Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 380

Search results for: Fabio Parracho Silva

380 Hominin Niche in the Times of Climate Change

Authors: Emilia Hunt, Sally C. Reynolds, Fiona Coward, Fabio Parracho Silva, Philip Hopley

Abstract:

Ecological niche modeling is widely used in conservation studies, but application to the extinct hominin species is a relatively new approach. Being able to understand what ecological niches were occupied by respective hominin species provides a new perspective into influences on evolutionary processes. Niche separation or overlap can tell us more about specific requirements of the species within the given timeframe. Many of the ancestral species lived through enormous climate changes: glacial and interglacial periods, changes in rainfall, leading to desertification or flooding of regions and displayed impressive levels of adaptation necessary for their survival. This paper reviews niche modeling methodologies and their application to hominin studies. Traditional conservation methods might not be directly applicable to extinct species and are not comparable to hominins. Hominin niche also includes aspects of technologies, use of fire and extended communication, which are not traditionally used in building conservation models. Future perspectives on how to improve niche modeling for extinct hominin species will be discussed.

Keywords: hominin niche, climate change, evolution, adaptation, ecological niche modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
379 Using Wiki for Enhancing the Knowledge Transfer to Newcomers: An Experience Report

Authors: Hualter Oliveira Barbosa, Raquel Feitosa do Vale Cunha, Erika Muniz dos Santos, Fernanda Belmira Souza, Fabio Sousa, Luis Henrique Pascareli, Franciney de Oliveira Lima, Ana Cláudia Reis da Silva, Christiane Moreira de Almeida

Abstract:

Software development is intrinsic human-based knowledge-intensive. Due to globalization, software development has become a complex challenge and we usually face barriers related to knowledge management, team building, costly testing processes, especially in distributed settings. For this reason, several approaches have been proposed to minimize barriers caused by geographic distance. In this paper, we present as we use experimental studies to improve our knowledge management process using the Wiki system. According to the results, it was possible to identify learning preferences from our software projects leader team, organize and improve the learning experience of our Wiki and; facilitate collaboration by newcomers to improve Wiki with new contents available in the Wiki.

Keywords: mobile product, knowledge transfer, knowledge management process, wiki, GSD

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
378 Peach as a Potential Functional Food: Biological Activity and Important Phenolic Compound Source

Authors: Luís R. Silva, Catarina Bento, Ana C. Gonçalves, Fábio Jesus, Branca M. Silva

Abstract:

Nowadays, the general population is more and more concerned about nutrition and the health implications of an unbalanced diet. Current knowledge regarding the health benefits and antioxidant properties of certain foods such as fruits and vegetables has gained the interest of both the general public and scientific community. Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most consumed fruits worldwide, with low sugar contents and a broad range of nutrients essential to the normal functioning of the body. Six different peach cultivars from the Fundão region in Portugal were evaluated regarding their phenolic composition by LC-DAD and biological activity. The prepared extracts’ capacity to scavenge free-radicals was tested through the stable free radical DPPH• and nitric oxide (•NO). Additionally, antidiabetic potential and protective effects against peroxyl radical (ROO•) induced damage to erythrocytes were also tested. LC-DAD analysis allowed the identification of 17 phenolic compounds, among which 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acids are pointed out as the most abundant. Regarding the antioxidant activity, all cultivars displayed concentration-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against both nitrogen species and DPPH•. In respect to α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, Royal Magister and Royal Glory presented the highest inhibitory activity (IC50 = 11.7 ± 1.4 and 17.1 ± 1.7 μg/mL, respectively), nevertheless all six cultivars presented higher activity than the control acarbose. As for the protective effect of Royal Lu extract on the oxidative damage induced in erythrocytes by ROO•, the results were quite promising showing inhibition IC50 values of 110.0 ± 4.5 μg/mL and 83.8 ± 6.5 μg/mL for hemolysis and hemoglobin oxidation, respectively. The demonstrated activity is of course associated to the peaches’ phenolic profile, rich in phenolic acids and flavonoids with high hydrogen donating capacity. These compounds have great industrial interest for the manufacturing of natural products. The following step would naturally be the extraction and isolation from the plant tissues and large-scale production through biotechnology techniques.

Keywords: antioxidants, functional food, phenolic compounds, peach

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
377 RF Propagation Analysis in Outdoor Environments Using RSSI Measurements Applied in ZigBee Sensor Networks

Authors: Teles de Sales Bezerra, Saulo Aislan da Silva Eleuterio, José Anderson Rodrigues de Souza, Jeronimo Silva Rocha

Abstract:

Propagation in radio frequency is a constant concern in the application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the behavior of an environment determines how good the quality of signal reception. The objective of this paper is to analyze the behavior of a WSN in an environment for agriculture where environmental variables are present and correlate the capture of values received signal strength (RSSI) with a propagation model.

Keywords: propagation, WSN, agriculture, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 620
376 Saco Sweet Cherry from Fundão Region, Portugal: Chemical Profile and Health-Promoting Properties

Authors: Luís R. Silva, Ana C. Gonçalves, Catarina Bento, Fábio Jesus, Branca M. Silva

Abstract:

Prunus avium Linnaeus, more known as sweet cherry, is one of the most appreciated fruit worldwide. Most of these quantities are produced in Fundão region, being Saco the cultivar most produced. Saco is very rich in bioactive compounds, especially phenolics, and presents great antioxidant capacity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the chemical profile and biological potential, concerning antioxidant, anti-diabetic activity and protective effects towards erythrocytes by Saco sweet cherry collected from Fundão region (Portugal). The hydroethanolic extracts were prepared and passed through a C18 solid-phase extraction column. The phenolic profile analyzed by LC-DAD method allowed to the identification of 22 phenolic compounds, being 16 non-phenolics and 6 anthocyanins. In respect to non-coloured phenolics, 3-O-caffeoylquinic and ρ-coumaroylquinic acids were the main ones. Concerning to anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was found in higher amounts. Relatively to biological potential, Saco showed great antioxidant potential, through DPPH and NO radical assays, with IC50 =16.24 ± 0.46 µg/mL and IC50 = 176.69 ± 3.35 µg/mL for DPPH and NO, respectively. These results were similar to those obtained for ascorbic acid control (IC50 = 16.92 ± 0.69 and IC50 = 162.66 ± 1.31 μg/mL for DPPH and NO, respectively). In respect to antidiabetic potential, Saco revealed capacity to inhibit α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 10.79 ± 0.40 µg/mL), being much active than positive control acarbose (IC50 = 306.66 ± 0.84 μg/mL). Additionally, Saco extracts revealed protective effects against ROO•-mediated toxicity generated by AAPH in human blood erythrocytes, inhibiting hemoglobin oxidation (IC50 = 38.57 ± 0.96 μg/mL) and hemolysis (IC50 = 73.03 ± 1.48 μg/mL), in a concentration-dependent manner. However, Saco extracts were less effective than quercetin control (IC50 = 3.10 μg/mL and IC50 = 0.7 μg/mL for inhibition of hemoglobin oxidation and hemolysis, respectively). The results obtained showed that Saco is an excellent source of phenolic compounds. These ones are natural antioxidant substances, which easily capture reactive species. This work presents new insights regarding sweet cherry antioxidant properties which may be useful for the future development of new therapeutic strategies for preventing or attenuating oxidative-related disorders.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, health benefits, phenolic compounds, saco

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
375 A Proposal of Ontology about Brazilian Government Transparency Portal

Authors: Estela Mayra de Moura Vianna, Thiago José Tavares Ávila, Bruno Morais Silva, Diego Henrique Bezerra, Paulo Henrique Gomes Silva, Alan Pedro da Silva

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The Brazilian Federal Constitution defines the access to information as a crucial right of the citizen and the Law on Access to Public Information, which regulates this right. Accordingly, the Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2000, amended in 2009 by the “Law of Transparency”, began demanding a wider disclosure of public accounts for the society, including electronic media for public access. Thus, public entities began to create "Transparency Portals," which aim to gather a diversity of data and information. However, this information, in general, is still published in formats that do not simplify understanding of the data by citizens and that could be better especially available for audit purposes. In this context, a proposal of ontology about Brazilian Transparency Portal can play a key role in how these data will be better available. This study aims to identify and implement in ontology, the data model about Transparency Portal ecosystem, with emphasis in activities that use these data for some applications, like audits, press activities, social government control, and others.

Keywords: audit, government transparency, ontology, public sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
374 The Regulation on Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields for Brazilian Power System

Authors: Hugo Manoel Olivera Da Silva, Ricardo Silva Thé Pontes

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In this work, is presented an analysis of the Brazilian regulation on human exposure to electromagnetic fields, which provides limits to electric fields, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. The regulations for the electricity sector was in charge of the Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica-ANEEL, the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency, that made it through the Normative Resolution Nº 398/2010, resulting in a series of obligations for the agents of the electricity sector, especially in the areas of generation, transmission, and distribution.

Keywords: adverse effects, electric energy, electric and magnetic fields, human health, regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 489
373 Automation of Kitchen Chemical in the Textile Industry

Authors: José Luiz da Silva Neto, Renato Sipelli Silva, Érick Aragão Ribeiro

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The automation of industrial processes plays a vital role in industries today, becoming an integral and important part of the industrial process and modern production. The process control systems are designed to maximize production, reduce costs and minimize risks in production. However, these systems are generally not deployed methodologies and planning. So that this article describes the development of an automation system of a kitchen preparation of chemicals in the textile industry based on a retrofitting methodology that provides more quality into the process at a lower cost.

Keywords: automation, textile industry, kitchen chemical, information integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
372 Effect of Ultrasound on the Hydrolysis of Soy Oil Catalyzed by 1,3-Specific Lipase Abstract

Authors: Jamal Abd Awadallak, Thiago Olinek Reinehr, Eduardo Raizer, Deise Molinari, Edson Antonio, Camila da Silva da Silva

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The hydrolysis of soy oil catalyzed by 1,3-specific enzyme (Lecitase Ultra) in a well-stirred bioreactor was studied. Two forms of applications of the ultrasound were evaluated aiming to increase reaction rates, wherein the use of probe ultrasound associated with the use of surfactant to pre-emulsify the substrate showed the best results. Two different reaction periods were found: the first where the ultrasound has great influence on reaction rates, and the second where ultrasound influence is minimal. Studies on the time of pre-emulsification, surfactant concentration and enzyme concentration showed that the initial rate of hydrolysis depends on the interfacial area between the oil phase and the aqueous phase containing the enzyme.

Keywords: specific enzyme, free fatty acids, Hydrolysis, lecitase ultra, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
371 Energy Efficient Heterogeneous System for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)

Authors: José Anderson Rodrigues de Souza, Teles de Sales Bezerra, Saulo Aislan da Silva Eleuterio, Jeronimo Silva Rocha

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Mobile devices are increasingly occupying sectors of society and one of its most important features is mobility. However, the use of mobile devices is subject to the lifetime of the batteries. Thus, the use of energy batteries has become an important issue in the study of wireless network technologies. In this context, new solutions that enable aggregate energy efficiency not only through energy saving, and principally they are evaluated from a more realistic model of energy discharge, if easy adaptation to existing protocols. This paper presents a study on the energy needed and the lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) using a heterogeneous network and applying the LEACH protocol.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency, heterogeneous, LEACH protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
370 Oxidative Stability of Methyl and Ethyl Microalgae Biodiesel with Synthetic Antioxidants

Authors: Willian L. G. Silva, Fabio R. M. Batista, Matthieu Tubino

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Microalgae can be considered a potential source of oil for biodiesel synthesis since this microorganism can grow rapidly in either fresh or salty water, not competing with food production. There are several favorable conditions in Brazil for this type of culture due to the country’s great amount of water. Another very positive aspect of this type of culture is its ability to fix atmospheric CO2, contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases and their effects on global warming. Despite this biodiesel environmental advantages it degrades resulting in changes in its physical and chemical properties. In this work, the methyl and ethyl microalgae biodiesel oxidative stability was studied in the absence and presence of a synthetic antioxidant. The synthetic antioxidants used were propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), at a 0,12% (w/w) concentration. The biodiesel mixture was kept in a sealed glass flask, sheltered from light, and at room temperature (about 25 ºC) for 180 days. During this period, aliquots from this biodiesel were subjected to induced degradation by the Rancimat method, which determines an important quality parameter, provided in the current methods, and is used to monitor the degradation processes that occur in the biodiesel over time. The induction period (IP) expresses the biodiesel oxidative stability. It was stablished that the minimum accepted IP value for biodiesel is 8 hours. The results show that ethylic biodiesel increased its IP value from 7,6 hours to 31 hours when using PG, and to 67 hours when using TBHQ, exceeding the minimum accepted IP value. When the antioxidants were added to the methylic biodiesel samples, the IP was raised to 28 hours when using PG, and to 62 hours when using TBHQ. These values were maintained throughout the entire period of study (180 days). On the other hand, the biodiesel samples without additives maintained an IP above the allowed value for only 30 days. Therefore, in order to preserve microalgae biodiesel for longer periods of time, it is necessary to add antioxidants to both derivatives, i.e., the ethylic and methylic.

Keywords: biodiesel, microalgae, oxidative stability, storage, synthetic antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
369 Human Resources Management Practices in Hospitality Companies

Authors: Dora Martins, Susana Silva, Cândida Silva

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Human Resources Management (HRM) has been recognized by academics and practitioners as an important element in organizations. Therefore, this paper explores the best practices of HRM and seeks to understand the level of participation in the development of these practices by human resources managers in the hospitality industry and compare it with other industries. Thus, the study compared the HRM practices of companies in the hospitality sector with HRM practices of companies in other sectors, and identifies the main differences between their HRM practices. The results show that the most frequent HRM practices in all companies, independently of its sector of activity, are hiring and training. When comparing hospitality sector with other sectors of activity, some differences were noticed, namely in the adoption of the practices of communication and information sharing, and of recruitment and selection. According to these results, the paper discusses the major theoretical and practical implications. Suggestions for future research are also presented.

Keywords: exploratory study, human resources management practices, human resources manager, hospitality companies, Portuguese companies

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
368 Portuguese Influence on Minas Gerais Dessert Culinary During Brazil Colonization Period

Authors: Silvania M. P. Silva, Ricardo A. Mazaro, Gemilde M. Queiroz, Josefa Barbosa, Lucas S. Victorino, Grasiela J. Silva

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The Minas Gerais sweets have a remarkable personality, perceived on the original usage of fruits, sweets, and cheeses in the Brazilian gastronomic landscape, as a unique representation of Minas Gerais. This memory-related and feeling-oriented food is one of the treasures common to all Brazilians. It is mandatory to mention its Portuguese roots for the use of honey, as well as sugar cane and its countless possibilities. This work will show that this heritage is predominantly Portuguese, born in Portuguese convents and that it crossed the Atlantic. Through a historical survey, visits to mining towns known for their sweet culture and material collected in these places, we present the protagonists of this journey of flavors: the Portuguese cake makers (boleiras), who brought the knowledge, ingredients, and the dream of a better life in the crowded mines of gold and opportunities, helping to form a new Minas Gerais knowledge with their delicacies.

Keywords: sweets from portugal, convent sweets, minas gerais, brazil

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
367 Vieira Da Silva's Tiles at Universidade Federal Rural Do Rio de Janeiro: A Conservation and Restoration Project

Authors: Adriana Anselmo Oliveira

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The present project showcases a tile work from the Franco-Portuguese artist Maria Helena Vieira da Silva (1908-1992). It is a set of 8 panels composed of figurative and geometric tiles, with extra tiles framing nearby doors and windows in a study room in the (UFRRJ, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro). The aforementioned work was created between 1942 and 1943, during the artist's 6 year exile in the Brazilian city. This one-of-a-kind tileset was designed and made by Vieira da Silva between 1942 and 1943. Over the years, several units were lost, which led to their replacement in the nineties. However, these replacements don't do justice to the original work of art. In 2007, a project was initiated to fully repair and maintain the set. Three panels are removed and restored, but the project is halted. To this day, the three fully restored panels remain in boxes. In 2016 a new restoration project is submitted by the (Faculdade de Belas Artes da Universidade de Lisboa) in collaboration with de (Fundacão Árpád Szenes-Vieira da Silva). There are many varied opinions on restoring and conserving older pieces of art, however, we have the moral duty to safeguard the original materials used by the artist along with the artists original vision and also to care for the future generations of students who will use the space in which the tile-work was inserted. Many tiles have been replaced by white tiles, tiles with a divergent colour pallet and technique, and in a few cases, the incorrect place or way around. These many factors make it increasingly difficult to maintain the artists original vision and destroy and chance of coherence within the artwork itself. The conservative technician cannot make new images to fill the empty spaces or mark the remaining images with their own creative input. with reliable photographic documentation that can provide us with the necessary vision to allow us to proceed with an accurate reconstruction, we have the obligation to proceed and return the piece of art to its true form, as in its current state, it is impossible to maintain its original glory. Using the information we have, we must find a way to differentiate the original tiles from the reconstructions in order to recreate and reclaim the original message from the artist. The objective of this project is to understand the significance of tiles in Vieira da Silva's art as well as the influence they had on the artist's pictorial language since the colour definition on tile work is vastly different from the painting process as the materials change during their merger. Another primary goal is to understand what the previous interventions achieved besides increasing the artworks durability. The main objective is to submit a proposal that can salvage the artist's visual intention and supports it for posteriority. In summary, this proposal goes further than the usual conservative interventions as it intends to recreate the original artistic worth, prioritising the aesthetics and keeping its soul alive.

Keywords: Vieira da Silva, tiles, conservation, restoration

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
366 Nazi Experiments during World War II: Dismal Period for Bioethics

Authors: Catharina O. Vianna Dias da Silva, Amanda F. Batista, Ana Clara C. Burgos Lessa, Carolina S. Lucchesi Ramacciotti, Maria Clara B. de Andrade, Roberto de B. Silva

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This article aims to analyze the bioethical aspects related to the historical practices of experiments on humans that occurred in Nazi Germany during the period of World War II (1939-1945). The method was based on the bibliographic review of articles published in databases such as SciELO and Pubmed. In the discussion, historical and humanistic aspects that contributed to the construction of a genocidal culture practiced during this period were analyzed. Additionally, an ethical question arises: should the information acquired during this dark period be used by science? After analysis, it was found that these Nazi experiments went over medical and ethical principles, being a deplorable milestone in history. It was also concluded that, although they generated potentially 'useful' results in the scientific field, they should be discarded as an ethical question of principle, of never daring to validate such a deplorable way of obtaining knowledge.

Keywords: Nazism, bioethics, human experimentation, human rights, genocide, torture, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
365 In vitro Bioacessibility of Phenolic Compounds from Fruit Spray Dried and Lyophilized Powder

Authors: Carolina Beres, Laurine Da Silva, Danielle Pereira, Ana Ribeiro, Renata Tonon, Caroline Mellinger-Silva, Karina Dos Santos, Flavia Gomes, Lourdes Cabral

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The health benefits of bioactive compounds such as phenolics are well known. The main source of these compounds are fruits and derivates. This study had the objective to study the bioacessibility of phenolic compounds from grape pomace and juçara dried extracts. For this purpose both characterized extracts were submitted to a simulated human digestion and the total phenolic content, total anthocyanins and antioxidant scavenging capacity was determinate in digestive fractions (oral, gastric, intestinal and colonic). Juçara had a higher anthocianins bioacessibility (17.16%) when compared to grape pomace (2.08%). The opposite result was found for total phenolic compound, where the higher bioacessibility was for grape (400%). The phenolic compound increase indicates a more accessible compound in the human gut. The lyophilized process had a beneficial impact in the final accessibility of the phenolic compounds being a more promising technique.

Keywords: bioacessibility, phenolic compounds, grape, juçara

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
364 Analysing Time Series for a Forecasting Model to the Dynamics of Aedes Aegypti Population Size

Authors: Flavia Cordeiro, Fabio Silva, Alvaro Eiras, Jose Luiz Acebal

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Aedes aegypti is present in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and is a vector of several diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, zika etc. The growth in the number of arboviruses cases in the last decades became a matter of great concern worldwide. Meteorological factors like mean temperature and precipitation are known to influence the infestation by the species through effects on physiology and ecology, altering the fecundity, mortality, lifespan, dispersion behaviour and abundance of the vector. Models able to describe the dynamics of the vector population size should then take into account the meteorological variables. The relationship between meteorological factors and the population dynamics of Ae. aegypti adult females are studied to provide a good set of predictors to model the dynamics of the mosquito population size. The time-series data of capture of adult females of a public health surveillance program from the city of Lavras, MG, Brazil had its association with precipitation, humidity and temperature analysed through a set of statistical methods for time series analysis commonly adopted in Signal Processing, Information Theory and Neuroscience. Cross-correlation, multicollinearity test and whitened cross-correlation were applied to determine in which time lags would occur the influence of meteorological variables on the dynamics of the mosquito abundance. Among the findings, the studied case indicated strong collinearity between humidity and precipitation, and precipitation was selected to form a pair of descriptors together with temperature. In the techniques used, there were observed significant associations between infestation indicators and both temperature and precipitation in short, mid and long terms, evincing that those variables should be considered in entomological models and as public health indicators. A descriptive model used to test the results exhibits a strong correlation to data.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti, cross-correlation, multicollinearity, meteorological variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
363 Jatropha curcas L. Oil Selectivity in Froth Flotation

Authors: André C. Silva, Izabela L. A. Moraes, Elenice M. S. Silva, Carlos M. Silva Filho

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In Brazil, most soils are acidic and low in essential nutrients required for the growth and development of plants, making fertilizers essential for agriculture. As the biggest producer of soy in the world and a major producer of coffee, sugar cane and citrus fruits, Brazil is a large consumer of phosphate. Brazilian’s phosphate ores are predominantly from igneous rocks showing a complex mineralogy, associated with carbonites and oxides, typically iron, silicon and barium. The adopted industrial concentration circuit for this type of ore is a mix between magnetic separation (both low and high field) to remove the magnetic fraction and a froth flotation circuit composed by a reverse flotation of apatite (barite’s flotation) followed by direct flotation circuit (rougher, cleaner and scavenger circuit). Since the 70’s fatty acids obtained from vegetable oils are widely used as lower-cost collectors in apatite froth flotation. This is a very effective approach to the apatite family of minerals, being that this type of collector is both selective and efficient (high recovery). This paper presents Jatropha curcas L. oil (JCO) as a renewable and sustainable source of fatty acids with high selectivity in froth flotation of apatite. JCO is considerably rich in fatty acids such as linoleic, oleic and palmitic acid. The experimental campaign involved 216 tests using a modified Hallimond tube and two different minerals (apatite and quartz). In order to be used as a collector, the oil was saponified. The results found were compared with the synthetic collector, Fotigam 5806 produced by Clariant, which is composed mainly by soy oil. JCO showed the highest selectivity for apatite flotation with cold saponification at pH 8 and concentration of 2.5 mg/L. In this case, the mineral recovery was around 95%.

Keywords: froth flotation, jatropha curcas, microflotation, selectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
362 Attitudes of Nurses towards End-of-Life Care for Themselves

Authors: H. N. S. Silva, S. N. Silva

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Introduction: 88.3% of physicians decided to choose a ‘no-code’ or a DNR order if hospitalized and would choose to die less aggressively at home. However, their wishes were mostly over ridden. Objective: To assess the attitudes of nurses towards the end-of-the-life care they would like to receive for themselves and their attitudes towards terminal illnesses. Methods: A mixed method approach was used. A closed and open-ended questionnaire was administered to 73 participants and 5 registered nurses, who have more than 10 years of experience, working in hospitals both in Sri Lanka and abroad, were interviewed. Results: 94.1% of the participants stated that they would like to die at home, spending their last hours at home surrounded by their loved ones and engaging in religious activities but 57.7% of unmarried nurse said they would agree on euthanasia if they had a terminal disease, and also 66.2% of them stated they would agree in DNR order if they happen to be admitted to the ICU, but 82.5% wanted to diagnose if they had a terminal illness or cancer but did not agree on euthanasia. Qualitative analysis confirmed the findings and revealed that despite having adequate confidence about the hospital care, nurses would choose to die at home, surrounded by their loved once and engaging in religious activities. Euthanasia was believed to be inappropriate as it is religiously incorrect and as death is a natural process. Conclusion: The perception of death among nurses depends on their religious belief.

Keywords: death, do not resuscitate, euthanasia, nurses

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
361 Evaluate the Kinetic Parameters and Characterize for Waste Prosopis juliflora Pods

Authors: Jean C. G. Silva, Kaline N. Ferreira, Rennio F. Sena, Flavio L. H. Silva

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The Prosopis juliflora (called algaroba in Northeastern Region of Brazil) is a species of medium to large size that can reach 18 meters high, being typical of arid and semi-arid regions by to requirement less water to survive; this is a fundamental attribute from its adaptation. It's considered of multiple uses, because the trunk, the fruit, and the algaroba pods are utilized for several purposes, among them, the production of wood from lumber mill, charcoal, alcohol, animal and human consumption, being hence, a culture of economic and social value. The use of waste Prosopis juliflora can be carried out for like pyrolysis and gasification processes, in order to energy production in those regions where it is grown. Thus this study aims to characterize the residue of the algaroba pods and evaluate the kinetic parameters, activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (k0), the devolatilization process through the data obtained from TG/DTG curves with different levels of heating rates. At work was used the heating rates of 5 K.min-1, 10 K.min-1, 15 K.min-1, 20 K.min-1 and 30 K.min-1, in inert nitrogen atmosphere (99.997%) under a flow of 40 ml.min-1. The kinetic parameters were obtained using the methods of Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall.

Keywords: activation energy, devolatilization, kinetic parameters, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
360 Stems of Prunus avium: An Unexplored By-product with Great Bioactive Potential

Authors: Luís R. Silva, Fábio Jesus, Catarina Bento, Ana C. Gonçalves

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Over the last few years, the traditional medicine has gained ground at nutritional and pharmacological level. The natural products and their derivatives have great importance in several drugs used in modern therapeutics. Plant-based systems continue to play an essential role in primary healthcare. Additionally, the utilization of their plant parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers as nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products, can add a high value in the natural products market, not just by the nutritional value due to the significant levels of phytochemicals, but also by to the high benefit for the producers and manufacturers business. Stems of Prunus avium L. are a byproduct resulting from the processing of cherry, and have been consumed over the years as infusions and decoctions due to its bioactive properties, being used as sedative, diuretic and draining, to relief of renal stones, edema and hypertension. In this work, we prepared a hydroethanolic and infusion extracts from stems of P. avium collected in Fundão Region (Portugal), and evaluate the phenolic profile by LC/DAD, antioxidant capacity, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and protection of human erythrocytes against oxidative damage. The LC-DAD analysis allowed to the identification of 19 phenolic compounds, catechin and 3-O-caffolquinic acid were the main ones. In a general way, hydroethanolic extract proved to be more active than infusion. This extract had the best antioxidant activity against DPPH• (IC50=22.37 ± 0.28 µg/mL) and superoxide radical (IC50=13.93 ± 0.30 µg/mL). Furthermore, it was the most active concerning inhibition of hemoglobin oxidation (IC50=13.73 ± 0.67 µg/mL), hemolysis (IC50=1.49 ± 0.18 µg/mL) and lipid peroxidation (IC50=26.20 ± 0.38 µg/mL) on human erythrocytes. On the other hand, infusion revealed to be more efficient towards α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=3.18 ± 0.23 µg/mL) and against nitric oxide radical (IC50=99.99 ± 1.89 µg/mL). The Sweet cherry sector is very important in Fundão Region (Portugal), and taking profit from the great wastes produced during processing of the cherry to produce added-value products, such as food supplements cannot be ignored. Our results demonstrate that P. avium stems possesses remarkable antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. It is therefore, suggest, that P. avium stems can be used as a natural antioxidant with high potential to prevent or slow the progress of human diseases mediated by oxidative stress.

Keywords: stems, Prunus avium, phenolic compounds, biological potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
359 Comparative Analysis of Two Modeling Approaches for Optimizing Plate Heat Exchangers

Authors: Fábio A. S. Mota, Mauro A. S. S. Ravagnani, E. P. Carvalho

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In the present paper the design of plate heat exchangers is formulated as an optimization problem considering two mathematical modeling. The number of plates is the objective function to be minimized, considering implicitly some parameters configuration. Screening is the optimization method used to solve the problem. Thermal and hydraulic constraints are verified, not viable solutions are discarded and the method searches for the convergence to the optimum, case it exists. A case study is presented to test the applicability of the developed algorithm. Results show coherency with the literature.

Keywords: plate heat exchanger, optimization, modeling, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
358 Advantages of Vibration in the GMAW Process for Improving the Quality and Mechanical Properties

Authors: C. A. C. Castro, D. C. Urashima, E. P. Silva, P. M. L. Silva

Abstract:

Since 1920, the industry has almost completely changed the rivets production techniques for the manufacture of permanent welding join production of structures and manufacture of other products. The welding arc is the process more widely used in industries. This is accomplished by the heat of an electric arc which melts the base metal while the molten metal droplets are transferred through the arc to the welding pool, protected from the atmosphere by a gas curtain. The GMAW (Gas metal arc welding) process is influenced by variables such as: Current, polarity, welding speed, electrode, extension, position, moving direction; type of joint, welder's ability, among others. It is remarkable that the knowledge and control of these variables are essential for obtaining satisfactory quality welds, knowing that are interconnected so that changes in one of them requiring changes in one or more of the other to produce the desired results. The optimum values are affected by the type of base metal, the electrode composition, the welding position and the quality requirements. Thus, this paper proposes a new methodology, adding the variable vibration through a mechanism developed for GMAW welding, in order to improve the mechanical and metallurgical properties which does not affect the ability of the welder and enables repeatability of the welds made. For confirmation metallographic analysis and mechanical tests were made.

Keywords: vibration, joining, weldability, GMAW

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357 Limestone Briquette Production and Characterization

Authors: André C. Silva, Mariana R. Barros, Elenice M. S. Silva, Douglas. Y. Marinho, Diego F. Lopes, Débora N. Sousa, Raphael S. Tomáz

Abstract:

Modern agriculture requires productivity, efficiency and quality. Therefore, there is need for agricultural limestone implementation that provides adequate amounts of calcium and magnesium carbonates in order to correct soil acidity. During the limestone process, fine particles (with average size under 400#) are generated. These particles do not have economic value in agricultural and metallurgical sectors due their size. When limestone is used for agriculture purposes, these fine particles can be easily transported by wind generated air pollution. Therefore, briquetting, a mineral processing technique, was used to mitigate this problem resulting in an agglomerated product suitable for agriculture use. Briquetting uses compressive pressure to agglomerate fine particles. It can be aided by agglutination agents, allowing adjustments in shape, size and mechanical parameters of the mass. Briquettes can generate extra profits for mineral industry, presenting as a distinct product for agriculture, and can reduce the environmental liabilities of the fine particles storage or disposition. The produced limestone briquettes were subjected to shatter and water action resistance tests. The results show that after six minutes completely submerged in water, the briquettes where fully diluted, a highly favorable result considering its use for soil acidity correction.

Keywords: agglomeration, briquetting, limestone, soil acidity correction

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356 Oral Biofilm and Stomatitis Denture: Local Implications and Cardiovascular Risks

Authors: Adriana B. Ribeiro, Camila B. Araujo, Frank L. Bueno, Luiz Eduardo V. Silva, Caroline V. Fortes, Helio C. Salgado, Rubens Fazan Jr., Claudia H. L. da Silva

Abstract:

Denture-related stomatitis (DRS) has recently been associated with deleterious cardiovascular effects, including hypertension. This study evaluated salivary parameters, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV), before and after DRS treatment in edentulous patients (n=14). Collection of unstimulated and stimulated saliva, as well as blood pressure (BP) measurements and electrocardiogram recordings were performed before and after 10 days of DRS treatment. The salivary flow (mL/min) was found similar at both times while pH was smaller (more neutral) after treatment (7.3 ± 2.2 vs. 7.1 ± 0.24). Systolic BP (mmHg) showed a trend, but not a significant reduction after DRS treatment (158 ± 25.68 vs. 148 ± 16,72, p=0,062) while diastolic BP was found similar in both times (86 ± 13.93 and 84 ± 9.38). Overall HRV, measured by standard deviation of RR intervals was not affected by DRS treatment (24 ± 4 vs 18 ± 2 ms), but differences of successive RR intervals (an index of parasympathetic cardiac modulation) increased after the treatment (26 ± 4 vs 19 ± 2 ms). Moreover, another index of vagal modulation of the heart, the power of RR interval spectra at high-frequency, was also markedly higher after DRS treatment (236 ± 63 vs 135 ± 32 ms²). Such findings strongly suggest that DRS is linked to an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is markedly deleterious, increasing cardiovascular risk and the incidence of diseases such as hypertension. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by FAPESP, CNPq.

Keywords: biofilm, denture stomatitis, HRV, blood pressure

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355 Reasons behind Accounting Information Tools Adopted by Portuguese Third Sector Organizations: Institutional Theory versus Rational Choice Theory

Authors: Eurico Lima Basto, Ofélia Pinto, Anabela Silva, Amélia Ferreira-Da-Silva

Abstract:

The purpose if this study is two-fold: on the one hand, to identify the accounting information systems implemented in third sector organizations, as well as its components, its tools and the decisions and control purposes they serve; on the other hand, and by confronting these two theories - institutional theory versus rational choice – we intent to go further by understanding the reasons behind the adoption of the aforementioned tools. Data has been collected from third sector organizations operating in Portugal. Our sample includes all juridical types of organizations such as foundations, cooperative, associations or private institutions of social solidarity. The questionnaire contained sixteen close-ended questions and four open-questions. Results confirm the theoretical perspective of institutionalism. Most third sector organizations operating in Portugal implemented only traditional accounting tools like standard accounting statements, cost accounting, budgeting. Moreover, there is clear evidence that the decisions about the implementation of these tools were coercive oriented. With this study it is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the context of third sector organizations in Portugal, in particular the role that accounting plays in this sector, with a special focus on management accounting tools, and the factors that influence their use and the degree of their usefulness in the process of decision making.

Keywords: third sector, accounting tools, institutional theory, Portugal, descriptive research

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354 Public Behavior When Encountered with a Road Traffic Accident

Authors: H. N. S. Silva, S. N. Silva

Abstract:

Introduction: The latest WHO data published in 2014 states that Sri Lanka has reached 2,773 of total deaths and over 14000 individuals’ sustained injuries due to RTAs each year. It was noticed in previous studies that policemen, three wheel drivers and also pedestrians were the first to respond to RTAs but the victim’s condition was aggravated due to unskilled attempts made by the responders while management of the victim’s wounds, moving and positioning of the victims and also mainly while transportation of the victims. Objective: To observe the practices of the urban public in Sri Lanka who are encountered with RTAs. Methods: A qualitative study was done to analyze public behavior seen on video recordings of scenes of accidents purposefully selected from social media, news websites, YouTube and Google. Results: The results showed that all individuals who tried to help during the RTA were middle aged men, who were mainly pedestrians, motorcyclists and policemen during that moment. Vast majority were very keen to actively help the victims to get to hospital as soon as possible and actively participated in providing 'aid'. But main problem was the first aid attempts were disorganized and uncoordinated. Even though all individuals knew how to control external bleeding, none of them was aware of spinal prevention techniques or management of limb injuries. Most of the transportation methods and transfer techniques used were inappropriate and more injury prone. Conclusions: The public actively engages in providing aid despite their inappropriate practices in giving first aid.

Keywords: encountered, pedestrians, road traffic accidents, urban public

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353 Optimal Consume of NaOH in Starches Gelatinization for Froth Flotation

Authors: André C. Silva, Débora N. Sousa, Elenice M. S. Silva, Thales P. Fontes, Raphael S. Tomaz

Abstract:

Starches are widely used as depressant in froth flotation operations in Brazil due to their efficiency, increasing the selectivity in the inverse flotation of quartz depressing iron ore. Starches market have been growing and improving in recent years, leading to better products attending the requirements of the mineral industry. The major source of starch used for iron ore is corn starch, which needs to be gelatinized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) prior to use. This stage has a direct impact on industrials costs, once the lowest consumption of NaOH in gelatinization provides better control of the pH in the froth flotation and reduces the amount of electrolytes present in the pulp. In order to evaluate the gelatinization degree of different starches and flour were subjected to the addiction of NaOH and temperature variation experiments. Samples of starch (corn, cassava, HIPIX 100, HIPIX 101 and HIPIX 102 commercialized by Ingredion) and flour (cassava and potato) were tested. The starch samples were characterized through Scanning Electronic Microscopy and the amylose content were determined through spectrometry, swelling and solubility tests. The gelatinization was carried out through titration with NaOH, keeping the solution temperature constant at 40 oC. At the end of the tests, the optimal amount of NaOH consumed to gelatinize the starch or flour from different botanical sources was established and a correlation between the content of amylopectin in the starch and the starch/NaOH ratio needed for its gelatinization.

Keywords: froth flotation, gelatinization, sodium hydroxide, starches and flours

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352 Saco Sweet Cherry: Phenolic Profile and Biological Activity of Coloured and Non-Coloured Fractions

Authors: Catarina Bento, Ana Carolina Gonçalves, Fábio Jesus, Luís Rodrigues Silva

Abstract:

Increasing evidence suggests that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables plays important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, among others. Fruits and vegetables gained prominence due their richness in bioactive compounds, being the focus of many studies due to their biological properties acting as health promoters. Prunus avium Linnaeus (L.), commonly known as sweet cherry has been the centre of attention due to its health benefits, and has been highly studied. In Portugal, most of the cherry production comes from the Fundão region. The Saco is one of the most important cultivar produced in this region, attributed with geographical protection. In this work, we prepared 3 extracts through solid-phase extraction (SPE): a whole extract, fraction I (non-coloured phenolics) and fraction II (coloured phenolics). The three extracts were used to determine the phenolic profile of Saco cultivar by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (LC-DAD) technique. This was followed by the evaluation of their biological potential, testing the extracts’ capacity to scavenge free-radicals (DPPH•, nitric oxide (•NO) and superoxide radical (O2●-)) and to inhibit α-glucosidase enzyme of all extracts. Additionally, we evaluated, for the first time, the protective effects against peroxyl radical (ROO•)-induced hemoglobin oxidation and hemolysis in human erythrocytes. A total of 16 non-coloured phenolics were detected, 3-O-caffeoylquinic and ρ-coumaroylquinic acids were the main ones, and 6 anthocyanins were found, among which cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside represented the majority. In respect to antioxidant activity, Saco showed great antioxidant potential in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrated through the DPPH•,•NO and O2●-radicals, and greater ability to inhibit the α-glucosidase enzyme in comparison to the regular drug acarbose used to treat diabetes. Additionally, Saco proved to be effective to protect erythrocytes against oxidative damage in a concentration-dependent manner against hemoglobin oxidation and hemolysis. Our work demonstrated that Saco cultivar is an excellent source of phenolic compounds which are natural antioxidants that easily capture reactive species, such as ROO• before they can attack the erythrocytes’ membrane. In a general way, the whole extract showed the best efficiency, most likely due to a synergetic interaction between the different compounds. Finally, comparing the two separate fractions, the coloured fraction showed the most activity in all the assays, proving to be the biggest contributor of Saco cherries’ biological activity.

Keywords: biological potential, coloured phenolics, non-coloured phenolics, sweet cherry

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351 Aeronautical Noise Management inside an Aerodrome: Analysis of Sound Exposure on Aviation Professional’s Health

Authors: Rafael Felipe Guatura da Silva, José Luis Gomes da Silva, Luiz Antonio, Ferreira Perrone de Brito

Abstract:

Noise can cause serious damage to human health, such as hearing loss, stress, irritability, fatigue, and others. Aviation is a place where your entire process should be work out with the utmost attention and commitment of human resources, thus the need to study the effects of noise in this sector, as aeronautical noise levels are high. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of noise pollution on the performance of professionals regarding the fatigue generated by aeronautical noise and time to noise exposure. The methodology used consists of measurements of sound pressure levels at 42 points of the aerodrome. The selected points are located inside the hangars and outside the airfield hangars. All points chosen are close to the professionals' work areas, seeking to identify the sound pressure levels to which they submitted. The other part of the research used the principle on the application of a self-report questionnaire to a sample of 207 people working inside the aerodrome. The 207 professionals surveyed consist of aircraft mechanics, pilots, maintenance managers, and administrative professionals. The questionnaire was intended to evaluate the knowledge that professionals have about health risks caused by sound exposure as well as to identify diseases that professionals have, and that may be associated with exposure to high levels of sound pressure. Preliminary results identify points with sound pressure levels of up to 91.7 dB, thus highlighting the need for the use of personal protective equipment that reduces noise exposure. It was also identified a large number of professionals who are bothered by the sound exposure and approximately 25% of professionals interviewed reported having a hearing disorder.

Keywords: aeronautical noise, fatigue, noise and health, noise management

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