Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Emilia Pietiläinen

26 Examination of the Impact of Projects Based on Reggio Emilia Approach on the Creative Thinking Skills of Preschool Children: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Arzu Akar Gençer, Mübeccel Gönen

Abstract:

The objective of the study is to investigate the impact of the projects based on Reggio Emilia Approach, on the creative thinking skills of preschool children. The study is carried out with eighteen 6 years old children in a class of a preschool, and entailed the development of projects based on Reggio Emilia approach with the children, for a period of 3 months. The study employs qualitative model. The children were analyzed with reference to the creative thinking aspects (rationality, originality, flexibility, and applicability) of the projects applied. As the projects based on Reggio Emilia approach arose out of the interests and curiosity of the children, and had their roots in the existing class culture, it is possible to conclude that they have an impact on the creativity of the children with reference to the aspects of creative thinking.

Keywords: Reggio Emilia approach, project, creativity, preschool children

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25 An eHealth Intervention Using Accelerometer- Smart Phone-App Technology to Promote Physical Activity and Health among Employees in a Military Setting

Authors: Emilia Pietiläinen, Heikki Kyröläinen, Tommi Vasankari, Matti Santtila, Tiina Luukkaala, Kai Parkkola

Abstract:

Working in the military sets special demands on physical fitness, however, reduced physical activity levels among employees in the Finnish Defence Forces (FDF), a trend also being seen among the working-age population in Finland, is leading to reduced physical fitness levels and increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, something which also increases human resource costs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop an eHealth intervention using accelerometer- smartphone app feedback technique, telephone counseling and physical activity recordings to increase physical activity of the personnel and thereby improve their health. Specific aims were to reduce stress, improve quality of sleep and mental and physical performance, ability to work and reduce sick leave absences. Employees from six military brigades around Finland were invited to participate in the study, and finally, 260 voluntary participants were included (66 women, 194 men). The participants were randomized into intervention (156) and control groups (104). The eHealth intervention group used accelerometers measuring daily physical activity and duration and quality of sleep for six months. The accelerometers transmitted the data to smartphone apps while giving feedback about daily physical activity and sleep. The intervention group participants were also encouraged to exercise for two hours a week during working hours, a benefit that was already offered to employees following existing FDF guidelines. To separate the exercise done during working hours from the accelerometer data, the intervention group marked this exercise into an exercise diary. The intervention group also participated in telephone counseling about their physical activity. On the other hand, the control group participants continued with their normal exercise routine without the accelerometer and feedback. They could utilize the benefit of being able to exercise during working hours, but they were not separately encouraged for it, nor was the exercise diary used. The participants were measured at baseline, after the entire intervention period, and six months after the end of the entire intervention. The measurements included accelerometer recordings, biochemical laboratory tests, body composition measurements, physical fitness tests, and a wide questionnaire focusing on sociodemographic factors, physical activity and health. In terms of results, the primary indicators of effectiveness are increased physical activity and fitness, improved health status, and reduced sick leave absences. The evaluation of the present scientific reach is based on the data collected during the baseline measurements. Maintenance of the studied outcomes is assessed by comparing the results of the control group measured at the baseline and a year follow-up. Results of the study are not yet available but will be presented at the conference. The present findings will help to develop an easy and cost-effective model to support the health and working capability of employees in the military and other workplaces.

Keywords: accelerometer, health, mobile applications, physical activity, physical performance

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24 Religious Diversity, Tolerance, and Understanding: Strategies to Restore Peace in Nigeria

Authors: Aboekwe, Mary Emilia

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Nigeria is a country with different ethnic groups and diverse religious affiliations. Owing to these differences, there continue to arise at various points and times conflicts. Lives and unquantifiable amounts of property have been lost as a result. It is the aim of this paper to show that despite these diverse religious affiliations, there can be unity and peace. The paper using a phenomenological approach, argues that religion is fundamentally oriented towards peace. Hence, one who is truly religious is to be disposed towards peaceful coexistence. This paper advocates tolerance, respect, appreciation, love, willingness to cooperate, accepting other persons with all they have in common but their differences as well. In other words, there is need for dialogue between the religions, involving inter-religious conference and possible inter-religious prayer services.

Keywords: dialogue, diversity, tolerance, understanding.

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23 Innovative Approaches to Integrating the Bulgarian Folklore

Authors: Violeta Kostadinova, Emilia Tsankova

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The purpose of this research is to explore and analyze the integration of the younger generation with Bulgarian folklore through various innovative forms, methods and approaches. A survey was conducted among students to evaluate its success. The results prove the relevance of the problem as well and the necessity of innovation to keep the national and promotion of Bulgarian folklore. Innovation in music education is a good way to create positive motivation and raise interest in folk art, which is especially pronounced when the folk songs have contemporary arrangement. Modern interpretation of Bulgarian folk music makes the music more approachable to young people and makes it more likely that folk music will become an integral part of our modern culture. The research would help the implementation of appropriate innovations for more effective training and upgrading for music students in all middle and high schools in the country.

Keywords: Bulgarian folklore, innovative forms, methods and approaches, motivation, music education

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22 Times Series Analysis of Depositing in Industrial Design in Brazil between 1996 and 2013

Authors: Jonas Pedro Fabris, Alberth Almeida Amorim Souza, Maria Emilia Camargo, Suzana Leitão Russo

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With the law Nº. 9279, of May 14, 1996, the Brazilian government regulates rights and obligations relating to industrial property considering the economic development of the country as granting patents, trademark registration, registration of industrial designs and other forms of protection copyright. In this study, we show the application of the methodology of Box and Jenkins in the series of deposits of industrial design at the National Institute of Industrial Property for the period from May 1996 to April 2013. First, a graphical analysis of the data was done by observing the behavior of the data and the autocorrelation function. The best model found, based on the analysis of charts and statistical tests suggested by Box and Jenkins methodology, it was possible to determine the model number for the deposit of industrial design, SARIMA (2,1,0)(2,0,0), with an equal to 9.88% MAPE.

Keywords: ARIMA models, autocorrelation, Box and Jenkins Models, industrial design, MAPE, time series

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21 Hominin Niche in the Times of Climate Change

Authors: Emilia Hunt, Sally C. Reynolds, Fiona Coward, Fabio Parracho Silva, Philip Hopley

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Ecological niche modeling is widely used in conservation studies, but application to the extinct hominin species is a relatively new approach. Being able to understand what ecological niches were occupied by respective hominin species provides a new perspective into influences on evolutionary processes. Niche separation or overlap can tell us more about specific requirements of the species within the given timeframe. Many of the ancestral species lived through enormous climate changes: glacial and interglacial periods, changes in rainfall, leading to desertification or flooding of regions and displayed impressive levels of adaptation necessary for their survival. This paper reviews niche modeling methodologies and their application to hominin studies. Traditional conservation methods might not be directly applicable to extinct species and are not comparable to hominins. Hominin niche also includes aspects of technologies, use of fire and extended communication, which are not traditionally used in building conservation models. Future perspectives on how to improve niche modeling for extinct hominin species will be discussed.

Keywords: hominin niche, climate change, evolution, adaptation, ecological niche modelling

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20 Design of Advanced Materials for Alternative Cooling Devices

Authors: Emilia Olivos, R. Arroyave, A. Vargas-Calderon, J. E. Dominguez-Herrera

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More efficient cooling systems are needed to reduce building energy consumption and environmental impact. At present researchers focus mainly on environmentally-friendly magnetic materials and the potential application in cooling devices. The magnetic materials presented in this project belong to a group known as Heusler alloys. These compounds are characterized by a strong coupling between their structure and magnetic properties. Usually, a change in one of them can alter the other, which implies changes in other electronic or structural properties, such as, shape magnetic memory response or the magnetocaloric effect. Those properties and its dependence with external fields make these materials interesting, both from a fundamental point of view, as well as on their different possible applications. In this work, first principles and Monte Carlo simulations have been used to calculate exchange couplings and magnetic properties as a function of an applied magnetic field on Heusler alloys. As a result, we found a large dependence of the magnetic susceptibility, entropy and heat capacity, indicating that the magnetic field can be used in experiments to trigger particular magnetic properties in materials, which are necessary to develop solid-state refrigeration devices.

Keywords: ferromagnetic materials, magnetocaloric effect, materials design, solid state refrigeration

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19 Sociocultural Barriers to the Development of Autonomous Foreign Language Learning: Some Teaching Strategies to Overcome Such Challenges in a Mexican Context

Authors: Zaideth Zobeida Ponce Alonso, Laura Emilia Fierro Lopez, Maria del Rocio Dominguez Gaona

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The present study is part of the Master in Modern Languages at the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, and it aims to analyze how the sociocultural background might influence the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education in order to propose some strategies to overcome such challenges. Given the lack of research on the sociocultural barriers in learner autonomy in a Mexican context and the need to hear teachers’ voices about this issue, qualitative data was obtained from semi-structured interviews with six language teachers on their perspectives on learner autonomy, its application to the language classroom, and their experiences with Mexican and foreign learners/contexts in order to find out differences regarding learner autonomy. The results suggest three main sociocultural characteristics: preference for an authority figure, tendency towards collectivism, and low tolerance of ambiguity. Finally, nine strategies were proposed in order to help language teachers to deal with such sociocultural characteristics when fostering learner autonomy in the border city of Mexicali, where this study was carried out.

Keywords: learner autonomy, Mexican context, sociocultural influence, teachers' perspectives, teaching strategies

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18 Choosing Local Organic Food: Consumer Motivations and Ethical Spaces

Authors: Artur Saraiva, Moritz von Schwedler, Emília Fernandes

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In recent years, the organic sector has increased significantly. However, with the ‘conventionalization’ of these products, it has been questioned whether these products have been losing their original vision. Accordingly, this research based on 31 phenomenological interviews with committed organic consumers in urban and rural areas of Portugal, aims to analyse how ethical motivations and ecological awareness are related to organic food consumption. The content thematic analysis highlights aspects related to society and environmental concerns. On an individual level, the importance of internal coherence, peace of mind and balance that these consumers find in the consumption of local organic products was stressed. For these consumers, local organic products consumption made for significant changes in their lives, aiding in the establishment of a green identity, and involves a certain philosophy of life. This vision of an organic lifestyle is grounded in a political and ecological perspective, beyond the usual organic definition, as a ‘post-organic era’. The paper contributes to better understand how an ideological environmental discourse allows highlighting the relationship between consumers’ environmental concerns and the politics of food, resulting in a possible transition to new sustainable consumption practices.

Keywords: organic consumption, localism, content thematic analysis, pro-environmental discourse, political consumption, Portugal

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17 Gender Diversity in Early Years Education: An Exploratory Study Applied to Preschool Curriculum System in Romania

Authors: Emilia-Gheorghina Negru

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As an EU goal, gender diversity in early year’s education aims and promotes equality of chances and respect for gender peculiarities of the pupils which are involved in formal educational activities. Early year’s education, as the first step to the Curriculum, prints to teachers the need to identify the role of the gender dimension on this stage, depending on the age level of preschool children through effective, complex, innovative and analytical awareness of gender diversity teaching and management strategies. Through gender educational work we, as teachers, will examine the effectiveness of the PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum the gender development of school-aged children. PATHS and a school-based preventive intervention model are necessary to be designed to improve children's ability to discuss and understand equality and gender concepts. Our teachers must create an intervention model and provide PATHS lessons during the school year. Results of the intervention will be effective for both low- and high-risk children in improving their range of math’s skills for girls and vocabulary, fluency and emotional part for boys in discussing gender experiences, their efficacy beliefs regarding the management of equality in gender area, and their developmental understanding of some aspects of gender.

Keywords: gender, gender differences, gender equality, gender role, gender stereotypes

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16 Technologic Information about Photovoltaic Applied in Urban Residences

Authors: Stephanie Fabris Russo, Daiane Costa Guimarães, Jonas Pedro Fabris, Maria Emilia Camargo, Suzana Leitão Russo, José Augusto Andrade Filho

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Among renewable energy sources, solar energy is the one that has stood out. Solar radiation can be used as a thermal energy source and can also be converted into electricity by means of effects on certain materials, such as thermoelectric and photovoltaic panels. These panels are often used to generate energy in homes, buildings, arenas, etc., and have low pollution emissions. Thus, a technological prospecting was performed to find patents related to the use of photovoltaic plates in urban residences. The patent search was based on ESPACENET, associating the keywords photovoltaic and home, where we found 136 patent documents in the period of 1994-2015 in the fields title and abstract. Note that the years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 had the highest number of applicants, with respectively, 11, 13, 23, 29, 15 and 21. Regarding the country that deposited about this technology, it is clear that China leads with 67 patent deposits, followed by Japan with 38 patents applications. It is important to note that most depositors, 50% are companies, 44% are individual inventors and only 6% are universities. On the International Patent classification (IPC) codes, we noted that the most present classification in results was H02J3/38, which represents provisions in parallel to feed a single network by two or more generators, converters or transformers. Among all categories, there is the H session, which means Electricity, with 70% of the patents.

Keywords: photovoltaic, urban residences, technology forecasting, prospecting

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15 Coastalization and Urban Sprawl in the Mediterranean: Using High-Resolution Multi-Temporal Data to Identify Typologies of Spatial Development

Authors: Apostolos Lagarias, Anastasia Stratigea

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Coastal urbanization is heavily affecting the Mediterranean, taking the form of linear urban sprawl along the coastal zone. This process is posing extreme pressure on ecosystems, leading to an unsustainable model of growth. The aim of this research is to analyze coastal urbanization patterns in the Mediterranean using High-resolution multi-temporal data provided by the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) database. Methodology involves the estimation of a set of spatial metrics characterizing the density, aggregation/clustering and dispersion of built-up areas. As case study areas, the Spanish Coast and the Adriatic Italian Coast are examined. Coastalization profiles are examined and selected sub-areas massively affected by tourism development and suburbanization trends (Costa Blanca/Murcia, Costa del Sol, Puglia, Emilia-Romagna Coast) are analyzed and compared. Results show that there are considerable differences between the Spanish and the Italian typologies of spatial development, related to the land use structure and planning policies applied in each case. Monitoring and analyzing spatial patterns could inform integrated Mediterranean strategies for coastal areas and redirect spatial/environmental policies towards a more sustainable model of growth

Keywords: coastalization, Mediterranean, multi-temporal, urban sprawl, spatial metrics

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14 Ab-initio Calculations on the Mechanism of Action of Platinum and Ruthenium Complexes in Phototherapy

Authors: Eslam Dabbish, Fortuna Ponte, Stefano Scoditti, Emilia Sicilia, Gloria Mazzone

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The medical techniques based on the use of light for activating the drug are occupying a prominent place in the cancer treatment due to their selectivity that contributes to reduce undesirable side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Among these therapeutic treatments, photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT) are emerging as complementary approaches for selective destruction of neoplastic tissue through direct cellular damage. Both techniques rely on the employment of a molecule, photosensitizer (PS), able to absorb within the so-called therapeutic window. Thus, the exposure to light of otherwise inert molecules promotes the population of excited states of the drug, that in PDT are able to produce the cytotoxic species, such as 1O2 and other ROS, in PACT can be responsible of the active species release or formation. Following the success of cisplatin in conventional treatments, many other transition metal complexes were explored as anticancer agents for applications in different medical approaches, including PDT and PACT, in order to improve their chemical, biological and photophysical properties. In this field, several crucial characteristics of candidate PSs can be accurately predicted from first principle calculations, especially in the framework of density functional theory and its time-dependent formulation, contributing to the understanding of the entire photochemical pathways involved which can ultimately help in improving the efficiency of a drug. A brief overview of the outcomes on some platinum and ruthenium-based PSs proposed for the application in the two phototherapies will be provided.

Keywords: TDDFT, metal complexes, PACT, PDT

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13 A Generalised Propensity Score Analysis to Investigate the Influence of Agricultural Research Systems on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Authors: Spada Alessia, Fiore Mariantonietta, Lamonaca Emilia, Contò Francesco

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Bioeconomy can give the chance to face new global challenges and can move ahead the transition from a waste economy to an economy based on renewable resources and sustainable consumption. Air pollution is a grave issue in green challenges, mainly caused by anthropogenic factors. The agriculture sector is a great contributor to global greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions due to lacking efficient management of the resources involved and research policies. In particular, livestock sector contributes to emissions of GHGs, deforestation, and nutrient imbalances. More effective agricultural research systems and technologies are crucial in order to improve farm productivity but also to reduce the GHGs emissions. Using data from FAOSTAT statistics and concern the EU countries; the aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of ASTI R&D (Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators) on GHGs emissions for countries EU in 2015 by generalized propensity score procedures, estimating a dose-response function, also considering a set of covariates. Expected results show the existence of the influence of ASTI R&D on GHGs across EU countries. Implications are crucial: reducing GHGs emissions by means of R&D based policies and correlatively reaching eco-friendly management of required resources by means of green available practices could have a crucial role for fair intra-generational implications.

Keywords: agricultural research systems, dose-response function, generalized propensity score, GHG emissions

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12 Spatial Distribution and Time Series Analysis of COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy: A Geospatial Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Farhan Ul Moazzam, Tamkeen Urooj Paracha, Ghani Rahman, Byung Gul Lee, Nasir Farid, Adnan Arshad

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The novel coronavirus pandemic disease (COVID-19) affected the whole globe, though there is a lack of clinical studies and its epidemiological features. But as per the observation, it has been seen that most of the COVID-19 infected patients show mild to moderate symptoms, and they get better without any medical assistance due to a better immune system to generate antibodies against the novel coronavirus. In this study, the active cases, serious cases, recovered cases, deaths and total confirmed cases had been analyzed using the geospatial inverse distance weightage technique (IDW) within the time span of 2nd March to 3rd June 2020. As of 3rd June, the total number of COVID-19 cases in Italy were 231,238, total deaths 33,310, serious cases 350, recovered cases 158,951, and active cases were 39,177, which has been reported by the Ministry of Health, Italy. March 2nd-June 3rd, 2020 a sum of 231,238 cases has been reported in Italy out of which 38.68% cases reported in the Lombardia region with a death rate of 18%, which is high from its national mortality rate followed by Emilia-Romagna (14.89% deaths), Piemonte (12.68% deaths), and Vento (10% deaths). As per the total cases in the region, the highest number of recoveries has been observed in Umbria (92.52%), followed by Basilicata (87%), Valle d'Aosta (86.85%), and Trento (84.54%). The COVID-19 evolution in Italy has been particularly found in the major urban area, i.e., Rome, Milan, Naples, Bologna, and Florence. Geospatial technology played a vital role in this pandemic by tracking infected patient, active cases, and recovered cases. Geospatial techniques are very important in terms of monitoring and planning to control the pandemic spread in the country.

Keywords: COVID-19, public health, geospatial analysis, IDW, Italy

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11 The Causes of Governance Inefficiency in the Financial Institutions: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Theory of Corporate Governance

Authors: Emilia Klepczarek

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The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and the OECD found problems with the mechanisms of corporate governance as one of the major causes of destabilization of the financial system and the subprime crisis in the years 2007-2010. In response to these allegations, there were formulated a number of recommendations aimed at improving the quality of supervisory standards in financial institutions. They relate mainly to risk management, remuneration policy, the competence of managers and board members and transparency issues. Nevertheless, a review of the empirical research conducted by the author does not allow for an unambiguous confirmation of the positive impact of the postulated standards on the stability of banking entities. There is, therefore, a presumption of the existence of hidden variables determining the effectiveness of the governance mechanisms. According to the author, this involves concepts arising from behavioral economics and economic anthropology, which allow for an explanation of the effectiveness of corporate governance institutions on the basis of the socio-cultural profile of its members. The proposed corporate governance culture theory indicates that the attributes of the members of the organization and organizational culture can determine the different effectiveness level of the governance processes in similar formal corporate governance structures. The aim of the presentation is, firstly, to draw attention to the vast discrepancies existing within the results of research on the effectiveness of the standards of corporate governance in the banking sector. Secondly, the author proposes an explanation of these differences on the basis of governance theory breaking with common paradigms. The corporate governance culture theory is focused on the identity of the individual and the scope of autonomy offered within his or her institution. The coexistence of these two conditions - the adequate behavioral profile and enough freedom to decide - is a prerequisite for the efficient functioning of the institutions of corporate governance, which can contribute to rehabilitating and strengthening the stability of the financial sector.

Keywords: autonomy, corporate governance, efficiency, governance culture

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10 Vertebrate Model to Examine the Biological Effectiveness of Different Radiation Qualities

Authors: Rita Emília Szabó, Róbert Polanek, Tünde Tőkés, Zoltán Szabó, Szabolcs Czifrus, Katalin Hideghéty

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Purpose: Several feature of zebrafish are making them amenable for investigation on therapeutic approaches such as ionizing radiation. The establishment of zebrafish model for comprehensive radiobiological research stands in the focus of our investigation, comparing the radiation effect curves of neutron and photon irradiation. Our final aim is to develop an appropriate vertebrate model in order to investigate the relative biological effectiveness of laser driven ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: After careful dosimetry series of viable zebrafish embryos were exposed to a single fraction whole-body neutron-irradiation (1,25; 1,875; 2; 2,5 Gy) at the research reactor of the Technical University of Budapest and to conventional 6 MeV photon beam at 24 hour post-fertilization (hpf). The survival and morphologic abnormalities (pericardial edema, spine curvature) of each embryo were assessed for each experiment at 24-hour intervals from the point of fertilization up to 168 hpf (defining the dose lethal for 50% (LD50)). Results: In the zebrafish embryo model LD50 at 20 Gy dose level was defined and the same lethality were found at 2 Gy dose from the reactor neutron beam resulting RBE of 10. Dose-dependent organ perturbations were detected on macroscopic (shortening of the body length, spine curvature, microcephaly, micro-ophthalmia, micrognathia, pericardial edema, and inhibition of yolk sac resorption) and microscopic (marked cellular changes in skin, cardiac, gastrointestinal system) with the same magnitude of dose difference. Conclusion: In our observations, we found that zebrafish embryo model can be used for investigating the effects of different type of ionizing radiation and this system proved to be highly efficient vertebrate model for preclinical examinations.

Keywords: ionizing radiation, LD50, relative biological effectiveness, zebrafish embryo

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9 Emotional Skills and Musical Performance in the Elementary Music Education in Conservatoires: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Emilia A. Campayo-Munoz, Alberto Cabedo-Mas

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Music students have to face the challenges of musical practice -such as discipline in study, competitiveness, or performance anxiety- that require good emotional management to enable successful performance. However, few rigorous implementations focused on studying the influence of emotional skills in student's musical performance. Responding to this gap in the literature, this study aims to explore the relationship between emotional skills and musical performance in the context of elementary music education in conservatoires. Given the individual nature of the instrumental studies and the difficult availability of teachers to be trained in emotional education, it was decided to conduct a multiple case study in a Spanish music conservatoire. Author 1 carried out the implementation of the research with three 10-year-old students who were selected from her piano class. All of them attended the third year of their piano studies. The research processes consisted of the implementation of a set of specific and cross-sectional activities designed 'ad hoc' to be articulated in the subjects of individual instrument -piano- and ensemble in parallel to the contents of musical nature. The CE-360º questionnaire was used to measure different aspects of the students' emotional skills from a multi-angle perspective, each of the questionnaires being responded by oneself, three teachers and three peers, before and after the implementation. The data from the questionnaire were compared with the grades that the students obtained during the first and last quarter of the school year in the attended subjects. Acknowledging the complexity of emotional development, the results indicate possible relations between emotional skills and musical performance in music education in conservatoires. The results show that for the cases explored; there exists a relationship between emotional skills and musical performance. Although generalizations cannot be made, this study reinforces the need to further explore emotional development in instrumental teaching and suggest the importance of inviting teachers to reflect on the pedagogical practices extended in the conservatoires and to develop and implement those that promote the work of the students' emotions.

Keywords: conservatoires, emotional skills, music education, musical performance

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8 Waste Derived from Refinery and Petrochemical Plants Activities: Processing of Oil Sludge through Thermal Desorption

Authors: Anna Bohers, Emília Hroncová, Juraj Ladomerský

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Oil sludge with its main characteristic of high acidity is a waste product generated from the operation of refinery and petrochemical plants. Former refinery and petrochemical plant - Petrochema Dubová is present in Slovakia as well. Its activities was to process the crude oil through sulfonation and adsorption technology for production of lubricating and special oils, synthetic detergents and special white oils for cosmetic and medical purposes. Seventy years ago – period, when this historical acid sludge burden has been created – comparing to the environmental awareness the production was in preference. That is the reason why, as in many countries, also in Slovakia a historical environmental burden is present until now – 229 211 m3 of oil sludge in the middle of the National Park of Nízke Tatry mountain chain. Neither one of tried treatment methods – bio or non-biologic one - was proved as suitable for processing or for recovery in the reason of different factors admission: i.e. strong aggressivity, difficulty with handling because of its sludgy and liquid state et sim. As a potential solution, also incineration was tested, but it was not proven as a suitable method, as the concentration of SO2 in combustion gases was too high, and it was not possible to decrease it under the acceptable value of 2000 mg.mn-3. That is the reason why the operation of incineration plant has been terminated, and the acid sludge landfills are present until nowadays. The objective of this paper is to present a new possibility of processing and valorization of acid sludgy-waste. The processing of oil sludge was performed through the effective separation - thermal desorption technology, through which it is possible to split the sludgy material into the matrix (soil, sediments) and organic contaminants. In order to boost the efficiency in the processing of acid sludge through thermal desorption, the work will present the possibility of application of an original technology – Method of Blowing Decomposition for recovering of organic matter into technological lubricating oil.

Keywords: hazardous waste, oil sludge, remediation, thermal desorption

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7 Risk Factors for Acute Respiratory Infection Among Children Under Five in Tanzania: A Systematic Review and Analysis of the 2015 Demographic and Health Survey for Tanzania

Authors: Ayesha Ali, Emilia Lindquist, Arif Jalal, Hannah Yusuf, Kayan Cheung, Rowan Eastabrook

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It is currently estimated that over a third of deaths in children under five in Tanzania are caused by acute respiratory infections (ARIs). However, despite being one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality across the developing world, its risk factors are poorly understood. Therefore, a systematic review of the literature published between 2015 and 2020 was conducted, focusing on risk factors for ARI in Tanzanian children under the age of five. 2015 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) for Tanzania was analysed to supplement these findings with national data. 2224 papers were retrieved from two databases and were analysed by three independent reviewers. Thirteen papers were eligible for inclusion, covering a wide range of risk factors among which comorbidities (n=6), malnutrition (n=5), lack of parental education (n=4), poor socio-economic status (n=3), and delay in seeking healthcare (n=3) were the most cited risk factors. The risk factors with the highest reported risk ratios/odds ratios were lack of parental education (RR=11.5-14.5), followed by enrolment in school (RR=4.4), delay in seeking healthcare (RR=3.8) and cooking indoors (aOR =1.8-RR=5.5). The DHS data provided local context to these risk factors. For instance, the number of children experiencing symptoms of ARI in both urban and rural areas ranged between 4.5-5% in the two weeks prior to the survey. However, 79% of symptomatic children in Zanzibar received antibiotics for treatment compared to just 34% of those in the Southern Highlands. As demonstrated by both the systematic review and the DHS analysis, risk factors for ARI are predominantly socially determined, with Tanzania’s poorer rural children possessing the highest risk for ARI and more adverse health outcomes. Therefore, the burden of ARIs in Tanzanian children may be alleviated through the provision of appropriate treatment and parental education in rural areas.

Keywords: acute respiratory infection, child, health education, morbidity, mortality, pneumonia, Tanzania

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6 Train-The-Trainer in Neonatal Resuscitation in Rural Uganda: A Model for Sustainability and the Barriers Faced

Authors: Emilia K. H. Danielsson-Waters, Malaz Elsaddig, Kevin Jones

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Unfortunately, it is well known that neonatal deaths are a common and potentially preventable occurrence across the world. Neonatal resuscitation is a simple and inexpensive intervention that can effectively reduce this rate, and can be taught and implemented globally. This project is a follow-on from one in 2012, which found that neonatal resuscitation simulation was valuable for education, but would be better improved by being delivered by local staff. Methods: This study involved auditing the neonatal admission and death records within a rural Ugandan hospital, alongside implementing a Train-The-Trainer teaching scheme to teach Neonatal Resuscitation. One local doctor was trained for simulating neonatal resuscitation, whom subsequently taught an additional 14 staff members in one-afternoon session. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires to assess their knowledge and confidence pre- and post-simulation, and a survey to identify barriers and drivers to simulation. Results: The results found that the neonatal mortality rate in this hospital was 25% between July 2016- July 2017, with birth asphyxia, prematurity and sepsis being the most common causes. Barriers to simulation that were identified predominantly included a lack of time, facilities and opportunity, yet all members stated simulation was beneficial for improving skills and confidence. The simulation session received incredibly positive qualitative feedback, and also a 0.58-point increase in knowledge (p=0.197) and 0.73-point increase in confidence (0.079). Conclusion: This research shows that it is possible to create a teaching scheme in a rural hospital, however, many barriers are in place for its sustainability, and a larger sample size with a more sensitive scale is required to achieve statistical significance. This is undeniably important, because teaching neonatal resuscitation can have a direct impact on neonatal mortality. Subsequently, recommendations include that efforts should be put in place to create a sustainable training scheme, for example, by employing a resuscitation officer. Moreover, neonatal resuscitation teaching should be conducted more frequently in hospitals, and conducted in a wider geographical context, including within the community, in order to achieve its full effect.

Keywords: neonatal resuscitation, sustainable medical education, train-the-trainer, Uganda

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5 Precursors Signatures of Few Major Earthquakes in Italy Using Very Low Frequency Signal of 45.9kHz

Authors: Keshav Prasad Kandel, Balaram Khadka, Karan Bhatta, Basu Dev Ghimire

Abstract:

Earthquakes still exist as a threating disaster. Being able to predict earthquakes will certainly help prevent substantial loss of life and property. Perhaps, Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency (VLF/LF) signal band (3-30 kHz), which is effectively reflected from D-layer of ionosphere, can be established as a tool to predict earthquake. On May 20 and May 29, 2012, earthquakes of magnitude 6.1 and 5.8 respectively struck Emilia-Romagna of Italy. A year back, on August 24, 2016, an earthquake of magnitude 6.2 struck Central Italy (42.7060 N and 13.2230 E) at 1:36 UT. We present the results obtained from the US Navy VLF Transmitter’s NSY signal of 45.9 kHz transmitted from Niscemi, in the province of Sicily, Italy and received at the Kiel Longwave Monitor, Germany for 2012 and 2016. We analyzed the terminator times, their individual differences and nighttime fluctuation counts. We also analyzed trends, dispersion and nighttime fluctuation which gave us a possible precursors to these earthquakes. Since perturbations in VLF amplitude could also be due to various other factors like lightning, geomagnetic activities (storms, auroras etc.) and solar activities (flares, UV flux, etc.), we filtered the possible perturbations due to these agents to guarantee that the perturbations seen in VLF/LF amplitudes were as a precursor to Earthquakes. As our TRGCP path is North-south, the sunrise and sunset time in transmitter and receiver places matches making pathway for VLF/LF smoother and therefore hoping to obtain more natural data. To our surprise, we found many clear anomalies (as precursors) in terminator times 5 days to 16 days before the earthquakes. Moreover, using night time fluctuation method, we found clear anomalies 5 days to 13 days prior to main earthquakes. This exactly correlates with the findings of previous authors that ionospheric perturbations are seen few days to one month before the seismic activity. In addition to this, we were amazed to observe unexpected decrease of dispersion on certain anomalies where it was supposed to increase, thereby not supporting our finding to some extent. To resolve this problem, we devised a new parameter called dispersion nighttime (dispersion). On analyzing, this parameter decreases significantly on days of nighttime anomalies thereby supporting our precursors to much extent.

Keywords: D-layer, TRGCP (Transmitter Receiver Great Circle Path), terminator times, VLF/LF

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4 Effects of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) Infection on the Expression of Cathelicidin Genes in Goat Blood Leukocytes

Authors: Daria Reczynska, Justyna Jarczak, Michal Czopowicz, Danuta Sloniewska, Karina Horbanczuk, Wieslaw Jarmuz, Jaroslaw Kaba, Emilia Bagnicka

Abstract:

Since people, animals and plants are constantly exposed to pathogens they have developed very complex systems of defense. Among ca. 1000 antimicrobial peptides from different families so far identified, approximately 30 belonging to cathelicidin family can be found in mammals. Cathelicidins probably constitute the first line of defense because they can act at a physiological salt concentration which is present in healthy tissues. Moreover, the low salt concentration which is present in infected tissues inhibits their activity. In goat bactenecin 7.5 (BAC7.5), bactenecin 5 (BAC5), myeloid antimicrobial peptide 28 (MAP28), myeloid antimicrobial peptide 34 (MAP34 A and B), goat bactenecin3.4 (ChBac3.4) were identified. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) caused by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) is economic problem. The main CAE symptoms are weight loss, arthritis, pneumonia and mastitis (significant elevation of the somatic cell count and deterioration of some technological parameters). The study was conducted on 24 dairy goats. The animals were divided into two groups: experimental (SRLV-infected) and control (non-infected). The blood samples were collected five times: on the 1st, 7th, 30th, 90th and 150thday of lactation. The levels of transcripts of BAC7.5, BAC5, MAP28 and MAP34 genes in blood leucocytes were measured using qPCR method. There were no differences in mRNA levels of studied genes between stages of lactation. The differences were observed in expressions of BAC5, MAP28 and MAP34 genes with lower levels in the experimental group. There was no difference in BAC7.5 expression between groups. The decreased levels of transcripts of cathelicidin genes in blood leucocytes of SRLV-infected goats may indicate the disturbances of homeostasis in organisms. It can be concluded that SRLV infection seems to inhibit expression of cathelicidin genes. The study was financed by a grant from the National Scientific Center No. UMO-2013/09/B/NZ/03514.

Keywords: goat, CAEV, cathelicidins, blood leukocytes, gene expression

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3 Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Addition in the Intake Air of Compressed Engines Running on Biodiesel Blend

Authors: Hendrick Maxil Zárate Rocha, Ricardo da Silva Pereira, Manoel Fernandes Martins Nogueira, Carlos R. Pereira Belchior, Maria Emilia de Lima Tostes

Abstract:

This study investigates experimentally the effects of hydrogen addition in the intake manifold of a diesel generator operating with a 7% biodiesel-diesel oil blend (B7). An experimental apparatus setup was used to conduct performance and emissions tests in a single cylinder, air cooled diesel engine. This setup consisted of a generator set connected to a wirewound resistor load bank that was used to vary engine load. In addition, a flowmeter was used to determine hydrogen volumetric flowrate and a digital anemometer coupled with an air box to measure air flowrate. Furthermore, a digital precision electronic scale was used to measure engine fuel consumption and a gas analyzer was used to determine exhaust gas composition and exhaust gas temperature. A thermopar was installed near the exhaust collection to measure cylinder temperature. In-cylinder pressure was measured using an AVL Indumicro data acquisition system with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. An AVL optical encoder was installed in the crankshaft and synchronized with in-cylinder pressure in real time. The experimental procedure consisted of injecting hydrogen into the engine intake manifold at different mass concentrations of 2,6,8 and 10% of total fuel mass (B7 + hydrogen), which represented energy fractions of 5,15, 20 and 24% of total fuel energy respectively. Due to hydrogen addition, the total amount of fuel energy introduced increased and the generators fuel injection governor prevented any increases of engine speed. Several conclusions can be stated from the test results. A reduction in specific fuel consumption as a function of hydrogen concentration increase was noted. Likewise, carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) decreased as hydrogen concentration increased. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides emissions (NOx) increased due to average temperatures inside the cylinder being higher. There was also an increase in peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate inside the cylinder, since the fuel ignition delay was smaller due to hydrogen content increase. All this indicates that hydrogen promotes faster combustion and higher heat release rates and can be an important additive to all kind of fuels used in diesel generators.

Keywords: diesel engine, hydrogen, dual fuel, combustion analysis, performance, emissions

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2 Cultures, Differences, and Education in EU: Right to Have Rights against Reality

Authors: Ana Campina, José Caramelo Gomes, Maria Emília Teixeira, Cristina Costa-Lobo

Abstract:

In the pursuit of educational equity within Human Rights and European Fundamental Laws, the reality presents serious problems based on the psychologic, social understanding. Take into account the miscellaneous cultures in the global context and the nowadays numbers of Human mobilities, there are serious problems affecting the societies. This justifies the diagnosed need of a renew pedagogical and social education strategy to achieve the integration positive context preventing violence and discrimination, especially in Education systems. Consequently, it is important to have in mind the respect, acceptance, and integration of special needs students in all study degrees, as it is law but a complex reality. Despite the UN and International Human Rights, European Fundamental Chart, and all EU Treats, as the 28th EU State Member’s fundamental laws forecast the right of Education, the respect, the action and promotion of different cultures and the Education for ‘Difference’ integration – cultures; ideologies, Special Needs Students/Citizens – there are different and severe problems. Firstly, there are questions/contexts/problems not denounced by the lack of investments, political, social or ‘powers’ pressures, so, consequently, the authorities don’t have the action as laws demand and the transgressors haven´t any juridical or judicial punishment. Secondly, and our most important point: Governments, authorities and even victims hide these violations/violence/problems what disable the effective protection and law enforcement. Finally, the official and non-official strategies to get around the duties, break away the laws, failing the victims protection and consequently enable the problems increase dramatically. With this research, we observed that there are international Organizations/regions and States acting without respect to the Education right despite their democratic ideology and the generated external ‘image’ of law-abiding and Human Rights defenders. Nevertheless, it is urgent to develop a consistent Human Rights Education program aiming to protect, promote and implement the Right to be different and be respected by the law, the governments, institutions official and non-official, adapted to the needs in each society. The background of this research is the International and European laws, in accordance with the state’s legal systems. The approaches and the differences of the Education for Human and Fundamental Rights execution in the different EU countries, studying the pedagogy and social inclusion programs/strategies, with particular analysis of the Special Needs students. The results aim to construct a European Education profiling, with the governments and EU interventions need, as well as the panorama of the Special Needs Students effective integration achieving a renewed strategy to promote the respect of the Differences and an Inclusive School life.

Keywords: international human rights, culture, differences, European education profiling

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1 Multilingual Students Acting as Language Brokers in Italy: Their Points of View and Feelings towards This Activity

Authors: Federica Ceccoli

Abstract:

Italy is undergoing one of its largest migratory waves, and Italian schools are reporting the highest numbers of multilingual students coming from immigrant families and speaking minority languages. For these pupils, who have not perfectly acquired their mother tongue yet, learning a second language may represent a burden on their linguistic development and may have some repercussions on their school performances and relational skills. These are some of the reasons why they have turned out to be those who have the worst grades and the highest school drop-out rates. However, despite these negative outcomes, it has been demonstrated that multilingual immigrant students frequently act as translators or language brokers for their peers or family members who do not speak Italian fluently. This activity has been defined as Child Language Brokering (hereinafter CLB) and it has become a common practice especially in minority communities as immigrants’ children often learn the host language much more quickly than their parents, thus contributing to their family life by acting as language and cultural mediators. This presentation aims to analyse the data collected by a research carried out during the school year 2014-2015 in the province of Ravenna, in the Northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, among 126 immigrant students attending junior high schools. The purpose of the study was to analyse by means of a structured questionnaire whether multilingualism matched with language brokering experiences or not and to examine the perspectives of those students who reported having acted as translators using their linguistic knowledge to help people understand each other. The questionnaire consisted of 34 items roughly divided into 2 sections. The first section required multilingual students to provide personal details like their date and place of birth, as well as details about their families (number of siblings, parents’ jobs). In the second section, they were asked about the languages spoken in their families as well as their language brokering experience. The in-depth questionnaire sought to investigate a wide variety of brokering issues such as frequency and purpose of the activity, where, when and which documents young language brokers translate and how they feel about this practice. The results have demonstrated that CLB is a very common practice among immigrants’ children living in Ravenna and almost all students reported positive feelings when asked about their brokering experience with their families and also at school. In line with previous studies, responses to the questionnaire item regarding the people they brokered for revealed that the category ranking first is parents. Similarly, language-brokering activities tend to occur most often at home and the documents they translate the most (either orally or in writing) are notes from teachers. Such positive feelings towards this activity together with the evidence that it occurs very often in schools have laid the foundation for further projects on how this common practice may be valued and used to strengthen the linguistic skills of these multilingual immigrant students and thus their school performances.

Keywords: immigration, language brokering, multilingualism, students' points of view

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