Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Lorna A. Dawson

24 Synthesis and Characterisation of New Heteropolyanion Substitute by CO2+

Authors: Ouahiba Bechiri, Mostefa Abbessi


In recent year, polyoxometallates are intensely being explored because of their applications as new materiels, structural aesthetics, catalysts, and biologically active compounds. heteropolyanions of general formulae [X2M18O62] n- (X= heteroatom, e.g. P, Si) and (M=W, Mo), known as Dawson-type anions, constitue a special class of polyoxometallate compounds. In this present work, cobalt substituted heteropolyanion Dawson-type [HP2W15Mo3CoO61] were synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, 31 P NMR, cyclic voltammetry.

Keywords: heteropolyanions, nanomaterials, Dawson-type, characterization

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23 A Homogeneous Catalytic System for Decolorization of a Mixture of Orange G Acid and Naphthol Blue-Black Dye Based on Hydrogen Peroxide and a Recyclable DAWSON Type Heteropolyanion

Authors: Ouahiba Bechiri, Mostefa Abbessi


The color removal from industrial effluents is a major concern in wastewater treatment. The main objective of this work was to study the decolorization of a mixture of Orange G acid (OG) and naphthol blue black dye (NBB) in aqueous solution by hydrogen peroxide using [H1,5Fe1,5P2W12Mo6O61,23H2O] as catalyst. [H1,5Fe1,5P2 W12Mo6O61,23H2O] is a recyclable DAWSON type heteropolyanion. Effects of various experimental parameters of the oxidation reaction of the dye were investigated. The studied parameters were: the initial pH, H2O2 concentration, the catalyst mass and the temperature. The optimum conditions had been determined, and it was found that efficiency of degradation obtained after 15 minutes of reaction was about 100%. The optimal parameters were: initial pH = 3; [H2O2]0 = 0.08 mM; catalyst mass = 0.05g; for a concentration of dyes = 30mg/L.

Keywords: Dawson type heteropolyanion, naphthol blue-black, dye degradation, orange G acid, oxidation, hydrogen peroxide

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22 A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Forensic Soil Analysis: Tested Using a Simulated Crime Scene

Authors: Samara A. Testoni, Vander F. Melo, Lorna A. Dawson, Fabio A. S. Salvador


Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.

Keywords: clay mineralogy, forensic soils analysis, sequential analyses, kaolinite, gibbsite

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21 Evaluation of Critical State Behavior of Granular Soil in Confined Compression Tests

Authors: Rabia Chaudhry, Andrew Dawson


Identification of steady/critical state of coarse granular soil is challenging at conventional pressures. This study examines the drained and undrained triaxial tests for large strains on loose to dense, uniformly graded, Leighton Buzzard Fraction A sand. The triaxial tests are conducted under controlled test conditions. The comparison of soil behavior on shear strength characteristics at different effective stresses has been studied at the medium to large strains levels and the uniqueness of the critical state was discussed. The test results showed that there were two steady/critical state lines for drained and undrained conditions at confining pressures less than 1000 kPa. A critical state friction angle is not constant and the overall scatter in the steady/critical state line for the tested sand is ±0.01 in terms of void ratio at stress levels less than 1000 kPa.

Keywords: critical state, stress strain behavior, fabric/structure, triaxial tests

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20 The Lived Experience of People with a Mental Illness of Their Engagement in Therapeutic Recreation

Authors: Caroline Picton, Lorna Moxham, Christopher Patterson, Dana Perlman, Ellie Taylor, Renee Brighton


The purpose of this study was to extrapolate the meaning for people living with a mental illness of their participation in a therapeutic recreation experience. The study’s participants engaged in a five-day adventure camp, known as Recovery Camp, alongside undergraduate health care students. An interpretive phenomenological approach was used as an exploratory method to interview 25 participants (n=25). Van Kaam’s structured analytical framework guided the analysis of the transcribed narratives. The findings provide insight into using therapeutic recreation to enhance personal mental health recovery. Recovery Camp was viewed by participants as having a transformational effect on forming positive social connectedness and improving their self-identity. Participants perceived the Recovery Camp experience as one that gave them a sense of purpose and increased their motivation to undertake further activities. The insights gained of the benefits of therapeutic recreation for people living with a mental illness can be used to promote purposeful community engagement.

Keywords: interpretive phenomenology, lived experience, mental illness, personal mental health recovery

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19 Exploring the Meaning of Safety in Acute Mental Health Inpatient Units from the Consumer Perspective

Authors: Natalie Cutler, Lorna Moxham, Moira Stephens


Safety is a priority in mental health services, and no more so than in the acute inpatient setting. Mental health service policies and accreditation frameworks commonly approach safety from a risk reduction or elimination perspective leading to service approaches that are arguably more focused on risk than on safety. An exploration what safety means for people who have experienced admission to an acute mental health inpatient unit is currently under way in Sydney, Australia. Using a phenomenographic research approach, this study is seeking to understand the meaning of safety from the perspective of people who use, rather than those who deliver mental health services. Preliminary findings suggest that the meanings of safety for users of mental health services vary from the meanings inherent in the policies and frameworks that inform how mental health services and mental health practice are delivered. This variance has implications for the physical and environmental design of acute mental health inpatient facilities, the policies and practices, and the education and training of mental health staff in particular nurses, who comprise the majority of the mental health workforce. These variances will be presented, along with their implications for the way quality and safety in mental health services are evaluated.

Keywords: acute inpatient, mental health, nursing, phenomenography, recovery, safety

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18 The Disposable Identities; Enabling Trust-by-Design to Build Sustainable Data-Driven Value

Authors: Lorna Goulden, Kai M. Hermsen, Jari Isohanni, Mirko Ross, Jef Vanbockryck


This article introduces disposable identities, with reference use cases and explores possible technical approaches. The proposed approach, when fully developed as an open-source toolkit, enables developers of mobile or web apps to employ a self-sovereign identity and data privacy framework, in order to rebuild trust in digital services by providing greater transparency, decentralized control, and GDPR compliance. With a user interface for the management of self-sovereign identity, digital authorizations, and associated data-driven transactions, the advantage of Disposable Identities is that they may also contain verifiable data such as the owner’s photograph, official or even biometric identifiers for more proactive prevention of identity abuse. These Disposable Identities designed for decentralized privacy management can also be time, purpose and context-bound through a secure digital contract; with verification functionalities based on tamper-proof technology.

Keywords: dentity, trust, self-sovereign, disposable identity, privacy toolkit, decentralised identity, verifiable credential, cybersecurity, data driven business, PETs, GDPRdentity, trust, self-sovereign, disposable identity, privacy toolkit, decentralised identity, verifiable credential, cybersecurity, data driven business, PETs, GDPRI

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17 The Impact of Size of the Regional Economic Blocs to the Country’s Flows of Trade: Evidence from COMESA, EAC and Tanzania

Authors: Mosses E. Lufuke, Lorna M. Kamau


This paper attempted to assess whether the size of the regional economic bloc has an impact to the flow of trade to a particular country. Two different sized blocs (COMESA and EAC) and one country (Tanzania) have been used as the point of references. Using the results from of the analyses, the paper also was anticipated to establish whether it was rational for Tanzania to withdraw its membership from COMESA (the larger bloc) to join EAC (the small one). Gravity model has been used to estimate the relationship between the variables, from which the bilateral trade flows between Tanzania and the eighteen member countries of the two blocs (COMESA and EAC) was employed for the time between 2000 and 2013. In the model, the dummy variable for regional bloc (bloc) at which the Tanzania trade partner countries belong are also added to the model to understand which trade bloc exhibit higher trade flow with Tanzania. From the findings, it was noted that over the period of study (2000-2013) Tanzania acknowledged more than 257% of trade volume in EAC than in COMESA. Conclusive, it was noted that the flow of trade is explained by many other variables apart from the size of regional bloc; and that the size by itself offer insufficient evidence in causality relationship. The paper therefore remain neutral on such staggered switching decision since more analyses are required to establish the country’s trade flow, especially when if it had been in multiple membership of COMESA and EAC.

Keywords: economic bloc, flow of trade, size of bloc, switching

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16 An Assessment of the Extent and Impact of Motor Insurance Fraud Claims in Nigeria

Authors: Olatokunbo Shoyemi, Mario Brito, Ian Dawson


In recent times, the Nigerian motor insurers have experienced high volume of motor insurance claim pay-outs and insignificant contribution to the net premium income of the Nigerian insurance market, which has been a major concern for the shareholders/stakeholders. It has been argued that there are many factors that have brought about these concerns. However, anecdotal evidence (ongoing debates among industry practitioners) suggests prevalence of fraud due to poor practices in motor insurance business in Nigeria. This study is therefore aimed to carry out an assessment of fraud in motor insurance claims as perceived by experts in the Nigerian insurance market. This study adopted a descriptive research design, and the analysis was built on a survey among insurance experts in Nigeria using a designed questionnaire. A purposive and snowball sampling were used to select our sample (N = 120) - representing a selection of all professionally qualified insurance experts in Nigeria insurance industry. The study found that Nigerian insurance experts (i) largely agree that there is a problematic level of fraud in the Nigerian motor insurance industry; (ii) perceive soft fraud to be about 3 times more common than hard fraud in the Nigerian motor insurance industry, and (iii) strongly agree there are problematic impacts from fraud on the solvency of the Nigerian motor insurers. This paper has provided an empirical understanding of the existence, extent, and impact of fraud risks within the Nigerian insurance market based on expert knowledge and insights rather than, as has often been the case, a reliance on individual anecdotes.

Keywords: claims, net premium income, motor insurance, soft fraud, hard fraud

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15 Evaluation of Turbulence Prediction over Washington, D.C.: Comparison of DCNet Observations and North American Mesoscale Model Outputs

Authors: Nebila Lichiheb, LaToya Myles, William Pendergrass, Bruce Hicks, Dawson Cagle


Atmospheric transport of hazardous materials in urban areas is increasingly under investigation due to the potential impact on human health and the environment. In response to health and safety concerns, several dispersion models have been developed to analyze and predict the dispersion of hazardous contaminants. The models of interest usually rely on meteorological information obtained from the meteorological models of NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS). However, due to the complexity of the urban environment, NWS forecasts provide an inadequate basis for dispersion computation in urban areas. A dense meteorological network in Washington, DC, called DCNet, has been operated by NOAA since 2003 to support the development of urban monitoring methodologies and provide the driving meteorological observations for atmospheric transport and dispersion models. This study focuses on the comparison of wind observations from the DCNet station on the U.S. Department of Commerce Herbert C. Hoover Building against the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model outputs for the period 2017-2019. The goal is to develop a simple methodology for modifying NAM outputs so that the dispersion requirements of the city and its urban area can be satisfied. This methodology will allow us to quantify the prediction errors of the NAM model and propose adjustments of key variables controlling dispersion model calculation.

Keywords: meteorological data, Washington D.C., DCNet data, NAM model

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14 Comparison of the Effect of Semi-Rigid Ankle Bracing Performance among Ankle Injured Versus Non-Injured Adolescent Female Hockey Players

Authors: T. J. Ellapen, N. Acampora, S. Dawson, J. Arling, C. Van Niekerk, H. J. Van Heerden


Objectives: To determine the comparative proprioceptive performance of injured versus non-injured adolescent female hockey players when wearing an ankle brace. Methods: Data were collected from 100 high school players who belonged to the Highway Secondary School KZN Hockey league via voluntary parental informed consent and player assent. Players completed an injury questionnaire probing the prevalence and nature of hockey injuries (March-August 2013). Subsequently players completed a Biodex proprioceptive test with and without an ankle brace. Probability was set at p≤ 0.05. Results: Twenty-two players sustained ankle injuries within the six months (p<0.001). Injured players performed similarly without bracing Right Anterior Posterior Index (RAPI): 2.8±0.9; Right Medial Lateral Index (RMLI): 1.9±0.7; Left Anterior Posterior Index (LAPI) LAPI: 2.7; Left Medial Lateral Index (LMLI): 1.7±0.6) as compared to bracing (RAPI: 2.7±1.4; RMLI: 1.8±0.6; LAPI: 2.6±1.0; LMLI: 1.5±0.6) (p>0.05). However, bracing (RAPI: 2.2±0.8; RMLI: 1.5±0.5; LAPI: 2.4±0.9; MLI: 1.5±0.5) improved the ankle stability of the non-injured group as compared to their unbraced performance (RAPI: 2.5±1.0; RMLI: 1.8±0.8; LAPI: 2.8±1.1; LMLI: 1.8±0.6) (p<0.05). Conclusion: Ankle bracing did not enhance the stability of injured ankles. However ankle bracing has an ergogenic effect enhancing the stability of healthy ankles.

Keywords: hockey, proprioception, ankle, bracing

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13 The ACRL Framework Successes and Challenges since 2016: A Survey

Authors: Sharon Q. Yang, Hsieh Ma Lei, Patricia H. Dawson


The ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education has replaced the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education since 2016. The new guidelines encountered resistance and criticism as too theoretical and unpractical for teaching and assessment. It has been four years since its official release. Have US librarians been teaching the threshold concepts with success? How do they teach the framework in one-shot sessions? The presenters conducted a survey in 2020 among US academic librarians to find answers. The survey revealed how college and university librarians throughout the US apply the framework in their information literacy (IL) instruction, what barriers they encounter in applying the framework, the lessons they have learned, and if they assess students’ learning outcomes with the framework. The findings indicated that other than course assignments, the framework is librarians’ most used document for their instruction. Other guiding standards are followed by librarians for instruction. Despite the time constraint of one-shot IL sessions, most surveyed librarians have adopted some Framework concepts in their instruction and have also managed to conduct an assessment of student learning outcomes. The framework concepts are not taught evenly. Some frame concepts are taught more often than others. Challenges still exist, and librarians can benefit from more training to better communicate the framework concepts to their constituents and to integrate the framework in their instruction. Librarians who newly graduated from library school and are only trained in the framework are more accepting and tend to teach framework concepts more readily than librarians who had been teaching the old ACRL standards. This study depicts the status quo on the implementation of the ACRL framework in the U. S. libraries since 2016. The presenters will discuss the recommended practice in teaching the ACRL framework based on the survey data.

Keywords: ACRL framework, threshold concepts, information literacy, instruction

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12 Recovery from Detrimental pH Troughs in a Moorland River Using Monitored Calcium Carbonate Introductions

Authors: Lauren Dawson, Sean Comber, Richard Sandford, Alan Tappin, Bruce Stockley


The West Dart River is underperforming for Salmon (Salmo salar) survival rates due to acidified pH troughs under the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). These troughs have been identified as being caused by historic acid rain pollution which is being held in situ by peat bog presence at site and released during flushing events. Natural recovery has been deemed unlikely by the year 2020 using steady state water chemistry models and therefore a program of monitored calcium carbonate (CaCO3) introductions are being conducted to eliminate these troughs, which can drop to pH 2.93 (salmon survival – pH 5.5). The river should be naturally acidic (pH 5.5-6) due to the granite geology of Dartmoor and therefore the CaCO3 introductions are under new methodology (the encasing of the CaCO3 in permeable sacks) to ensure removal should the water pH rise above neutral levels. The water chemistry and ecology are undergoing comprehensive monitoring, including pH and turbidity levels, dissolved organic carbon and aluminum concentration and speciation, while the aquatic biota is being used to assess the potential water chemistry changes. While this project is ongoing, results from the preliminary field trial show only a temporary, localized increase in pH following CaCO3 introductions into the water column. However, changes to the water chemistry have only been identified in the West Dart after methodology adjustments to account for flow rates and spate-dissolution, though no long-term changes have so far been found in the ecology of the river. However, this is not necessarily a negative factor, as the aim of the study is to protect the current ecological communities and the natural pH of the river while remediating only the detrimental pH troughs.

Keywords: anthropogenic acidification recovery, calcium carbonate introductions, ecology monitoring, water chemistry monitoring

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11 Empirical Study of Correlation between the Cost Performance Index Stability and the Project Cost Forecast Accuracy in Construction Projects

Authors: Amin AminiKhafri, James M. Dawson-Edwards, Ryan M. Simpson, Simaan M. AbouRizk


Earned value management (EVM) has been introduced as an integrated method to combine schedule, budget, and work breakdown structure (WBS). EVM provides various indices to demonstrate project performance including the cost performance index (CPI). CPI is also used to forecast final project cost at completion based on the cost performance during the project execution. Knowing the final project cost during execution can initiate corrective actions, which can enhance project outputs. CPI, however, is not constant during the project, and calculating the final project cost using a variable index is an inaccurate and challenging task for practitioners. Since CPI is based on the cumulative progress values and because of the learning curve effect, CPI variation dampens and stabilizes as project progress. Although various definitions for the CPI stability have been proposed in literature, many scholars have agreed upon the definition that considers a project as stable if the CPI at 20% completion varies less than 0.1 from the final CPI. While 20% completion point is recognized as the stability point for military development projects, construction projects stability have not been studied. In the current study, an empirical study was first conducted using construction project data to determine the stability point for construction projects. Early findings have demonstrated that a majority of construction projects stabilize towards completion (i.e., after 70% completion point). To investigate the effect of CPI stability on cost forecast accuracy, the correlation between CPI stability and project cost at completion forecast accuracy was also investigated. It was determined that as projects progress closer towards completion, variation of the CPI decreases and final project cost forecast accuracy increases. Most projects were found to have 90% accuracy in the final cost forecast at 70% completion point, which is inlined with findings from the CPI stability findings. It can be concluded that early stabilization of the project CPI results in more accurate cost at completion forecasts.

Keywords: cost performance index, earned value management, empirical study, final project cost

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10 An Online Questionnaire Investigating UK Mothers' Experiences of Bottle Refusal by Their Breastfed Baby

Authors: Clare Maxwell, Lorna Porcellato, Valerie Fleming, Kate Fleming


A review of global online forums and social media reveals large numbers of mothers experiencing bottle refusal by their breastfed baby. It is difficult to determine precise numbers due to a lack of data, however, established virtual communities illustrate thousands of posts in relation to the issue. Mothers report various negative consequences of bottle refusal including delaying their return to work, time and financial outlay spent on methods to overcome it and experiencing stress, anxiety, and resentment of breastfeeding. A search of the literature revealed no studies being identified, and due to a lack of epidemiological data, a study investigating mother’s experiences of bottle refusal by their breastfed baby was undertaken. The aim of the study was to investigate UK mothers’ experiences of bottle refusal by their breastfed baby. Data were collected using an online questionnaire collecting quantitative and qualitative data. 841 UK mothers who had experienced or were experiencing bottle refusal by their breastfed baby completed the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric testing. The results showed 61% (516/840) of mothers reported their breastfed baby was still refusing/had never accepted a bottle, with 39% (324/840) reporting their baby had eventually accepted. The most frequently reported reason to introduce a bottle was so partner/family could feed the baby 59% (499/839). 75% (634/841) of mothers intended their baby to feed on a bottle ‘occasionally’. Babies who accepted a bottle were more likely to be older at 1st attempt to introduce one than those babies who refused (Mdn = 12 weeks v 8 weeks, n = 286) (p = <0.001). Length of time taken to acceptance was 9 weeks (Mdn = 9, IQR = 18, R = 103.9, n = 306) with the older the baby was at 1st attempt to introduce a bottle being associated with a shorter length of time to acceptance (p = < 0.002). 60% (500/841) of mothers stated that none of the methods they used had worked. 26% (222/841) of mothers reported bottle refusal had had a negative impact upon their overall breastfeeding experience. 47% (303/604) reported they would have tried to introduce a bottle earlier to prevent refusal. This study provides a unique insight into the scenario of bottle refusal by breastfed babies. It highlights that bottle refusal by breastfed babies is a significant issue, which requires recognition from those communicating breastfeeding information to mothers.

Keywords: bottle feeding, bottle refusal, breastfeeding, infant feeding

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9 Effect of Classroom Acoustic Factors on Language and Cognition in Bilinguals and Children with Mild to Moderate Hearing Loss

Authors: Douglas MacCutcheon, Florian Pausch, Robert Ljung, Lorna Halliday, Stuart Rosen


Contemporary classrooms are increasingly inclusive of children with mild to moderate disabilities and children from different language backgrounds (bilinguals, multilinguals), but classroom environments and standards have not yet been adapted adequately to meet these challenges brought about by this inclusivity. Additionally, classrooms are becoming noisier as a learner-centered as opposed to teacher-centered teaching paradigm is adopted, which prioritizes group work and peer-to-peer learning. Challenging listening conditions with distracting sound sources and background noise are known to have potentially negative effects on children, particularly those that are prone to struggle with speech perception in noise. Therefore, this research investigates two groups vulnerable to these environmental effects, namely children with a mild to moderate hearing loss (MMHLs) and sequential bilinguals learning in their second language. In the MMHL study, this group was assessed on speech-in-noise perception, and a number of receptive language and cognitive measures (auditory working memory, auditory attention) and correlations were evaluated. Speech reception thresholds were found to be predictive of language and cognitive ability, and the nature of correlations is discussed. In the bilinguals study, sequential bilingual children’s listening comprehension, speech-in-noise perception, listening effort and release from masking was evaluated under a number of different ecologically valid acoustic scenarios in order to pinpoint the extent of the ‘native language benefit’ for Swedish children learning in English, their second language. Scene manipulations included target-to-distractor ratios and introducing spatially separated noise. This research will contribute to the body of findings from which educational institutions can draw when designing or adapting educational environments in inclusive schools.

Keywords: sequential bilinguals, classroom acoustics, mild to moderate hearing loss, speech-in-noise, release from masking

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8 Improving Cell Type Identification of Single Cell Data by Iterative Graph-Based Noise Filtering

Authors: Annika Stechemesser, Rachel Pounds, Emma Lucas, Chris Dawson, Julia Lipecki, Pavle Vrljicak, Jan Brosens, Sean Kehoe, Jason Yap, Lawrence Young, Sascha Ott


Advances in technology make it now possible to retrieve the genetic information of thousands of single cancerous cells. One of the key challenges in single cell analysis of cancerous tissue is to determine the number of different cell types and their characteristic genes within the sample to better understand the tumors and their reaction to different treatments. For this analysis to be possible, it is crucial to filter out background noise as it can severely blur the downstream analysis and give misleading results. In-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art filtering methods for single cell data showed that they do, in some cases, not separate noisy and normal cells sufficiently. We introduced an algorithm that filters and clusters single cell data simultaneously without relying on certain genes or thresholds chosen by eye. It detects communities in a Shared Nearest Neighbor similarity network, which captures the similarities and dissimilarities of the cells by optimizing the modularity and then identifies and removes vertices with a weak clustering belonging. This strategy is based on the fact that noisy data instances are very likely to be similar to true cell types but do not match any of these wells. Once the clustering is complete, we apply a set of evaluation metrics on the cluster level and accept or reject clusters based on the outcome. The performance of our algorithm was tested on three datasets and led to convincing results. We were able to replicate the results on a Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells dataset. Furthermore, we applied the algorithm to two samples of ovarian cancer from the same patient before and after chemotherapy. Comparing the standard approach to our algorithm, we found a hidden cell type in the ovarian postchemotherapy data with interesting marker genes that are potentially relevant for medical research.

Keywords: cancer research, graph theory, machine learning, single cell analysis

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7 Screening of Wheat Wild Relatives as a Gene Pool for Improved Photosynthesis in Wheat Breeding

Authors: Amanda J. Burridge, Keith J. Edwards, Paul A. Wilkinson, Tom Batstone, Erik H. Murchie, Lorna McAusland, Ana Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Ivan Jauregui, Tracy Lawson, Silvere R. M. Vialet-Chabrand


The rate of genetic progress in wheat production must be improved to meet global food security targets. However, past selection for domestication traits has reduced the genetic variation in modern wheat cultivars, a fact that could severely limit the future rate of genetic gain. The genetic variation in agronomically important traits for the wild relatives and progenitors of wheat is far greater than that of the current domesticated cultivars, but transferring these traits into modern cultivars is not straightforward. Between the elite cultivars of wheat, photosynthetic capacity is a key trait for which there is limited variation. Early screening of wheat wild relative and progenitors has shown differences in photosynthetic capacity and efficiency not only between wild relative species but marked differences between the accessions of each species. By identifying wild relative accessions with improved photosynthetic traits and characterising the genetic variation responsible, it is possible to incorporate these traits into advanced breeding programmes by wide crossing and introgression programmes. To identify the potential variety of photosynthetic capacity and efficiency available in the secondary and tertiary genepool, a wide scale survey was carried out for over 600 accessions from 80 species including those from the genus Aegilops, Triticum, Thinopyrum, Elymus, and Secale. Genotype data were generated for each accession using a ‘Wheat Wild Relative’ Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array composed of 35,000 SNP markers polymorphic between wild relatives and elite hexaploid wheat. This genotype data was combined with phenotypic measurements such as gas exchange (CO₂, H₂O), chlorophyll fluorescence, growth, morphology, and RuBisCO activity to identify potential breeding material with enhanced photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. The data and associated analysis tools presented here will prove useful to anyone interested in increasing the genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat or the application of complex genotyping data to plant breeding.

Keywords: wheat, wild relatives, pre-breeding, genomics, photosynthesis

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6 The Role of Glyceryl Trinitrate (GTN) in 99mTc-HIDA with Morphine Provocation Scan for the Investigation of Type III Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction (SOD)

Authors: Ibrahim M Hassan, Lorna Que, Michael Rutland


Type I SOD is usually diagnosed by anatomical imaging such as ultrasound, CT and MRCP. However, the types II and III SOD yield negative results despite the presence of significant symptoms. In particular, the type III is difficult to diagnose due to the absence of significant biochemical or anatomical abnormalities. Nuclear Medicine can aid in this diagnostic dilemma by demonstrating functional changes in the bile flow. Low dose Morphine (0.04mg/Kg) stimulates the tone of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) and its usefulness has been shown in diagnosing SOD by causing a delay in bile flow when compared to a non morphine provoked - baseline scan. This work expands on that process by using sublingual GTN at 60 minutes post tracer and morphine injection to relax the SO and induce an improvement in bile outflow, and in some cases show immediate relief of morphine induced abdominal pain. The criteria for positive SOD are as follows: if during the first hour of the morphine provocation showed (1) delayed intrahepatic biliary ducts tracer accumulation; plus (2) delayed appearance but persistent retention of activity in the common bile duct, and (3) delayed bile flow into the duodenum. In addition, patients who required GTN within the first hour to relieve abdominal pain were regarded as highly supportive of the diagnosis. Retrospective analysis of 85 patients (pts) (78F and 6M) referred for suspected SOD (type III) who had been intensively investigated because of recurrent right upper quadrant or abdominal pain post cholecystectomy. 99mTc-HIDA scan with morphine-provocation is performed followed by GTN at 60 minutes post tracer injection and a further thirty minutes of dynamic imaging are acquired. 30 pts were negative. 55 pts were regarded as positive for SOD and 38/55 (60%) of these patients with an abnormal result were further evaluated with a baseline 99mTc-HIDA. As expected, all 38 pts showed better bile flow characteristics than during the morphine provocation. 20/55 (36%) patients were treated by ERCP sphincterotomy and the rest were managed conservatively by medical therapy. In all cases regarded as positive for SOD, the sublingual GTN at 60 minutes showed immediate improvement in bile flow. 11/55(20%) who developed severe post-morphine abdominal pain were relieved by GTN almost instantaneously. We propose that GTN is a useful agent in the diagnosis of SOD when performing 99mTc-HIDA scan and that the satisfactory response to the sublingual GTN could offer additional information in patients who have severe pain at the time the procedure or when presenting to the emergency unit because of biliary pain. And also in determining whether a trial of medical therapy may be used before considering surgery.


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5 Pattern of Deliberate Self-Harm Repetition in Rural Sri Lanka

Authors: P. H. G. J. Pushpakumara, Andrew Dawson


Introduction: Deliberate self harm (DSH) is a major public health problem globally. Suicide rates of Sri Lanka are being among the highest national rates in the world, since 1950. Previous DSH is the most important independent predictor of repetition. The estimated 1 year non-fatal repeat self-harm rate was 16.3%. Asian countries had considerably lower rate, 10.0%. Objectives: To calculate incidence of deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) and suicides, repetition rate of DSP in Kurunegala District (KD). To determine the pattern of repeated DSP in KD. Methods: Study had two components. In the first component, demographic and event related details of, DSP admission in 46 hospitals and suicides in 28 police stations of KD were collected for 3 years from January 2011. Demographic details of cohort of DSP patients admitted to above hospitals in 2011 were linked with hospital admissions and police records of next two years period from the index admission. Records were screened for links with high sensitivity using the computer then did manual matching which would have been much more specific. In the second component, randomly selected DSP patients (n=438), who admitted to main referral centre which receives 60% of DSP cases of the district, were interviewed to assess life-time repetition. Results: There were 16,993 DSP admissions and 1078 suicides for the three year period. Suicide incidences in KD were, 21.6, 20.7 and 24.3 per 100,000 population in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Average male to female ratio for suicide incidences was 5.5. DSP incidences were 205.4, 248.3 and 202.5 per 100,000 population. Male incidences were slightly greater than the female incidences, male: female ratio was 1.1:1. Highest age standardized male and female incidence was reported in 20-24 years age group, 769.6/100,000, and 15-19 years age group 1304.0/100,000. Male to female ratio of the incidence increased with the age. There were 318 (179 male and 139 female) patients attempted DSH within two years. Female repetitive patients were ounger compared to the males, p < 0.0001, median age: males 28 and females 19 years. 290 (91.2%) had only one repetitive attempt, 24 (7.5%) had two, 3 (0.9%) had three and one (0.3%) had four in that period. One year repetition rate was 5.6 and two year repetition rate was 7.9%. Average intervals between indexed events and first repetitive DSP events were 246.8 (SD:223.4) and 238.5 (SD:207.0) days among males and females. One fifth of first repetitive events occurred within first two weeks in both males and females. Around 50% of males and females had the second event within 28 weeks. Within the first year of the indexed event, around 70% had the second event. First repetitive event was fatal for 28 (8.8%) individuals. Ages of those who died, mean 49.7 years (SD:15.3), were significantly higher compared to those who had non-fatal outcome, p<0.0001. 9.5% had life time history of DSH attempts. Conclusions: Both, DSP and suicide incidences were very high in KD. However, repetition rates were lesser compared regional values. Prevention of repetition alone may not produce significant impact on prevention of DSH.

Keywords: deliberate self-harm, incidence, repetition, Sri Lanka, suicide

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4 Psycho-Social Associates of Deliberate Self-Harm in Rural Sri Lanka

Authors: P. H. G. J. Pushpakumara, A. M. P. Adikari, S. U. B. Tennakoon, Ranil Abeysinghe, Andrew Dawson


Introduction: Deliberate Self-harm (DSH) is a global public health problem. Since 1950, suicide rates in Sri Lanka are among the highest national rates in the world. It has become an increasingly common response to emotional distress in young adults. However, it remains unclear the reason for this occurrence. Objectives: The descriptive component of this study was conducted to identify of epidemiological pattern of DSH and suicide in Kurunegala District (KD). Assessment of association between DSH socio-cultural, economical and psychological factors were the objectives of the case control component. Methods: Prospective data collection of DSH and suicide was conducted at all (46) hospitals and all (28) police stations in the KD for thirty six months, from 1st January 2011, as the descriptive component. Case control component was conducted at T.H. Kurunegala (THK) for eighteen months duration, from 1st July 2011. Cases (n=439) were randomly selected from a block of 7 consecutively admitted consenting DSP patients using a computer program. Age, sex and residential divisional secretariat division one to one matched, individuals were randomly selected as controls from patients presented to Out Patient Department. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I and II Disorders was used to diagnose psychiatric disorders. Validated tools were used to measure other constructs. Results: Suicide incidences in KD were, 21.6, 20.7 and 24.3 per 100,000 population in 2011- 2013 (Male:female ratio 5.7, 4.4 and 6.4). 60% of suicides were due to poisoning. DSP incidences were 205.4, 248.3 and 202.5 per 100,000 population in 2011- 2013. Highest age standardized male DSP incidence reported in 20-24 years (769.6/100,000) and female in 15-19 years (1304.0/100,000). Bing married (age >25 years), monthly family income less than Rs.30,000, not achieving G.C.E (O/L) qualifications, a school drop-out, not in a permanent position in occupation, being a manual and an own account worker, were significantly associated with DSP. Perceiving the quality of relationship as bad or very bad with parents, spouse/ girlfriend/ boyfriend and sibling as associated with 8, 40 and 10.5 times higher risk respectively. Feeling and experiences of neglect, other emotional abuses, feeling of insecurity with the family, in child hood, and having a contact history carried an excess risk for DSP. Cases were less likely to seek help. Further, they had significantly lower scores for life skills and life skills application ability. 25.6% DSH patients had DSM TR axis-I and/or TR axis-II disorder. The presence of psychiatric disorder carried 7.7 (95% CI 4.3 – 13.8) times higher risk for DSP. Conclusion: In general, pattern of DSH and suicide is, unique, different from developed, upper and middle income and lower and middle income countries. It is a learned way of expressing emotions in difficult situations of vulnerable people.

Keywords: deliberate self-harm, help-seeking, life-skills, mental- health, psychological, social, suicide

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3 Preliminary Study Investigating Trunk Muscle Fatigue and Cognitive Function in Event Riders during a Simulated Jumping Test

Authors: Alice Carter, Lucy Dumbell, Lorna Cameron, Victoria Lewis


The Olympic discipline of eventing is the triathlon of equestrian sport, consisting of dressage, cross-country and show jumping. Falls on the cross-country are common and can be serious even causing death to rider. Research identifies an increased risk of a fall with an increasing number of obstacles and for jumping efforts later in the course suggesting fatigue maybe a contributing factor. Advice based on anecdotal evidence suggests riders undertake strength and conditioning programs to improve their ‘core’, thus improving their ability to maintain and control their riding position. There is little empirical evidence to support this advice. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate truck muscle fatigue and cognitive function during a simulated jumping test. Eight adult riders participated in a riding test on a Racewood Event simulator for 10 minutes, over a continuous jumping programme. The SEMG activity of six trunk muscles were bilaterally measured at every minute, and normalised root mean squares (RMS) and median frequencies (MDF) were computed from the EMG power spectra. Visual analogue scales (VAS) measuring Fatigue and Pain levels and Cognitive Function ‘tapping’ tests were performed before and after the riding test. Average MDF values for all muscles differed significantly between each sampled minute (p = 0.017), however a consistent decrease from Minute 1 and Minute 9 was not found, suggesting the trunk muscles fatigued and then recovered as other muscle groups important in maintaining the riding position during dynamic movement compensated. Differences between the MDF and RMS of different muscles were highly significant (H=213.01, DF=5, p < 0.001), supporting previous anecdotal evidence that different trunk muscles carry out different roles of posture maintenance during riding. RMS values were not significantly different between the sampled minutes or between riders, suggesting the riding test produced a consistent and repeatable effect on the trunk muscles. MDF values differed significantly between riders (H=50.8, DF = 5, p < 0.001), suggesting individuals may experience localised muscular fatigue of the same test differently, and that other parameters of physical fitness should be investigated to provide conclusions. Lumbar muscles were shown to be important in maintaining the position, therefore physical training program should focus on these areas. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-riding test VAS Pain and Fatigue scores or cognitive function test scores, suggesting the riding test was not significantly fatiguing for participants. However, a near significant correlation was found between time of riding test and VAS Pain score (p = 0.06), suggesting somatic pain may be a limiting factor to performance. No other correlations were found between the factors of participant riding test time, VAS Pain and Fatigue, however a larger sample needs to be tested to improve statistical analysis. The findings suggest the simulator riding test was not sufficient to provoke fatigue in the riders, however foundations for future studies have been laid to enable methodologies in realistic eventing settings.

Keywords: eventing, fatigue, horse-rider, surface EMG, trunk muscles

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2 Fort Conger: A Virtual Museum and Virtual Interactive World for Exploring Science in the 19th Century

Authors: Richard Levy, Peter Dawson


Ft. Conger, located in the Canadian Arctic was one of the most remote 19th-century scientific stations. Established in 1881 on Ellesmere Island, a wood framed structure established a permanent base from which to conduct scientific research. Under the charge of Lt. Greely, Ft. Conger was one of 14 expeditions conducted during the First International Polar Year (FIPY). Our research project “From Science to Survival: Using Virtual Exhibits to Communicate the Significance of Polar Heritage Sites in the Canadian Arctic” focused on the creation of a virtual museum website dedicated to one of the most important polar heritage site in the Canadian Arctic. This website was developed under a grant from Virtual Museum of Canada and enables visitors to explore the fort’s site from 1875 to the present, Heritage sites are often viewed as static places. A goal of this project was to present the change that occurred over time as each new group of explorers adapted the site to their needs. The site was first visited by British explorer George Nares in 1875 – 76. Only later did the United States government select this site for the Lady Franklin Bay Expedition (1881-84) with research to be conducted under the FIPY (1882 – 83). Still later Robert Peary and Matthew Henson attempted to reach the North Pole from Ft. Conger in 1899, 1905 and 1908. A central focus of this research is on the virtual reconstruction of the Ft. Conger. In the summer of 2010, a Zoller+Fröhlich Imager 5006i and Minolta Vivid 910 laser scanner were used to scan terrain and artifacts. Once the scanning was completed, the point clouds were registered and edited to form the basis of a virtual reconstruction. A goal of this project has been to allow visitors to step back in time and explore the interior of these buildings with all of its artifacts. Links to text, historic documents, animations, panorama images, computer games and virtual labs provide explanations of how science was conducted during the 19th century. A major feature of this virtual world is the timeline. Visitors to the website can begin to explore the site when George Nares, in his ship the HMS Discovery, appeared in the harbor in 1875. With the emergence of Lt Greely’s expedition in 1881, we can track the progress made in establishing a scientific outpost. Still later in 1901, with Peary’s presence, the site is transformed again, with the huts having been built from materials salvaged from Greely’s main building. Still later in 2010, we can visit the site during its present state of deterioration and learn about the laser scanning technology which was used to document the site. The Science and Survival at Fort Conger project represents one of the first attempts to use virtual worlds to communicate the historical and scientific significance of polar heritage sites where opportunities for first-hand visitor experiences are not possible because of remote location.

Keywords: 3D imaging, multimedia, virtual reality, arctic

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1 Maternal Obesity in Nigeria: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Ojochenemi J. Onubi, Debbi Marais, Lorna Aucott, Friday Okonofua, Amudha Poobalan


Background: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with major health and economic consequences. Pregnancy is a trigger point for the development of obesity, and maternal obesity is associated with significant adverse effects in the mother and child. Nigeria is experiencing a double burden of under- and over-nutrition with rising levels of obesity particularly in women. However, there is scarcity of data on maternal obesity in Nigeria and other African countries. Aims and Objectives: This project aimed at identifying crucial components of potential interventions for maternal obesity in Nigeria. The objectives were to assess the prevalence, effects, and distribution of maternal obesity; knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of pregnant women and maternal healthcare providers; and identify existing interventions for maternal obesity in Nigeria. Methodology: A systematic review and meta-analysis were initially conducted to appraise the existing literature on maternal obesity in Africa. Following this, a quantitative questionnaire survey of the KAP of pregnant women and a qualitative interview study of the KAP of Health Care Workers (HCW) were conducted in seven secondary and tertiary hospitals across Nigeria. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS statistical software, while thematic analysis was conducted for qualitative data. Results: Twenty-nine studies included in the systematic review showed significant prevalence, socio-demographic associations, and adverse effects of maternal obesity on labour, maternal, and child outcomes in Africa. The questionnaire survey of 435 mothers revealed a maternal obesity prevalence of 17.9% among mothers who registered for antenatal care in the first trimester. The mothers received nutrition information from different sources and had insufficient knowledge of their own weight category or recommended Gestational Weight Gain (GWG), causes, complications, and safe ways to manage maternal obesity. However, majority of the mothers were of the opinion that excess GWG is avoided in pregnancy and some practiced weight management (diet and exercise) during pregnancy. For the qualitative study, four main themes were identified: ‘Concerns about obesity in pregnancy’, ‘Barriers to care for obese pregnant women’, ‘Practice of care for obese pregnant women’, and ‘Improving care for obese pregnant women’. HCW expressed concerns about rising levels of maternal obesity, lack of guidelines for the management of obese pregnant women and worries about unintended consequences of antenatal interventions. ‘Barriers’ included lack of contact with obese women before pregnancy, late registration for antenatal care, and perceived maternal barriers such as socio-cultural beliefs of mothers and poverty. ‘Practice’ included anticipatory care and screening for possible complications, general nutrition education during antenatal care and interdisciplinary care for mothers with complications. HCW offered suggestions on improving care for obese women including timing, type, and settings of interventions; and the need for involvement of other stake holders in caring for obese pregnant women. Conclusions: Culturally adaptable/sensitive interventions should be developed for the management of obese pregnant women in Africa. Education and training of mothers and health care workers, and provision of guidelines are some of the components of potential interventions in Nigeria.

Keywords: Africa, maternal, obesity, pregnancy

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