Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1861

Search results for: additive manufacturing

1861 Industrial Applications of Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Technology: A Review from South Africa Perspective

Authors: Micheal O. Alabi

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is the official industry standard term (ASTM F2792) for all applications of the technology which is also known as 3D printing technology. It is defined as the process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, and it is usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing methodologies. This technology has gained significant interest within the academic, research institute and industry because of its ability to create complex geometries with customizable material properties. Despite the late adoption of the technology, additive manufacturing has been active in South Africa for past 21 years and it is predicted that additive manufacturing technology will play a significant and game-changing role in the fourth industrial revolution and in particular it promises to play an ever-growing role in efforts to re-industrialize the economy of South Africa. At the end of 2006, there are approximately ninety 3D printers in South Africa and in 2015 it was estimated that there are 3500 additive manufacturing systems and 3D printers in circulation in South Africa. A reasonable number of these additive manufacturing machines are in the high end of the market, in science councils and higher education institutions and this shows that the future of additive manufacturing in South Africa is very brighter compared to other African countries. This paper reviews the past and current industrial applications of additive manufacturing in South Africa from the academic research and industry perspective and what are the benefits of this technology to manufacturing companies and industrial sectors in the country.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, 3D printing technology, industrial applications, manufacturing

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1860 Optimization of Surface Roughness in Additive Manufacturing Processes via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Anjian Chen, Joseph C. Chen

Abstract:

This paper studies a case where the targeted surface roughness of fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing process is improved. The process is designing to reduce or eliminate the defects and improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for an FDM additive manufacturing process. The baseline Cp is 0.274 and Cpk is 0.654. This research utilizes the Taguchi methodology, to eliminate defects and improve the process. The Taguchi method is used to optimize the additive manufacturing process and printing parameters that affect the targeted surface roughness of FDM additive manufacturing. The Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is used to organize the parameters' (four controllable parameters and one non-controllable parameter) effectiveness on the FDM additive manufacturing process. The four controllable parameters are nozzle temperature [°C], layer thickness [mm], nozzle speed [mm/s], and extruder speed [%]. The non-controllable parameter is the environmental temperature [°C]. After the optimization of the parameters, a confirmation print was printed to prove that the results can reduce the amount of defects and improve the process capability index Cp from 0.274 to 1.605 and the Cpk from 0.654 to 1.233 for the FDM additive manufacturing process. The final results confirmed that the Taguchi methodology is sufficient to improve the surface roughness of FDM additive manufacturing process.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, fused deposition modeling, surface roughness, six-sigma, Taguchi method, 3D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
1859 Laser Additive Manufacturing of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polyamide 12 Composites

Authors: Kun Zhou

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing has emerged as a disruptive technology that is capable of manufacturing products with complex geometries through an accumulation of material feedstock in a layer-by-layer fashion. Laser additive manufacturing such as selective laser sintering has excellent printing resolution, high printing speed and robust part strength, and has led to a widespread adoption in the aerospace, automotive and biomedical industries. This talk highlights and discusses the recent work we have undertaken in the development of carbon nanotube-reinforced polyamide 12 (CNT/PA12) composites printed using laser additive manufacturing. Numerical modelling studies have been conducted to simulate various processes within laser additive manufacturing of CNT/PA12 composites, and extensive experimental work has been carried out to investigate the mechanical and functional properties of the printed parts. The results from these studies grant a deeper understanding of the intricate mechanisms occurring within each process and enables an accurate optimization of process parameters for the CNT/PA12 and other polymer composites.

Keywords: CNT/PA12 composites, laser additive manufacturing, process parameter optimization, numerical modeling

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1858 Laser Additive Manufacturing: A Literature Review

Authors: Pranav Mohan Parki, C. Mallika Parveen, Tahseen Ahmad Khan, Mihika Shivkumar

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the several manufacturing processes in use today. AM comprises of techniques such as ‘Selective Laser Sintering’ and ‘Selective Laser Melting’ etc. along with other equipment and materials has been developed way back in 1980s, although major use of these methods has risen during the last decade. AM seems to be the most efficient way when compared to the traditional machining procedures. Still many problems continue to hinder its progress to becoming the most widely used of all. This paper contributes to the better understanding of AM and also aims at providing viable solutions to these problems, which may further help in enabling AM to become the most flaw free production method.

Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM), 3D printing, prototype, laser sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
1857 Investigating the Environmental Impact of Additive Manufacturing Compared to Conventional Manufacturing through Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Gustavo Menezes De Souza Melo, Arnaud Heitz, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing is a growing market that is taking over in many industries as it offers numerous advantages like new design possibilities, weight-saving solutions, ease of manufacture, and simplification of assemblies. These are all unquestionable technical or financial assets. As to the environmental aspect, additive manufacturing is often discussed whether it is the best solution to decarbonize our industries or if conventional manufacturing remains cleaner. This work presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) comparison based on the technological case of a motorbike swing-arm. We compare the original equipment manufacturer part made with conventional manufacturing (CM) methods to an additive manufacturing (AM) version printed using the laser powder bed fusion process. The AM version has been modified and optimized to achieve better dynamic performance without any regard to weight saving. Lightweight not being a priority in the creation of the 3D printed part brings us a unique perspective in this study. To achieve the LCA, we are using the open-source life cycle, and sustainability software OpenLCA combined with the ReCiPe 2016 at midpoint and endpoint level method. This allows the calculation and the presentation of the results through indicators such as global warming, water use, resource scarcity, etc. The results are then showing the relative impact of the AM version compared to the CM one and give us a key to understand and answer questions about the environmental sustainability of additive manufacturing.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, environmental impact, life cycle assessment, laser powder bed fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1856 On the Development of Medical Additive Manufacturing in Egypt

Authors: Khalid Abdelghany

Abstract:

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the manufacturing technology that is used to fabricate fast products direct from CAD models in very short time and with minimum operation steps. Jointly with the advancement in medical computer modeling, AM proved to be a very efficient tool to help physicians, orthopedic surgeons and dentists design and fabricate patient-tailored surgical guides, templates and customized implants from the patient’s CT / MRI images. AM jointly with computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology have enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient-and purpose-specific fashion and helped to design and manufacture of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. CMRDI institute in Egypt has been working in the field of Medical Additive Manufacturing since 2003 and has assisted in the recovery of hundreds of poor patients using these advanced tools. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country. The presented case studies have been designed and processed using the software tools and additive manufacturing machines in CMRDI through cooperative engineering and medical works. Results showed that the implementation of the additive manufacturing tools in developed countries is successful and could be economical comparing to long treatment plans.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, dental and orthopeadic stents, patient specific surgical tools, titanium implants

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1855 Method for Evaluating the Monetary Value of a Customized Version of the Digital Twin for the Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Fabio Oettl, Sebastian Hoerbrand, Tobias Wittmeir, Johannes Schilp

Abstract:

By combining the additive manufacturing (AM)- process with digital concepts, like the digital twin (DT) or the downsized and basing concept of the digital part file (DPF), the competitiveness of additive manufacturing is enhanced and new use cases like decentral production are enabled. But in literature, one can´t find any quantitative approach for valuing the usage of a DT or DPF in AM. Out of this fact, such an approach will be developed within this paper in order to further promote or dissuade the usage of these concepts. The focus is set on the production as an early lifecycle phase, which means that the AM-production process gets analyzed regarding the potential advantages of using DPF in AM. These advantages are transferred to a monetary value with this approach. By calculating the costs of the DPF, an overall monetary value is a result. Thereon a tool, based on a simulation environment is constructed, where the algorithms are transformed into a program. The results of applying this tool show that an overall value of 20,81 € for the DPF can be realized for one special use case. For the future application of the DPF there is the recommendation to integrate especially sustainable information because out of this, a higher value of the DPF can be expected.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, digital concept costs, digital part file, digital twin, monetary value estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
1854 Environmental Performance Improvement of Additive Manufacturing Processes with Part Quality Point of View

Authors: Mazyar Yosofi, Olivier Kerbrat, Pascal Mognol

Abstract:

Life cycle assessment of additive manufacturing processes has evolved significantly since these past years. A lot of existing studies mainly focused on energy consumption. Nowadays, new methodologies of life cycle inventory acquisition came through the literature and help manufacturers to take into account all the input and output flows during the manufacturing step of the life cycle of products. Indeed, the environmental analysis of the phenomena that occur during the manufacturing step of additive manufacturing processes is going to be well known. Now it becomes possible to count and measure accurately all the inventory data during the manufacturing step. Optimization of the environmental performances of processes can now be considered. Environmental performance improvement can be made by varying process parameters. However, a lot of these parameters (such as manufacturing speed, the power of the energy source, quantity of support materials) affect directly the mechanical properties, surface finish and the dimensional accuracy of a functional part. This study aims to improve the environmental performance of an additive manufacturing process without deterioration of the part quality. For that purpose, the authors have developed a generic method that has been applied on multiple parts made by additive manufacturing processes. First, a complete analysis of the process parameters is made in order to identify which parameters affect only the environmental performances of the process. Then, multiple parts are manufactured by varying the identified parameters. The aim of the second step is to find the optimum value of the parameters that decrease significantly the environmental impact of the process and keep the part quality as desired. Finally, a comparison between the part made by initials parameters and changed parameters is made. In this study, the major finding claims by authors is to reduce the environmental impact of an additive manufacturing process while respecting the three quality criterion of parts, mechanical properties, dimensional accuracy and surface roughness. Now that additive manufacturing processes can be seen as mature from a technical point of view, environmental improvement of these processes can be considered while respecting the part properties. The first part of this study presents the methodology applied to multiple academic parts. Then, the validity of the methodology is demonstrated on functional parts.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, environmental impact, environmental improvement, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
1853 Reducing Support Structures in Design for Additive Manufacturing: A Neural Networks Approach

Authors: Olivia Borgue, Massimo Panarotto, Ola Isaksson

Abstract:

This article presents a neural networks-based strategy for reducing the need for support structures when designing for additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing is a relatively new and immature industrial technology, and the information to make confident decisions when designing for AM is limited. This lack of information impacts especially the early stages of engineering design, for instance, it is difficult to actively consider the support structures needed for manufacturing a part. This difficulty is related to the challenge of designing a product geometry accounting for customer requirements, manufacturing constraints and minimization of support structure. The approach presented in this article proposes an automatized geometry modification technique for reducing the use of the support structures while designing for AM. This strategy starts with a neural network-based strategy for shape recognition to achieve product classification, using an STL file of the product as input. Based on the classification, an automatic part geometry modification based on MATLAB© is implemented. At the end of the process, the strategy presents different geometry modification alternatives depending on the type of product to be designed. The geometry alternatives are then evaluated adopting a QFD-like decision support tool.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, engineering design, geometry modification optimization, neural networks

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1852 Intelligent Algorithm-Based Tool-Path Planning and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Efrain Rodriguez, Sergio Pertuz, Cristhian Riano

Abstract:

Tool-path generation is an essential step in the FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication)-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) process planning. In the manufacture of a mechanical part by using additive processes, high resource consumption and prolonged production times are inherent drawbacks of these processes mainly due to non-optimized tool-path generation. In this work, we propose a heuristic-search intelligent algorithm-based approach for optimized tool-path generation for FFF-based AM. The main benefit of this approach is a significant reduction of travels without material deposition when the AM machine performs moves without any extrusion. The optimization method used reduces the number of travels without extrusion in comparison with commercial software as Slic3r or Cura Engine, which means a reduction of production time.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, tool-path optimization, fused filament fabrication, process planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
1851 Application of Additive Manufacturing for Production of Optimum Topologies

Authors: Mahdi Mottahedi, Peter Zahn, Armin Lechler, Alexander Verl

Abstract:

Optimal topology of components leads to the maximum stiffness with the minimum material use. For the generation of these topologies, normally algorithms are employed, which tackle manufacturing limitations, at the cost of the optimal result. The global optimum result with penalty factor one, however, cannot be fabricated with conventional methods. In this article, an additive manufacturing method is introduced, in order to enable the production of global topology optimization results. For a benchmark, topology optimization with higher and lower penalty factors are performed. Different algorithms are employed in order to interpret the results of topology optimization with lower factors in many microstructure layers. These layers are then joined to form the final geometry. The algorithms’ benefits are then compared experimentally and numerically for the best interpretation. The findings demonstrate that by implementation of the selected algorithm, the stiffness of the components produced with this method is higher than what could have been produced by conventional techniques.

Keywords: topology optimization, additive manufacturing, 3D-printer, laminated object manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1850 Logistic Regression Model versus Additive Model for Recurrent Event Data

Authors: Entisar A. Elgmati

Abstract:

Recurrent infant diarrhea is studied using daily data collected in Salvador, Brazil over one year and three months. A logistic regression model is fitted instead of Aalen's additive model using the same covariates that were used in the analysis with the additive model. The model gives reasonably similar results to that using additive regression model. In addition, the problem with the estimated conditional probabilities not being constrained between zero and one in additive model is solved here. Also martingale residuals that have been used to judge the goodness of fit for the additive model are shown to be useful for judging the goodness of fit of the logistic model.

Keywords: additive model, cumulative probabilities, infant diarrhoea, recurrent event

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
1849 Design for Metal Additive Manufacturing: An Investigation of Key Design Application on Electron Beam Melting

Authors: Wadea Ameen, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari, Osama Abdulhameed

Abstract:

Electron beam melting (EBM) is one of the modern additive manufacturing (AM) technologies. In EBM, the electron beam melts metal powder into a fully solid part layer by layer. Since EBM is a new technology, most designers are unaware of the capabilities and the limitations of EBM technology. Also, many engineers are facing many challenges to utilize the technology because of a lack of design rules for the technology. The aim of this study is to identify the capabilities and the limitations of EBM technology in fabrication of small features and overhang structures and develop a design rules that need to be considered by designers and engineers. In order to achieve this objective, a series of experiments are conducted. Several features having varying sizes were designed, fabricated, and evaluated to determine their manufacturability limits. In general, the results showed the capabilities and limitations of the EBM technology in fabrication of the small size features and the overhang structures. In the end, the results of these investigation experiments are used to develop design rules. Also, the results showed the importance of developing design rules for AM technologies in increasing the utilization of these technologies.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, design for additive manufacturing, electron beam melting, self-supporting overhang

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1848 Implementation of a Photo-Curable 3D Additive Manufacturing Technology with Grey Capability by Using Piezo Ink-jets

Authors: Ming-Jong Tsai, Y. L. Cheng, Y. L. Kuo, S. Y. Hsiao, J. W. Chen, P. H. Liu, D. H. Chen

Abstract:

The 3D printing is a combination of digital technology, material science, intelligent manufacturing and control of opto-mechatronics systems. It is called the third industrial revolution from the view of the Economist Journal. A color 3D printing machine may provide the necessary support for high value-added industrial and commercial design, architectural design, personal boutique, and 3D artist’s creation. The main goal of this paper is to develop photo-curable color 3D manufacturing technology and system implementation. The key technologies include (1) Photo-curable color 3D additive manufacturing processes development and materials research (2) Piezo type ink-jet head control and Opto-mechatronics integration technique of the photo-curable color 3D laminated manufacturing system. The proposed system is integrated with single Piezo type ink-jet head with two individual channels for two primary UV light curable color resins which can provide for future colorful 3D printing solutions. The main research results are 16 grey levels and grey resolution of 75 dpi.

Keywords: 3D printing, additive manufacturing, color, photo-curable, Piezo type ink-jet, UV Resin

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
1847 Integrated Design in Additive Manufacturing Based on Design for Manufacturing

Authors: E. Asadollahi-Yazdi, J. Gardan, P. Lafon

Abstract:

Nowadays, manufactures are encountered with production of different version of products due to quality, cost and time constraints. On the other hand, Additive Manufacturing (AM) as a production method based on CAD model disrupts the design and manufacturing cycle with new parameters. To consider these issues, the researchers utilized Design For Manufacturing (DFM) approach for AM but until now there is no integrated approach for design and manufacturing of product through the AM. So, this paper aims to provide a general methodology for managing the different production issues, as well as, support the interoperability with AM process and different Product Life Cycle Management tools. The problem is that the models of System Engineering which is used for managing complex systems cannot support the product evolution and its impact on the product life cycle. Therefore, it seems necessary to provide a general methodology for managing the product’s diversities which is created by using AM. This methodology must consider manufacture and assembly during product design as early as possible in the design stage. The latest approach of DFM, as a methodology to analyze the system comprehensively, integrates manufacturing constraints in the numerical model in upstream. So, DFM for AM is used to import the characteristics of AM into the design and manufacturing process of a hybrid product to manage the criteria coming from AM. Also, the research presents an integrated design method in order to take into account the knowledge of layers manufacturing technologies. For this purpose, the interface model based on the skin and skeleton concepts is provided, the usage and manufacturing skins are used to show the functional surface of the product. Also, the material flow and link between the skins are demonstrated by usage and manufacturing skeletons. Therefore, this integrated approach is a helpful methodology for designer and manufacturer in different decisions like material and process selection as well as, evaluation of product manufacturability.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, 3D printing, design for manufacturing, integrated design, interoperability

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
1846 Comparison of the Material Response Based on Production Technologies of Metal Foams

Authors: Tamas Mankovits

Abstract:

Lightweight cellular-type structures like metal foams have excellent mechanical properties, therefore the interest in these materials is widely spreading as load-bearing structural elements, e.g. as implants. Numerous technologies are available to produce metal foams. In this paper the material response of closed cell foam structures produced by direct foaming and additive technology is compared. The production technology circumstances are also investigated. Geometrical variations are developed for foam structures produced by additive manufacturing and simulated by finite element method to be able to predict the mechanical behavior.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, direct foaming, finite element method, metal foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
1845 FEM Simulations to Study the Effects of Laser Power and Scan Speed on Molten Pool Size in Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Yee-Ting Lee, Jyun-Rong Zhuang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, An-Shik Yang

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly crucial in biomedical and aerospace industries. As a recently developed AM technique, selective laser melting (SLM) has become a commercial method for various manufacturing processes. However, the molten pool configuration during SLM of metal powders is a decisive issue for the product quality. It is very important to investigate the heat transfer characteristics during the laser heating process. In this work, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS® (work bench module 16.0) was used to predict the unsteady temperature distribution for resolving molten pool dimensions with consideration of temperature-dependent thermal physical properties of TiAl6V4 at different laser powers and scanning speeds. The simulated results of the temperature distributions illustrated that the ratio of laser power to scanning speed can greatly influence the size of molten pool of titanium alloy powder for SLM development.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, finite element method, molten pool dimensions, selective laser melting

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1844 Production of Metal Powder Using Twin Arc Spraying Process for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: D. Chen, H. Daoud, C. Kreiner, U. Glatzel

Abstract:

Additive Manufacturing (AM) provides promising opportunities to optimize and to produce tooling by integrating near-contour tempering channels for more efficient cooling. To enhance the properties of the produced tooling using additive manufacturing, prototypes should be produced in short periods. Thereby, this requires a small amount of tailored powders, which either has a high production cost or is commercially unavailable. Hence, in this study, an arc spray atomization approach to produce a tailored metal powder at a lower cost and even in small quantities, in comparison to the conventional powder production methods, was proposed. This approach involves converting commercially available metal wire into powder by modifying the wire arc spraying process. The influences of spray medium and gas pressure on the powder properties were investigated. As a result, particles with smooth surface and lower porosity were obtained, when nonoxidizing gases are used for thermal spraying. The particle size decreased with increasing of the gas pressure, and the particles sizes are in the range from 10 to 70 µm, which is desirable for selective laser melting (SLM). A comparison of microstructure and mechanical behavior of SLM generated parts using arc sprayed powders (alloy: X5CrNiCuNb 16-4) and commercial powder (alloy: X5CrNiCuNb 16-4) was also conducted.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, arc spraying, powder production, selective laser melting

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1843 Industrial Revolution: Army Production

Authors: M. Şimşek

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) or generally known as three dimensional (3D) printing provides great opportunities for both civilian and military applications by which 3D has become the biggest nominee of breakthrough of 21th century. When properly used, it has a wide spectrum of applications that make production easier and more profitable. Considering the advantages of AM, every firm has an intention of catching up with this new trend. As well as reducing costs and thus increasing benefits, 3D printing provides opportunities for national armies by reducing maintenance and repair time and increasing operational readiness.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, operational cost, operational readiness, supply chain, three dimensional printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
1842 Biomimetics and Additive Manufacturing for Industrial Design Innovation

Authors: Axel Thallemer, Martin Danzer, Dominik Diensthuber, Aleksandar Kostadinov, Bernhard Rogler

Abstract:

Nature has always inspired the creative mind, to a lesser or greater extent. Introduced around the 1950s, Biomimetics served as a systematic method to treat the natural world as a ‘pattern book’ for technical solutions with the aim to create innovative products. Unfortunately, this technique is prone to failure when performed as a mere reverse engineering of a natural system or appearance. Contrary to that, a solution which looks at the principles of a natural design, promises a better outcome. One such example is the here presented case study, which shows the design process of three distinctive grippers. The devices have biomimetic properties on two levels. Firstly, they use a kinematic chain found in beaks and secondly, they have a biomimetic structural geometry, which was realized using additive manufacturing. In a next step, the manufacturing method was evaluated to estimate its efficiency for commercial production. The results show that the fabrication procedure is still in its early stage and thus it is not able to guarantee satisfactory results. To summarize the study, we claim that a novel solution can be derived using principles from nature, however, for the solution to be actualized successfully, there are parameters which are beyond reach for designers. Nonetheless, industrial designers can contribute to product innovation using biomimetics.

Keywords: biomimetics, innovation, design process, additive manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
1841 Fiber-Reinforced Sandwich Structures Based on Selective Laser Sintering: A Technological View

Authors: T. Häfele, J. Kaspar, M. Vielhaber, W. Calles, J. Griebsch

Abstract:

The demand for an increasing diversification of the product spectrum associated with the current huge customization desire and subsequently the decreasing unit quantities of each production lot is gaining more and more importance within a great variety of industrial branches, e.g. automotive industry. Nevertheless, traditional product development and production processes (molding, extrusion) are already reaching their limits or fail to address these trends of a flexible and digitized production in view of a product variability up to lot size one. Thus, upcoming innovative production concepts like the additive manufacturing technology basically create new opportunities with regard to extensive potentials in product development (constructive optimization) and manufacturing (economic individualization), but mostly suffer from insufficient strength regarding structural components. Therefore, this contribution presents an innovative technological and procedural conception of a hybrid additive manufacturing process (fiber-reinforced sandwich structures based on selective laser sintering technology) to overcome these current structural weaknesses, and consequently support the design of complex lightweight components.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP), hybrid design, lightweight design

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
1840 Testing Capabilities and Limitations of EBM Technology to Guide Design with a Test Artifact Design including Unique Features

Authors: Kadir Akkuş, Burcu A. Hamat, Kaan Ciloglu

Abstract:

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the respectable improvement of this century in the field of manufacturing and regarded as a breakthrough that represents the third industrial revolution by the leading authorities such as Wohlers Associates Inc., The Economist, and MIT Technology Review. Thanks to the stacking and unifying methodology of AM, design of lighter but stiffer parts with really more complex shapes and geometrical features, which were not possible by traditional subtractive manufacturing methods, became achievable. Through analysis of the AM process must be performed and mechanical properties of manufactured test parts must be studied to provide input for design. Furthermore, process capabilities, constraints, limitations and challenges regarding AM must be examined so that the design must be compatible with the process to be able to take all the advantages of the AM. In this paper, capabilities and limitations of AM will be investigated through a test part including unique features and manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V by employing Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology by comparing to the test parts introduced in literature.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, DfAM, EBM, test artifact, Ti-6Al-4V

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1839 Mechanical Properties and Thermal Comfort of 3D Printed Hand Orthosis for Neurorehabilitation

Authors: Paulo H. R. G. Reis, Joana P. Maia, Davi Neiva Alves, Mariana R. C. Aquino, Igor B. Guimaraes, Anderson Horta, Thiago Santiago, Mariana Volpini

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing is a manufacturing technique used in many fields as a tool for the production of complex parts accurately. This technique has a wide possibility of applications in bioengineering, mainly in the manufacture of orthopedic devices, thanks to the versatility of shapes and surface details. The present article aims to evaluate the mechanical viability of a wrist-hand orthosis made using additive manufacturing techniques with Nylon 12 polyamide and compare this device with the wrist-hand orthosis manufactured by the traditional process with thermoplastic Ezeform. The methodology used is based on the application of computational simulations of voltage and temperature, from finite element analysis, in order to evaluate the properties of displacement, mechanical stresses and thermal comfort in the two devices. The execution of this work was carried out through a case study with a 29-year-old male patient. The modeling software involved was Meshmixer from US manufacturer Autodesk and Fusion 360 from the same manufacturer. The results demonstrated that the orthosis developed by 3D printing, from Nylon 12, presents better thermal comfort and response to the mechanical stresses exerted on the orthosis.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, finite elements, hand orthosis, thermal comfort, neurorehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
1838 Simulation and Experimental Verification of Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured Lattice Structures

Authors: P. Karlsson, M. Åsberg, R. Eriksson, P. Krakhmalev, N. Strömberg

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Additive manufacturing of lattice structures is promising for lightweight design, but the mechanical response of the lattices structures is not fully understood. This investigation presents the results of simulation and experimental investigations of the grid and shell-based gyroid lattices. Specimens containing selected lattices were designed with an in-house software and manufactured from 316L steel with Renishaw AM400 equipment. Results of simulation and experimental investigations correlated well.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, computed tomography, material characterization, lattice structures, robust lightweight design

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1837 Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Ti6Al4V Part with Wrought Alloy to Powder-Bed Additive Manufactured Interface

Authors: Amnon Shirizly, Ohad Dolev

Abstract:

In recent years, the implementation and use of Metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) parts increase. As a result, the demand for bigger parts rises along with the desire to reduce it’s the production cost. Generally, in powder bed Additive Manufacturing technology the part size is limited by the machine build volume. In order to overcome this limitation, the parts can be built in one or more machine operations and mechanically joint or weld them together. An alternative option could be a production of wrought part and built on it the AM structure (mainly to reduce costs). In both cases, the mechanical properties of the interface have to be defined and recognized. In the current study, the authors introduce guidelines on how to examine the interface between wrought alloy and powder-bed AM. The mechanical and metallurgical properties of the Ti6Al4V materials (wrought alloy and powder-bed AM) and their hybrid interface were examined. The mechanical properties gain from tensile test bars in the built direction and fracture toughness samples in various orientations. The hybrid specimens were built onto a wrought Ti6Al4V start-plate. The standard fracture toughness (CT25 samples) and hybrid tensile specimens' were heat treated and milled as a post process to final diminutions. In this Study, the mechanical tensile tests and fracture toughness properties supported by metallurgical observation will be introduced and discussed. It will show that the hybrid approach of utilizing powder bed AM onto wrought material expanding the current limitation of the future manufacturing technology.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, hybrid, fracture-toughness, powder bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
1836 Integration of Constraints Related to Composite Materials in the Design of Industrial Products

Authors: A. Boumedine, K. Benfriha, S. Lecheb

Abstract:

Manufacturing methods for products and structures made of composite materials reduce the number of parts and integrate technical functions, this advantage of composite materials leads to a lot of innovation but also to a reduction of costs and a gain in quality. A material has attributes: its density, it’s resistance, it’s cost, it’s resistance to corrosion. For the design of a product, a certain profile of these attributes is required: low density, resistance removed, low cost. The problem is then to identify this attribute profile and to compare it with those of the materials, in order to find the one that comes closest. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of characterizing a mini turbine made of 3D printed fiber-filled composite material by the process of additive manufacturing, then compare the performance of the alloy turbine with the composite turbine according to the results of the simulation by Abaqus software.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, composite materials, design, 3D printer, turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
1835 Evaluation of Environmental, Technical, and Economic Indicators of a Fused Deposition Modeling Process

Authors: M. Yosofi, S. Ezeddini, A. Ollivier, V. Lavaste, C. Mayousse

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing processes have changed significantly in a wide range of industries and their application progressed from rapid prototyping to production of end-use products. However, their environmental impact is still a rather open question. In order to support the growth of this technology in the industrial sector, environmental aspects should be considered and predictive models may help monitor and reduce the environmental footprint of the processes. This work presents predictive models based on a previously developed methodology for the environmental impact evaluation combined with a technical and economical assessment. Here we applied the methodology to the Fused Deposition Modeling process. First, we present the predictive models relative to different types of machines. Then, we present a decision-making tool designed to identify the optimum manufacturing strategy regarding technical, economic, and environmental criteria.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, decision-makings, environmental impact, predictive models

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1834 Application of Powder Metallurgy Technologies for Gas Turbine Engine Wheel Production

Authors: Liubov Magerramova, Eugene Kratt, Pavel Presniakov

Abstract:

A detailed analysis has been performed for several schemes of Gas Turbine Wheels production based on additive and powder technologies including metal, ceramic, and stereolithography 3-D printing. During the process of development and debugging of gas turbine engine components, different versions of these components must be manufactured and tested. Cooled blades of the turbine are among of these components. They are usually produced by traditional casting methods. This method requires long and costly design and manufacture of casting molds. Moreover, traditional manufacturing methods limit the design possibilities of complex critical parts of engine, so capabilities of Powder Metallurgy Techniques (PMT) were analyzed to manufacture the turbine wheel with air-cooled blades. PMT dramatically reduce time needed for such production and allow creating new complex design solutions aimed at improving the technical characteristics of the engine: improving fuel efficiency and environmental performance, increasing reliability, and reducing weight. To accelerate and simplify the blades manufacturing process, several options based on additive technologies were used. The options were implemented in the form of various casting equipment for the manufacturing of blades. Methods of powder metallurgy were applied for connecting the blades with the disc. The optimal production scheme and a set of technologies for the manufacturing of blades and turbine wheel and other parts of the engine can be selected on the basis of the options considered.

Keywords: additive technologies, gas turbine engine, powder technology, turbine wheel

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1833 A Furniture Industry Concept for a Sustainable Generative Design Platform Employing Robot Based Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Andrew Fox, Tao Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Qingping Yang

Abstract:

The furniture manufacturing industry has been slow in general to adopt the latest manufacturing technologies, historically relying heavily upon specialised conventional machinery. This approach not only requires high levels of specialist process knowledge, training, and capital investment but also suffers from significant subtractive manufacturing waste and high logistics costs due to the requirement for centralised manufacturing, with high levels of furniture product not re-cycled or re-used. This paper aims to address the problems by introducing suitable digital manufacturing technologies to create step changes in furniture manufacturing design, as the traditional design practices have been reported as building in 80% of environmental impact. In this paper, a 3D printing robot for furniture manufacturing is reported. The 3D printing robot mainly comprises a KUKA industrial robot, an Arduino microprocessor, and a self-assembled screw fed extruder. Compared to traditional 3D printer, the 3D printing robot has larger motion range and can be easily upgraded to enlarge the maximum size of the printed object. Generative design is also investigated in this paper, aiming to establish a combined design methodology that allows assessment of goals, constraints, materials, and manufacturing processes simultaneously. ‘Matrixing’ for part amalgamation and product performance optimisation is enabled. The generative design goals of integrated waste reduction increased manufacturing efficiency, optimised product performance, and reduced environmental impact institute a truly lean and innovative future design methodology. In addition, there is massive future potential to leverage Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) theory through generative design post-processing of geometry for robot manufacture, resulting in ‘mass customised’ furniture with virtually no setup requirements. These generatively designed products can be manufactured using the robot based additive manufacturing. Essentially, the 3D printing robot is already functional; some initial goals have been achieved and are also presented in this paper.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, generative design, robot, sustainability

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1832 Approach on Conceptual Design and Dimensional Synthesis of the Linear Delta Robot for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Efrain Rodriguez, Cristhian Riano, Alberto Alvares

Abstract:

In recent years, robots manipulators with parallel architectures are used in additive manufacturing processes – 3D printing. These robots have advantages such as speed and lightness that make them suitable to help with the efficiency and productivity of these processes. Consequently, the interest for the development of parallel robots for additive manufacturing applications has increased. This article deals with the conceptual design and dimensional synthesis of the linear delta robot for additive manufacturing. Firstly, a methodology based on structured processes for the development of products through the phases of informational design, conceptual design and detailed design is adopted: a) In the informational design phase the Mudge diagram and the QFD matrix are used to aid a set of technical requirements, to define the form, functions and features of the robot. b) In the conceptual design phase, the functional modeling of the system through of an IDEF0 diagram is performed, and the solution principles for the requirements are formulated using a morphological matrix. This phase includes the description of the mechanical, electro-electronic and computational subsystems that constitute the general architecture of the robot. c) In the detailed design phase, a digital model of the robot is drawn on CAD software. A list of commercial and manufactured parts is detailed. Tolerances and adjustments are defined for some parts of the robot structure. The necessary manufacturing processes and tools are also listed, including: milling, turning and 3D printing. Secondly, a dimensional synthesis method applied on design of the linear delta robot is presented. One of the most important key factors in the design of a parallel robot is the useful workspace, which strongly depends on the joint space, the dimensions of the mechanism bodies and the possible interferences between these bodies. The objective function is based on the verification of the kinematic model for a prescribed cylindrical workspace, considering geometric constraints that possibly lead to singularities of the mechanism. The aim is to determine the minimum dimensional parameters of the mechanism bodies for the proposed workspace. A method based on genetic algorithms was used to solve this problem. The method uses a cloud of points with the cylindrical shape of the workspace and checks the kinematic model for each of the points within the cloud. The evolution of the population (point cloud) provides the optimal parameters for the design of the delta robot. The development process of the linear delta robot with optimal dimensions for additive manufacture is presented. The dimensional synthesis enabled to design the mechanism of the delta robot in function of the prescribed workspace. Finally, the implementation of the robotic platform developed based on a linear delta robot in an additive manufacturing application using the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technique is presented.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, delta parallel robot, dimensional synthesis, genetic algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 101