Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 35

Search results for: kaolinite

35 Effect of Nano-SiO2 Solution on the Strength Characteristics of Kaolinite

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Today, with developments in science and technology, there is an excessive potential for the use of nanomaterials in various fields of geotechnical project such as soil stabilization. This study investigates the effect of Nano-SiO2 solution on the unconfined compression strength and Young's elastic modulus of Kaolinite. For this purpose, nano-SiO2 was mixed with kaolinite in five different contents: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% by weight of the dry soil and a series of the unconfined compression test with curing time of one-day was selected as laboratory test. Analyses of the tests results show that stabilization of kaolinite with Nano-SiO2 solution can improve effectively the unconfined compression strength of modified soil up to 1.43 times compared to  the pure soil.

Keywords: kaolinite, Nano-SiO2, stabilization, unconfined compression test, Young's modulus

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34 Preparation and Characterization of Conductive Poly(N-Ethyl Aniline)/Kaolinite Composite Material by Chemical Polymerization

Authors: Hande Taşdemir, Meral Şahin, Mehmet Saçak

Abstract:

Conductive composite materials obtained by physical or chemical mixing of two or more components having conducting and insulating properties have been increasingly attracted. Kaolinite in kaolin clays is one of silicates with two layers of molecular sheets of (Si2O5)2− and [Al2(OH)4]2+ with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. The most abundant hydrophillic kaolinite is extensively used in industrial processes and therefore it is convenient for the preparation of organic/inorganic composites. In this study, conductive poly(N-ethylaniline)/kaolinite composite was prepared by chemical polymerization of N-ethyl aniline in the presence of kaolinite particles using ammonium persulfate as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. Poly(N-ethylaniline) content and conductivity of composite prepared were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as ammonium persulfate, N-ethyl aniline and HCl concentrations. Poly(N-ethylaniline) content and conductivity of composite increased with increasing oxidant and monomer concentrations up to 0.1 M and 0.2 M, respectively, and decreased at higher concentrations. The maximum yield of polymer in the composite (15.0%) and the highest conductivity value of the composite (5.0×10-5 S/cm) was achieved by polymerization for 2 hours at 20°C in HCl of 0.5 M. The structure, morphological analyses and thermal behaviours of poly(N-ethylaniline)/kaolinite composite were characterized by FTIR and XRD spectroscopy, SEM and TGA techniques.

Keywords: kaolinite, poly(N-ethylaniline), conductive composite, chemical polymerization

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33 Effect of Temperature on Adsorption of Nano Ca-DTPMP Scale Inhibitor

Authors: Radhiyatul Hikmah Binti Abu, Zukhairi Bin Md Rahim, Siti Ujila Binti Masuri, Nur Ismarrubie Binti Zahari, Mohd Zobir Hussein

Abstract:

This paper describes the synthesis of Calcium Diethylenetriamine-penta (Ca-DTPMP) Scale Inhibitor (SI) and the effect of temperature on its adsorption onto the mineral surfaces. Nanosized particles of Ca-DTPMP SI were synthesized and TEM result shows that the sizes of the synthesized particles are ranged from 10 nm to 30 nm. This synthesized nano SI was then used in static adsorption/precipitation test with various temperatures (37°C, 60°C and 100°C) to determine the effect of temperature on its adsorption ability. The performance of the SI was measured by their diffusion capability, which can be inferred by weighing the metal-SI that successfully adsorbed onto the kaolinite (mineral) surface. The kaolinite samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the results show the reduction of pores on kaolinite surface as temperature increases. This indicates higher adsorption of the SI particles onto the mineral surface. Furthermore, EDX analysis shows the presence of Phosphorus (P) and Magnesium (Mg2+) on kaolinite particle surface, hence reaffirming the fact that adsorption took place on the kaolinite surface.

Keywords: adsorption, diffusivity, scale, scale inhibitor

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32 Characterization of the Physicochemical Properties of Raw and Calcined Kaolinitic Clays Using Analytical Techniques

Authors: Alireza Khaloo, Asghar Gholizadeh-Vayghan

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the characterization of the physicochemical properties of kaolinitic clays in both raw and calcined (i.e., dehydroxylated) states. The properties investigated included the dehydroxylation temperature, chemical composition and crystalline phases, band types, kaolinite content, vitreous phase, and reactive and unreactive silica and alumina. The thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry and infrared spectroscopy results suggest that full dehydroxylation takes place at 639°C, converting kaolinite to reactive metakaolinite (Si₂Al₂O₇). Application of higher temperatures up to 800 °C leads to complete decarbonation of the calcite phase, and the kaolinite converts to mullite at temperatures exceeding 957 °C. Calcination at 639°C was found to cause a 50% increase in the vitreous content of kaolin. Statistically meaningful increases in the reactivity of silica, alumina, calcite and sodium carbonate in kaolin were detected as a result of such thermal treatment. Such increases were found to be 11%, 47%, 240% and 10%, respectively. The ferrite phase, however, showed a 36% decline in reactivity. The proposed approach can be used as an analytical method to determine the viability of the source of kaolinite and proper physical and chemical modifications needed to enhance its suitability for geopolymer production.

Keywords: physicochemical properties, dehydroxylation, kaolinitic clays, kaolinite content, vitreous phase, reactivity

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31 Insight into Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Clay Minerals

Authors: Mardin Abdalqadir, Paul Adzakro, Tannaz Pak, Sina Rezaei Gomari

Abstract:

Climate change and global warming recently became significant concerns due to the massive emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, predominantly CO2 gases. Therefore, it is necessary to find sustainable and inexpensive methods to capture the greenhouse gasses and protect the environment for live species. The application of naturally available and cheap adsorbents of carbon such as clay minerals became a great interest. However, the minerals prone to low storage capacity despite their high affinity to adsorb carbon. This paper aims to explore ways to improve the pore volume and surface area of two selected clay minerals, ‘montmorillonite and kaolinite’ by acid treatment to overcome their low storage capacity. Montmorillonite and kaolinite samples were treated with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.5, 1.2 and 2.5 M) at 40 °C for 8 hours to achieve the above aim. The grain size distribution and morphology of clay minerals before and after acid treatment were explored with Scanning Electron Microscope to evaluate surface area improvement. The ImageJ software was used to find the porosity and pore volume of treated and untreated clay samples. The structure of the clay minerals was also analyzed using an X-ray Diffraction machine. The results showed that the pore volume and surface area were increased substantially through acid treatment, which speeded up the rate of carbon dioxide adsorption. XRD pattern of kaolinite did not change after sulfuric acid treatment, which indicates that acid treatment would not affect the structure of kaolinite. It was also discovered that kaolinite had a higher pore volume and porosity than montmorillonite before and after acid treatment. For example, the pore volume of untreated kaolinite was equal to 30.498 um3 with a porosity of 23.49%. Raising the concentration of acid from 0.5 M to 2.5 M in 8 hours’ time reaction led to increased pore volume from 30.498 um3 to 34.73 um3. The pore volume of raw montmorillonite was equal to 15.610 um3 with a porosity of 12.7%. When the acid concentration was raised from 0.5 M to 2.5 M for the same reaction time, pore volume also increased from 15.610 um3 to 20.538 um3. However, montmorillonite had a higher specific surface area than kaolinite. This study concludes that clay minerals are inexpensive and available material sources to model the realistic conditions and apply the results of carbon capture to prevent global warming, which is one of the most critical and urgent problems in the world.

Keywords: acid treatment, kaolinite, montmorillonite, pore volume, porosity, surface area

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30 The Influences of Facies and Fine Kaolinite Formation Migration on Sandstone's Reservoir Quality, Sarir Formation, Sirt Basin Libya

Authors: Faraj M. Elkhatri

Abstract:

The spatial and temporal distribution of diagenetic alterations related impact on the reservoir quality of the Sarir Formation. ( present day burial depth of about 9000 feet) Depositional facies and diagenetic alterations are the main controls on reservoir quality of Sarir Formation Sirt Basin Libya; these based on lithology and grain size as well as authigenic clay mineral types and their distributions. However, petrology investigation obtained on study area with five sandstone wells concentrated on main rock components and the parameters that may have impacts on reservoirs. the main authigenic clay minerals are kaolinite and dickite, these investigations have confirmed by X.R.D analysis and clay fraction. mainly Kaolinite and Dickite were extensively presented on all of wells with high amounts. As well as trace of detrital smectite and less amounts of illitized mud-matrix are possibly find by SEM image. Thin layers of clay presented as clay-grain coatings in local depth interpreted as remains of dissolved clay matrix is partly transformed into kaolinite adjacent and towards pore throat. This also may have impacts on most of the pore throats of this sandstone which are open and relatively clean with some fine martial have been formed on occluded pores. This material is identified by EDS analysis to be collections of not only kaolinite booklets but also small disaggregated kaolinite platelets derived from the disaggregation of larger kaolinite booklets. These patches of kaolinite not only fill this pore but also coat some of the surrounding framework grains. Quartz grains often enlarged by authigenic quartz overgrowths partially occlude and reduce porosity. Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM) was conducted on the post-test samples to examine any mud filtrate particles that may be in the pore throats. Semi-qualitative elemental data on selected minerals observed during the SEM study were obtained through the use of an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) unit. The samples showed mostly clean open pore throats with limited occlusion by kaolinite. very fine-grained elemental combinations (Si/Al/Na/Cl, Si/Al Ca/Cl/Ti, and Qtz/Ti) have been identified and conformed by EDS analysis. However, the identification of the fine grained disaggregated material as mainly kaolinite though study area.

Keywords: pore throat, fine migration, formation damage, solids plugging, porosity loss

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29 Industrial Kaolinite Resource Deposits Study in Grahamstown Area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Adeola Ibukunoluwa Samuel, Afsoon Kazerouni

Abstract:

Industrial mineral kaolin has many favourable properties such as colour, shape, softness, non-abrasiveness, natural whiteness, as well as chemical stability. It occurs extensively in North of Bedford road Grahamstown, South Africa. The relationship between both the physical and chemical properties as lead to its application in the production of certain industrial products which are used by the public; this includes the prospect of production of paper, ceramics, rubber, paint, and plastics. Despite its interesting economic potentials, kaolinite clay mineral remains undermined, and this is threatening its sustainability in the mineral industry. This research study focuses on a detailed evaluation of the kaolinite mineral and possible ways to increase its lifespan in the industry. The methods employed for this study includes petrographic microscopy analysis, X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), and proper field reconnaissance survey. Results emanating from this research include updated geological information on Grahamstown. Also, mineral transformation phases such as quartz, kaolinite, calcite and muscovite were identified in the clay samples. Petrographic analysis of the samples showed that the study area has been subjected to intense tectonic deformation and cement replacement. Also, different dissolution patterns were identified on the Grahamstown kaolinitic clay deposits. Hence incorporating analytical studies and data interpretations, possible ways such as the establishment of processing refinery near mining plants, which will, in turn, provide employment for the locals and land reclamation is suggested. In addition, possible future sustainable industrial applications of the clay minerals seem to be possible if additives, cellulosic wastes are used to alter the clay mineral.

Keywords: kaolinite, industrial use, sustainability, Grahamstown, clay minerals

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28 Kaolinite-Assisted Microencapsulation of Octodecane for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Ting Pan, Jiacheng Wang, Pengcheng Lin, Ying Chen, Songping Mo

Abstract:

Phase change materials (PCMs) are widely used in latent heat thermal energy storage because of their good properties such as high energy storage density and constant heat-storage/release temperature. Microencapsulation techniques can prevent PCMs from leaking during the liquid-solid phase transition and enhance thermal properties. This technique has been widely applied in architectural materials, thermo-regulated textiles, aerospace fields, etc. One of the most important processes during the synthesis of microcapsules is to form a stable emulsion of the PCM core and reactant solution for the formation of the shell of the microcapsules. The use of surfactants is usually necessary for the formation of a stable emulsion system because of the difference in hydrophilia/lipophilicity of the PCM and the solvent. Unfortunately, the use of surfactants may cause pollution to the environment. In this study, modified kaolinite was used as an emulsion stabilizer for the microencapsulation of octodecane as PCM. Microcapsules were synthesized by phase inversion emulsification method, and the shell of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was formed through free radical polymerization. The morphologies, crystalloid phase, and crystallization properties of microcapsules were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TG). The FT-IR, XRD results showed that the octodecane was well encapsulated in the PMMA shell. The SEM results showed that the microcapsules were spheres with an average size of about 50-100nm. The DSC results indicated that the latent heat of the microcapsules was 152.64kJ/kg and 164.23kJ/kg. The TG results confirmed that the microcapsules had good thermal stability due to the PMMA shell. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the modified kaolinite can be used as an emulsifier for the synthesis of PCM microcapsules, which is valid for reducing part of the possible pollution caused by the utilization of surfactants.

Keywords: kaolinite, microencapsulation, PCM, thermal energy storage

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27 Surprising Behaviour of Kaolinitic Soils under Alkaline Environment

Authors: P. Hari Prasad Reddy, Shimna Paulose, V. Sai Kumar, C. H. Rama Vara Prasad

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Soil environment gets contaminated due to rapid industrialisation, agricultural-chemical application and improper disposal of waste generated by the society. Unexpected volume changes can occur in soil in the presence of certain contaminants usually after the long duration of interaction. Alkali is one of the major soil contaminant that has a considerable effect on behaviour of soils and capable of inducing swelling potential in soil. Chemical heaving of clayey soils occurs when they are wetted by aqueous solutions of alkalis. Mineralogical composition of the soil is one of the main factors influencing soil- alkali interaction. In the present work, studies are carried out to understand the swell potential of soils due to soil-alkali interaction with different concentrations of NaOH solution. Locally available soil, namely, red earth containing kaolinite which is of non-swelling nature is selected for the study. In addition to this, two commercially available clayey soils, namely ball clay and china clay containing mainly of kaolinite are selected to understand the effect of alkali interaction in various kaolinitic soils. Non-swelling red earth shows maximum swell at lower concentrations of alkali solution (0.1N) and a slightly decreasing trend of swelling with further increase in concentration (1N, 4N, and 8N). Marginal decrease in swell potential with increase in concentration indicates that the increased concentration of alkali solution exists as free solution in case of red earth. China clay and ball clay both falling under kaolinite group of clay minerals, show swelling with alkaline solution. At lower concentrations of alkali solution both the soils shows similar swell behaviour, but at higher concentration of alkali solution ball clay shows high swell potential compared to china clay which may be due to lack of well ordered crystallinity in ball clay compared to china clay. The variations in the results obtained were corroborated by carrying XRD and SEM studies.

Keywords: alkali, kaolinite, swell potential, XRD, SEM

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26 Influence of Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate and Curing Temperature on Behaviors of Lightweight Kaolinite-Based Geopolymer

Authors: W. Sornlar, S. Supothina, A. Wannagon

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Lightweight geopolymer can be prepared by using some foaming agents, such as metal powders or hydrogen peroxide; however, it is difficult to control the generated cell size due to the high reactivity of the system. This study aims to investigate the influence of Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate (SLES) foam addition and curing temperature on the physical, mechanical, thermal, and microstructure behaviors of the lightweight kaolinite-based geopolymer. To provide porous structure, the geopolymer paste was mixed with 0-15 wt% of SLES foam before casting into the mold. Testing and characterizations were carried out after 28 days. The results showed that SLES foam generated the regular and spherical macropores, which were well distributed in the geopolymer samples. The total porosity increased as SLES foam increased, similarly as the apparent porosity and water absorption. On the other hand, the bulk density and mechanical strength decreased as SLES foam increased. Curing temperature was studied simultaneously due to it strongly affects the mechanical strength of geopolymer. In this study, rising of curing temperature from 27 to 50°C (at 75% relative humidity) improved the compressive strength of samples but deteriorated after curing at 60°C. Among them, the composition of 15 wt% SLES foam (NF15) presented the highest porosity (70.51-72.89%), the lowest density (0.68-0.73 g/cm³), and very low thermal conductivity (0.172-0.197 W/mK). It had the proper compressive strength of 4.21-4.74 MPa that can be applied for the thermal insulation.

Keywords: lightweight, kaolinite-based geopolymer, curing temperature, foaming agent, thermal conductivity

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25 Effects of Different Calcination Temperature on the Geopolymerization of Fly Ash

Authors: Nurcan Tugrul, Funda Demir, Hilal Ozkan, Nur Olgun, Emek Derun

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Geopolymers are aluminosilicate-containing materials. The raw materials of the geopolymerization can be natural material such as kaolinite, metakaolin (calcined kaolinite), clay, diatomite, rock powder or can also be industrial by-products such as fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, rice-husk ash, mine tailing, red mud, waste slag, etc. Reactivity of raw materials in geopolymer production is very important for achieving high reaction grade. Fly ash used in geopolymer production has been calcined to obtain tetrahedral SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ structures. In this study, fly ash calcined at different temperatures (700, 800 and 900 °C), and Al₂O₃ addition (Al₂O₃ at min (0%) and max (100%)) were used to produce geopolymers. HCl dissolution method was applied to determine the geopolymerization percentage of samples and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy was used to find out the optimum calcination temperature for geopolymerization. According to obtained results, the highest geopolymerization percentage (0% alumina added geopolymer equal to 35.789%; 100% alumina added geopolymer equal to 40.546%) was obtained in samples using fly ash calcined at 800 °C.

Keywords: geopolymer, fly ash, Al₂O₃ addition, calcination

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24 Consequences of Some Remediative Techniques Used in Sewaged Soil Bioremediation on Indigenous Microbial Activity

Authors: E. M. Hoballah, M. Saber, A. Turky, N. Awad, A. M. Zaghloul

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Remediation of cultivated sewage soils in Egypt become an important aspect in last decade for having healthy crops and saving the human health. In this respect, a greenhouse experiment was conducted where contaminated sewage soil was treated with modified forms of 2% bentonite (T1), 2% kaolinite (T2), 1% bentonite+1% kaolinite (T3), 2% probentonite (T4), 2% prokaolinite (T5), 1% bentonite + 0.5% kaolinite + 0.5% rock phosphate (RP) (T6), 2% iron oxide (T7) and 1% iron oxide + 1% RP (T8). These materials were applied as remediative materials. Untreated soil was also used as a control. All soil samples were incubated for 2 months at 25°C at field capacity throughout the whole experiment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from both treated and untreated soils as a biomass indicator was measured through the incubation time and kinetic parameters of the best fitted models used to describe the phenomena were taken to evaluate the succession of sewaged soils remediation. The obtained results indicated that according to the kinetic parameters of used models, CO2 effluxes from remediated soils was significantly decreased compared to control treatment with variation in rate values according to type of remediation material applied. In addition, analyzed microbial biomass parameter showed that Ni and Zn were the most potential toxic elements (PTEs) that influenced the decreasing order of microbial activity in untreated soil. Meanwhile, Ni was the only influenced pollutant in treated soils. Although all applied materials significantly decreased the hazards of PTEs in treated soil, modified bentonite was the best treatment compared to other used materials. This work discussed different mechanisms taking place between applied materials and PTEs founded in the studied sewage soil.

Keywords: remediation, potential toxic elements, soil biomass, sewage

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23 Porosity Characterization and Its Destruction by Authigenic Minerals: Reservoir Sandstones, Mamuniyat Formation, Murzuq Basin, SW Libya

Authors: Mohamrd Ali Alrabib

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Sandstones samples were selected from cores of seven wells ranging in depth from 5040 to 7181.4 ft. The dominant authigenic cement phase is quartz overgrowth cement (up to 13% by volume) and this is the major mechanism for porosity reduction. Late stage carbonate cements (siderite and dolomite/ferroan dolomite) are present and these minerals infill intergranular porosity and, therefore, further reduce porosity and probably permeability. Authigenic clay minerals are represented by kaolinite, illite, and grain coating clay minerals. Kaolinite occurs as booklet and vermicular forms. Minor amounts of illite were noted in the studied samples, which commonly block pore throats, thereby reducing permeability. Primary porosity of up to 26.5% is present. Secondary porosity (up to 17%) is also present as a result of feldspar dissolution. The high intergranular volume (IGV) of the sandstones indicates that mechanical and chemical compaction played a more important role than cementation of porosity loss.

Keywords: authigenic minerals, porosity types, porosity reduction, mamuniyat sandstone reservoir

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22 Effect of Concentration of Alkaline and Curing Temperature on Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Concert

Authors: Nursah Kutuk, Sevil Cetinkaya

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Geopolymers are becoming new concrete materials to use alongside cement, which are formed due to reaction between alumino-silicates and oxides with alkaline media. Silicates obtained from natural minerals or industrial wastes are used for geopolymer synthesis. Geopolymers have recently received wide attention because of their advantages over other cementitious material like Portland cement. Some of the advantages are high compressive strength, low environmental impact, chemical and fire resistance and thermal stability. In this study, geopolymers were prepared by using inorganic materials such as kaolinite and calcite. The experiments were carried out by varying the concentration of NaOH as 5, 10, 15 and 20 M, and at cure temperature of 22, 45 and 65 °C. Compressive strengths for each mixes at each cure temperature were measured. Results of the analyses indicated that the compressive strength of geopolymers did not increase steadily with increasing concentration of NaOH, but did increase steadily with increasing cure temperature. We examined the effect Na2SiO3/NaOH weight ratio on the properties of the geopolymers, too. It was seen that Na2SiO3/NaOH weight ratio was also important to prepare geopolymers that can be applied to construction industry.

Keywords: geopolymers, compressive strength, kaolinite, calcite

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
21 Babouchite Siliceous Rocks: Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization

Authors: Ben Yahia Nouha, Sebei Abdelaziz, Boussen Slim, Chaabani Fredj

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The present work aims to determine mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of siliceous rock levels and to clarify the origin through geochemical arguments. This study was performed on the deposit of Tabarka-Babouch, which belongs to the northwestern of Tunisia; they spread out the later Miocene. Investigations were carried out to study mineralogical structure by XRD and chemical analysis by ICP-AES. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the powdered natural rocks show that the Babouchite is composed mainly of quartz and clay minerals (smectite, illite, and kaolinite). Siliceous rocks contain quartz as a major silica mineral, which is characterized by two broad reflections at the vicinity of 4.26Å and 3.34 Å, respectively, with a total lack of opal-CT. That confirms that these siliceous rocks are quartz-rich (can reach 90%). Indeed, the amounts of all clay minerals (ACM), constituted essentially by smectite marked by a close association with illite and kaolinite, are relatively high, where their percentages vary from 7 to 46%. Chemical analyses show that the major oxide contents are consistent with mineralogical observations. It reveals that the siliceous rocks of the Babouchite formation are rich in SiO₂. The data of whole-rock chemical analyses indicate that the SiO₂ content is generally in the range 73-91 wt.%; (average: 80.43 wt.%). The concentration of Al₂O₃, which represent the detrital fractions in the studied samples, varies from 3.99 to 10.55 wt. % and Fe₂O₃ from 0.73 to 4.41wt. %. The low levels recorded in CaO (%) show that the carbonate is considered impurities. However, these rocks contain a low amount of some others oxides, such as the following: Na₂O, MgO, K₂O, and TiO₂. The trace elemental distributions also vary with high Sr (up to 84.55 ppm), Cu (5–127 ppm), and Zn (up to 124 ppm), with a relatively lower concentration of Co (2.43-25.54 ppm), Cr (10–61 ppm) and Pb (8-22ppm). The Babouchite siliceous rocks of northwestern of Tunisia have generally high Al/ (Al+Fe+Mn) values (0.63-0.83). The majority of Al/ (Al+Fe+Mn) values are nearly of 0.6, which is the biogenic end-member. Thus, Al/ (Al+Fe+Mn) values revealed the biogenic origin of silica.

Keywords: siliceous rocks, Babouchite formation, XRD, chemical analysis, biogenic silica, Northwestern of Tunisia

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20 Influence of Thermal Annealing on Phase Composition and Structure of Quartz-Sericite Minerale

Authors: Atabaev I. G., Fayziev Sh. A., Irmatova Sh. K.

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Raw materials with high content of Kalium oxide widely used in ceramic technology for prevention or decreasing of deformation of ceramic goods during drying process and under thermal annealing. Becouse to low melting temperature it is also used to decreasing of the temperature of thermal annealing during fabrication of ceramic goods [1,2]. So called “Porceline or China stones” - quartz-sericite (muscovite) minerals is also can be used for prevention of deformation as the content of Kalium oxide in muscovite is rather high (SiO2, + KAl2[AlSi3O10](OH)2). [3] . To estimation of possibility of use of this mineral for ceramic manufacture, in the presented article the influence of thermal processing on phase and a chemical content of this raw material is investigated. As well as to other ceramic raw materials (kaoline, white burning clays) the basic requirements of the industry to quality of "a porcelain stone» are following: small size of particles, relative high uniformity of disrtribution of components and phase, white color after burning, small content of colorant oxides or chromophores (Fe2O3, FeO, TiO2, etc) [4,5]. In the presented work natural minerale from the Boynaksay deposit (Uzbekistan) is investigated. The samples was mechanically polished for investigation by Scanning Electron Microscope. Powder with size of particle up to 63 μm was used to X-ray diffractometry and chemical analysis. The annealing of samples was performed at 900, 1120, 1350oC during 1 hour. Chemical composition of Boynaksay raw material according to chemical analysis presented in the table 1. For comparison the composition of raw materials from Russia and USA are also presented. In the Boynaksay quartz – sericite the average parity of quartz and sericite makes 55-60 and 30-35 % accordingly. The distribution of quartz and sericite phases in raw material was investigated using electron probe scanning electronic microscope «JEOL» JXA-8800R. In the figure 1 the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograps of the surface and the distributions of Al, Si and K atoms in the sample are presented. As it seen small granular, white and dense mineral includes quartz, sericite and small content of impurity minerals. Basically, crystals of quartz have the sizes from 80 up to 500 μm. Between quartz crystals the sericite inclusions having a tablet form with radiant structure are located. The size of sericite crystals is ~ 40-250 μm. Using data on interplanar distance [6,7] and ASTM Powder X-ray Diffraction Data it is shown that natural «a porcelain stone» quartz – sericite consists the quartz SiO2, sericite (muscovite type) KAl2[AlSi3O10](OH)2 and kaolinite Al203SiO22Н2О (See Figure 2 and Table 2). As it seen in the figure 3 and table 3a after annealing at 900oC the quartz – sericite contains quartz – SiO2 and muscovite - KAl2[AlSi3O10](OH)2, the peaks related with Kaolinite are absent. After annealing at 1120oC the full disintegration of muscovite and formation of mullite phase Al203 SiO2 is observed (the weak peaks of mullite appears in fig 3b and table 3b). After annealing at 1350oC the samples contains crystal phase of quartz and mullite (figure 3c and table 3с). Well known Mullite gives to ceramics high density, abrasive and chemical stability. Thus the obtained experimental data on formation of various phases during thermal annealing can be used for development of fabrication technology of advanced materials. Conclusion: The influence of thermal annealing in the interval 900-1350oC on phase composition and structure of quartz-sericite minerale is investigated. It is shown that during annealing the phase content of raw material is changed. After annealing at 1350oC the samples contains crystal phase of quartz and mullite (which gives gives to ceramics high density, abrasive and chemical stability).

Keywords: quartz-sericite, kaolinite, mullite, thermal processing

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19 Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Shewasoor Area: Northeastern Kirkuk City, Iraq

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Diana A. Bayiz

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14 mudstone samples were collected within the sedimentary succession of Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) from Shewasoor area at Northeastern Iraq. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including mineralogical analysis (using X-ray Diffraction technique) in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate (calcite and dolomite) minerals. The clay minerals are: montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, chlorite, and illite by the major basal reflections of each mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.

Keywords: Mukdadiya Formation, mudstone, clay minerals, XRD, Shewasoor

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18 Determination of Small Shear Modulus of Clayey Sand Using Bender Element Test

Authors: R. Sadeghzadegan, S. A. Naeini, A. Mirzaii

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In this article, the results of a series of carefully conducted laboratory test program were represented to determine the small strain shear modulus of sand mixed with a range of kaolinite including zero to 30%. This was experimentally achieved using a triaxial cell equipped with bender element. Results indicate that small shear modulus tends to increase, while clay content decreases and effective confining pressure increases. The exponent of stress in the power model regression analysis was not sensitive to the amount of clay content for all sand clay mixtures, while coefficient A was directly affected by change in clay content.

Keywords: small shear modulus, bender element test, plastic fines, sand

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17 Investigating Geopolymerization Process of Aluminosilicates and its Impact on the Compressive Strength of the Produced Geopolymers

Authors: Heba Fouad, Tarek M. Madkour, Safwan A. Khedr

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This paper investigates multiple factors that impact the formation of geopolymers and their compressive strength to be utilized in construction as an environmentally-friendly material. Bentonite and Kaolinite were thermally calcinated at 750 °C to obtain Metabentonite and Metakaolinite with higher reactivity. Both source materials were activated using a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Thereafter, samples were cured at different temperatures. The samples were analyzed chemically using a host of spectroscopic techniques. The bulk density and compressive strength of the produced Geopolymer pastes were studied. Findings indicate that the ratio of NaOH solution to source material affects the compressive strength, being optimal at 0.54. Moreover, controlled heat curing was proven effective to improve compressive strength. The existence of characteristic Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) peaks at approximately 1020 cm-1 and 460 cm-1 which corresponds to the asymmetric stretching vibration of Si-O-T and bending vibration of Si-O-Si, hence, confirming the formation of the target geopolymer.

Keywords: calcination of metakaolinite, compressive strength, FTIR analysis, geopolymer, green cement

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16 Aptian Ramp Sedimentation of the Jebel Serdj Massif, North-Central Tunisia, and Sea Level Variations Recorded in Magnetic Susceptibility

Authors: Houda Khaled, Fredj Chaabani, Frederic Boulvain

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The Aptian series in north-central Tunisia was studied in detail regarding to lithology, microfacies, and magnetic susceptibility to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and sea level changes in the carbonate platform. The study series is about 350 meters thick, and it consists of fives sequences of limestones, separated by four levels of marlstones and marly limestones. Petrographic study leads to the definition of 11 microfacies which are successively recorded along the Serdj section into the outer ramp, mid-ramp, inner ramp and coastal facies associations. The magnetic susceptibility of all samples was measured and compared with the facies and microfacies. There is a clear link between facies and magnetic susceptibility; the distal facies show high values while the proximal areas show lower values. The magnetic susceptibility profile reflects stratigraphic variations in response to relative changes in sea level and input of detrital materials. During the Aptian, kaolinite/illite intensity ratios show high values possibly indicating a warming trend followed then by decreasing values that may indicate a cooling trend. During the Albian, this cooling trend is reverted into humid/warming.

Keywords: Aptian, mineralogy, petrology, Serdj massif

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15 Durability of a Cementitious Matrix Based on Treated Sediments

Authors: Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Amine Safhi, Nor-Edine Abriak

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Significant volumes of sediment are annually dredged in France and all over the world. These materials may, in fact, be used beneficially as supplementary cementitious material. This paper studies the durability of a new cement matrix based on marine dredged sediment of Dunkirk-Harbor (north of France). Several techniques are used to characterize the raw sediment such as physical properties, chemical analyses, and mineralogy. The XRD analysis revealed quartz, calcite, kaolinite as main mineral phases. In order to eliminate organic matter and activate some of those minerals, the sediment is calcined at a temperature of 850°C for 1h. Moreover, four blended mortars were formulated by mixing a portland cement (CEM I 52,5 N) and the calcined sediment as partial cement substitute (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Reference mortars, based on the blended cement, were then prepared. This re-use cannot be substantiating and efficient without a durability study. In this purpose, the following tests, mercury porosity, accessible water porosity, chloride permeability, freezing and thawing, external sulfate attack, alkali aggregates reaction, compressive and bending strength tests were conducted on those mortars. The results of most of those tests evidenced the fact that the mortar that contains 10% of the treated sediment is efficient and durable as the reference mortar itself. That would infer that the presence of these calcined sediment improves mortar general behavior.

Keywords: sediment, characterization, calcination, substitution, durability

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14 Lower Cretaceous Clay in Anti-Lebanon Mountains, Syria and their Importance in Ceramic Manufacturing

Authors: Abdul Salam Turkmani

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The Lower Cretaceous rocks are exposed only in the mountains regions of Syria, such as the Anti- Lebanon mountain on the western side of Damascus. The lower cretaceous sequences are made up of different rocks. The upper and middle parts of the section are composed mainly of carbonate sediments and, less frequently, gypsum and anhydrite. The lower beds are mainly composed of sandstone, conglomerate and clay. Clay samples were collected from the study area, which is located about 45 km west of the city of Damascus, near the border village of Kfer Yabous and to the left of the Damascus -Beirut International Road, within the lower Cretaceous upper Aptian deposits. The properties of clay were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Thermal Analysis (DTA-TG-DSC) techniques. The studied samples of clay were mainly composed of kaolinite, quartz, illite. Chemical analysis shows the content of SiO₂ varied between 46.06 to 73 % Al₂O₃ 14.55-26.56%, about the staining oxides (Fe₂O₃ + TiO₂), the total content is about 4.3 to 12.5%. The physical properties were determined by studying the behavior of the body before and after firing, showed low bending strength values (22.5 kg/cm²) after drying, and (about 247 kg/cm²) after firing at 1180°C, water absorption value was about 10%. The cubic thermal expansion coefficient at 1140°C is 213.77 x 10-7 /°C. All of the presented results confirm the suitability of this clay for the ceramic industry.

Keywords: anti-Lebanon, Damascus, ceramic, clay, thermal analysis, thermal expansion coefficient

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13 Palygorskite Bearing Calcic-Soils from Western Thar Desert: Implications for Late Quaternary Monsoonal Fluctuations

Authors: A. Hameed, N. Upreti, P. Srivastava

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Main objective the present study is to investigate microscopic, sub-microscopic, clay mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of three calcic soil profiles from the western Thar Desert for the last 30 ka paleoclimatic information. Thin-sections of the soils show weakly to moderately developed pedofeatures dominated by powdery to well-indurated pedogenic calcium carbonate. Sub-microscopy of the representative calcretes show extensive growth of fibrous palygorskite in pore spaces of micritic and sparitic nodules. XRD of the total clay ( < 2 µm) and fine clay ( < 0.2 µm) fractions of the soils show dominance of smectite, palygorskite, chlorite, mica, kaolinite and small amounts of quartz and feldspar. Formation of the palygorskite is attributed to pedogenic processes associated with Bw, Bss and Bwk horizons during drier conditions over the last 30 ka. Formation of palygorskite was mainly favoured by strongly evaporating percolating water and precipitation of secondary calcite, high pH (9-10), high Mg, Si and low Al activities during pedogenesis. Age estimate and distribution of calcretes, palygorskite, and illuvial features indicate fluctuating monsoonal strength during MIS3-MIS1 stages. The pedogenic features in calcic soils of western Thar suggest relatively arid conditions during MIS3-MIS2 transition and LGM time that changed to relatively wetter conditions during post LGM time and again returned to dry conditions at ~4 ka in MIS1.

Keywords: palygorskite, clay minerals, Thar, aridisol, late quaternary

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12 A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Forensic Soil Analysis: Tested Using a Simulated Crime Scene

Authors: Samara A. Testoni, Vander F. Melo, Lorna A. Dawson, Fabio A. S. Salvador

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Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.

Keywords: clay mineralogy, forensic soils analysis, sequential analyses, kaolinite, gibbsite

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11 The Paleoenvironment and Paleoclimatological Variations during Aptian in North Central Tunisia

Authors: Houda Khaled, Frederic Boulvain, Fredj Chaabani

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This paper focuses on the sedimentological and mineralogical studies of Aptian series outcrops in the Serdj and Bellouta Mountain situated in north-central Tunisia. In the Serdj Mountain, the Aptian series is about 590 meters thick and it is defined by tow formations corresponding respectively to the Sidi Hamada formation (Barremian-Gragasian) and the Serdj formation (Middle Gragasian-Late Clansaysian). This later is consisting of five limestones sequences separated by marly levels limestones associated to some siltstones bed. The Bellouta section is especially composed of carbonate rocks and it is attributed to the Middle Gragasian - Late Clansaysian. These sections are studied in detail regarding lithology, micropaleontology, microfacies, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition in order to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimatological implications during Aptian. The following facies associations representing different ramp palaeoenvironments have been identified: mudstone-wackestone outer ramp facies; skeletal grainstone-packstone mid-ramp facies, packstone-grainstone inner-ramp facies which include a variety of organisms such as ooliths, rudists ostracods associated to athor bioclats. The coastal facies is especially defined by a mudstone -wackestone texture coastal rich with miliolidea and orbitolines. The magnetic susceptibility (Xin) of all samples was compared with the lithological and microfacies variation. The MS curves show that the high values are correlated with the distal facies and the low values are registred in the coastal environment. The X-ray diffractometer analysis show the presence of kaolinite and illite.

Keywords: Aptian, Serdj formation, mineralogy, petrography

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10 Determination of Optimum Conditions for the Leaching of Oxidized Copper Ores with Ammonium Nitrate

Authors: Javier Paul Montalvo Andia, Adriana Larrea Valdivia, Adolfo Pillihuaman Zambrano

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The most common lixiviant in the leaching process of copper minerals is H₂SO₄, however, the current situation requires more environmentally friendly reagents and in certain situations that have a lower consumption due to the presence of undesirable gangue as muscovite or kaolinite that can make the process unfeasible. The present work studied the leaching of an oxidized copper mineral in an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate, in order to obtain the optimum leaching conditions of the copper contained in the malachite mineral from Peru. The copper ore studied comes from a deposit in southern Peru and was characterized by X-ray diffractometer, inductively coupled-plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The experiments were developed in batch reactor of 600 mL where the parameters as; temperature, pH, ammonium nitrate concentration, particle size and stirring speed were controlled according to experimental planning. The sample solution was analyzed for copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). A simulation in the HSC Chemistry 6.0 program showed that the predominance of the copper compounds of a Cu-H₂O aqueous system is altered by the presence in the system of ammonium complexes, the compound being thermodynamically more stable Cu(NH3)₄²⁺, which predominates in pH ranges from 8.5 to 10 at a temperature of 25 °C. The optimum conditions for copper leaching of the malachite mineral were a stirring speed of 600 rpm, an ammonium nitrate concentration of 4M, a particle diameter of 53 um and temperature of 62 °C. These results showed that the leaching of copper increases with increasing concentration of the ammonium solution, increasing the stirring rate, increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle diameter. Finally, the recovery of copper in optimum conditions was above 80%.

Keywords: ammonium nitrate, malachite, copper oxide, leaching

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9 Evaluation of Oligocene-Miocene Clay from the Northern Part of Palmyra Region (Syria) for Industrial Ceramic Applications

Authors: Abdul Salam Turkmani

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Clay of the northern Palmyra region is one of the most important raw materials used in the Syrian ceramics industry. This study is focused on the evaluation of various laboratory analyses such as chemical analysis (XRF), mineral X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and semi-industrial tests carried out on samples collected on two representative locations of the upper Oligocene in AlMkamen valley (MK) and lower Miocene in AlZukara valley (ZR) of the northern part of Palmyra, Syria. Chemical results classify the (MK) and (ZR) clays as semi-plastic red clay slightly carbonate and (eliminate probable) illite-chlorite clays with a very fine particle size distribution. Content of SiO₂ between 46.28-57.66%, Al2O3 13.81-25.2%, Fe₂O₃ 3.47-11.58%, CaO 1.15-7.19%, Na₂O+K₂O varied between 3.34-3.71%. Based on clay chemical composition and iron and carbonate content, these deposits can be considered as red firing clays. Their mineralogical composition is mainly represented by illite, kaolinite and quartz, and accessories minerals such as calcite, feldspar, phillipsite, and goethite. The results of the DTA test confirm the presence of gypsum and quartz phases in (MK) clay. Ceramic testing shows good green and dry bending strength values, which varied between 9-14 kg/cm², at 1160°C to 1180°C. Water absorption moves from 14.6 % at 1120°C to 2.2% at 1180°C to 1.6% at 1200°C. Breaking load after firing changes from 400 to 590 kg/cm². At 1200°C (MK), clay reaches perfect vitrification. After firing, the color of the clay changes from orange-hazel to red-brown at 1180°C. Technological results confirmed the suitability of the studied clays to produce floor and wall ceramic tiles. Using one of the two types of clay into the ceramic body or both types together gave satisfactory industrial results.

Keywords: ceramic, clay, industry , Palmyra

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8 Optimization of Beneficiation Process for Upgrading Low Grade Egyptian Kaolin

Authors: Nagui A. Abdel-Khalek, Khaled A. Selim, Ahmed Hamdy

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Kaolin is naturally occurring ore predominantly containing kaolinite mineral in addition to some gangue minerals. Typical impurities present in kaolin ore are quartz, iron oxides, titanoferrous minerals, mica, feldspar, organic matter, etc. The main coloring impurity, particularly in the ultrafine size range, is titanoferrous minerals. Kaolin is used in many industrial applications such as sanitary ware, table ware, ceramic, paint, and paper industries, each of which should be of certain specifications. For most industrial applications, kaolin should be processed to obtain refined clay so as to match with standard specifications. For example, kaolin used in paper and paint industries need to be of high brightness and low yellowness. Egyptian kaolin is not subjected to any beneficiation process and the Egyptian companies apply selective mining followed by, in some localities, crushing and size reduction only. Such low quality kaolin can be used in refractory and pottery production but not in white ware and paper industries. This paper aims to study the amenability of beneficiation of an Egyptian kaolin ore of El-Teih locality, Sinai, to be suitable for different industrial applications. Attrition scrubbing and classification followed by magnetic separation are applied to remove the associated impurities. Attrition scrubbing and classification are used to separate the coarse silica and feldspars. Wet high intensity magnetic separation was applied to remove colored contaminants such as iron oxide and titanium oxide. Different variables affecting of magnetic separation process such as solid percent, magnetic field, matrix loading capacity, and retention time are studied. The results indicated that substantial decrease in iron oxide (from 1.69% to 0.61% ) and TiO2 (from 3.1% to 0.83%) contents as well as improving iso-brightness (from 63.76% to 75.21% and whiteness (from 79.85% to 86.72%) of the product can be achieved.

Keywords: Kaolin, titanoferrous minerals, beneficiation, magnetic separation, attrition scrubbing, classification

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7 An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Several Industrial Wastes and Natural Materials as Precursors for the Production of Alkali Activated Materials

Authors: O. Alelweet, S. Pavia

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In order to face current compelling environmental problems affecting the planet, the construction industry needs to adapt. It is widely acknowledged that there is a need for durable, high-performance, low-greenhouse gas emission binders that can be used as an alternative to Portland cement (PC) to lower the environmental impact of construction. Alkali activated materials (AAMs) are considered a more sustainable alternative to PC materials. The binders of AAMs result from the reaction of an alkali metal source and a silicate powder or precursor which can be a calcium silicate or an aluminosilicate-rich material. This paper evaluates the particle size, specific surface area, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness of silicate materials (most industrial waste locally produced in Ireland and Saudi Arabia) to develop alkali-activated binders that can replace PC resources in specific applications. These include recycled ceramic brick, bauxite, illitic clay, fly ash and metallurgical slag. According to the results, the wastes are reactive and comply with building standards requirements. The study also evidenced that the reactivity of the Saudi bauxite (with significant kaolinite) can be enhanced on thermal activation; and high calcium in the slag will promote reaction; which should be possible with low alkalinity activators. The wastes evidenced variable water demands that will be taken into account for mixing with the activators. Finally, further research is proposed to further determine the reactive fraction of the clay-based precursors.

Keywords: alkali activated materials, alkali-activated binders, sustainable building materials, recycled ceramic brick, bauxite, red mud, clay, fly ash, metallurgical slags, particle size, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness, water demand, particle density

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6 Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralization of Cisarua, Nanggung District, Bogor Regency, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: A. Asaga, N. I. Basuki

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The research area is located in Cisarua, Bogor Regency, West Java, with 12,8 km2 wide. This area belongs to mining region of PT Aneka Tambang Tbk. The purpose of this research is to study geological condition, alteration type and pattern, and type of mineralization. Geomorphology of the research area is at young to mature stage, which can be divided into Ciparigi’s Parasite Volcanic Cone Unit, Ciparigi Caldera Valley Unit, Ciparigi Caldera Rim Hill Unit, and Pongkor Volcanic Hill. Stratigraphy of the research area consist of five units, they are Laharic Breccia (Pliocene), Pyroclastic Breccia, Lapilli Tuff, Flow Tuff, Fall Tuff, and Andesite Lava (Pleistocene). Based on mineral composition, it is interpreted that there is magma composition changing from rhyolite to andesitic. Geological structures in the research area are caused by NE-SW and N-S stress direction; they are Ciparay Right Strike-Slip Fault (Pliocene), Cisarua Right Strike-Slip Fault, G. Singa Left Strike-Slip Fault, and Cinyuncung Right Strike-Slip Fault (Pleistocene). Weak to strong hydrothermal alteration can be found in the research area.They are Chlorite ± Smectite ± Halloysite Zone, Smectite - Illite - Quartz Zone, Smectite - Kaolinite - Illite - Chlorite Zone, and Smectite - Chlorite - Calcite - Quartz Zone. The distribution and assemblage of alteration minerals is controlled by lithology and geological structures in Pleistocene. Mineralization produce ore minerals, those are pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcocite. There are calcite and quartz veins that show colloform, comb, and crystalline textures. Hydrothermal alteration assemblages, ore minerals, and cavity filling textures suggest that mineralization type in research area is epithermal low sulphidation.

Keywords: Pongkor, hydrothermal alteration, epithermal, geochemistry

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