Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3259

Search results for: structural

3259 Kalman Filter Design in Structural Identification with Unknown Excitation

Authors: Z. Masoumi, B. Moaveni

Abstract:

This article is about first step of structural health monitoring by identifying structural system in the presence of unknown input. In the structural system identification, identification of structural parameters such as stiffness and damping are considered. In this study, the Kalman filter (KF) design for structural systems with unknown excitation is expressed. External excitations, such as earthquakes, wind or any other forces are not measured or not available. The purpose of this filter is its strengths to estimate the state variables of the system in the presence of unknown input. Also least squares estimation (LSE) method with unknown input is studied. Estimates of parameters have been adopted. Finally, using two examples advantages and drawbacks of both methods are studied.

Keywords: Kalman filter (KF), least square estimation (LSE), structural health monitoring (SHM), structural system identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
3258 Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of MnNi

Authors: N. Benkhettoua, Y. Barkata

Abstract:

We present first-principles studies of structural and thermodynamic properties of MnNi According to the calculated total energies, by using an all-electron full-potential linear muffin–tin orbital method (FP-LMTO) within LDA and the quasi-harmonic Debye model implemented in the Gibbs program is used for the temperature effect on structural and calorific properties.

Keywords: magnetic materials, structural properties, thermodynamic properties, metallurgical and materials engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
3257 Stress Analysis of Turbine Blades of Turbocharger Using Structural Steel

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif

Abstract:

Turbocharger is a device that is driven by the turbine and increases efficiency and power output of the engine by forcing external air into the combustion chamber. This study focused on the distribution of stress on the turbine blades and total deformation that may occur during its working along with turbocharger to carry out its static structural analysis of turbine blades. Structural steel was selected as the material for turbocharger. Assembly of turbocharger and turbine blades was designed on PRO ENGINEER. Furthermore, the structural analysis is performed by using ANSYS. This research concluded that by using structural steel, the efficiency of engine is improved and by increasing number of turbine blades, more waste heat from combustion chamber is emitted.

Keywords: turbocharger, turbine blades, structural steel, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
3256 Effect of Structural Change on Productivity Convergence: A Panel Unit Root Analysis

Authors: Amjad Naveed

Abstract:

This study analysed the role of structural change in the process of labour productivity convergence at country and regional levels. Many forms of structural changes occurred within the European Union (EU) countries i.e. variation in sectoral employment share, changes in demand for products, variations in trade patterns and advancement in technology which may have an influence on the process of convergence. Earlier studies on convergence have neglected the role of structural changes which can have resulted in different conclusion on the nature of convergence. The contribution of this study is to examine the role of structural change in testing labour productivity convergence at various levels. For the empirical purpose, the data of 19 EU countries, 259 regions and 6 industries is used for the period of 1991-2009. The results indicate that convergence varies across regional and country levels for different industries when considered the role of structural change.

Keywords: labor produvitivty, convergence, structural change, panel unit root

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
3255 Optimum Design of Tall Tube-Type Building: An Approach to Structural Height Premium

Authors: Ali Kheyroddin, Niloufar Mashhadiali, Frazaneh Kheyroddin

Abstract:

In last decades, tubular systems employed for tall buildings were efficient structural systems. However, increasing the height of a building leads to an increase in structural material corresponding to the loads imposed by lateral loads. Based on this approach, new structural systems are emerging to provide strength and stiffness with the minimum premium for height. In this research, selected tube-type structural systems such as framed tubes, braced tubes, diagrids and hexagrid systems were applied as a single tube, tubular structures combined with braced core and outrigger trusses on a set of 48, 72, and 96-story, respectively, to improve integrated structural systems. This paper investigated structural material consumption by model structures focusing on the premium for height. Compared analytical results indicated that as the height of the building increased, combination of the structural systems caused the framed tube, hexagrid and braced tube system to pay fewer premiums to material tonnage while in diagrid system, combining the structural system reduced insignificantly the steel material consumption.

Keywords: braced tube, diagrid, framed tube, hexagrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
3254 A Tool for Assessing Performance and Structural Quality of Business Process

Authors: Mariem Kchaou, Wiem Khlif, Faiez Gargouri

Abstract:

Modeling business processes is an essential task when evaluating, improving, or documenting existing business processes. To be efficient in such tasks, a business process model (BPM) must have high structural quality and high performance. Evidently, evaluating the performance of a business process model is a necessary step to reduce time, cost, while assessing the structural quality aims to improve the understandability and the modifiability of the BPMN model. To achieve these objectives, a set of structural and performance measures have been proposed. Since the diversity of measures, we propose a framework that integrates both structural and performance aspects for classifying them. Our measure classification is based on business process model perspectives (e.g., informational, functional, organizational, behavioral, and temporal), and the elements (activity, event, actor, etc.) involved in computing the measures. Then, we implement this framework in a tool assisting the structural quality and the performance of a business process. The tool helps the designers to select an appropriate subset of measures associated with the corresponding perspective and to calculate and interpret their values in order to improve the structural quality and the performance of the model.

Keywords: performance, structural quality, perspectives, tool, classification framework, measures

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
3253 Optimisation of Structural Design by Integrating Genetic Algorithms in the Building Information Modelling Environment

Authors: Tofigh Hamidavi, Sepehr Abrishami, Pasquale Ponterosso, David Begg

Abstract:

Structural design and analysis is an important and time-consuming process, particularly at the conceptual design stage. Decisions made at this stage can have an enormous effect on the entire project, as it becomes ever costlier and more difficult to alter the choices made early on in the construction process. Hence, optimisation of the early stages of structural design can provide important efficiencies in terms of cost and time. This paper suggests a structural design optimisation (SDO) framework in which Genetic Algorithms (GAs) may be used to semi-automate the production and optimisation of early structural design alternatives. This framework has the potential to leverage conceptual structural design innovation in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) projects. Moreover, this framework improves the collaboration between the architectural stage and the structural stage. It will be shown that this SDO framework can make this achievable by generating the structural model based on the extracted data from the architectural model. At the moment, the proposed SDO framework is in the process of validation, involving the distribution of an online questionnaire among structural engineers in the UK.

Keywords: building information, modelling, BIM, genetic algorithm, GA, architecture-engineering-construction, AEC, optimisation, structure, design, population, generation, selection, mutation, crossover, offspring

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
3252 Structural Analysis of an Active Morphing Wing for Enhancing UAV Performance

Authors: E. Kaygan, A. Gatto

Abstract:

A numerical study of a design concept for actively controlling wing twist is described in this paper. The concept consists of morphing elements which were designed to provide a rigid and seamless skin while maintaining structural rigidity. The wing structure is first modeled in CATIA V5 then imported into ANSYS for structural analysis. Athena Vortex Lattice method (AVL) is used to estimate aerodynamic response as well as aerodynamic loads of morphing wings, afterwards a structural optimization performed via ANSYS Static. Overall, the results presented in this paper show that the concept provides efficient wing twist while preserving an aerodynamically smooth and compliant surface. Sufficient structural rigidity in bending is also obtained. This concept is suggested as a possible alternative for morphing skin applications. 

Keywords: aircraft, morphing, skin, twist

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
3251 Structural Performance of a Bridge Pier on Dubious Deep Foundation

Authors: Víctor Cecilio, Roberto Gómez, J. Alberto Escobar, Héctor Guerrero

Abstract:

The study of the structural behavior of a support/pier of an elevated viaduct in Mexico City is presented. Detection of foundation piles with uncertain integrity prompted the review of possible situations that could jeopardy the structural safety of the pier. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the structural conditions of the support, taking into account the type of anomaly reported and the depth at which it is located, the position of the pile with uncertain integrity in the foundation system, the stratigraphy of the surrounding soil and the geometry and structural characteristics of the pier. To carry out the above, dynamic analysis, spectral modal, and step-by-step, with elastic and inelastic material models, were performed. Results were evaluated in accordance with the standards used for the design of the original structural project and with the Construction Regulations for Mexico’s Federal District (RCDF-2017, 2017). Comments on the response of the analyzed models are issued, and the conclusions are presented from a structural point of view.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, inelastic models, dubious foundation, bridge pier

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3250 Evaluation of Structural Integrity for Composite Lattice Structure

Authors: Jae Moon Im, Kwang Bok Shin, Sang Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, evaluation of structural integrity for composite lattice structure was conducted by compressive test. Composite lattice structure was manufactured by carbon fiber using filament winding method. In order to evaluate the structural integrity of composite lattice structure, compressive test was done using anti-buckling fixture. The delamination occurred 84 Tons of compressive load. It was found that composite lattice structure satisfied the design requirements.

Keywords: composite material, compressive test, lattice structure, structural integrity

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3249 The Features of Formation of Russian Agriculture’s Sectoral Structure

Authors: Natalya G. Filimonova, Mariya G. Ozerova, Irina N. Ermakova

Abstract:

The long-term strategy of the economic development of Russia up to 2030 is based on the concept of sustainable growth. The determining factor of such development is complex changes in the economic system which may be achieved by making progressive changes in its structure. The structural changes determine the character and the direction of economic development, as well as they include all elements of this system without exception, and their regulated character ensures the most rapid aim achievement. This article has discussed the industrial structure of the agriculture in Russia. With the use of the system of indexes, the article has determined the directions, intensity, and speed of structural shifts. The influence of structural changes on agricultural production development has been found out. It is noticed that the changes in the industrial structure are synchronized with the changes in the organisation and economic structure. Efficiency assessment of structural changes allowed to trace the efficiency of structural changes and elaborate the main directions for agricultural policy improvement.

Keywords: Russian agricultural sectors, sectoral structure, organizational and economic structure, structural changes

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3248 Study Case of Spacecraft Instruments in Structural Modelling with Nastran-Patran

Authors: Francisco Borja de Lara, Ali Ravanbakhsh, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Lars Seimetz, Fermín Navarro

Abstract:

The intense structural loads during the launch of a spacecraft represent a challenge for the space structure designers because enough resistance has to be achieved while maintaining at the same time the mass and volume within the allowable margins of the mission requirements and inside the limits of the budget project. In this conference, we present the structural analysis of the Lunar Lander Neutron Dosimetry (LND) experiment on the Chang'E4 mission, the first probe to land on the moon’s far side included in the Chinese’ Moon Exploration Program by the Chinese National Space Administration. To this target, the software Nastran/Patran has been used: a structural model in Patran and a structural analysis through Nastran have been realized. Next, the results obtained are used both for the optimization process of the spacecraft structure, and as input parameters for the model structural test campaign. In this way, the feasibility of the lunar instrument structure is demonstrated in terms of the modal modes, stresses, and random vibration and a better understanding of the structural tests design is provided by our results.

Keywords: Chang’E4, Chinese national space administration, lunar lander neutron dosimetry, nastran-patran, structural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
3247 Developing Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves

Authors: Gregory Kelly, Gary Chai, Sittampalam Manoharan, Deborah Delaney

Abstract:

A Structural Number (SN) can be calculated for a road pavement from the properties and thicknesses of the surface, base course, sub-base, and subgrade. Historically, the cost of collecting structural data has been very high. Data were initially collected using Benkelman Beams and now by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). The structural strength of pavements weakens over time due to environmental and traffic loading factors, but due to a lack of data, no structural deterioration curve for pavements has been implemented in a Pavement Management System (PMS). International Roughness Index (IRI) is a measure of the road longitudinal profile and has been used as a proxy for a pavement’s structural integrity. This paper offers two conceptual methods to develop Pavement Structural Deterioration Curves (PSDC). Firstly, structural data are grouped in sets by design Equivalent Standard Axles (ESA). An ‘Initial’ SN (ISN), Intermediate SN’s (SNI) and a Terminal SN (TSN), are used to develop the curves. Using FWD data, the ISN is the SN after the pavement is rehabilitated (Financial Accounting ‘Modern Equivalent’). Intermediate SNIs, are SNs other than the ISN and TSN. The TSN was defined as the SN of the pavement when it was approved for pavement rehabilitation. The second method is to use Traffic Speed Deflectometer data (TSD). The road network already divided into road blocks, is grouped by traffic loading. For each traffic loading group, road blocks that have had a recent pavement rehabilitation, are used to calculate the ISN and those planned for pavement rehabilitation to calculate the TSN. The remaining SNs are used to complete the age-based or if available, historical traffic loading-based SNI’s.

Keywords: conceptual, pavement structural number, pavement structural deterioration curve, pavement management system

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3246 Creative Thinking in Structural Design of Historic Constructions

Authors: Avraham Mosseri

Abstract:

The architectural conservation process of the built heritage is a very complex process dealing with the integration of professional knowledge from many fields like history, sociology, economy, engineering, etc. One of the most important fields is the structural field, which has a great influence on the final architectural and aesthetic solution of the built heritage. In many cases, the ability to protect and save the heritage values of the historical buildings is an outcome of the structural creativity and conceptual design of the conservation engineers. This creativity is especially important when dealing with structural engineering of historic construction, where there are a lot of constraints and contradictions between different aspects like aesthetics, artistic values, culture, authenticity, structural performance, etc. But in spite of the importance of this creativity in conservation engineering, many research efforts are mainly devoted to the structural analysis of historic construction, which of course is very important and vital. But, in general, more attention can be paid to the creative process in the conceptual stage. In this situation there is a need, in parallel to analysis research, to devote more resources in order to improve the creative and conceptual theories in relation to conservation engineering. This paper focuses on the creativity aspects in the structural design process in the conservation of historic buildings as part of conservation theories.

Keywords: conservation, creativity, historic constructions, structural design

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3245 Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Composite Structural System with Separated Gravity and Lateral Resistant Systems

Authors: Zi-Ang Li, Mu-Xuan Tao

Abstract:

During the process of the industrialization of steel structure housing, a composite structural system with separated gravity and lateral resistant systems has been applied in engineering practices, which consists of composite frame with hinged beam-column joints, steel brace and RC shear wall. As an attempt in steel structural system area, seismic performance evaluation of the separated composite structure is important for further application in steel housing. This paper focuses on the seismic performance comparison of the separated composite structural system and traditional steel frame-shear wall system under the same inter-story drift ratio (IDR) provision limit. The same architectural layout of a high-rise building is designed as two different structural systems at the same IDR level, and finite element analysis using pushover method is carried out. Static pushover analysis implies that the separated structural system exhibits different lateral deformation mode and failure mechanism with traditional steel frame-shear wall system. Different indexes are adopted and discussed in seismic performance evaluation, including IDR, safe factor (SF), shear wall damage, etc. The performance under maximum considered earthquake (MCE) demand spectrum shows that the shear wall damage of two structural systems are similar; the separated composite structural system exhibits less plastic hinges; and the SF index value of the separated composite structural system is higher than the steel frame shear wall structural system.

Keywords: finite element analysis, new composite structural system, seismic performance evaluation, static pushover analysis

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3244 Experimental Investigation on Residual Stresses in Welded Medium-Walled I-shaped Sections Fabricated from Q460GJ Structural Steel Plates

Authors: Qian Zhu, Shidong Nie, Bo Yang, Gang Xiong, Guoxin Dai

Abstract:

GJ steel is a new type of high-performance structural steel which has been increasingly adopted in practical engineering. Q460GJ structural steel has a nominal yield strength of 460 MPa, which does not decrease significantly with the increase of steel plate thickness like normal structural steel. Thus, Q460GJ structural steel is normally used in medium-walled welded sections. However, research works on the residual stress in GJ steel members are few though it is one of the vital factors that can affect the member and structural behavior. This article aims to investigate the residual stresses in welded I-shaped sections fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates by experimental tests. A total of four full scale welded medium-walled I-shaped sections were tested by sectioning method. Both circular curve correction method and straightening measurement method were adopted in this study to obtain the final magnitude and distribution of the longitudinal residual stresses. In addition, this paper also explores the interaction between flanges and webs. And based on the statistical evaluation of the experimental data, a multilayer residual stress model is proposed.

Keywords: Q460GJ structural steel, residual stresses, sectioning method, welded medium-walled I-shaped sections

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3243 Passive Seismic Energy Dissipation Mechanisms for Smart Green Structural System (SGSS)

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

The design philosophy of building structure has been changing over time. The reason behind this is an increase in human interest regarding the improvements in building materials and technology that will affect how we live, the aim to speed up construction period, and the environmental effect which includes earthquakes and other natural disasters. One technique which takes into account the above case is using a prefabricable structural system, in which each and every structural element is designed and prefabricated and assembled on a site so that the construction speed is increased and the environmental impact is also enhanced. This system has immense advantages such as reduced construction cost, reusability, recyclability, faster construction period and less enviromental effect. In this study, some of the developed and evaluated structural elements of building structures are presented.

Keywords: eccentrically braced frame, natural disaster, prefabricable structural system, removable link, SGSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
3242 Carbon Sequestering and Structural Capabilities of Eucalyptus Cloeziana

Authors: Holly Sandberg, Christina McCoy, Khaled Mansy

Abstract:

Eucalyptus Cloeziana, commonly known as Gympie Messmate, is a fast-growing hardwood native to Australia. Its quick growth makes it advantageous for carbon sequestering, while its strength class lends itself to structural applications. Market research shows that the demand for timber is growing, especially mass timber. An environmental product declaration, or EPD, for eucalyptus Cloeziana in the Australian market has been evaluated and compared to the EPD’s of steel and Douglas fir of the same region. An EPD follows a product throughout its life cycle, stating values for global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential. This paper highlights the market potential, as well as the environmental benefits and challenges to using Gympie Messmate as a structural building material. In addition, a case study is performed to compare steel, Douglas fir, and eucalyptus in terms of embodied carbon and structural weight within a single structural bay. Comparisons among the three materials highlight both the differences in structural capabilities as well as environmental impact.

Keywords: eucalyptus, timber, construction, structural, material

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3241 Applied Methods for Lightweighting Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

Abstract:

With gravity load reduction in the structural and non-structural components, the lightweight construction will be achieved as well as the improvement of efficiency and functional specifications. The advantages of lightweight construction can be examined in two levels. The first is the mass reduction of load bearing structure which results in increasing internal useful space and the other one is the mass reduction of building which decreases the effects of seismic load as a result. In order to achieve this goal, the essential building materials specifications and also optimum load bearing geometry of structural systems and elements have to be considered, so lightweight materials selection particularly with lightweight aggregate for building components will be the first step of lightweight construction. In the next step, in addition to selecting the prominent samples of Iran's traditional architecture, the process of these works improvement is analyzed through the viewpoints of structural efficiency and lightweighting and also the practical methods of lightweight construction have been extracted. The optimum design of load bearing geometry of structural system has to be considered not only in the structural system elements, but also in their composition and the selection of dimensions, proportions, forms and optimum orientations, can lead to get a maximum materials efficiency for loads and stresses bearing.

Keywords: gravity load, lightweighting structural system, load bearing geometry, seismic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
3240 Multifunctional Composite Structural Elements for Sensing and Energy Harvesting

Authors: Amir H. Alavi, Kaveh Barri, Qianyun Zhang

Abstract:

This study presents a new generation of lightweight and mechanically tunable structural composites with sensing and energy harvesting functionalities. This goal is achieved by integrating metamaterial and triboelectric energy harvesting concepts. Proof-of-concept polymeric beam prototypes are fabricated using 3D printing methods based on the proposed concept. Experiments and theoretical analyses are conducted to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of the designed multifunctional beams. The results show that these integrated structural elements can serve as nanogenerators and distributed sensing mediums without a need to incorporating any external sensing modules and electronics. The feasibility of design self-sensing and self-powering structural elements at multiscale for next generation infrastructure systems is further discussed.

Keywords: multifunctional structures, composites, metamaterial, triboelectric nanogenerator, sensors, structural health monitoring, energy harvesting

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3239 A Biomimetic Structural Form: Developing a Paradigm to Attain Vital Sustainability in Tall Architecture

Authors: Osama Al-Sehail

Abstract:

This paper argues for sustainability as a necessity in the evolution of tall architecture. It provides a different mode for dealing with sustainability in tall architecture, taking into consideration the speciality of its typology. To this end, the article develops a Biomimetic Structural Form as a paradigm to attain Vital Sustainability. A Biomimetic Structural Form, which is derived from the amalgamation of biomimicry as an approach for sustainability defining nature as source of knowledge and inspiration in solving humans’ problems and a Structural Form as a catalyst for evolving tall architecture, is a dynamic paradigm emerging from a conceptualizing and morphological process. A Biomimetic Structural Form is a flow system whose different forces and functions tend to be “better”, more "fit", to “survive”, and to be efficient. Through geometry and function—the two aspects of knowledge extracted from nature—the attributes of the Biomimetic Structural Form are formulated. Vital Sustainability is the survival level of sustainability in natural systems through which a system enhances the performance of its internal working and its interaction with the external environment. A Biomimetic Structural Form, in this context, is a medium for evolving tall architecture to emulate natural models in their ways of coexistence with the environment. As an integral part of this article, the sustainable super tall building 3Ts is discussed as a case study of applying Biomimetic Structural Form.   

Keywords: biomimicry, design in nature, high-rise buildings, sustainability, structural form, tall architecture, vital sustainability

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3238 Specialization in Biomimicry: A Rationale for a Proposed Curriculum for Structural Engineering Students

Authors: Austin Dada, Frederick Rutz, Wil Srubar

Abstract:

This proposed curriculum details the general concept of biomimicry in structural engineering. The interdisciplinary study of biology and structural engineering is also discussed, along with methods for effective research and study of biomimicry-related topics. Also known as synthetic biology, biomimetics, and the study of bioinspired structures, biomimicry in structural engineering is an emerging field with a wide berth of possibilities. The purpose of this proposed curriculum is to determine a suitable curriculum of study in the pursuit of a research topic regarding biomimicry within the field of structural engineering. Four main manifestations of bioinspired structures are covered in this curriculum; the creation of new biomaterials for use in construction, the use or mimicking of biological processes to determine the properties of construction materials, the use or mimicking of biological processes or biomaterials to augment the properties of construction material, and the imitation of biology through the use of conventional construction materials. Microbiology, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, and ecology are among the biology topics that are compared and integrated into the proposed structural engineering curriculum to produce a suitable specialization.

Keywords: bioinspired structures, biomimetics, biomimicry, materials science, structural engineering

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3237 Weight Regulation Mechanism on Bridges

Authors: S. Siddharth, Saravana Kumar

Abstract:

All Metros across the world tend to have a large number of bridges and there have been concerns about the safety of these bridges. As the traffic in most cities in India is heterogeneous, Trucks and Heavy vehicles traverse on our roads on an everyday basis this will lead to structural damage on the long run. All bridges are designed with a maximum Load limit and this limit is seldom checked. We have hence come up with an idea to check the load of all the vehicles entering the bridge and block the bridge with barricades if the vehicle surpasses the maximum load , this is done to catch hold of the perpetrators. By doing this we can avoid further structural damage and also provide an effective way to enforce the law. If our solution is put in place structural damage and accidents would be reduced to a great deal and it would also make the law enforcement job easier.

Keywords: heterogeneous, structural, load, law, heavy, vehicles

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
3236 Harnessing Nigeria's Forestry Potential for Structural Applications: Structural Reliability of Nigerian Grown Opepe Timber

Authors: J. I. Aguwa, S. Sadiku, M. Abdullahi

Abstract:

This study examined the structural reliability of the Nigerian grown Opepe timber as bridge beam material. The strength of a particular specie of timber depends so much on some factors such as soil and environment in which it is grown. The steps involved are collection of the Opepe timber samples, seasoning/preparation of the test specimens, determination of the strength properties/statistical analysis, development of a computer programme in FORTRAN language and finally structural reliability analysis using FORM 5 software. The result revealed that the Nigerian grown Opepe is a reliable and durable structural bridge beam material for span of 5000mm, depth of 400mm, breadth of 250mm and end bearing length of 150mm. The probabilities of failure in bending parallel to the grain, compression perpendicular to the grain, shear parallel to the grain and deflection are 1.61 x 10-7, 1.43 x 10-8, 1.93 x 10-4 and 1.51 x 10-15 respectively. The paper recommends establishment of Opepe plantation in various Local Government Areas in Nigeria for structural applications such as in bridges, railway sleepers, generation of income to the nation as well as creating employment for the numerous unemployed youths.

Keywords: bending and deflection, bridge beam, compression, Nigerian Opepe, shear, structural reliability

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3235 Non-Chronological Approach in Crane Girder and Composite Steel Beam Installation: Case Study

Authors: Govindaraj Ramanathan

Abstract:

The time delay and the structural stability are major issues in big size projects due to several factors. Improper planning and poor coordination lead to delay in construction, which sometimes result in reworking or rebuilding. This definitely increases the cost and time of project. This situation stresses the structural engineers to plan out of the limits of contemporary technology utilizing non-chronological approach with creative ideas. One of the strategies to solve this issue is through structural integrity solutions in a cost-effective way. We have faced several problems in a project worth 470 million USD, and one such issue is crane girder installation with composite steel beams. We have applied structural integrity approach with the proper and revised planning schedule to solve the problem efficiently with minimal expenses.

Keywords: construction management, delay, non-chronological approach, composite beam, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
3234 The Structural Pattern: An Event-Related Potential Study on Tang Poetry

Authors: ShuHui Yang, ChingChing Lu

Abstract:

Measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) has been fundamental to our understanding of how people process language. One specific ERP component, a P600, has been hypothesized to be associated with syntactic reanalysis processes. We, however, propose that the P600 is not restricted to reanalysis processes, but is the index of the structural pattern processing. To investigate the structural pattern processing, we utilized the effects of stimulus degradation in structural priming. To put it another way, there was no P600 effect if the structure of the prime was the same with the structure of the target. Otherwise, there would be a P600 effect if the structure were different between the prime and the target. In the experiment, twenty-two participants were presented with four sentences of Tang poetry. All of the first two sentences, being prime, were conducted with SVO+VP. The last two sentences, being the target, were divided into three types. Type one of the targets was SVO+VP. Type two of the targets was SVO+VPVP. Type three of the targets was VP+VP. The result showed that both of the targets, SVO+VPVP and VP+VP, elicited positive-going brainwave, a P600 effect, at 600~900ms time window. Furthermore, the P600 component was lager for the target’ VP+VP’ than the target’ SVO+VPVP’. That meant the more dissimilar the structure was, the lager the P600 effect we got. These results indicate that P600 was the index of the structure processing, and it would affect the P600 effect intensity with the degrees of structural heterogeneity.

Keywords: ERPs, P600, structural pattern, structural priming, Tang poetry

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3233 Progressive Structural Capacity Loss Assessment

Authors: M. Zain, Thaung H. Aung, Naveed Anwar

Abstract:

During the service life, a structure may experience extreme loading conditions. The current study proposes a new methodology that covers the effect of uncertainty involved in gravity loadings on key structural elements of new and complex structures by emphasizing on a very realistic assumption that allows the 'Performance-Based Assessment' to be executed on the structure against the gravity loadings. The methodology does not require the complete removal of an element, instead, it permits the incremental reduction in the capacity of key structural elements and preserves the same stiffness of the member in each case of capacity loss. To demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology, a 13 story complex structure is selected that comprises of a diverse structural configuration. The results ensure the structural integrity against the applied gravity loadings, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: force-deformation relationship, gravity loading, incremental capacity reduction, multi-linear plastic link element, SAP2000, stiffness

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3232 Hybrid Approximate Structural-Semantic Frequent Subgraph Mining

Authors: Montaceur Zaghdoud, Mohamed Moussaoui, Jalel Akaichi

Abstract:

Frequent subgraph mining refers usually to graph matching and it is widely used in when analyzing big data with large graphs. A lot of research works dealt with structural exact or inexact graph matching but a little attention is paid to semantic matching when graph vertices and/or edges are attributed and typed. Therefore, it seems very interesting to integrate background knowledge into the analysis and that extracted frequent subgraphs should become more pruned by applying a new semantic filter instead of using only structural similarity in graph matching process. Consequently, this paper focuses on developing a new hybrid approximate structuralsemantic graph matching to discover a set of frequent subgraphs. It uses simultaneously an approximate structural similarity function based on graph edit distance function and a possibilistic vertices similarity function based on affinity function. Both structural and semantic filters contribute together to prune extracted frequent set. Indeed, new hybrid structural-semantic frequent subgraph mining approach searches will be suitable to be applied to several application such as community detection in social networks.

Keywords: approximate graph matching, hybrid frequent subgraph mining, graph mining, possibility theory

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3231 Long-Term Mechanical and Structural Properties of Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers

Authors: Lenka Matulova

Abstract:

Geopolymers are alumosilicate materials that have long been studied. Despite this fact, little is known about the long-term stability of geopolymer mechanical and structural properties, so crucial for their successful industrial application. To improve understanding, we investigated the effect of four different types of environments on the mechanical and structural properties of a metakaolin-based geopolymer (MK GP). The MK GP samples were stored in laboratory conditions (control samples), in water at 20 °C, in water at 80 °C, and outside exposed to the weather. Compressive and tensile strengths were measured after 28, 56, 90, and 360 days. In parallel, structural properties were analyzed using XRD, SEM, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Whereas the mechanical properties of the samples in laboratory conditions and in 20 °C water were stable, the mechanical properties of the outdoor samples and the samples 80 °C water decreased noticeably after 360 days. Structural analyses were focused on changes in sample microstructure (developing microcrack network, porosity) and identifying zeolites, the presence of which would indicate detrimental processes in the structure that can change it from amorphous to crystalline. No zeolites were found during the 360-day period in MK GP samples, but the reduction in mechanical properties coincided with a developing network of microcracks and changes in pore size distribution.

Keywords: geopolymer, long-term properties, mechanical properties, metakaolin, structural properties

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3230 Redundancy Component Matrix and Structural Robustness

Authors: Xinjian Kou, Linlin Li, Yongju Zhou, Jimian Song

Abstract:

We introduce the redundancy matrix that expresses clearly the geometrical/topological configuration of the structure. With the matrix, the redundancy of the structure is resolved into redundant components and assigned to each member or rigid joint. The values of the diagonal elements in the matrix indicates the importance of the corresponding members or rigid joints, and the geometrically correlations can be shown with the non-diagonal elements. If a member or rigid joint failures, reassignment of the redundant components can be calculated with the recursive method given in the paper. By combining the indexes of reliability and redundancy components, we define an index concerning the structural robustness. To further explain the properties of the redundancy matrix, we cited several examples of statically indeterminate structures, including two trusses and a rigid frame. With the examples, some simple results and the properties of the matrix are discussed. The examples also illustrate that the redundancy matrix and the relevant concepts are valuable in structural safety analysis.

Keywords: Structural Robustness, Structural Reliability, Redundancy Component, Redundancy Matrix

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