodynamic properties of this binary mixture will be discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions.

Keywords: ionic liquid, interaction energy, effect of temperature, effect of composition

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506 Production of Clean Reusable Distillery Waste Water Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Waste Orange Peels

Authors: Joseph Govha, Sharon Mudutu


The research details the treatment of distillery waste water by making use of activated carbon prepared from orange peels as an adsorbent. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions to determine the optimum conditions that work best for the removal of color in distillery waste water using orange peel activated carbon. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions by varying contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, testing for color intensity and Biological Oxygen Demand. A maximum percentage color removal of 88% was obtained at pH 7 at an adsorbent dosage of 1g/20ml. Maximum adsorption capacity was obtained from the Langmuir isotherm at R2=0.98.

Keywords: distillery, waste water, orange peel, activated carbon, adsorption

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505 Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Essential Oils: A Clean Chemical Processing in the Teaching and Research Laboratory

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat


Microwave Clevenger or microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. MAD extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. MAD has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). MAD and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with MAD was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by MAD and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MAD, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation.

Keywords: clevenger, microwave, extraction; hydro-distillation, essential oil, orange peel

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504 Development of Cobalt Doped Alumina Hybrids for Adsorption of Textile Effluents

Authors: Uzaira Rafique, Kousar Parveen


The discharge volume and composition of Textile effluents gains scientific concern due to its hazards and biotoxcity of azo dyes. Azo dyes are non-biodegradable due to its complex molecular structure and recalcitrant nature. Serious attempts have been made to synthesize and develop new materials to combat the environmental problems. The present study is designed for removal of a range of azo dyes (Methyl orange, Congo red and Basic fuchsine) from synthetic aqueous solutions and real textile effluents. For this purpose, Metal (cobalt) doped alumina hybrids are synthesized and applied as adsorbents in the batch experiment. Two different aluminium precursor (aluminium nitrate and spent aluminium foil) and glucose are mixed following sol gel method to get hybrids. The synthesized materials are characterized for surface and bulk properties using FTIR, SEM-EDX and XRD techniques. The characterization of materials under FTIR revealed that –OH (3487-3504 cm-1), C-H (2935-2985 cm-1), Al-O (~ 800 cm-1), Al-O-C (~1380 cm-1), Al-O-Al (659-669 cm-1) groups participates in the binding of dyes onto the surface of hybrids. Amorphous shaped particles and elemental composition of carbon (23%-44%), aluminium (29%-395%), and oxygen (11%-20%) is demonstrated in SEM-EDX micrograph. Time-dependent batch-experiments under identical experimental parameters showed 74% congo red, 68% methyl orange and 85% maximum removal of basic fuchsine onto the surface of cobalt doped alumina hybrids probably through the ion-exchange mechanism. The experimental data when treated with adsorption models is found to have good agreement with pseudo second order kinetic and freundlich isotherm for adsorption process. The present study concludes the successful synthesis of novel and efficient cobalt doped alumina hybrids providing environmental friendly and economical alternative to the commercial adsorbents for the treatment of industrial effluents.

Keywords: alumina hybrid, adsorption, dopant, isotherm, kinetic

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