Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: autocorrelation

54 Estimation of Missing Values in Aggregate Level Spatial Data

Authors: Amitha Puranik, V. S. Binu, Seena Biju


Missing data is a common problem in spatial analysis especially at the aggregate level. Missing can either occur in covariate or in response variable or in both in a given location. Many missing data techniques are available to estimate the missing data values but not all of these methods can be applied on spatial data since the data are autocorrelated. Hence there is a need to develop a method that estimates the missing values in both response variable and covariates in spatial data by taking account of the spatial autocorrelation. The present study aims to develop a model to estimate the missing data points at the aggregate level in spatial data by accounting for (a) Spatial autocorrelation of the response variable (b) Spatial autocorrelation of covariates and (c) Correlation between covariates and the response variable. Estimating the missing values of spatial data requires a model that explicitly account for the spatial autocorrelation. The proposed model not only accounts for spatial autocorrelation but also utilizes the correlation that exists between covariates, within covariates and between a response variable and covariates. The precise estimation of the missing data points in spatial data will result in an increased precision of the estimated effects of independent variables on the response variable in spatial regression analysis.

Keywords: spatial regression, missing data estimation, spatial autocorrelation, simulation analysis

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53 Multiple Relaxation Times in the Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo Simulation of Phase Separation

Authors: Bina Kumari, Subir K. Sarkar, Pradipta Bandyopadhyay


The autocorrelation function of the density fluctuation is studied in each of the two phases in a Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) simulation of the problem of phase separation for a square well potential with various values of its range. We find that the normalized autocorrelation function is described very well as a linear combination of an exponential function with a time scale τ₂ and a stretched exponential function with a time scale τ₁ and an exponent α. Dependence of (α, τ₁, τ₂) on the parameters of the GEMC algorithm and the range of the square well potential is investigated and interpreted. We also analyse the issue of how to choose the parameters of the GEMC simulation optimally.

Keywords: autocorrelation function, density fluctuation, GEMC, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
52 Confidence Intervals for Process Capability Indices for Autocorrelated Data

Authors: Jane A. Luke


Persistent pressure passed on to manufacturers from escalating consumer expectations and the ever growing global competitiveness have produced a rapidly increasing interest in the development of various manufacturing strategy models. Academic and industrial circles are taking keen interest in the field of manufacturing strategy. Many manufacturing strategies are currently centered on the traditional concepts of focused manufacturing capabilities such as quality, cost, dependability and innovation. Process capability indices was conducted assuming that the process under study is in statistical control and independent observations are generated over time. However, in practice, it is very common to come across processes which, due to their inherent natures, generate autocorrelated observations. The degree of autocorrelation affects the behavior of patterns on control charts. Even, small levels of autocorrelation between successive observations can have considerable effects on the statistical properties of conventional control charts. When observations are autocorrelated the classical control charts exhibit nonrandom patterns and lack of control. Many authors have considered the effect of autocorrelation on the performance of statistical process control charts. In this paper, the effect of autocorrelation on confidence intervals for different PCIs was included. Stationary Gaussian processes is explained. Effect of autocorrelation on PCIs is described in detail. Confidence intervals for Cp and Cpk are constructed for PCIs when data are both independent and autocorrelated. Confidence intervals for Cp and Cpk are computed. Approximate lower confidence limits for various Cpk are computed assuming AR(1) model for the data. Simulation studies and industrial examples are considered to demonstrate the results.

Keywords: autocorrelation, AR(1) model, Bissell’s approximation, confidence intervals, statistical process control, specification limits, stationary Gaussian processes

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51 Forecasting Models for Steel Demand Uncertainty Using Bayesian Methods

Authors: Watcharin Sangma, Onsiri Chanmuang, Pitsanu Tongkhow


A forecasting model for steel demand uncertainty in Thailand is proposed. It consists of trend, autocorrelation, and outliers in a hierarchical Bayesian frame work. The proposed model uses a cumulative Weibull distribution function, latent first-order autocorrelation, and binary selection, to account for trend, time-varying autocorrelation, and outliers, respectively. The Gibbs sampling Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used for parameter estimation. The proposed model is applied to steel demand index data in Thailand. The root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and mean absolute error (MAE) criteria are used for model comparison. The study reveals that the proposed model is more appropriate than the exponential smoothing method.

Keywords: forecasting model, steel demand uncertainty, hierarchical Bayesian framework, exponential smoothing method

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50 Spatial Patterns and Temporal Evolution of Octopus Abundance in the Mauritanian Zone

Authors: Dedah Ahmed Babou, Nicolas Bez


The Min-Max autocorrelation factor (MAF) approach makes it possible to express in a space formed by spatially independent factors, spatiotemporal observations. These factors are ordered in decreasing order of spatial autocorrelation. The starting observations are thus expressed in the space formed by these factors according to temporal coordinates. Each vector of temporal coefficients expresses the temporal evolution of the weight of the corresponding factor. Applying this approach has enabled us to achieve the following results: (i) Define a spatially orthogonal space in which the projections of the raw data are determined; (ii) Define a limit threshold for the factors with the strongest structures in order to analyze the weight, and the temporal evolution of these different structures (iii) Study the correlation between the temporal evolution of the persistent spatial structures and that of the observed average abundance (iv) Propose prototypes of campaigns reflecting a high vs. low abundance (v) Propose a classification of campaigns that highlights seasonal and/or temporal similarities. These results were obtained by analyzing the octopus yield during the scientific campaigns of the oceanographic vessel Al Awam during the period 1989-2017 in the Mauritanian exclusive economic zone.

Keywords: spatiotemporal , autocorrelation, kriging, variogram, Octopus vulgaris

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49 A Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Women’s Mental Health and Walkability Index in Mashhad City, Iran, and Recommendations to Improve It

Authors: Mohammad Rahim Rahnama, Lia Shaddel


Today, along with the development of urbanism, its negative consequences on the health of citizens are emerging. Mental disorders are common in the big cities, while mental health enables individuals to become active citizens. Meanwhile, women have a larger share of mental problems. Depression and anxiety disorders have a higher prevalence rate among women and these disorders affect the health of future generations, too. Therefore, improving women’s mental health through the potentials offered by urban spaces are of paramount importance. The present study aims to first, evaluate the spatial autocorrelation of women’s mental health and walkable spaces and then present solutions, based on the findings, to improve the walkability index. To determine the spatial distribution of women’s mental health in Mashhad, Moran's I was used and 1000 questionnaire were handed out in various sub-districts of Mashhad. Moran's I was calculated to be 0.18 which indicates a cluster distribution pattern. The walkability index was calculated using the four variables pertaining to the length of walkable routes, mixed land use, retail floor area ratio, and household density. To determine spatial autocorrelation of mental health and the walkability index, bivariate Moran’s I was calculated. Moran's I was determined to be 0.37 which shows a direct spatial relationship between variables; 4 clusters in 9 sub-districts of Mashhad were created. In High-Low cluster, there was a negative spatial relationship and hence, to identify factors affecting walkability in urban spaces semi-structures interviews were conducted with 21 women in this cluster. The findings revealed that security is the major factor influencing women’s walking behavior in this cluster. In accordance with the findings, some suggestions are offered to improve the presence of women in this sub-district.

Keywords: Mashhad, spatial autocorrelation, women’s mental health, walkability index

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
48 Times Series Analysis of Depositing in Industrial Design in Brazil between 1996 and 2013

Authors: Jonas Pedro Fabris, Alberth Almeida Amorim Souza, Maria Emilia Camargo, Suzana Leitão Russo


With the law Nº. 9279, of May 14, 1996, the Brazilian government regulates rights and obligations relating to industrial property considering the economic development of the country as granting patents, trademark registration, registration of industrial designs and other forms of protection copyright. In this study, we show the application of the methodology of Box and Jenkins in the series of deposits of industrial design at the National Institute of Industrial Property for the period from May 1996 to April 2013. First, a graphical analysis of the data was done by observing the behavior of the data and the autocorrelation function. The best model found, based on the analysis of charts and statistical tests suggested by Box and Jenkins methodology, it was possible to determine the model number for the deposit of industrial design, SARIMA (2,1,0)(2,0,0), with an equal to 9.88% MAPE.

Keywords: ARIMA models, autocorrelation, Box and Jenkins Models, industrial design, MAPE, time series

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47 Dynamical Heterogeneity and Aging in Turbulence with a Nambu-Goldstone Mode

Authors: Fahrudin Nugroho, Halim Hamadi, Yusril Yusuf, Pekik Nurwantoro, Ari Setiawan, Yoshiki Hidaka


We investigate the Nikolaevskiy equation numerically using exponential time differencing method and pseudo-spectral method. This equation develops a long-wavelength modulation that behaves as a Nambu–Goldstone mode, and short-wavelength instability and exhibit turbulence. Using the autocorrelation analysis, the statistical properties of the turbulence governed by the equation are investigated. The autocorrelation then has been fitted with The Kohlrausch– Williams–Watts (KWW) expression. By varying the control parameter, we show a transition from compressed to stretched exponential for the auto-correlation function of Nikolaevskiy turbulence. The compressed exponential is an indicator of the existence of dynamical heterogeneity while the stretched indicates aging process. Thereby, we revealed the existence of dynamical heterogeneity and aging in the turbulence governed by Nikolaevskiy equation.

Keywords: compressed exponential, dynamical heterogeneity, Nikolaevskiy equation, stretched exponential, turbulence

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46 Phase II Monitoring of First-Order Autocorrelated General Linear Profiles

Authors: Yihua Wang, Yunru Lai


Statistical process control has been successfully applied in a variety of industries. In some applications, the quality of a process or product is better characterized and summarized by a functional relationship between a response variable and one or more explanatory variables. A collection of this type of data is called a profile. Profile monitoring is used to understand and check the stability of this relationship or curve over time. The independent assumption for the error term is commonly used in the existing profile monitoring studies. However, in many applications, the profile data show correlations over time. Therefore, we focus on a general linear regression model with a first-order autocorrelation between profiles in this study. We propose an exponentially weighted moving average charting scheme to monitor this type of profile. The simulation study shows that our proposed methods outperform the existing schemes based on the average run length criterion.

Keywords: autocorrelation, EWMA control chart, general linear regression model, profile monitoring

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45 Gear Fault Diagnosis Based on Optimal Morlet Wavelet Filter and Autocorrelation Enhancement

Authors: Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenová


Condition monitoring is used to increase machinery availability and machinery performance, whilst reducing consequential damage, increasing machine life, reducing spare parts inventories, and reducing breakdown maintenance. An efficient condition monitoring system provides early warning of faults by predicting them at an early stage. When a localized fault occurs in gears, the vibration signals always exhibit non-stationary behavior. The periodic impulsive feature of the vibration signal appears in the time domain and the corresponding gear mesh frequency (GMF) emerges in the frequency domain. However, one limitation of frequency-domain analysis is its inability to handle non-stationary waveform signals, which are very common when machinery faults occur. Particularly at the early stage of gear failure, the GMF contains very little energy and is often overwhelmed by noise and higher-level macro-structural vibrations. An effective signal processing method would be necessary to remove such corrupting noise and interference. In this paper, a new hybrid method based on optimal Morlet wavelet filter and autocorrelation enhancement is presented. First, to eliminate the frequency associated with interferential vibrations, the vibration signal is filtered with a band-pass filter determined by a Morlet wavelet whose parameters are selected or optimized based on maximum Kurtosis. Then, to further reduce the residual in-band noise and highlight the periodic impulsive feature, an autocorrelation enhancement algorithm is applied to the filtered signal. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as the internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers induce a load on the output joint shaft flanges. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of a gear of the fifth speed on the secondary shaft. The gearbox used for experimental measurements is of the type most commonly used in modern small to mid-sized passenger cars with transversely mounted powertrain and front wheel drive: a five-speed gearbox with final drive gear and front wheel differential. The results obtained from practical experiments prove that the proposed method is very effective for gear fault diagnosis.

Keywords: wavelet analysis, pitted gear, autocorrelation, gear fault diagnosis

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44 Derivation of Bathymetry from High-Resolution Satellite Images: Comparison of Empirical Methods through Geographical Error Analysis

Authors: Anusha P. Wijesundara, Dulap I. Rathnayake, Nihal D. Perera


Bathymetric information is fundamental importance to coastal and marine planning and management, nautical navigation, and scientific studies of marine environments. Satellite-derived bathymetry data provide detailed information in areas where conventional sounding data is lacking and conventional surveys are inaccessible. The two empirical approaches of log-linear bathymetric inversion model and non-linear bathymetric inversion model are applied for deriving bathymetry from high-resolution multispectral satellite imagery. This study compares these two approaches by means of geographical error analysis for the site Kankesanturai using WorldView-2 satellite imagery. Based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method calibrated the parameters of non-linear inversion model and the multiple-linear regression model was applied to calibrate the log-linear inversion model. In order to calibrate both models, Single Beam Echo Sounding (SBES) data in this study area were used as reference points. Residuals were calculated as the difference between the derived depth values and the validation echo sounder bathymetry data and the geographical distribution of model residuals was mapped. The spatial autocorrelation was calculated by comparing the performance of the bathymetric models and the results showing the geographic errors for both models. A spatial error model was constructed from the initial bathymetry estimates and the estimates of autocorrelation. This spatial error model is used to generate more reliable estimates of bathymetry by quantifying autocorrelation of model error and incorporating this into an improved regression model. Log-linear model (R²=0.846) performs better than the non- linear model (R²=0.692). Finally, the spatial error models improved bathymetric estimates derived from linear and non-linear models up to R²=0.854 and R²=0.704 respectively. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was calculated for all reference points in various depth ranges. The magnitude of the prediction error increases with depth for both the log-linear and the non-linear inversion models. Overall RMSE for log-linear and the non-linear inversion models were ±1.532 m and ±2.089 m, respectively.

Keywords: log-linear model, multi spectral, residuals, spatial error model

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43 Energy Detection Based Sensing and Primary User Traffic Classification for Cognitive Radio

Authors: Urvee B. Trivedi, U. D. Dalal


As wireless communication services grow quickly; the seriousness of spectrum utilization has been on the rise gradually. An emerging technology, cognitive radio has come out to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. To support the spectrum reuse functionality, secondary users are required to sense the radio frequency environment, and once the primary users are found to be active, the secondary users are required to vacate the channel within a certain amount of time. Therefore, spectrum sensing is of significant importance. Once sensing is done, different prediction rules apply to classify the traffic pattern of primary user. Primary user follows two types of traffic patterns: periodic and stochastic ON-OFF patterns. A cognitive radio can learn the patterns in different channels over time. Two types of classification methods are discussed in this paper, by considering edge detection and by using autocorrelation function. Edge detection method has a high accuracy but it cannot tolerate sensing errors. Autocorrelation-based classification is applicable in the real environment as it can tolerate some amount of sensing errors.

Keywords: cognitive radio (CR), probability of detection (PD), probability of false alarm (PF), primary user (PU), secondary user (SU), fast Fourier transform (FFT), signal to noise ratio (SNR)

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42 Geo-spatial Analysis: The Impact of Drought and Productivity to the Poverty in East Java, Indonesia

Authors: Yessi Rahmawati, Andiga Kusuma Nur Ichsan, Fitria Nur Anggraeni


Climate change is one of the focus studies that many researchers focus on in the present world, either in the emerging countries or developed countries which is one of the main pillars on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). There is on-going discussion that climate change can affect natural disaster, namely drought, storm, flood, and many others; and also the impact on human life. East Java is the best performances and has economic potential that should be utilized. Despite the economic performance and high agriculture productivity, East Java has the highest number of people under the poverty line. The present study is to measuring the contribution of drought and productivity of agriculture to the poverty in East Java, Indonesia, using spatial econometrics analysis. The authors collect data from 2008 – 2015 from Indonesia’s Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Disaster Management Agency (BNPB), and Official Statistic (BPS). First, the result shows the existence of spatial autocorrelation between drought and poverty. Second, the present research confirms that there is strong relationship between drought and poverty. the majority of farmer in East Java are still relies on the rainfall and traditional irrigation system. When the drought strikes, mostly the farmer will lose their income; make them become more vulnerable household, and trap them into poverty line. The present research will give empirical studies regarding drought and poverty in the academics world.

Keywords: SDGs, drought, poverty, Indonesia, spatial econometrics, spatial autocorrelation

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41 Forecasting Lake Malawi Water Level Fluctuations Using Stochastic Models

Authors: M. Mulumpwa, W. W. L. Jere, M. Lazaro, A. H. N. Mtethiwa


The study considered Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) processes to select an appropriate stochastic model to forecast the monthly data from the Lake Malawi water levels for the period 1986 through 2015. The appropriate model was chosen based on SARIMA (p, d, q) (P, D, Q)S. The Autocorrelation function (ACF), Partial autocorrelation (PACF), Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), Box–Ljung statistics, correlogram and distribution of residual errors were estimated. The SARIMA (1, 1, 0) (1, 1, 1)12 was selected to forecast the monthly data of the Lake Malawi water levels from August, 2015 to December, 2021. The plotted time series showed that the Lake Malawi water levels are decreasing since 2010 to date but not as much as was the case in 1995 through 1997. The future forecast of the Lake Malawi water levels until 2021 showed a mean of 474.47 m ranging from 473.93 to 475.02 meters with a confidence interval of 80% and 90% against registered mean of 473.398 m in 1997 and 475.475 m in 1989 which was the lowest and highest water levels in the lake respectively since 1986. The forecast also showed that the water levels of Lake Malawi will drop by 0.57 meters as compared to the mean water levels recorded in the previous years. These results suggest that the Lake Malawi water level may not likely go lower than that recorded in 1997. Therefore, utilisation and management of water-related activities and programs among others on the lake should provide room for such scenarios. The findings suggest a need to manage the Lake Malawi jointly and prudently with other stakeholders starting from the catchment area. This will reduce impacts of anthropogenic activities on the lake’s water quality, water level, aquatic and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems thereby ensuring its resilience to climate change impacts.

Keywords: forecasting, Lake Malawi, water levels, water level fluctuation, climate change, anthropogenic activities

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40 Assessing Spatial Associations of Mortality Patterns in Municipalities of the Czech Republic

Authors: Jitka Rychtarikova


Regional differences in mortality in the Czech Republic (CR) may be moderate from a broader European perspective, but important discrepancies in life expectancy can be found between smaller territorial units. In this study territorial units are based on Administrative Districts of Municipalities with Extended Powers (MEP). This definition came into force January 1, 2003. There are 205 units and the city of Prague. MEP represents the smallest unit for which mortality patterns based on life tables can be investigated and the Czech Statistical Office has been calculating such life tables (every five-years) since 2004. MEP life tables from 2009-2013 for males and females allowed the investigation of three main life cycles with the use of temporary life expectancies between the exact ages of 0 and 35; 35 and 65; and the life expectancy at exact age 65. The results showed regional survival inequalities primarily in adult and older ages. Consequently, only mortality indicators for adult and elderly population were related to census 2011 unlinked data for the same age groups. The most relevant socio-economic factors taken from the census are: having a partner, educational level and unemployment rate. The unemployment rate was measured for adults aged 35-64 completed years. Exploratory spatial data analysis methods were used to detect regional patterns in spatially contiguous units of MEP. The presence of spatial non-stationarity (spatial autocorrelation) of mortality levels for male and female adults (35-64), and elderly males and females (65+) was tested using global Moran’s I. Spatial autocorrelation of mortality patterns was mapped using local Moran’s I with the intention to depict clusters of low or high mortality and spatial outliers for two age groups (35-64 and 65+). The highest Moran’s I was observed for male temporary life expectancy between exact ages 35 and 65 (0.52) and the lowest was among women with life expectancy of 65 (0.26). Generally, men showed stronger spatial autocorrelation compared to women. The relationship between mortality indicators such as life expectancies and socio-economic factors like the percentage of males/females having a partner; percentage of males/females with at least higher secondary education; and percentage of unemployed males/females from economically active population aged 35-64 years, was evaluated using multiple regression (OLS). The results were then compared to outputs from geographically weighted regression (GWR). In the Czech Republic, there are two broader territories North-West Bohemia (NWB) and North Moravia (NM), in which excess mortality is well established. Results of the t-test of spatial regression showed that for males aged 30-64 the association between mortality and unemployment (when adjusted for education and partnership) was stronger in NM compared to NWB, while educational level impacted the length of survival more in NWB. Geographic variation and relationships in mortality of the CR MEP will also be tested using the spatial Durbin approach. The calculations were conducted by means of ArcGIS 10.6 and SAS 9.4.

Keywords: Czech Republic, mortality, municipality, socio-economic factors, spatial analysis

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39 An Eigen-Approach for Estimating the Direction-of Arrival of Unknown Number of Signals

Authors: Dia I. Abu-Al-Nadi, M. J. Mismar, T. H. Ismail


A technique for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of unknown number of source signals is presented using the eigen-approach. The eigenvector corresponding to the minimum eigenvalue of the autocorrelation matrix yields the minimum output power of the array. Also, the array polynomial with this eigenvector possesses roots on the unit circle. Therefore, the pseudo-spectrum is found by perturbing the phases of the roots one by one and calculating the corresponding array output power. The results indicate that the DOAs and the number of source signals are estimated accurately in the presence of a wide range of input noise levels.

Keywords: array signal processing, direction-of-arrival, antenna arrays, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Lagrange multiplier

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38 Changes in Geospatial Structure of Households in the Czech Republic: Findings from Population and Housing Census

Authors: Jaroslav Kraus


Spatial information about demographic processes are a standard part of outputs in the Czech Republic. That was also the case of Population and Housing Census which was held on 2011. This is a starting point for a follow up study devoted to two basic types of households: single person households and households of one completed family. Single person households and one family households create more than 80 percent of all households, but the share and spatial structure is in long-term changing. The increase of single households is results of long-term fertility decrease and divorce increase, but also possibility of separate living. There are regions in the Czech Republic with traditional demographic behavior, and regions like capital Prague and some others with changing pattern. Population census is based - according to international standards - on the concept of currently living population. Three types of geospatial approaches will be used for analysis: (i) firstly measures of geographic distribution, (ii) secondly mapping clusters to identify the locations of statistically significant hot spots, cold spots, spatial outliers, and similar features and (iii) finally analyzing pattern approach as a starting point for more in-depth analyses (geospatial regression) in the future will be also applied. For analysis of this type of data, number of households by types should be distinct objects. All events in a meaningful delimited study region (e.g. municipalities) will be included in an analysis. Commonly produced measures of central tendency and spread will include: identification of the location of the center of the point set (by NUTS3 level); identification of the median center and standard distance, weighted standard distance and standard deviational ellipses will be also used. Identifying that clustering exists in census households datasets does not provide a detailed picture of the nature and pattern of clustering but will be helpful to apply simple hot-spot (and cold spot) identification techniques to such datasets. Once the spatial structure of households will be determined, any particular measure of autocorrelation can be constructed by defining a way of measuring the difference between location attribute values. The most widely used measure is Moran’s I that will be applied to municipal units where numerical ratio is calculated. Local statistics arise naturally out of any of the methods for measuring spatial autocorrelation and will be applied to development of localized variants of almost any standard summary statistic. Local Moran’s I will give an indication of household data homogeneity and diversity on a municipal level.

Keywords: census, geo-demography, households, the Czech Republic

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37 Impact of Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Intelligence on Radio Presenter's Performance in All India Radio, Kolkata, India

Authors: Soumya Dutta


This research paper aims at investigating the impact of emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence on radio presenter’s performance in the All India Radio, Kolkata (India’s public service broadcaster). The ancient concept of productivity is the ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it. But, father of modern management Peter F. Drucker (1909-2005) defined productivity of knowledge work and knowledge workers in a new form. In the other hand, the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) originated back in 1920’s when Thorndike (1920) for the first time proposed the emotional intelligence into three dimensions, i.e., abstract intelligence, mechanical intelligence, and social intelligence. The contribution of Salovey and Mayer (1990) is substantive, as they proposed a model for emotional intelligence by defining EI as part of the social intelligence, which takes measures the ability of an individual to regulate his/her personal and other’s emotions and feeling. Cognitive intelligence illustrates the specialization of general intelligence in the domain of cognition in ways that possess experience and learning about cognitive processes such as memory. The outcomes of past research on emotional intelligence show that emotional intelligence has a positive effect on social- mental factors of human resource; positive effects of emotional intelligence on leaders and followers in terms of performance, results, work, satisfaction; emotional intelligence has a positive and significant relationship with the teachers' job performance. In this paper, we made a conceptual framework based on theories of emotional intelligence proposed by Salovey and Mayer (1989-1990) and a compensatory model of emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance proposed by Stephen Cote and Christopher T. H. Miners (2006). For investigating the impact of emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence on radio presenter’s performance, sample size consists 59 radio presenters (considering gender, academic qualification, instructional mood, age group, etc.) from All India Radio, Kolkata station. Questionnaires prepared based on cognitive (henceforth called C based and represented by C1, C2,.., C5) as well as emotional intelligence (henceforth called E based and represented by E1, E2,., E20). These were sent to around 59 respondents (Presenters) for getting their responses. Performance score was collected from the report of program executive of All India Radio, Kolkata. The linear regression has been carried out using all the E-based and C-based variables as the predictor variables. The possible problem of autocorrelation has been tested by having the Durbinson-Watson (DW) Statistic. Values of this statistic, almost within the range of 1.80-2.20, indicate the absence of any significant problem of autocorrelation. The possible problem of multicollinearity has been tested by having the Variable Inflation Factor (VIF) value. Values of this statistic, around within 2, indicates the absence of any significant problem of multicollinearity. It is inferred that the performance scores can be statistically regressed linearly on the E-based and C-based scores, which can explain 74.50% of the variations in the performance.

Keywords: cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, performance, productivity

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36 Electrophoretic Light Scattering Based on Total Internal Reflection as a Promising Diagnostic Method

Authors: Ekaterina A. Savchenko, Elena N. Velichko, Evgenii T. Aksenov


The development of pathological processes, such as cardiovascular and oncological diseases, are accompanied by changes in molecular parameters in cells, tissues, and serum. The study of the behavior of protein molecules in solutions is of primarily importance for diagnosis of such diseases. Various physical and chemical methods are used to study molecular systems. With the advent of the laser and advances in electronics, optical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, sedimentation analysis, nephelometry, static and dynamic light scattering, have become the most universal, informative and accurate tools for estimating the parameters of nanoscale objects. The electrophoretic light scattering is the most effective technique. It has a high potential in the study of biological solutions and their properties. This technique allows one to investigate the processes of aggregation and dissociation of different macromolecules and obtain information on their shapes, sizes and molecular weights. Electrophoretic light scattering is an analytical method for registration of the motion of microscopic particles under the influence of an electric field by means of quasi-elastic light scattering in a homogeneous solution with a subsequent registration of the spectral or correlation characteristics of the light scattered from a moving object. We modified the technique by using the regime of total internal reflection with the aim of increasing its sensitivity and reducing the volume of the sample to be investigated, which opens the prospects of automating simultaneous multiparameter measurements. In addition, the method of total internal reflection allows one to study biological fluids on the level of single molecules, which also makes it possible to increase the sensitivity and the informativeness of the results because the data obtained from an individual molecule is not averaged over an ensemble, which is important in the study of bimolecular fluids. To our best knowledge the study of electrophoretic light scattering in the regime of total internal reflection is proposed for the first time, latex microspheres 1 μm in size were used as test objects. In this study, the total internal reflection regime was realized on a quartz prism where the free electrophoresis regime was set. A semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 655 nm was used as a radiation source, and the light scattering signal was registered by a pin-diode. Then the signal from a photodetector was transmitted to a digital oscilloscope and to a computer. The autocorrelation functions and the fast Fourier transform in the regime of Brownian motion and under the action of the field were calculated to obtain the parameters of the object investigated. The main result of the study was the dependence of the autocorrelation function on the concentration of microspheres and the applied field magnitude. The effect of heating became more pronounced with increasing sample concentrations and electric field. The results obtained in our study demonstrated the applicability of the method for the examination of liquid solutions, including biological fluids.

Keywords: light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, electrophoresis, total internal reflection

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35 Spatial Econometric Approaches for Count Data: An Overview and New Directions

Authors: Paula Simões, Isabel Natário


This paper reviews a number of theoretical aspects for implementing an explicit spatial perspective in econometrics for modelling non-continuous data, in general, and count data, in particular. It provides an overview of the several spatial econometric approaches that are available to model data that are collected with reference to location in space, from the classical spatial econometrics approaches to the recent developments on spatial econometrics to model count data, in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Considerable attention is paid to the inferential framework, necessary for structural consistent spatial econometric count models, incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation, to the corresponding estimation and testing procedures for different assumptions, to the constrains and implications embedded in the various specifications in the literature. This review combines insights from the classical spatial econometrics literature as well as from hierarchical modeling and analysis of spatial data, in order to look for new possible directions on the processing of count data, in a spatial hierarchical Bayesian econometric context.

Keywords: spatial data analysis, spatial econometrics, Bayesian hierarchical models, count data

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34 Formulating the Stochastic Finite Elements for Free Vibration Analysis of Plates with Variable Elastic Modulus

Authors: Mojtaba Aghamiri Esfahani, Mohammad Karkon, Seyed Majid Hosseini Nezhad, Reza Hosseini-Ara


In this study, the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of a plate on free vibration response is investigated. For this purpose, the elastic modulus of the plate is modeled as stochastic variable with normal distribution. Moreover, the distance autocorrelation function is used for stochastic field. Then, by applying the finite element method and Monte Carlo simulation, stochastic finite element relations are extracted. Finally, with a numerical test, the effect of uncertainty in the elastic modulus on free vibration response of a plate is studied. The results show that the effect of uncertainty in elastic modulus of the plate cannot play an important role on the free vibration response.

Keywords: stochastic finite elements, plate bending, free vibration, Monte Carlo, Neumann expansion method.

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33 Remote Sensing Application on Snow Products and Analyzing Disaster-Forming Environments Xinjiang, China

Authors: Gulijianati Abake, Ryutaro Tateishi


Snow is one kind of special underlying surface, has high reflectivity, low thermal conductivity, and snow broth hydrological effect. Every year, frequent snow disaster in Xinjiang causing considerable economic loss and serious damage to towns and farms, such as livestock casualties, traffic jams and other disaster, therefore monitoring SWE (snow volume) in Xinjiang has a great significance. The problems of how this disaster distributes and what disaster-forming environments are important to its occurrence are the most pressing problems in disaster risk assessment and salvage material arrangement. The present study aims 1) to monitor accurate SWE using MODIS, AMSRE, and CMC data, 2) to establish the regularity of snow disaster outbreaks and the important disaster-forming environmental factors. And a spatial autocorrelation analysis method and a canonical correlation analysis method are used to answer these two questions separately, 3) to prepare the way to salvage material arrangements for snow disasters.

Keywords: snow water equivalent (snow volume), AMSR-E, CMC snow depth, snow disaster

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32 Heteromolecular Structure Formation in Aqueous Solutions of Ethanol, Tetrahydrofuran and Dimethylformamide

Authors: Sh. Gofurov, O. Ismailova, U. Makhmanov, A. Kokhkharov


The refractometric method has been used to determine optical properties of concentration features of aqueous solutions of ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide at the room temperature. Changes in dielectric permittivity of aqueous solutions of ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide in a wide range of concentrations (0÷1.0 molar fraction) have been studied using molecular dynamics method. The curves depending on the concentration of experimental data on excess refractive indices and excess dielectric permittivity were compared. It has been shown that stable heteromolecular complexes in binary solutions are formed in the concentration range of 0.3÷0.4 mole fractions. The real and complex part of dielectric permittivity was obtained from dipole-dipole autocorrelation functions of molecules. At the concentrations of C = 0.3 / 0.4 m.f. the heteromolecular structures with hydrogen bonds are formed. This is confirmed by the extremum values of excessive dielectric permittivity and excessive refractive index of aqueous solutions.

Keywords: refractometric method, aqueous solution, molecular dynamics, dielectric constant

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31 Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Anaemia in Ethiopia using 2011 EDHS

Authors: Bedilu A. Ejigu, Eshetu Wencheko, Kiros Berhane


Anaemia is a condition in which the haemoglobin concentration falls below an established cut-off value due to a decrease in the number and size of red blood cells. The current study aimed to assess the spatial pattern and identify predictors related to anaemia using the third Ethiopian demographic health survey which was conducted in 2010. To achieve this objective, this study took into account the clustered nature of the data. As a result, multilevel modeling has been used in the statistical analysis. For analysis purpose, only complete cases from 15,909 females, and 13,903 males were considered. Among all subjects who agreed for haemoglobin test, 5.49 %males, and 19.86% females were anaemic. In both binary and ordinal outcome modeling approaches, educational level, age, wealth index, BMI and HIV status were identified to be significant predictors for anaemia prevalence. Furthermore, it was noted that pregnant women were more anaemic than non-pregnant women. As revealed by Moran's I test, significant spatial autocorrelation was noted across clusters. The risk of anaemia was found to vary across different regions, and higher prevalence was observed in Somali and Affar region.

Keywords: anaemia, Moran's I test, multilevel models, spatial pattern

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30 Long Term Variability of Temperature in Armenia in the Context of Climate Change

Authors: Hrachuhi Galstyan, Lucian Sfîcă, Pavel Ichim


The purpose of this study is to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of thermal conditions in the Republic of Armenia. The paper describes annual fluctuations in air temperature. Research has been focused on case study region of Armenia and surrounding areas, where long–term measurements and observations of weather conditions have been performed within the National Meteorological Service of Armenia and its surrounding areas. The study contains yearly air temperature data recorded between 1961-2012. Mann-Kendal test and the autocorrelation function were applied to detect the change trend of annual mean temperature, as well as other parametric and non-parametric tests searching to find the presence of some breaks in the long term evolution of temperature. The analysis of all records reveals a tendency mostly towards warmer years, with increased temperatures especially in valleys and inner basins. The maximum temperature increase is up to 1,5 °C. Negative results have not been observed in Armenia. The patterns of temperature change have been observed since the 1990’s over much of the Armenian territory. The climate in Armenia was influenced by global change in the last 2 decades, as results from the methods employed within the study.

Keywords: air temperature, long-term variability, trend, climate change

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29 The Profit Trend of Cosmetics Products Using Bootstrap Edgeworth Approximation

Authors: Edlira Donefski, Lorenc Ekonomi, Tina Donefski


Edgeworth approximation is one of the most important statistical methods that has a considered contribution in the reduction of the sum of standard deviation of the independent variables’ coefficients in a Quantile Regression Model. This model estimates the conditional median or other quantiles. In this paper, we have applied approximating statistical methods in an economical problem. We have created and generated a quantile regression model to see how the profit gained is connected with the realized sales of the cosmetic products in a real data, taken from a local business. The Linear Regression of the generated profit and the realized sales was not free of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity, so this is the reason that we have used this model instead of Linear Regression. Our aim is to analyze in more details the relation between the variables taken into study: the profit and the finalized sales and how to minimize the standard errors of the independent variable involved in this study, the level of realized sales. The statistical methods that we have applied in our work are Edgeworth Approximation for Independent and Identical distributed (IID) cases, Bootstrap version of the Model and the Edgeworth approximation for Bootstrap Quantile Regression Model. The graphics and the results that we have presented here identify the best approximating model of our study.

Keywords: bootstrap, edgeworth approximation, IID, quantile

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28 Achieving Shear Wave Elastography by a Three-element Probe for Wearable Human-machine Interface

Authors: Jipeng Yan, Xingchen Yang, Xiaowei Zhou, Mengxing Tang, Honghai Liu


Shear elastic modulus of skeletal muscles can be obtained by shear wave elastography (SWE) and has been linearly related to muscle force. However, SWE is currently implemented using array probes. Price and volumes of these probes and their driving equipment prevent SWE from being used in wearable human-machine interfaces (HMI). Moreover, beamforming processing for array probes reduces the real-time performance. To achieve SWE by wearable HMIs, a customized three-element probe is adopted in this work, with one element for acoustic radiation force generation and the others for shear wave tracking. In-phase quadrature demodulation and 2D autocorrelation are adopted to estimate velocities of tissues on the sound beams of the latter two elements. Shear wave speeds are calculated by phase shift between the tissue velocities. Three agar phantoms with different elasticities were made by changing the weights of agar. Values of the shear elastic modulus of the phantoms were measured as 8.98, 23.06 and 36.74 kPa at a depth of 7.5 mm respectively. This work verifies the feasibility of measuring shear elastic modulus by wearable devices.

Keywords: shear elastic modulus, skeletal muscle, ultrasound, wearable human-machine interface

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27 A Study on the False Alarm Rates of MEWMA and MCUSUM Control Charts When the Parameters Are Estimated

Authors: Umar Farouk Abbas, Danjuma Mustapha, Hamisu Idi


It is now a known fact that quality is an important issue in manufacturing industries. A control chart is an integrated and powerful tool in statistical process control (SPC). The mean µ and standard deviation σ parameters are estimated. In general, the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) and multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) are used in the detection of small shifts in joint monitoring of several correlated variables; the charts used information from past data which makes them sensitive to small shifts. The aim of the paper is to compare the performance of Shewhart xbar, MEWMA, and MCUSUM control charts in terms of their false rates when parameters are estimated with autocorrelation. A simulation was conducted in R software to generate the average run length (ARL) values of each of the charts. After the analysis, the results show that a comparison of the false alarm rates of the charts shows that MEWMA chart has lower false alarm rates than the MCUSUM chart at various levels of parameter estimated to the number of ARL0 (in control) values. Also noticed was that the sample size has an advert effect on the false alarm of the control charts.

Keywords: average run length, MCUSUM chart, MEWMA chart, false alarm rate, parameter estimation, simulation

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26 Impact Factor Analysis for Spatially Varying Aerosol Optical Depth in Wuhan Agglomeration

Authors: Wenting Zhang, Shishi Liu, Peihong Fu


As an indicator of air quality and directly related to concentration of ground PM2.5, the spatial-temporal variation and impact factor analysis of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) have been a hot spot in air pollution. This paper concerns the non-stationarity and the autocorrelation (with Moran’s I index of 0.75) of the AOD in Wuhan agglomeration (WHA), in central China, uses the geographically weighted regression (GRW) to identify the spatial relationship of AOD and its impact factors. The 3 km AOD product of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is used in this study. Beyond the economic-social factor, land use density factors, vegetable cover, and elevation, the landscape metric is also considered as one factor. The results suggest that the GWR model is capable of dealing with spatial varying relationship, with R square, corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and standard residual better than that of ordinary least square (OLS) model. The results of GWR suggest that the urban developing, forest, landscape metric, and elevation are the major driving factors of AOD. Generally, the higher AOD trends to located in the place with higher urban developing, less forest, and flat area.

Keywords: aerosol optical depth, geographically weighted regression, land use change, Wuhan agglomeration

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25 Spatial Cluster Analysis of Human Cases of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Reported in Pakistan

Authors: Tariq Abbas, Younus Muhammad, Sayyad Aun Muhammad


Background : Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick born viral zoonotic disease that has been notified from almost all regions of Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate spatial distribution of CCHF cases reported to National Institue of Health , Islamabad during year 2013. Methods : Spatial statistics tools were applied to detect extent spatial auto-correlation and clusters of the disease based on adjusted cumulative incidence per million population for each district. Results : The data analyses revealed a large multi-district cluster of high values in the uplands of Balochistan province near Afghanistan border. Conclusion : The cluster included following districts: Pishin; Qilla Abdullah; Qilla Saifullah; Quetta, Sibi; Zhob; and Ziarat. These districts may be given priority in CCHF surveillance, control programs, and further epidemiological research . The location of the cluster close to border of Afghanistan and Iran highlight importance of the findings for organizations dealing with disease at national, regional and global levels.

Keywords: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Pakistan, spatial autocorrelation, clusters , adjusted cumulative incidence

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