Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Vander F. Melo

29 Application of Dastamboo Fruit (Cucumis melo var. dudaim) Extract for Buffalo Meat Tenderization

Authors: A. Javadi, H. Asad Beygi


In line with the increasing demand for high-quality and safe food products, the present study is intended to examine the crude extract and juice of the fruit of Cucumis melo var. dudaim on tenderization of meat. Cubic pieces were selected from the biceps fermoris muscle of a five year-old female water buffalo; then, they were cut two or three hours after the buffalo was slaughtered. The selected samples were superficially exposed to the resolution obtained from the powder of the extract of Cucumis melo var. dudaim. Distilled water as a control sample and the powder of fruit extract of the mentioned plant with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent concentrations were experimented in the study. These samples were kept for three time spans of 2 hours, 7 and 14 days. Then, some tests were conducted on the samples both before and after cooking them. In general, with regard to the results obtained from the experiments and the investigations of the impact of time and different concentrations on the tenderization of buffalo meat, it can be argued that the time span of 2 hours and the concentration of 1.5 % can be considered as the best time and concentration for obtaining the most desirable tenderness. Also, tenderness increased in the samples kept for 7 and 14 days; however, due to the extraordinary decomposition, the samples were rather doughy and pasty.

Keywords: meat, Cucumis melo var. dudaim, tenderization, water buffalo

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28 A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Forensic Soil Analysis: Tested Using a Simulated Crime Scene

Authors: Samara A. Testoni, Vander F. Melo, Lorna A. Dawson, Fabio A. S. Salvador


Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.

Keywords: clay mineralogy, forensic soils analysis, sequential analyses, kaolinite, gibbsite

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27 Taxonomic Analyses of Some Members of Cucurbitoideae Using Phytolith Marker

Authors: J. K. Ebigwai, E. Asuquo


Systematic affinities among Cucurbitaceae members are highly debatable as exemplified by diverging views on their phylogenies. Worst still is the overriding reliance on morphometric marker in the delimitation of cucurbitoideae members. Considerable symplesiomorphic and synapmorphic character states have been observed among some members of same genera than do with some members of other genera. The broad study aims at establishing phylogenies among species of Cucumis (Melothrieae), Momordica, Telfairia (Jolliffieae), Trichosanthes (Trichosantheae), Citrullus, Lagenaria, Luffa (Benincaseae) and Cucurbita (Cucurbita) using anatomical, cytological, Palynological, serological, and phytolith markers. However, this paper shall present preliminary findings on the phytolith character states for Cucumis melo, Momordica charantia, Telfairia occidentales, Trichosanthes dioica, Citrullus vulgaris, Lagenaria siceraria, Luffa cylindrical, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima. Heavy liquid floatation method was employed in the extraction of the phytolith matter from the leaf tissues of these species. The result revealed that a bilobate short cell and a trapeziform sinuate form were absent in all the species except in Cucumis melo, Citrullus vulgaris and Lagenaria siceraria. Also a globular granulate form was observed exclusively in Telfairia occidentales, Cucurbita maxima, Momordica charantia and Luffa cylindrical. Other forms of phytolith observed were not diagnostic as they were not species specific. The results tentatively suggests a closer examination of the existing classification system.

Keywords: bilobate short cell, cucums, phytolith, telfairia, trapeziform sinuate

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26 Synthesis of α-Diimin Nickel(II) Catalyst Supported on Graphene and Graphene Oxide for Ethylene Slurry Polymerization

Authors: Mehrji Khosravan, Mostafa Fathali-Sianib, Davood Soudbar, Sasan Talebnezhad, Mohammad-Reza Ebrahimi


The late transition metal catalyst of the end group of transition metals in the periodic table as Ni, Fe, Co, and Pd was grown up rapidly in polyolefin industries recently. These metals with suitable ligands exhibited special characteristic properties and appropriate activities in the production of polyolefins. The ligand 1,4-bis (2,6-diisopropyl phenyl) acenaphthene was synthesized by reaction of 2,6-diisopropyl aniline and acenaphthenequinone. The ligand was added to nickel (II) dibromide salt for synthesis the 1,4-bis (2,6 diisopropylphenyl) acenaphthene nickel (II) dibromide catalyst. The structure of the ligand characterized by IR technique. The catalyst then deposited on graphene and graphene oxide by vander walss-attachment for use in Ethylene slurry polymerization process in the presence of catalyst activator such as methylaluminoxane (MAO) in hexane solvent. The structure of the catalyst characterized by IR and TEM techniques and some of the polymers were characterized by DSC. The highest activity was achieved at 600 C for catalyst.

Keywords: α-diimine nickel (II) complex, graphene as supported catalyst, late transition metal, ethylene polymerization

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25 Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management, and the Leader Role in the Construction of Sustainability

Authors: Leandro da S. Nascimento, Maristela J. Melo


The increased competition in the globalization drives organizations to innovate in their products and services to remain competitive. Innovation and creativity are incorporated as key aspects to creating value for consumers and for the creation of competitive advantage in organizations. However, there are factors that contribute strong with development of innovation and creation in organizations. These factors are the intellectual capital and knowledge management, which together with sustainability, ensure the development of competitive strategies. However, it is understood that the role of the leader is essential to stimulate the development of human capital, because the human capital is essential for organizations of knowledge. It is the leader who drives the dissemination and sharing of knowledge, an essential aspect for the formation of intellectual capital and therefore should be managed. And it turns out that the management of knowledge through intellectual capital allows the development of environmental initiatives efficiently and effectively. Thus, the research demonstrates the importance of the role of leader / manager in organizations and seeks to analyze how managers can contribute to the adoption of sustainability through intellectual capital and knowledge management.

Keywords: intellectual capital, knowledge management, leadership role, sustainability

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24 Optimization of Carbon Nanotube Content of Asphalt Nanocomposites with Regard to Resistance to Permanent Deformation

Authors: João V. Staub de Melo, Glicério Trichês, Liseane P. Thives


This paper presents the results of the development of asphalt nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high resistance to permanent deformation, aiming to increase the performance of asphalt surfaces in relation to the rutting problem. Asphalt nanocomposites were prepared with the addition of different proportions of CNTs (1%, 2% and 3%) in relation to the weight of asphalt binder. The base binder used was a conventional binder (50-70 penetration) classified as PG 58-22. The optimum percentage of CNT addition in the asphalt binder (base) was determined through the evaluation of the rheological and empirical characteristics of the nanocomposites produced. In order to evaluate the contribution and the effects of the nanocomposite (optimized) in relation to the rutting, the conventional and nanomodified asphalt mixtures were tested in a French traffic simulator (Orniéreur). The results obtained demonstrate the efficient contribution of the asphalt nanocomposite containing CNTs to the resistance to permanent deformation of the asphalt mixture.

Keywords: asphalt nanocomposites, asphalt mixtures, carbon nanotubes, nanotechnology, permanent deformation

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23 Annoyance Caused by Air Pollution: A Comparative Study of Two Industrialized Regions

Authors: Milena M. Melo, Jane M. Santos, Severine Frere, Valderio A. Reisen, Neyval C. Reis Jr., Mariade Fátima S. Leite


Although there had been a many studies that shows the impact of air pollution on physical health, comparatively less was known of human behavioral responses and annoyance impacts. Annoyance caused by air pollution is a public health problem because it can be an ambient stressor causing stress and disease and can affect quality of life. The objective of this work is to evaluate the annoyance caused by air pollution in two different industrialized urban areas, Dunkirk (France) and Vitoria (Brazil). The populations of these cities often report feeling annoyed by dust. Surveys were conducted, and the collected data were analyzed using statistical analyses. The results show that sociodemographic variables, importance of air quality, perceived industrial risk, perceived air pollution and occurrence of health problems play important roles in the perceived annoyance. These results show the existence of a common problem in geographically distant areas and allow stakeholders to develop prevention strategies.

Keywords: air pollution, annoyance, industrial risks, public health, perception of pollution, settled dust

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
22 Improvement of the Melon (Cucumis melo L.) through Genetic Gain and Discriminant Function

Authors: M. R. Naroui Rad, H. Fanaei, A. Ghalandarzehi


To find out the yield of melon, the traits are vital. This research was performed with the objective to assess the impact of nine different morphological traits on the production of 20 melon landraces in the sistan weather region. For all the traits genetic variation was noted. Minimum genetical variance (9.66) along with high genetic interaction with the environment led to low heritability (0.24) of the yield. The broad sense heritability of the traits that were included into the differentiating model was more than it was in the production. In this study, the five selected traits, number of fruit, fruit weight, fruit width, flesh diameter and plant yield can differentiate the genotypes with high or low production. This demonstrated the significance of these 5 traits in plant breeding programs. Discriminant function of these 5 traits, particularly, the weight of the fruit, in case of the current outputs was employed as an all-inclusive parameter for pointing out landraces with the highest yield. 75% of variation in yield can be explained with this index, and the weight of fruit also has substantial relation with the total production (r=0.72**). This factor can be highly beneficial in case of future breeding program selections.

Keywords: melon, discriminant analysis, genetic components, yield, selection

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21 Methodology for Diagnosing Architecture Improvements in a Cancer Hospital in Brasilia

Authors: Mariana Sabino, Janes Cleiton de Oliveira, Carlos Luna de Melo


This paper presents a discussion about the importance and influence of the environment in the patient’s recovery process. Some users (employees and patients) were submitted to a questionnaire that helps to diagnoses the major problems of the hospital, specially related to comfort (aesthetic, thermal, acoustic, light, ergonomic), well-being, how does the flow of patients and employees works in the hospital and wayfinding as well. After a short literature review presenting the topic, the hospital will be characterized, showing photos, the projects available and describing the hospital as well (how many rooms, functions of each one, receptions, waiting rooms, between other things.), than the questionnaire will be applied to patients and to the employees. Lastly the results of the answers given will be analyzed in graphics, and it will help to identify which are the major improvements needed immediately. This paper has the intention to propose a methodology to diagnose architecture problems in a cancer hospital in Brasilia, Brazil, besides to open a space to hear the people that use the building to tell about their discomforts and perceptions of the environment, it also will give an opportunity to apply the possible improvements. It is important to tell that it will be considered if the hospital has a healing environment, and it will also be considered the ergonomic issues about comfort and the way the system of this particular hospital works in general.

Keywords: cancer hospital, comfort, diagnose, healing environment

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20 Permanent Deformation Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures with Red Mud as a Filler

Authors: Liseane Padilha Thives, Mayara S. S. Lima, João Victor Staub De Melo, Glicério Trichês


Red mud is a waste resulting from the processing of bauxite to alumina, the raw material of the production of aluminum. The large quantity of red mud generated and inadequately disposed in the environment has motivated researchers to develop methods for reinsertion of this waste into the productive cycle. This work aims to evaluate the resistance to permanent deformation of dense asphalt mixtures with red mud filler. The red mud was characterized by tests of X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, specific mass, laser granulometry, pH and scanning electron microscopy. For the analysis of the influence of the quantity of red mud in the mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures, a total filler content of 7% was established. Asphalt mixtures with 3%, 5% and 7% red mud were produced. A conventional mixture with 7% stone powder filler was used as reference. The asphalt mixtures were evaluated for performance to permanent deformation in the French Rutting Tester (FRT) traffic simulator. The mixture with 5% red mud presented greater resistance to permanent deformation with rutting depth at 30,000 cycles of 3.50%. The asphalt mixtures with red mud presented better performance, with reduction of the rutting of 12.63 to 42.62% in relation to the reference mixture. This study confirmed the viability of reinserting the red mud in the production chain and possible usage in the construction industry. The red mud as filler in asphalt mixtures is a reuse option of this waste and mitigation of the disposal problems, as well as being an environmentally friendly alternative.

Keywords: asphalt mixtures, permanent deformation, red mud, pavements

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19 True Single SKU Script: Applying the Automated Test to Set Software Properties in a Global Software Development Environment

Authors: Antonio Brigido, Maria Meireles, Francisco Barros, Gaspar Mota, Fernanda Terra, Lidia Melo, Marcelo Reis, Camilo Souza


As the globalization of the software process advances, companies are increasingly committed to improving software development technologies across multiple locations. On the other hand, working with teams distributed in different locations also raises new challenges. In this sense, automated processes can help to improve the quality of process execution. Therefore, this work presents the development of a tool called TSS Script that automates the sample preparation process for carrier requirements validation tests. The objective of the work is to obtain significant gains in execution time and reducing errors in scenario preparation. To estimate the gains over time, the executions performed in an automated and manual way were timed. In addition, a questionnaire-based survey was developed to discover new requirements and improvements to include in this automated support. The results show an average gain of 46.67% of the total hours worked, referring to sample preparation. The use of the tool avoids human errors, and for this reason, it adds greater quality and speed to the process. Another relevant factor is the fact that the tester can perform other activities in parallel with sample preparation.

Keywords: Android, GSD, automated testing tool, mobile products

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18 Video Object Segmentation for Automatic Image Annotation of Ethernet Connectors with Environment Mapping and 3D Projection

Authors: Marrone Silverio Melo Dantas Pedro Henrique Dreyer, Gabriel Fonseca Reis de Souza, Daniel Bezerra, Ricardo Souza, Silvia Lins, Judith Kelner, Djamel Fawzi Hadj Sadok


The creation of a dataset is time-consuming and often discourages researchers from pursuing their goals. To overcome this problem, we present and discuss two solutions adopted for the automation of this process. Both optimize valuable user time and resources and support video object segmentation with object tracking and 3D projection. In our scenario, we acquire images from a moving robotic arm and, for each approach, generate distinct annotated datasets. We evaluated the precision of the annotations by comparing these with a manually annotated dataset, as well as the efficiency in the context of detection and classification problems. For detection support, we used YOLO and obtained for the projection dataset an F1-Score, accuracy, and mAP values of 0.846, 0.924, and 0.875, respectively. Concerning the tracking dataset, we achieved an F1-Score of 0.861, an accuracy of 0.932, whereas mAP reached 0.894. In order to evaluate the quality of the annotated images used for classification problems, we employed deep learning architectures. We adopted metrics accuracy and F1-Score, for VGG, DenseNet, MobileNet, Inception, and ResNet. The VGG architecture outperformed the others for both projection and tracking datasets. It reached an accuracy and F1-score of 0.997 and 0.993, respectively. Similarly, for the tracking dataset, it achieved an accuracy of 0.991 and an F1-Score of 0.981.

Keywords: RJ45, automatic annotation, object tracking, 3D projection

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17 Investigating the Environmental Impact of Additive Manufacturing Compared to Conventional Manufacturing through Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Gustavo Menezes De Souza Melo, Arnaud Heitz, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum


Additive manufacturing is a growing market that is taking over in many industries as it offers numerous advantages like new design possibilities, weight-saving solutions, ease of manufacture, and simplification of assemblies. These are all unquestionable technical or financial assets. As to the environmental aspect, additive manufacturing is often discussed whether it is the best solution to decarbonize our industries or if conventional manufacturing remains cleaner. This work presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) comparison based on the technological case of a motorbike swing-arm. We compare the original equipment manufacturer part made with conventional manufacturing (CM) methods to an additive manufacturing (AM) version printed using the laser powder bed fusion process. The AM version has been modified and optimized to achieve better dynamic performance without any regard to weight saving. Lightweight not being a priority in the creation of the 3D printed part brings us a unique perspective in this study. To achieve the LCA, we are using the open-source life cycle, and sustainability software OpenLCA combined with the ReCiPe 2016 at midpoint and endpoint level method. This allows the calculation and the presentation of the results through indicators such as global warming, water use, resource scarcity, etc. The results are then showing the relative impact of the AM version compared to the CM one and give us a key to understand and answer questions about the environmental sustainability of additive manufacturing.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, environmental impact, life cycle assessment, laser powder bed fusion

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16 Critical Pedagogy and Ecoliteracy in the Teaching of Foreign Languages

Authors: Anita De Melo


Today we live in a crucial time of ecological crisis, of environmental catastrophes worldwide, and this scenario is, arrogantly, overlooked by powerful economic forces and their politics. Thus, a critical pedagogy that leads to action and that fosters ecoliteracy, environment education, is now inevitable, and it must become an integral part of the school curriculum across the disciplines, including the social sciences and the humanities. One of the most important contemporary and emerging movement of today is ecopedagogy, a movement that blends theory and ethics towards a curriculum that focus on an environmental education that will promote ecological justice, respect, and care by educating students to become planetary citizens. This paper aims, first, to emphasize the need for discussions and investigations regarding ecoliteracy within our field of teaching foreign languages, which will consider, among others, the of role language in stimulating sustainability, and the role of second language proficiency in fostering positive transnational dialogues conducive to fighting our current planetary crisis. Second, this paper suggests and discusses some critical ecopedagogical practices -- in the form of project-based learning, service-learning and environmental-oriented study abroad programs – apropos to ecoliteracy. These interdisciplinary projects can and should bring students in contact with communities speaking the target language, and such encounter would facilitate cultural exchanges and promote positive language proficiency whilst it would also give students the opportunity to work with finding ideas/projects to fight our current ecological catastrophe.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, ecoliteracy, ecopedagogy, planetary crisis

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15 Using Deep Learning for the Detection of Faulty RJ45 Connectors on a Radio Base Station

Authors: Djamel Fawzi Hadj Sadok, Marrone Silvério Melo Dantas Pedro Henrique Dreyer, Gabriel Fonseca Reis de Souza, Daniel Bezerra, Ricardo Souza, Silvia Lins, Judith Kelner


A radio base station (RBS), part of the radio access network, is a particular type of equipment that supports the connection between a wide range of cellular user devices and an operator network access infrastructure. Nowadays, most of the RBS maintenance is carried out manually, resulting in a time consuming and costly task. A suitable candidate for RBS maintenance automation is repairing faulty links between devices caused by missing or unplugged connectors. A suitable candidate for RBS maintenance automation is repairing faulty links between devices caused by missing or unplugged connectors. This paper proposes and compares two deep learning solutions to identify attached RJ45 connectors on network ports. We named connector detection, the solution based on object detection, and connector classification, the one based on object classification. With the connector detection, we get an accuracy of 0:934, mean average precision 0:903. Connector classification, get a maximum accuracy of 0:981 and an AUC of 0:989. Although connector detection was outperformed in this study, this should not be viewed as an overall result as connector detection is more flexible for scenarios where there is no precise information about the environment and the possible devices. At the same time, the connector classification requires that information to be well-defined.

Keywords: radio base station, maintenance, classification, detection, deep learning, automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
14 Study on the Addition of Solar Generating and Energy Storage Units to a Power Distribution System

Authors: T. Costa, D. Narvaez, K. Melo, M. Villalva


Installation of micro-generators based on renewable energy in power distribution system has increased in recent years, with the main renewable sources being solar and wind. Due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such micro-generators produce time-varying energy which does not correspond at certain times of the day to the peak energy consumption of end users. For this reason, the use of energy storage units next to the grid contributes to the proper leveling of the buses’ voltage level according to Brazilian energy quality standards. In this work, the effect of the addition of a photovoltaic solar generator and a store of energy in the busbar voltages of an electric system is analyzed. The consumption profile is defined as the average hourly use of appliances in a common residence, and the generation profile is defined as a function of the solar irradiation available in a locality. The power summation method is validated with analytical calculation and is used to calculate the modules and angles of the voltages in the buses of an electrical system based on the IEEE standard, at each hour of the day and with defined load and generation profiles. The results show that bus 5 presents the worst voltage level at the power consumption peaks and stabilizes at the appropriate range with the inclusion of the energy storage during the night time period. Solar generator maintains improvement of the voltage level during the period when it receives solar irradiation, having peaks of production during the 12 pm (without exceeding the appropriate maximum levels of tension).

Keywords: energy storage, power distribution system, solar generator, voltage level

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13 Applying Failure Modes and Effect Analysis Concept in a Global Software Development Process

Authors: Camilo Souza, Lidia Melo, Fernanda Terra, Francisco Caio, Marcelo Reis


SIDIA is a research and development (R&D) institute that belongs to Samsung’s global software development process. The SIDIA’s Model Team (MT) is a part of Samsung’s Mobile Division Area, which is responsible for the development of Android releases embedded in Samsung mobile devices. Basically, in this software development process, the kickoff occurs in some strategic countries (e.g., South Korea) where some software requirements are applied and the initial software tests are performed. When the software achieves a more mature level, a new branch is derived, and the development continues in subsidiaries from other strategic countries (e.g., SIDIA-Brazil). However, even in the newly created branches, there are several interactions between developers from different nationalities in order to fix bugs reported during test activities, apply some specific requirements from partners and develop new features as well. Despite the GSD strategy contributes to improving software development, some challenges are also introduced as well. In this paper, we share the initial results about the application of the failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) concept in the software development process followed by the SIDIA’s model team. The main goal was to identify and mitigate the process potential failures through the application of recommended actions. The initial results show that the application of the FMEA concept allows us to identify the potential failures in our GSD process as well as to propose corrective actions to mitigate them. Finally, FMEA encouraged members of different teams to take actions that contribute to improving our GSD process.

Keywords: global software development, potential failures, FMEA, recommended actions

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12 Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of MLO Family Genes in Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.)

Authors: Khin Thanda Win, Chunying Zhang, Sanghyeob Lee


Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo), a plant-specific gene family with seven-transmembrane (TM), plays an important role in plant resistance to powdery mildew (PM). PM caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a widespread plant disease and probably represents the major fungal threat for many Cucurbits. The recent Cucurbita maxima genome sequence data provides an opportunity to identify and characterize the MLO gene family in this species. Total twenty genes (designated CmaMLO1 through CmaMLO20) have been identified by using an in silico cloning method with the MLO gene sequences of Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo, Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo as probes. These CmaMLOs were evenly distributed on 15 chromosomes of 20 C. maxima chromosomes without any obvious clustering. Multiple sequence alignment showed that the common structural features of MLO gene family, such as TM domains, a calmodulin-binding domain and 30 important amino acid residues for MLO function, were well conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of the CmaMLO genes and other plant species reveals seven different clades (I through VII) and only clade IV is specific to monocots (rice, barley, and wheat). Phylogenetic and structural analyses provided preliminary evidence that five genes belonged to clade V could be the susceptibility genes which may play the importance role in PM resistance. This study is the first comprehensive report on MLO genes in C. maxima to our knowledge. These findings will facilitate the functional analysis of the MLOs related to PM susceptibility and are valuable resources for the development of disease resistance in pumpkin.

Keywords: Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo), powdery mildew, phylogenetic relationship, susceptibility genes

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11 Bismuth Telluride Topological Insulator: Physical Vapor Transport vs Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Omar Concepcion, Osvaldo De Melo, Arturo Escobosa


Topological insulator (TI) materials are insulating in the bulk and conducting in the surface. The unique electronic properties associated with these surface states make them strong candidates for exploring innovative quantum phenomena and as practical applications for quantum computing, spintronic and nanodevices. Many materials, including Bi₂Te₃, have been proposed as TIs and, in some cases, it has been demonstrated experimentally by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM) and/or magnetotransport measurements. A clean surface is necessary in order to make any of this measurements. Several techniques have been used to produce films and different kinds of nanostructures. Growth and characterization in situ is usually the best option although cleaving the films can be an alternative to have a suitable surface. In the present work, we report a comparison of Bi₂Te₃ grown by physical vapor transport (PVT) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ARPES. The Bi₂Te₃ samples grown by PVT, were cleaved in the ultra-high vacuum in order to obtain a surface free of contaminants. In both cases, the XRD shows a c-axis orientation and the pole diagrams proved the epitaxial relationship between film and substrate. The ARPES image shows the linear dispersion characteristic of the surface states of the TI materials. The samples grown by PVT, a relatively simple and cost-effective technique shows the same high quality and TI properties than the grown by MBE.

Keywords: Bismuth telluride, molecular beam epitaxy, physical vapor transport, topological insulator

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10 Greenhouse Controlled with Graphical Plotting in Matlab

Authors: Bruno R. A. Oliveira, Italo V. V. Braga, Jonas P. Reges, Luiz P. O. Santos, Sidney C. Duarte, Emilson R. R. Melo, Auzuir R. Alexandria


This project aims to building a controlled greenhouse, or for better understanding, a structure where one can maintain a given range of temperature values (°C) coming from radiation emitted by an incandescent light, as previously defined, characterizing as a kind of on-off control and a differential, which is the plotting of temperature versus time graphs assisted by MATLAB software via serial communication. That way it is possible to connect the stove with a computer and monitor parameters. In the control, it was performed using a PIC 16F877A microprocessor which enabled convert analog signals to digital, perform serial communication with the IC MAX232 and enable signal transistors. The language used in the PIC's management is Basic. There are also a cooling system realized by two coolers 12V distributed in lateral structure, being used for venting and the other for exhaust air. To find out existing temperature inside is used LM35DZ sensor. Other mechanism used in the greenhouse construction was comprised of a reed switch and a magnet; their function is in recognition of the door position where a signal is sent to a buzzer when the door is open. Beyond it exist LEDs that help to identify the operation which the stove is located. To facilitate human-machine communication is employed an LCD display that tells real-time temperature and other information. The average range of design operating without any major problems, taking into account the limitations of the construction material and structure of electrical current conduction, is approximately 65 to 70 ° C. The project is efficient in these conditions, that is, when you wish to get information from a given material to be tested at temperatures not as high. With the implementation of the greenhouse automation, facilitating the temperature control and the development of a structure that encourages correct environment for the most diverse applications.

Keywords: greenhouse, microcontroller, temperature, control, MATLAB

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9 Comparison of Different Artificial Intelligence-Based Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Methods

Authors: Jamerson Felipe Pereira Lima, Jeane Cecília Bezerra de Melo


The difficulty and cost related to obtaining of protein tertiary structure information through experimental methods, such as X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy, helped raising the development of computational methods to do so. An approach used in these last is prediction of tridimensional structure based in the residue chain, however, this has been proved an NP-hard problem, due to the complexity of this process, explained by the Levinthal paradox. An alternative solution is the prediction of intermediary structures, such as the secondary structure of the protein. Artificial Intelligence methods, such as Bayesian statistics, artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM), among others, were used to predict protein secondary structure. Due to its good results, artificial neural networks have been used as a standard method to predict protein secondary structure. Recent published methods that use this technique, in general, achieved a Q3 accuracy between 75% and 83%, whereas the theoretical accuracy limit for protein prediction is 88%. Alternatively, to achieve better results, support vector machines prediction methods have been developed. The statistical evaluation of methods that use different AI techniques, such as ANNs and SVMs, for example, is not a trivial problem, since different training sets, validation techniques, as well as other variables can influence the behavior of a prediction method. In this study, we propose a prediction method based on artificial neural networks, which is then compared with a selected SVM method. The chosen SVM protein secondary structure prediction method is the one proposed by Huang in his work Extracting Physico chemical Features to Predict Protein Secondary Structure (2013). The developed ANN method has the same training and testing process that was used by Huang to validate his method, which comprises the use of the CB513 protein data set and three-fold cross-validation, so that the comparative analysis of the results can be made comparing directly the statistical results of each method.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, protein secondary structure, protein structure prediction, support vector machines

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8 Virus Diseases of Edible Seed Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in Aksaray Province

Authors: Serkan Yesil


Cucurbits (the Cucurbitaceae family) include 119 genera and 825 species distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The major cultivated cucurbit species such as melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum.&Nakai) are important vegetable crops worldwide. Squash is grown for fresh consuming, as well as its seeds are used as a snack in Turkey like some Mediterranean countries and Germany, Hungary, Austria and China. Virus diseases are one of the most destructive diseases on squash which is grown for seeds in Aksaray province. In this study, it was aimed to determine the virus infections in major squash growing areas in Aksaray province. Totally 153 plant samples with common virus symptoms like mosaic, curling, blistering, mottling, distortion, shoestring, stunting and vine decline were collected from squash plants during 2014. In this study, DAS-ELISA method is used for identifying the virus infections on the plant samples. According to the results of the DAS-ELISA 84.96 % of plant samples were infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic Potyvirus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic Potyvirus-2 (WMV-2), Cucumber mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV), Papaya ringspot Potyvirus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) and Squash mosaic Comovirus (SqMV). ZYMV was predominant in the research area with the ratio of 66.01 %. WMV-2 was the second important virus disease in the survey area, it was detected on the samples at the ratio of 57.51 %. Also, mixed infections of those virus infections were detected commonly in squash. Especially, ZYMV+WMV-2 mixed infections were common. Cucumber green mottle mosaic Tobamovirus (CGMMV) was not present in the research area.

Keywords: Aksaray, DAS-ELISA, edible seed squash, WMV-2, ZYMV

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7 Acute Neurophysiological Responses to Resistance Training; Evidence of a Shortened Super Compensation Cycle and Early Neural Adaptations

Authors: Christopher Latella, Ashlee M. Hendy, Dan Vander Westhuizen, Wei-Peng Teo


Introduction: Neural adaptations following resistance training interventions have been widely investigated, however the evidence regarding the mechanisms of early adaptation are less clear. Understanding neural responses from an acute resistance training session is pivotal in the prescription of frequency, intensity and volume in applied strength and conditioning practice. Therefore the primary aim of this study was to investigate the time course of neurophysiological mechanisms post training against current super compensation theory, and secondly, to examine whether these responses reflect neural adaptations observed with resistance training interventions. Methods: Participants (N=14) completed a randomised, counterbalanced crossover study comparing; control, strength and hypertrophy conditions. The strength condition involved 3 x 5RM leg extensions with 3min recovery, while the hypertrophy condition involved 3 x 12 RM with 60s recovery. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation were used to measure excitability of the central and peripheral neural pathways, and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) to quantify strength changes. Measures were taken pre, immediately post, 10, 20 and 30 mins and 1, 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs following training. Results: Significant decreases were observed at post, 10, 20, 30 min, 1 and 2 hrs for both training groups compared to control group for force, (p <.05), maximal compound wave; (p < .005), silent period; (p < .05). A significant increase in corticospinal excitability; (p < .005) was observed for both groups. Corticospinal excitability between strength and hypertrophy groups was near significance, with a large effect (η2= .202). All measures returned to baseline within 6 hrs post training. Discussion: Neurophysiological mechanisms appear to be significantly altered in the period 2 hrs post training, returning to homeostasis by 6 hrs. The evidence suggests that the time course of neural recovery post resistance training occurs 18-40 hours shorter than previous super compensation models. Strength and hypertrophy protocols showed similar response profiles with current findings suggesting greater post training corticospinal drive from hypertrophy training, despite previous evidence that strength training requires greater neural input. The increase in corticospinal drive and decrease inl inhibition appear to be a compensatory mechanism for decreases in peripheral nerve excitability and maximal voluntary force output. The changes in corticospinal excitability and inhibition are akin to adaptive processes observed with training interventions of 4 wks or longer. It appears that the 2 hr recovery period post training is the most influential for priming further neural adaptations with resistance training. Secondly, the frequency of prescribed resistance sessions can be scheduled closer than previous super compensation theory for optimal strength gains.

Keywords: neural responses, resistance training, super compensation, transcranial magnetic stimulation

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6 Enhanced Kinetic Solubility Profile of Epiisopiloturine Solid Solution in Hipromellose Phthalate

Authors: Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Cybelly M. Melo, Camila B. M. Figueirêdo, Giovanna C. R. M. Schver, Salvana P. M. Costa, Magaly A. M. de Lyra, Ping I. Lee, José L. Soares-Sobrinho, Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Mônica F. R. Soares


Epiisopiloturine (EPI) is a drug candidate that is extracted from Pilocarpus microphyllus and isolated from the waste of Pilocarpine. EPI has demonstrated promising schistosomicidal, leishmanicide, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, according to in vitro studies that have been carried out since 2009. However, this molecule shows poor aqueous solubility, which represents a problem for the release of the drug candidate and its absorption by the organism. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the extent of enhancement of kinetic solubility of a solid solution (SS) of EPI in hipromellose phthalate HP-55 (HPMCP), an enteric polymer carrier. SS was obtained by the solvent evaporation methodology, using acetone/methanol (60:40) as solvent system. Both EPI and polymer (drug loading 10%) were dissolved in this solvent until a clear solution was obtained, and then dried in oven at 60ºC during 12 hours, followed by drying in a vacuum oven for 4 h. The results show a considerable modification in the crystalline structure of the drug candidate. For instance, X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows a crystalline behavior for the EPI, which becomes amorphous for the SS. Polarized light microscopy, a more sensitive technique than XRD, also shows completely absence of crystals in SS sample. Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) curves show no signal of EPI melting point in SS curve, indicating, once more, no presence of crystal in this system. Interaction between the drug candidate and the polymer were found in Infrared microscopy, which shows a carbonyl 43.3 cm-1 band shift, indicating a moderate-strong interaction between them, probably one of the reasons to the SS formation. Under sink conditions (pH 6.8), EPI SS had its dissolution performance increased in 2.8 times when compared with the isolated drug candidate. EPI SS sample provided a release of more than 95% of the drug candidate in 15 min, whereas only 45% of EPI (alone) could be dissolved in 15 min and 70% in 90 min. Thus, HPMCP demonstrates to have a good potential to enhance the kinetic solubility profile of EPI. Future studies to evaluate the stability of SS are required to conclude the benefits of this system.

Keywords: epiisopiloturine, hipromellose phthalate HP-55, pharmaceuticaltechnology, solubility

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5 The Psychologist's Role in a Social Assistance Reference Center: A Case of Violence and Child Sexual Abuse in Northeastern Brazil

Authors: G. Melo, J. Felix, S. Maciel, C. Fernandes, W. Rodrigues


In Brazilian public policy, the Centres of Reference for Social Assistance (CRAS in Portuguese) are part of the Unified Social Assistance System (SUAS in Portuguese). SUAS is responsible for addressing spontaneous or currently active cases that are brought forth from other services in the social assistance network. The following case was reviewed by CRAS’s team in Recife, Brazil, after a complaint of child abuse was filed against the mother of a 7-year-old girl by the girl’s aunt. The girl is the daughter of an incestuous relationship between her mother and her older brother. The complaint was registered by service staff and five interventions were subsequently carried out on behalf of the child. These interventions provided a secure place for dialogue with both the child and her family and allowed for an investigation of the abuse to proceed. They took place in the child’s school as well as her aunt’s residence. At school, the child (with her classmates) watched a video and listened to a song about the prevention of child abuse. This was followed up with a second intervention to determine any signs of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), by having the child play with the mobile app ‘My Angela’. Books on the themes of family and fear were also read to the child on different occasions at her school – after every intervention she was asked to draw something related to fear and her concept of a family. After the interventions and discussing the case as a team, we reached several conclusions: 1) The child did not appear to show any symptoms of PTSD; 2) She normally fantasized about her future and life story; 3) She did not allow herself to be touched by strangers with whom she lacks a close relationship (such as classmates or her teacher); 4) Through her drawings, she reproduced the conversations she had had with the staff; 5) She habitually covered her drawings when asked questions about the abuse. In this particular clinical case, we want to highlight that the role of the Psychologist’s intervention at CRAS is to attempt to resolve the issue promptly (and not to develop a prolonged clinical study based on traditional methods), by making use of the available tools from the social assistance network, and by making referrals to the relevant authorities, such as the Public Ministry, so that final protective actions can be taken and enforced. In this case, the Guardian Council of the Brazilian Public Ministry was asked to transfer the custody of the child to her uncle. The mother of the child was sent to a CAPS (Centre for Psychosocial Care), having been diagnosed with psychopathology. The child would then participate in NGO programs that allow for a gradual reduction of social exposure to her mother before being transferred to her uncle’s custody in Sao Paulo.

Keywords: child abuse, intervention, social psychology, violence

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4 Brazilian Transmission System Efficient Contracting: Regulatory Impact Analysis of Economic Incentives

Authors: Thelma Maria Melo Pinheiro, Guilherme Raposo Diniz Vieira, Sidney Matos da Silva, Leonardo Mendonça de Oliveira Queiroz, Mateus Sousa Pinheiro, Danyllo Wenceslau de Oliveira Lopes


The present article has the objective to describe the regulatory impact analysis (RIA) of the contracting efficiency of the Brazilian transmission system usage. This contracting is made by users connected to the main transmission network and is used to guide necessary investments to supply the electrical energy demand. Therefore, an inefficient contracting of this energy amount distorts the real need for grid capacity, affecting the sector planning accuracy and resources optimization. In order to provide this efficiency, the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL) homologated the Normative Resolution (NR) No. 666, from July 23th of 2015, which consolidated the procedures for the contracting of transmission system usage and the contracting efficiency verification. Aiming for a more efficient and rational transmission system contracting, the resolution established economic incentives denominated as Inefficiency installment for excess (IIE) and inefficiency installment for over-contracting (IIOC). The first one, IIE, is verified when the contracted demand exceeds the established regulatory limit; it is applied to consumer units, generators, and distribution companies. The second one, IIOC, is verified when the distributors over-contract their demand. Thus, the establishment of the inefficiency installments IIE and IIOC intends to avoid the agent contract less energy than necessary or more than it is needed. Knowing that RIA evaluates a regulatory intervention to verify if its goals were achieved, the results from the application of the above-mentioned normative resolution to the Brazilian transmission sector were analyzed through indicators that were created for this RIA to evaluate the contracting efficiency transmission system usage, using real data from before and after the homologation of the normative resolution in 2015. For this, indicators were used as the efficiency contracting indicator (ECI), excess of demand indicator (EDI), and over-contracting of demand indicator (ODI). The results demonstrated, through the ECI analysis, a decrease of the contracting efficiency, a behaviour that was happening even before the normative resolution of 2015. On the other side, the EDI showed a considerable decrease in the amount of excess for the distributors and a small reduction for the generators; moreover, the ODI notable decreased, which optimizes the usage of the transmission installations. Hence, with the complete evaluation from the data and indicators, it was possible to conclude that IIE is a relevant incentive for a more efficient contracting, indicating to the agents that their contracting values are not adequate to keep their service provisions for their users. The IIOC also has its relevance, to the point that it shows to the distributors that their contracting values are overestimated.

Keywords: contracting, electricity regulation, evaluation, regulatory impact analysis, transmission power system

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3 A Bilingual Didactic Sequence about Biological Control to Develop the Scientific Literacy on High School Students

Authors: André Melo Franco Lorena De Barros, Elida Geralda Campos


The bilingual education has just started in Brazils public schools. This paper is a didactic sequence of biology bilingual lessons about biologic control in the Brazilian Savana. This sequence has been applied in the first year of a bilingual education program in the only public English and Portuguese bilingual high school in Brazil. The aim of this work is to develop and apply a didactic sequence capable of developing the scientific literacy through the bilingual education associated with Problem Based Learning. This didactic sequence was applied in a class of 30 students. It was divided in three lessons. In the first lesson the students were divided in groups and received a fiction Letter from a mayor explaining the problem and asking students for help. The organic soy plantation of the mayor’s is been attacked by caterpillars. The students read the text then raised hypothesis of how they could solve the problem. In the second lesson the students searched online to verify if theirs hypothesis were correct and to find answers for the question proposed. In the third lesson the groups got together and discussed about their results and wrote a final essay with the answers for the problem proposed. The tools used to acquire information about the didactic sequence were: researcher’s diary, survey, interview and essay developed by the students. Most of the initial hypothesis couldn’t answer the problem properly. By the second lesson most of the students could answer properly. During the third lesson all the groups figured out suitable answers. The forms of biological control, birds habits and transgenic were deeply studied by the students. This methodology was successful for developing the scientific literacy with most of the students and also concluded that the quality of learning is directly associated with the effort of each student during the process. [ARAÚJO, Denise Lino de. O que é (e como se faz) sequência didática. Entrepalavras, Fortaleza, v. 3, n. 3, p.322-334, jul. 2013.] [FRANCO, Aline Aparecida et al. Preferência alimentar de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) por cultivares de soja. Científica: Revista de Ciências Agrárias, Jaboticabal, v. 1, n. 42, p.32-38, 29 jan. 2014.] [RIBEIRO, Luis Roberto de Camargo. Aprendizagem baseada em problemas (PBL): Uma experiência no ensino superior. São Carlos: Editora da Universidade Federal de São Carlos Ribeiro, 2008. 151 p.] [TRIVELATO, Sílvia L. Frateschi; TONIDANDEL, Sandra M. Rudella. Ensino Por Investigação: Eixos Organizadores Para Sequências De Ensino De Biologia. Ensaio Pesquisa em Educação em Ciências, Belo Horizonte, v. 17, n. especial, p.97-114, nov. 2015.].

Keywords: Bilingual Education, Environmental Education, Problem Based Learning, Science education

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2 Mechanical Properties of Poly(Propylene)-Based Graphene Nanocomposites

Authors: Luiza Melo De Lima, Tito Trindade, Jose M. Oliveira


The development of thermoplastic-based graphene nanocomposites has been of great interest not only to the scientific community but also to different industrial sectors. Due to the possible improvement of performance and weight reduction, thermoplastic nanocomposites are a great promise as a new class of materials. These nanocomposites are of relevance for the automotive industry, namely because the emission limits of CO2 emissions imposed by the European Commission (EC) regulations can be fulfilled without compromising the car’s performance but by reducing its weight. Thermoplastic polymers have some advantages over thermosetting polymers such as higher productivity, lower density, and recyclability. In the automotive industry, for example, poly(propylene) (PP) is a common thermoplastic polymer, which represents more than half of the polymeric raw material used in automotive parts. Graphene-based materials (GBM) are potential nanofillers that can improve the properties of polymer matrices at very low loading. In comparison to other composites, such as fiber-based composites, weight reduction can positively affect their processing and future applications. However, the properties and performance of GBM/polymer nanocomposites depend on the type of GBM and polymer matrix, the degree of dispersion, and especially the type of interactions between the fillers and the polymer matrix. In order to take advantage of the superior mechanical strength of GBM, strong interfacial strength between GBM and the polymer matrix is required for efficient stress transfer from GBM to the polymer. Thus, chemical compatibilizers and physicochemical modifications have been reported as important tools during the processing of these nanocomposites. In this study, PP-based nanocomposites were obtained by a simple melt blending technique, using a Brabender type mixer machine. Graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) were applied as structural reinforcement. Two compatibilizers were used to improve the interaction between PP matrix and GnPs: PP graft maleic anhydride (PPgMA) and PPgMA modified with tertiary amine alcohol (PPgDM). The samples for tensile and Charpy impact tests were obtained by injection molding. The results suggested the GnPs presence can increase the mechanical strength of the polymer. However, it was verified that the GnPs presence can promote a decrease of impact resistance, turning the nanocomposites more fragile than neat PP. The compatibilizers’ incorporation increases the impact resistance, suggesting that the compatibilizers can enhance the adhesion between PP and GnPs. Compared to neat PP, Young’s modulus of non-compatibilized nanocomposite increase demonstrated that GnPs incorporation can promote a stiffness improvement of the polymer. This trend can be related to the several physical crosslinking points between the PP matrix and the GnPs. Furthermore, the decrease of strain at a yield of PP/GnPs, together with the enhancement of Young’s modulus, confirms that the GnPs incorporation led to an increase in stiffness but to a decrease in toughness. Moreover, the results demonstrated that incorporation of compatibilizers did not affect Young’s modulus and strain at yield results compared to non-compatibilized nanocomposite. The incorporation of these compatibilizers showed an improvement of nanocomposites’ mechanical properties compared both to those the non-compatibilized nanocomposite and to a PP sample used as reference.

Keywords: graphene nanoplatelets, mechanical properties, melt blending processing, poly(propylene)-based nanocomposites

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1 Genome-Scale Analysis of Streptomyces Caatingaensis CMAA 1322 Metabolism, a New Abiotic Stress-Tolerant Actinomycete

Authors: Suikinai Nobre Santos, Ranko Gacesa, Paul F. Long, Itamar Soares de Melo


Extremophilic microorganism are adapted to biotopes combining several stress factors (temperature, pressure, radiation, salinity and pH), which indicate the richness valuable resource for the exploitation of novel biotechnological processes and constitute unique models for investigations their biomolecules (1, 2). The above information encourages us investigate bioprospecting synthesized compounds by a noval actinomycete, designated thermotolerant Streptomyces caatingaensis CMAA 1322, isolated from sample soil tropical dry forest (Caatinga) in the Brazilian semiarid region (3-17°S and 35-45°W). This set of constrating physical and climatic factores provide the unique conditions and a diversity of well adapted species, interesting site for biotechnological purposes. Preliminary studies have shown the great potential in the production of cytotoxic, pesticidal and antimicrobial molecules (3). Thus, to extend knowledge of the genes clusters responsible for producing biosynthetic pathways of natural products in strain CMAA1322, whole-genome shotgun (WGS) DNA sequencing was performed using paired-end long sequencing with PacBio RS (Pacific Biosciences). Genomic DNA was extracted from a pure culture grown overnight on LB medium using the PureLink genomic DNA kit (Life Technologies). An approximately 3- to 20-kb-insert PacBio library was constructed and sequenced on an 8 single-molecule real-time (SMRT) cell, yielding 116,269 reads (average length, 7,446 bp), which were allocated into 18 contigs, with 142.11x coverage and N50 value of 20.548 bp (BioProject number PRJNA288757). The assembled data were analyzed by Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology (RAST) (4) the genome size was found to be 7.055.077 bp, comprising 6167 open reading frames (ORFs) and 413 subsystems. The G+C content was estimated to be 72 mol%. The closest-neighbors tool, available in RAST through functional comparison of the genome, revealed that strain CMAA1322 is more closely related to Streptomyces hygroscopicus ATCC 53653 (similarity score value, 537), S. violaceusniger Tu 4113 (score value, 483), S. avermitilis MA-4680 (score value, 475), S. albus J1074 (score value, 447). The Streptomyces sp. CMAA1322 genome contains 98 tRNA genes and 135 genes copies related to stress response, mainly osmotic stress (14), heat shock (16), oxidative stress (49). Functional annotation by antiSMASH version 3.0 (5) identified 41 clusters for secondary metabolites (including two clusters for lanthipeptides, ten clusters for nonribosomal peptide synthetases [NRPS], three clusters for siderophores, fourteen for polyketide synthetase [PKS], six clusters encoding a terpene, two clusters encoding a bacteriocin, and one cluster encoding a phenazine). Our work provide in comparative analyse of genome and extract produced (data no published) by lineage CMAA1322, revealing the potential of microorganisms accessed from extreme environments as Caatinga” to produce a wide range of biotechnological relevant compounds.

Keywords: caatinga, streptomyces, environmental stresses, biosynthetic pathways

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