Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 82

Search results for: Fabio Rojas

82 Failure Analysis: Solid Rocket Motor Type “Candy” - Explosion in a Static Test

Authors: Diego Romero, Fabio Rojas, J. Alejandro Urrego

Abstract:

The sounding rockets are aerospace vehicles that were developed in the mid-20th century, and Colombia has been involved in research that was carried out with the aim of innovating with this technology. The rockets are university research programs with the collaboration of the local government, with a simple strategy, develop and reduce the greatest costs associated with the production of a kind type of technology. In this way, in this document presents the failure analysis of a solid rocket motor, with the real compatibly to reach the thermosphere with a low-cost fuel. This solid rocket motor is the latest development of the Uniandes Aerospace Project (PUA for its Spanish acronym), an undergraduate and postgraduate research group at Universidad de los Andes (Bogotá, Colombia), dedicated to incurring in this type of technology. This motor has been carried out on Candy-type solid fuel, which is a compound of potassium nitrate and sorbitol, and the investigation has allowed the production of solid motors powerful enough to reach space, and which represents a unique technological advance in Latin America and an important development in experimental rocketry.To outline the main points the explosion in a static test is an important to explore and demonstrate the ways to develop technology, methodologies, production and manufacturing, being a solid rocket motor with 30 kN of thrust. In conclusion, this analysis explores different fields such as: design, manufacture, materials, production, first fire and more, with different engineering tools with principal objective find root failure. Following the engineering analysis methodology, was possible to design a new version of motor, with learned lessons new manufacturing specification, therefore, when publishing this project, it is intended to be a reference for future research in this field and benefit the industry.

Keywords: candy propellant, candy rockets, explosion, failure analysis, static test, solid rocket motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
81 Preliminary Design, Production and Characterization of a Coral and Alginate Composite for Bone Engineering

Authors: Sthephanie A. Colmenares, Fabio A. Rojas, Pablo A. Arbeláez, Johann F. Osma, Diana Narvaez

Abstract:

The loss of functional tissue is a ubiquitous and expensive health care problem, with very limited treatment options for these patients. The golden standard for large bone damage is a cadaveric bone as an allograft with stainless steel support; however, this solution only applies to bones with simple morphologies (long bones), has a limited material supply and presents long term problems regarding mechanical strength, integration, differentiation and induction of native bone tissue. Therefore, the fabrication of a scaffold with biological, physical and chemical properties similar to the human bone with a fabrication method for morphology manipulation is the focus of this investigation. Towards this goal, an alginate and coral matrix was created using two production techniques; the coral was chosen because of its chemical composition and the alginate due to its compatibility and mechanical properties. In order to construct the coral alginate scaffold the following methodology was employed; cleaning of the coral, its pulverization, scaffold fabrication and finally the mechanical and biological characterization. The experimental design had: mill method and proportion of alginate and coral, as the two factors, with two and three levels each, using 5 replicates. The coral was cleaned with sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide in an ultrasonic bath. Then, it was milled with both a horizontal and a ball mill in order to evaluate the morphology of the particles obtained. After this, using a combination of alginate and coral powder and water as a binder, scaffolds of 1cm3 were printed with a SpectrumTM Z510 3D printer. This resulted in solid cubes that were resistant to small compression stress. Then, using a ESQUIM DP-143 silicon mold, constructs used for the mechanical and biological assays were made. An INSTRON 2267® was implemented for the compression tests; the density and porosity were calculated with an analytical balance and the biological tests were performed using cell cultures with VERO fibroblast, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as visualization tool. The Young’s moduli were dependent of the pulverization method, the proportion of coral and alginate and the interaction between these factors. The maximum value was 5,4MPa for the 50/50 proportion of alginate and horizontally milled coral. The biological assay showed more extracellular matrix in the scaffolds consisting of more alginate and less coral. The density and porosity were proportional to the amount of coral in the powder mix. These results showed that this composite has potential as a biomaterial, but its behavior is elastic with a small Young’s Modulus, which leads to the conclusion that the application may not be for long bones but for tissues similar to cartilage.

Keywords: alginate, biomaterial, bone engineering, coral, Porites asteroids, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
80 Improving Learning Abilities and Inclusion through Movement: The Movi-Mente© Method

Authors: Ivan Traina, Luigi Sangalli, Fabio Tognon, Angelo Lascioli

Abstract:

Currently, challenges regarding preschooler children are mainly focused on a sedentary lifestyle. Also, motor activity in infancy is seen as a tool for the separate acquisition of cognitive and socio-emotional skills rather than considering neuromotor development as a tool for improving learning abilities. The paper utilized an observational research method to shed light on the results of practicing neuromotor exercises in preschool children with disability as well as provide implications for practice.

Keywords: children with disability, learning abilities, inclusion, neuromotor development

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
79 Comparative Analysis of Two Modeling Approaches for Optimizing Plate Heat Exchangers

Authors: Fábio A. S. Mota, Mauro A. S. S. Ravagnani, E. P. Carvalho

Abstract:

In the present paper the design of plate heat exchangers is formulated as an optimization problem considering two mathematical modeling. The number of plates is the objective function to be minimized, considering implicitly some parameters configuration. Screening is the optimization method used to solve the problem. Thermal and hydraulic constraints are verified, not viable solutions are discarded and the method searches for the convergence to the optimum, case it exists. A case study is presented to test the applicability of the developed algorithm. Results show coherency with the literature.

Keywords: plate heat exchanger, optimization, modeling, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
78 Conceptual Model for Logistics Information System

Authors: Ana María Rojas Chaparro, Cristian Camilo Sarmiento Chaves

Abstract:

Given the growing importance of logistics as a discipline for efficient management of materials flow and information, the adoption of tools that permit to create facilities in making decisions based on a global perspective of the system studied has been essential. The article shows how from a concepts-based model is possible to organize and represent in appropriate way the reality, showing accurate and timely information, features that make this kind of models an ideal component to support an information system, recognizing that information as relevant to establish particularities that allow get a better performance about the evaluated sector.

Keywords: system, information, conceptual model, logistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
77 Evaluation of Corrosion Caused by Biogenic Sulfuric Acid (BSA) on the Concrete Structures of Sewerage Systems: Chemical Tests

Authors: M. Cortés, E. Vera, O. Rojas

Abstract:

The research studies of the kinetics of the corrosion process that attacks concrete and occurs within sewerage systems agree on the amount of variables that interfere in the process. This study aims to check the impact of the pH levels of the corrosive environment and the concrete surface, the concentrations of chemical sulfuric acid, and in turn, measure the resistance of concrete to this attack under controlled laboratory conditions; it also aims to contribute to the development of further research related to the topic, in order to compare the impact of biogenic sulfuric acid and chemical sulfuric acid involvement on concrete structures, especially in scenarios such as sewerage systems.

Keywords: acid sulfuric, concrete, corrosion, biogenic

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
76 Interference of Contaminants in the Characterization of Sugarcane Straw for Energy Purpose

Authors: Gabriela T. Nakashima, Ana Larissa S. Hansted, Gabriela B. Belini, Carlos R. Sette Jr, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Fabio M. Yamaji

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the interference from contaminants in the characterization of sugarcane straw. The sugarcane straw was collected after the harvest and taken to the drying oven, and then it was crushed in the mill type Willey. Analyzes of ash contents and Klason lignin were done in triplicate and high heating value (HHV) in duplicate, according to ASTM standard. The results obtained for the sugarcane straw were 5.29% for ash content, 29.87% for Klason lignin and 17.67 MJ.kg-1 for HHV. Also, the material was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The presence of contaminants was observed, such as silica. The high amount of contaminants in the samples may impact the results of analyzes, also raising its values, for example in the Klason lignin content. These contaminants can also adversely affect the quality of the biomass. Even using the standards is important to know what the purpose of the analysis and care mainly of sampling.

Keywords: biomass, bioenergy, residues, solid fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
75 Study of Adsorption Isotherm Models on Rare Earth Elements Biosorption for Separation Purposes

Authors: Nice Vasconcelos Coimbra, Fábio dos Santos Gonçalves, Marisa Nascimento, Ellen Cristine Giese

Abstract:

The development of chemical routes for the recovery and separation of rare earth elements (REE) is seen as a priority and strategic action by several countries demanding these elements. Among the possibilities of alternative routes, the biosorption process has been evaluated in our laboratory. In this theme, the present work attempts to assess and fit the solution equilibrium data in Langmuir, Freundlich and DKR isothermal models, based on the biosorption results of the lanthanum and samarium elements by Bacillus subtilis immobilized on calcium alginate gel. It was observed that the preference of adsorption of REE by the immobilized biomass followed the order Sm (III)> La (III). It can be concluded that among the studied isotherms models, the Langmuir model presented better mathematical results than the Freundlich and DKR models.

Keywords: rare earth elements, biosorption, Bacillus subtilis, adsorption isotherm models

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
74 Ensuring Consistency under the Snapshot Isolation

Authors: Carlos Roberto Valêncio, Fábio Renato de Almeida, Thatiane Kawabata, Leandro Alves Neves, Julio Cesar Momente, Mario Luiz Tronco, Angelo Cesar Colombini

Abstract:

By running transactions under the Snapshot isolation we can achieve a good level of concurrency, specially in databases with high-intensive read workloads. However, Snapshot is not immune to all the problems that arise from competing transactions and therefore no serialization warranty exists. We propose in this paper a technique to obtain data consistency with Snapshot by using some special triggers that we named Daemon Triggers. Besides keeping the benefits of the Snapshot isolation, the technique is specially useful for those database systems that do not have an isolation level that ensures serializability, like Firebird and Oracle. We describe all the anomalies that might arise when using the Snapshot isolation and show how to preclude them with Daemon Triggers. Based on the methodology presented here, it is also proposed the creation of a new isolation level: Daemon Snapshot.

Keywords: data consistency, serialization, snapshot, isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
73 Monte Carlo Simulation of Magnetic Properties in Bit Patterned Media

Authors: O. D. Arbeláez-Echeverri, E. Restrepo-Parra, J. C. Riano-Rojas

Abstract:

A two dimensional geometric model of Bit Patterned Media is proposed, the model is based on the crystal structure of the materials commonly used to produce the nano islands in bit patterned materials and the possible defects that may arise from the interaction between the nano islands and the matrix material. The dynamic magnetic properties of the material are then computed using time aware integration methods for the multi spin Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian takes into account both the spatial and topological disorder of the sample as well as the high perpendicular anisotropy that is pursued when building bit patterned media. The main finding of the research was the possibility of replicating the results of previous experiments on similar materials and the ability of computing the switching field distribution given the geometry of the material and the parameters required by the model.

Keywords: nanostructures, Monte Carlo, pattern media, magnetic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
72 Vr-GIS and Ar-GIS In Education: A Case Study

Authors: Ilario Gabriele Gerloni, Vincenza Carchiolo, Alessandro Longheu, Ugo Becciani, Eva Sciacca, Fabio Vitello

Abstract:

ICT tools and platforms endorse more and more educational process. Many models and techniques for people to be educated and trained about specific topics and skills do exist, as classroom lectures with textbooks, computers, handheld devices and others. The choice to what extent ICT is applied within learning contexts is related to personal access to technologies as well as to the infrastructure surrounding environment. Among recent techniques, the adoption of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) provides significant impulse in fully engaging users senses. In this paper, an application of AR/VR within Geographic Information Systems (GIS) context is presented. It aims to provide immersive environment experiences for educational and training purposes (e.g. for civil protection personnel), useful especially for situations where real scenarios are not easily accessible by humans. First acknowledgments are promising for building an effective tool that helps civil protection personnel training with risk reduction.

Keywords: education, virtual reality, augmented reality, GIS, civil protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
71 Using Wiki for Enhancing the Knowledge Transfer to Newcomers: An Experience Report

Authors: Hualter Oliveira Barbosa, Raquel Feitosa do Vale Cunha, Erika Muniz dos Santos, Fernanda Belmira Souza, Fabio Sousa, Luis Henrique Pascareli, Franciney de Oliveira Lima, Ana Cláudia Reis da Silva, Christiane Moreira de Almeida

Abstract:

Software development is intrinsic human-based knowledge-intensive. Due to globalization, software development has become a complex challenge and we usually face barriers related to knowledge management, team building, costly testing processes, especially in distributed settings. For this reason, several approaches have been proposed to minimize barriers caused by geographic distance. In this paper, we present as we use experimental studies to improve our knowledge management process using the Wiki system. According to the results, it was possible to identify learning preferences from our software projects leader team, organize and improve the learning experience of our Wiki and; facilitate collaboration by newcomers to improve Wiki with new contents available in the Wiki.

Keywords: mobile product, knowledge transfer, knowledge management process, wiki, GSD

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
70 Hominin Niche in the Times of Climate Change

Authors: Emilia Hunt, Sally C. Reynolds, Fiona Coward, Fabio Parracho Silva, Philip Hopley

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Ecological niche modeling is widely used in conservation studies, but application to the extinct hominin species is a relatively new approach. Being able to understand what ecological niches were occupied by respective hominin species provides a new perspective into influences on evolutionary processes. Niche separation or overlap can tell us more about specific requirements of the species within the given timeframe. Many of the ancestral species lived through enormous climate changes: glacial and interglacial periods, changes in rainfall, leading to desertification or flooding of regions and displayed impressive levels of adaptation necessary for their survival. This paper reviews niche modeling methodologies and their application to hominin studies. Traditional conservation methods might not be directly applicable to extinct species and are not comparable to hominins. Hominin niche also includes aspects of technologies, use of fire and extended communication, which are not traditionally used in building conservation models. Future perspectives on how to improve niche modeling for extinct hominin species will be discussed.

Keywords: hominin niche, climate change, evolution, adaptation, ecological niche modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
69 Method for Evaluating the Monetary Value of a Customized Version of the Digital Twin for the Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Fabio Oettl, Sebastian Hoerbrand, Tobias Wittmeir, Johannes Schilp

Abstract:

By combining the additive manufacturing (AM)- process with digital concepts, like the digital twin (DT) or the downsized and basing concept of the digital part file (DPF), the competitiveness of additive manufacturing is enhanced and new use cases like decentral production are enabled. But in literature, one can´t find any quantitative approach for valuing the usage of a DT or DPF in AM. Out of this fact, such an approach will be developed within this paper in order to further promote or dissuade the usage of these concepts. The focus is set on the production as an early lifecycle phase, which means that the AM-production process gets analyzed regarding the potential advantages of using DPF in AM. These advantages are transferred to a monetary value with this approach. By calculating the costs of the DPF, an overall monetary value is a result. Thereon a tool, based on a simulation environment is constructed, where the algorithms are transformed into a program. The results of applying this tool show that an overall value of 20,81 € for the DPF can be realized for one special use case. For the future application of the DPF there is the recommendation to integrate especially sustainable information because out of this, a higher value of the DPF can be expected.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, digital concept costs, digital part file, digital twin, monetary value estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
68 Sport Facilities and Social Change: European Funds as an Opportunity for Urban Regeneration

Authors: Lorenzo Maiorino, Fabio Fortuna, Giovanni Panebianco, Marco Sanzari, Gabriella Arcese, Valerio Maria Paolozzi

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It is well known that sport is a factor of social cohesion and the breaking down of barriers between people. From this point of view, the aim is to demonstrate how, through the (re)generation of sustainable structures, it is possible to give life to a new social, cultural, and economic pathway, where possible, in peripheral areas with problems of abandonment and degradation. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to study realities such as European programs and funds and to highlight the ways in which planning can be used to respond to critical issues such as urban decay, abandonment, and the mitigation of social differences. For this reason, the analysis will be carried out through the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) package, the Next Generation EU, the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), the Cohesion Fund, the European Social Fund, and other managed funds. The procedure will rely on sources and data of unquestionable origin, and the relation to the object of study in question will be highlighted. The project lends itself to be ambitious and exploring a further aspect of the sports theme, which, as we know, is one of the foundations for a healthy society.

Keywords: sport, social inclusion, urban regeneration, sports facilities, European funds

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
67 Cooperative Sensing for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Julien Romieux, Fabio Verdicchio

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which sense environmental data with battery-powered nodes, require multi-hop communication. This power-demanding task adds an extra workload that is unfairly distributed across the network. As a result, nodes run out of battery at different times: this requires an impractical individual node maintenance scheme. Therefore we investigate a new Cooperative Sensing approach that extends the WSN operational life and allows a more practical network maintenance scheme (where all nodes deplete their batteries almost at the same time). We propose a novel cooperative algorithm that derives a piecewise representation of the sensed signal while controlling approximation accuracy. Simulations show that our algorithm increases WSN operational life and spreads communication workload evenly. Results convey a counterintuitive conclusion: distributing workload fairly amongst nodes may not decrease the network power consumption and yet extend the WSN operational life. This is achieved as our cooperative approach decreases the workload of the most burdened cluster in the network.

Keywords: cooperative signal processing, signal representation and approximation, power management, wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
66 Investigating the Effect of the Pedagogical Agent on Visual Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Students

Authors: Nasrin Mohammadhasani, Rosa Angela Fabio

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The attention to relevance information is the key element for learning. Otherwise, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) students have a fuzzy visual pattern that prevents them to attention and remember learning subject. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the presence of a pedagogical agent can effectively support ADHD learner's attention and learning outcomes in a multimedia learning environment. The learning environment was integrated with a pedagogical agent, named Koosha as a social peer. This study employed a pretest and posttest experimental design with control group. The statistical population was 30 boys students, age 10-11 with ADHD that randomly assigned to learn with/without an agent in well designed environment for mathematic. The results suggested that experimental and control groups show a significant difference in time when they participated and mathematics achievement. According to this research, using the pedagogical agent can enhance learning of ADHD students by gaining and guiding their attention to relevance information part on display, so it can be considered as asocial cue that provides theme cognitive supports.

Keywords: attention, computer assisted instruction, multimedia learning environment, pedagogical agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
65 Mapping the Relationship between Elements of Urban Morphology Density of Crime

Authors: Fabio Salvador Aparecido Santos, Spencer Chainey, Richard Wortley

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Urban morphology can be understood as the study of the physical form of cities through its elements. Crime, at this turn, can be oversimplified as an action that breaks the rules established in a certain society. This study involves these two subjects through the relationship between elements of urban morphology and density of crime occurrences. We consider that there is a research gap about the influence of urban features on crime occurrences using statistic methods and mapping techniques on Geographic Information Systems. The investigation will comprehend three main phases. The first phase involves examining how theoretical principles associated with urban morphology can be viewed in terms of their influence on crime patterns. The second phase involves the development of tools to be used to model elements of urban morphology, and measure the relationship between these urban morphological elements and patterns of crime. The third phase involves determining the extent to which elements of the urban environment can contribute to crime reduction. Understanding the relationship between urban morphology and crime patterns in a Latin American context will help highlight the influence urban planning has on the crime problems that emerge in these settings, and how effectively urban planning can contribute to reducing crime.

Keywords: Agent-based Modelling, Environmental Criminology, Geographic Information System, Urban Morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
64 Meta-Learning for Hierarchical Classification and Applications in Bioinformatics

Authors: Fabio Fabris, Alex A. Freitas

Abstract:

Hierarchical classification is a special type of classification task where the class labels are organised into a hierarchy, with more generic class labels being ancestors of more specific ones. Meta-learning for classification-algorithm recommendation consists of recommending to the user a classification algorithm, from a pool of candidate algorithms, for a dataset, based on the past performance of the candidate algorithms in other datasets. Meta-learning is normally used in conventional, non-hierarchical classification. By contrast, this paper proposes a meta-learning approach for more challenging task of hierarchical classification, and evaluates it in a large number of bioinformatics datasets. Hierarchical classification is especially relevant for bioinformatics problems, as protein and gene functions tend to be organised into a hierarchy of class labels. This work proposes meta-learning approach for recommending the best hierarchical classification algorithm to a hierarchical classification dataset. This work’s contributions are: 1) proposing an algorithm for splitting hierarchical datasets into new datasets to increase the number of meta-instances, 2) proposing meta-features for hierarchical classification, and 3) interpreting decision-tree meta-models for hierarchical classification algorithm recommendation.

Keywords: algorithm recommendation, meta-learning, bioinformatics, hierarchical classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
63 Pollution Analysis of the Basin High in the Bogota River, Colombia

Authors: Luis Felipe Pinzon Uribe, Hernando Sotelo Rojas

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The water is an essential factor for the development and the conservation of biological diversity in Colombia; its abundant natural wealth has its origin in their water sources. These during the past few years have been altered by anthropogenic activities, in particular pollutants such as heavy metals, given its ability to infiltrate the sediments reducing its natural capacity of absorption and clean of the ecosystem. The pollutant loads by bio-accumulation remain in the ecosystem for many years; the Bogota River, located in the Cundinamarca Department, is an example of this process. Since that form in the Villapinzón municipality up to its mouth in the Magdalena River, in the Girardot municipality, along with its route it receives large amount of polluted waters from different sources. The study focused on five points of the high basin of the river; this allowed the analysis of the impact that generates the economic development of the neighboring municipalities and where the poor conditions of the ecosystem, along with low levels of oxygen generates the high values of BOD, dissolved QOD, SS TSS and DS. They have been decisive factors in the decline of the species of its own and a decrease in the supply of the eco-services.

Keywords: anthropic activities, wastes water, water quality, heavy metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
62 Comparing Image Processing and AI Techniques for Disease Detection in Plants

Authors: Luiz Daniel Garay Trindade, Antonio De Freitas Valle Neto, Fabio Paulo Basso, Elder De Macedo Rodrigues, Maicon Bernardino, Daniel Welfer, Daniel Muller

Abstract:

Agriculture plays an important role in society since it is one of the main sources of food in the world. To help the production and yield of crops, precision agriculture makes use of technologies aiming at improving productivity and quality of agricultural commodities. One of the problems hampering quality of agricultural production is the disease affecting crops. Failure in detecting diseases in a short period of time can result in small or big damages to production, causing financial losses to farmers. In order to provide a map of the contributions destined to the early detection of plant diseases and a comparison of the accuracy of the selected studies, a systematic literature review of the literature was performed, showing techniques for digital image processing and neural networks. We found 35 interesting tool support alternatives to detect disease in 19 plants. Our comparison of these studies resulted in an overall average accuracy of 87.45%, with two studies very closer to obtain 100%.

Keywords: pattern recognition, image processing, deep learning, precision agriculture, smart farming, agricultural automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
61 Classifying Facial Expressions Based on a Motion Local Appearance Approach

Authors: Fabiola M. Villalobos-Castaldi, Nicolás C. Kemper, Esther Rojas-Krugger, Laura G. Ramírez-Sánchez

Abstract:

This paper presents the classification results about exploring the combination of a motion based approach with a local appearance method to describe the facial motion caused by the muscle contractions and expansions that are presented in facial expressions. The proposed feature extraction method take advantage of the knowledge related to which parts of the face reflects the highest deformations, so we selected 4 specific facial regions at which the appearance descriptor were applied. The most common used approaches for feature extraction are the holistic and the local strategies. In this work we present the results of using a local appearance approach estimating the correlation coefficient to the 4 corresponding landmark-localized facial templates of the expression face related to the neutral face. The results let us to probe how the proposed motion estimation scheme based on the local appearance correlation computation can simply and intuitively measure the motion parameters for some of the most relevant facial regions and how these parameters can be used to recognize facial expressions automatically.

Keywords: facial expression recognition system, feature extraction, local-appearance method, motion-based approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
60 Printing Thermal Performance: An Experimental Exploration of 3DP Polymers for Facade Applications

Authors: Valeria Piccioni, Matthias Leschok, Ina Cheibas, Illias Hischier, Benjamin Dillenburger, Arno Schlueter, Matthias Kohler, Fabio Gramazio

Abstract:

The decarbonisation of the building sector requires the development of building components that provide energy efficiency while producing minimal environmental impact. Recent advancements in large-scale 3D printing have shown that it is possible to fabricate components with embedded performances that can be tuned for their specific application. We investigate the potential of polymer 3D printing for the fabrication of translucent facade components. In this study, we explore the effect of geometry on thermal insulation of printed cavity structures following a Hot Box test method. The experimental results are used to calibrate a finite-element simulation model which can support the informed design of 3D printed insulation structures. We show that it is possible to fabricate components providing thermal insulation ranging from 1.7 to 0.95 W/m2K only by changing the internal cavity distribution and size. Moreover, we identify design guidelines that can be used to fabricate components for different climatic conditions and thermal insulation requirements. The research conducted provides the first insights into the thermal behaviour of polymer 3DP facades on a large scale. These can be used as design guidelines for further research toward performant and low-embodied energy 3D printed facade components.

Keywords: 3D printing, thermal performance, polymers, facade components, hot-box method

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
59 On the Influence of the Metric Space in the Critical Behavior of Magnetic Temperature

Authors: J. C. Riaño-Rojas, J. D. Alzate-Cardona, E. Restrepo-Parra

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In this work, a study of generic magnetic nanoparticles varying the metric space is presented. As the metric space is changed, the nanoparticle form and the inner product are also varied, since the energetic scale is not conserved. This study is carried out using Monte Carlo simulations combined with the Wolff embedding and Metropolis algorithms. The Metropolis algorithm is used at high temperature regions to reach the equilibrium quickly. The Wolff embedding algorithm is used at low and critical temperature regions in order to reduce the critical slowing down phenomenon. The ions number is kept constant for the different forms and the critical temperatures using finite size scaling are found. We observed that critical temperatures don't exhibit significant changes when the metric space was varied. Additionally, the effective dimension according the metric space was determined. A study of static behavior for reaching the static critical exponents was developed. The objective of this work is to observe the behavior of the thermodynamic quantities as energy, magnetization, specific heat, susceptibility and Binder's cumulants at the critical region, in order to demonstrate if the magnetic nanoparticles describe their magnetic interactions in the Euclidean space or if there is any correspondence in other metric spaces.

Keywords: nanoparticles, metric, Monte Carlo, critical behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
58 Analysis of Energy Efficiency Behavior with the Use of Train Dynamics Simulator and Statistical Tools: Case Study of Vitoria Minas Railway, Brazil

Authors: Eric Wilson Santos Cabral, Marta Monteiro Da Costa Cruz, Fabio Luis Maciel Machado, Henrique Andrade, Rodrigo Pirola Pestana, Vivian Andrea Parreira

Abstract:

The large variation in the price of diesel in Brazil directly affects the variable cost of companies operating in the transportation sector. In rail transport, the great challenge is to overcome the annual budget, cargo and ore transported with cost reduction in relation to previous years, becoming more efficient every year. Some effective measures are necessary to achieve the reduction of the liter ratio consumed by KTKB (Gross Ton per Kilometer multiplied by thousand). This acronym represents the indicator of energy efficiency of some railroads in the world. This study is divided into two parts: the first, to identify using statistical tools, part of the controlled variables in the railways, which have a correlation with the energy efficiency indicator, seeking to aid decision-making. The second, with the use of the train dynamics simulator, within scenarios defined in the operational reality of a railroad, seeks to optimize the train formations and the train stop model for the change of train drivers. With the completion of the study, companies in the rail sector are expected to be able to reduce some of their transportation costs.

Keywords: railway transport, railway simulation, energy efficiency, fuel consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
57 Analysis of the Air Pollution Behavior Registered at MACAM Net Using DOAS, Associated with High Pollution Episodes

Authors: Francisca Rojas Martínez, T. Pedro Oyola

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The combination of the geographical and meteorological conditions of the Santiago basin are unfavorable for the circulation of atmospheric pollution, especially in the autumn and winter months. The problem of environmental pollution in the Metropolitan Region has been studied since the 1960s because the city has presented high pollution levels for most of the year, levels that have even been compared with those in cities in developed countries, This implies serious consequences for the health of the population. Two of the most important gasses present in the contamination are NO2, and O3, the highest concentrations of nitrogen dioxide are measured during the winter, in addition, it is considered as a great contribution to the fine fraction of particulate matter and as a precursor of tropospheric ozone. On the other hand, tropospheric ozone is a pollutant of photochemical origin and is strongly enhanced by solar radiation, which is why its presence in the atmosphere is more significant in the spring and summer. The measurements were made at 3 different places in Santiago, and were used different equipment; a DOAS for gasses measures, SIMCA for Black Carbon Measure and the MACAM net for particulate matter and meteorological condition. The results shows an important relation between height and presence of pollution gasses, and additionally, pollution episodes are in common low temperature (< 10 °C) and high relative humidity (> 80%), which are factors that allows the air suspension of particulate matter and focus NH4+ and NO3-.

Keywords: black carbon, DOAS, episodes, high pollution, simca

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
56 Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumption of Nutraceuticals: The Case Study of Undergraduate Students of Medellin- Colombia, 2013

Authors: Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Juan Guillermo Jiménez Jiménez, Johan Sebastián Lopera Valle, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Sara Rojas Jiménez, Alejandra Uribe Ocampo, Sara Correa Pérez, Natalia Perilla Hernández, Juan Sebastián Marín Cárdenas

Abstract:

The relationship between diet and chronic or degenerative diseases has led to the development of functional foods such as nutraceuticals. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of consumption of nutraceuticals in undergraduate students. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. It was a simple random sampling with the Statcalc EpiInfo software vr 6.04. It was designed an instrument for collection of demographic data and consumption of nutraceuticals. Statistical analysis used the SPSS program. Results: 427 students, average age 20.8 years (SD 3.1), 56.1% were women. The life prevalence of nutraceuticals consumption was 66.3% and the annual 51.8%. The main reasons for consumption were as food complement 32.8% and prevent diseases 20.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of nutraceuticals observed is comparable to that reported in the literature, which suggests an increasing trend in the habit of consumption of dietary supplement which have a preventive or protective effect on health.

Keywords: dietary supplements, food, health, functional food, Colombia

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
55 Sociodemographic Predictors of Flourishing among Older Adults in Rural and Urban Mongolia

Authors: Saranchuluun Otgon, Sugarmaa Myagmarjav, Khorolsuren Lkhagvasuren, Fabio Casati

Abstract:

Background: Flourishing is a eudaimonic dimension of psychological well-being that has been associated with positive social and health-related outcomes. Determining the factors associated with health and well-being is important to the development of evidence-based intervention programs, policies, and action plans targeting the older adult population, especially in low- and middle-income countries, such as Mongolia, where evidence-based research on aging, health, and well-being is still scarce. This study makes important contributions to the study of well-being at a later age and also for policy activities for the older population in Mongolia. Methods: We employed multiple regression models to predict the factors of flourishing using data of 304 older adults living in urban and rural Mongolia. Data is collected by the standardized and validated questionnaire adapted from Ed Diener. Results: The median score of the flourishing of urban and rural older adults in Mongolia was significantly different, 53 and 50 respectively. The sex (β = 2.52,p = 0.034), level of education (β = 0.94, p = 0.026), receive help for ADL (β = 2.16, p = 0.022) determine flourishing of older adults living in rural area, while self-reported health (β = 0.94, p = 0.026), number of social activities, friends network determine flourishing of older adults living urban area. Conclusion. Older adults who live in urban areas have more psychological resources and strengths than those in the rural areas. Determinants of flourishing are different in the different settings. For instance, individual and family factors determine flourishing in rural areas, and social ties determine flourishing in urban areas.

Keywords: flourishing, predictors, older adults, Mongolia, psychological well-being

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54 Quantification of Glucosinolates in Turnip Greens and Turnip Tops by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: S. Obregon-Cano, R. Moreno-Rojas, E. Cartea-Gonzalez, A. De Haro-Bailon

Abstract:

The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for screening the total glucosinolate (t-GSL) content, and also, the aliphatic glucosinolates gluconapin (GNA), progoitrin (PRO) and glucobrassicanapin (GBN) in turnip greens and turnip tops was assessed. This crop is grown for edible leaves and stems for human consumption. The reference values for glucosinolates, as they were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography on the vegetable samples, were regressed against different spectral transformations by modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression (calibration set of samples n= 350). The resulting models were satisfactory, with calibration coefficient values from 0.72 (GBN) to 0.98 (tGSL). The predictive ability of the equations obtained was tested using a set of samples (n=70) independent of the calibration set. The determination coefficients and prediction errors (SEP) obtained in the external validation were: GNA=0.94 (SEP=3.49); PRO=0.41 (SEP=1.08); GBN=0.55 (SEP=0.60); tGSL=0.96 (SEP=3.28). These results show that the equations developed for total glucosinolates, as well as for gluconapin can be used for screening these compounds in the leaves and stems of this species. In addition, the progoitrin and glucobrassicanapin equations obtained can be used to identify those samples with high, medium and low contents. The calibration equations obtained were accurate enough for a fast, non-destructive and reliable analysis of the content in GNA and tGSL directly from NIR spectra. The equations for PRO and GBN can be employed to identify samples with high, medium and low contents.

Keywords: brassica rapa, glucosinolates, gluconapin, NIRS, turnip greens

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53 Old and New Paradigms for Pre-Earthquake Prevention and Post-Earthquake Regeneration of Territories in Crisis in Italy

Authors: Maria Angela Bedini, Fabio Bronzini

Abstract:

Most of the Italian territory is at seismic risk. Many earthquakes have hit Italy, and devastating effects have been generated. The specific objective of the research is to distinguish the negative approaches that have generated unacceptable social situations of marginalization, abandonment, and economic regression, from positive methodological approaches. On the basis of the different situations examined, the study proposes strategies and guidelines to obtain the best possible results, in Italy or abroad, in the event of new earthquakes. At national and international level, many theoretical studies address the aspects of prevention, while the comparisons, carried out in this study, between the techniques and the operative procedures applied and the results obtained are rare. The adopted methodology compares the different pre-earthquake urban-planning approaches, for the emergency (temporary urban planning), and for the post-earthquake (socio-economic-territorial processes) in Italy. Attention is placed on the current consolidated planning and programming acquisitions, pre and post-earthquake. The main results of the study concern the prospects in Italy of protection from seismic risks in the next decades. An integrated settlement system for a new economic and social model, aimed at the rebirth of territories in crisis, is proposed. Finally, the conclusions describe the disciplinary positions, procedures and the fundamental points generally shared by the scientific community for each approach, in order to identify the strategic choices and the disciplinary and management paths that will be followed in the coming decades.

Keywords: post-earthquake, seismic emergency, seismic prevention, urban planning interventions in Italy

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