Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 208

Search results for: remediation

208 Soil Remediation Technologies towards Green Remediation Strategies

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

Abstract:

As a result of diverse industrial activities, pollution from numerous contaminant affects both groundwater and soils. Many contaminated sites have been discovered in industrialized countries and their remediation is a priority in environmental legislations. The aim of this paper is to provide the evolution of remediation from consolidated invasive technologies to environmental friendly green strategies. Many clean-up technologies have been used. Nowadays the technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on eliminating the source of pollution, but the aim of remediation includes also the recovery of soil quality. “Green remediation”, a strategy based on “soft technologies”, appears the key to tackle the issue of remediation of contaminated sites with the greatest attention to environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality.

Keywords: bioremediation, Green Remediation, phytoremediation, remediation technologies, soil

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207 Remediation and Health: A Systematic Review of the Role of Resulting Displacement in Damaging Health and Wellbeing

Authors: Rupert G. S. Legg

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The connection between poor health outcomes and living near contaminated land has long been understood. Less examined has been the impact of remediation on residents’ health. The cleaning process undoubtedly changes the local area in which it occurs, leading to the possibility that local housing and rental prices could increase resulting in the displacement of those least able to cope. Whether or not this potential displacement resulting from remediation has a considerable impact on health remains unknown. This review aims to determine how these health effects have been approached in the health geography literature. A systematic review of health geographies literature was conducted, searching for two-word clusters: ‘health’ and ‘remediation’ (100 articles); and ‘health’, ‘displacement’ and ‘gentrification’ (43 articles). 43 articles were selected for their relevance (7 from the first cluster, 20 from the second, and 16 from those cited within the reviewed articles). Several of the reviewed cases identified that potential displacement was a contributor to stress and worry in residents living near remediation projects. Likewise, the experience of displacement in other cases beyond remediation was linked with several mental health issues. However, no remediation cases followed-up on the ultimate effects of experiencing displacement on residents’ health. A reason identified for this was a tendency for reviewed studies to adopt a contextual or compositional approach, as opposed to a relational approach, which is more concerned with dimensions of mobility and temporality. Given that remediation and displacement both involve changing mobility and temporality, focussing solely on contextual or compositional factors is problematic. This review concludes by suggesting that more thorough, relational research is conducted into the extent to which potential displacement resulting from remediation affects health.

Keywords: contamination, displacement, health geography, remediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
206 Electrokinetic Remediation of Uranium Contaminated Soil by Ion Exchange Membranes

Authors: Z. H. Shi, T. J. Dou, H. Zhang, H. X. Huang, N. Zeng

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The contamination of significant quantities of soils and sediments with uranium and other actinide elements as a result of nuclear activity poses many environmental risks. The electrokinetic process is one of the most promising remediation techniques for sludge, sediment, and saturated or unsaturated soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. However, secondary waste is a major concern for soil contaminated with nuclides. To minimize the generation of secondary wastes, this study used the anion and cation exchange membranes to improve the performance of the experimental apparatus. Remediation experiments of uranium-contaminated soil were performed with different agents. The results show that using acetic acid and EDTA as chelating agents clearly enhances the migration ability of the uranium. The ion exchange membranes (IEMs) used in the experiments not only reduce secondary wastes, but also, keep the soil pH stable.

Keywords: electrokinetic remediation, ion exchange membranes, soil, uranium

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205 Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil with Vivianite Nanoparticles

Authors: Shinen B., Bavor J., Dorjkhand B., Suvd B., Maitsetseg B.

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A number of remediation techniques are available for the treatment of soils and sediments contaminated by heavy metals. However, some of these techniques are expensive and environmentally disruptive. Nanomaterials are used in the environment as environmental catalysts to convert toxic substances from water, soil, and sediment into environmentally benign compounds. This study was carried out to scrutinize the feasibility of vivianite nanoparticles for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Column experiments were performed in the laboratory to examine nanoparticle sequestration of metal in soil amended with vivianite nanoparticle suspension. The effect of environmental parameters such as temperature, pH and redox potential on metal leachability and bioavailability of soil amended with nanoparticle suspension was examined and compared with non-amended soils. The vivianite was effective in reducing the leachability of metals in soils. It is suggested that vivianite nanoparticles could be applied for the remediation of contaminated sites polluted by heavy metals due to mining activities, particularly in Mongolia, where mining industries have been developing rapidly in the last decade.

Keywords: bioavailability, heavy metals, nanoparticles, remediation

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204 Efficient of Technology Remediation Soil That Contaminated by Petroleum Based on Heat without Combustion

Authors: Gavin Hutama Farandiarta, Hegi Adi Prabowo, Istiara Rizqillah Hanifah, Millati Hanifah Saprudin, Raden Iqrafia Ashna

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The increase of the petroleum’s consumption rate encourages industries to optimize and increase the activity in processing crude oil into petroleum. However, although the result gives a lot of benefits to humans worldwide, it also gives negative impact to the environment. One of the negative impacts of processing crude oil is the soil will be contaminated by petroleum sewage sludge. This petroleum sewage sludge, contains hydrocarbon compound and it can be calculated by Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH).Petroleum sludge waste is accounted as hazardous and toxic. The soil contamination caused by the petroleum sludge is very hard to get rid of. However, there is a way to manage the soil that is contaminated by petroleum sludge, which is by using heat (thermal desorption) in the process of remediation. There are several factors that affect the success rate of the remediation with the help of heat which are temperature, time, and air pressure in the desorption column. The remediation process using the help of heat is an alternative in soil recovery from the petroleum pollution which highly effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly that produces uncontaminated soil and the petroleum that can be used again.

Keywords: petroleum sewage sludge, remediation soil, thermal desorption, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)

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203 Remediation of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production (O&G E&P) Wastes Using Soil-Poultry Dropping Amendment

Authors: Ofonime U. M. John, Justina I. R. Udotong, Victor O. Nwaugo, Ime R. Udotong

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Oily wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (O&G E&P) activities were remediated for twelve weeks using Soil-Poultry dropping amendment. Culture-dependent microbiological, chemical and enzymatic techniques were employed to assess the efficacy of remediation process. Microbiological activities of the remediated wastes showed increased hydrocarbonoclastic microbial populations with increased remediation time; 2.7±0.1 x 105cfu/g to 8.3 ± 0.04 x106cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, 1.7 ± 0.2 x103cfu/g to 6.0 ± 0.01 x 104cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing fungi and 2.2 ± 0.1 x 102cfu/g to 6.7 ± 0.1 x 103cfu/g for hydrocarbon utilizing actinomycetes. Bacteria associated with the remediated wastes after the remediation period included the genera Bacillus, Psuedomonas, Beijerinckia, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes and Serratia. Fungal isolates included species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium, while the Actinomycetes included species of Rhodococcus, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Slight fluctuations in pH values between 6.5± 0.2 and 7.1 ± 0.08 were recorded throughout the process, while total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content decreased from 89, 900 ± 0.03mg/kg to 425 ± 0.1 mg/kg after twelve weeks of remediation. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels decreased with increased remediation time; naphthalene, flourene, pheneanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(b)flouranthene showed decreased values < 0.01 after twelve weeks of remediation. Enzyme activities revealed increased dehydrogenase and urease activities with increased remediation time and decreased phenol oxidase activity with increased remediation period. There was a positive linear correlation between densities of hydrocarbonoclastic microbes and dehydrogenase activity. On the contrary, phenol oxidase and urease activities showed negative correlation with microbial population. Results of this study confirmed that remediation of oily wastes using soil-poultry dropping amendment can result in eco-friendly O&G E&P wastes. It also indicates that urease and phenol oxidase activities can be reliable indices/tools to monitor PAH levels and rates of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation.

Keywords: dehydrogenase activity, oily wastes, remediation, soil-poultry dropping amendment

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202 The Composting Process from a Waste Management Method to a Remediation Procedure

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, F. Gorini, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

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Composting is a controlled technology to enhance the natural aerobic process of organic wastes degradation. The resulting product is a humified material that is principally recyclable for agricultural purpose. The composting process is one of the most important tools for waste management, by the European Community legislation. In recent years composting has been increasingly used as a remediation technology to remove biodegradable contaminants from soil, and to modulate heavy metals bioavailability in phytoremediation strategies. An optimization in the recovery of resources from wastes through composting could enhance soil fertility and promote its use in the remediation biotechnologies of contaminated soils.

Keywords: agriculture, biopile, compost, soil clean-up, waste recycling

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201 Sustained-Release Persulfate Tablets for Groundwater Remediation

Authors: Yu-Chen Chang, Yen-Ping Peng, Wei-Yu Chen, Ku-Fan Chen

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Contamination of soil and groundwater has become a serious and widespread environmental problem. In this study, sustained-release persulfate tablets were developed using persulfate powder and a modified cellulose binder for organic-contaminated groundwater remediation. Conventional cement-based persulfate-releasing materials were also synthesized for the comparison. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the release rates of the remedial tablets; (2) obtain the optimal formulas of the tablets; and (3) evaluate the effects of the tablets on the subsurface environment. The results of batch experiments show that the optimal parameter for the preparation of the persulfate-releasing tablet was persulfate:cellulose = 1:1 (wt:wt) with a 5,000 kg F/cm2 of pressure application. The cellulose-based persulfate tablet was able to release 2,030 mg/L of persulfate per day for 10 days. Compared to cement-based persulfate-releasing materials, the persulfate release rates of the cellulose-based persulfate tablets were much more stable. Moreover, since the tablets are soluble in water, no waste will be produced in the subsurface. The results of column tests show that groundwater flow would shorten the release time of the tablets. This study successfully developed unique persulfate tablets based on green remediation perspective. The efficacy of the persulfate-releasing tablets on the removal of organic pollutants needs to be further evaluated. The persulfate tablets are expected to be applied for site remediation in the future.

Keywords: sustained-release persulfate tablet, modified cellulose, green remediation, groundwater

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200 Soil Mixed Constructed Permeable Reactive Barrier for Groundwater Remediation: Field Observation

Authors: Ziyda Abunada

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In-situ remediation of contaminated land with deep mixing can deliver a multi-technique remedial strategy. A field trail includes permeable reactive barrier (PRB) took place at a severely contaminated site in Yorkshire to the north of the UK through the SMiRT (Soil Mix Remediation Technology) project in May 2011. SMiRT involved the execution of the largest research field trials in the UK to provide field validation. Innovative modified bentonite materials in combination with zeolite and organoclay were used to construct six different walls of a hexagonal PRB. Field monitoring, testing and site cores were collected from the PRB twice: once 2 months after the construction and again in March 2014 (almost 34 months later).This paper presents an overview of the results of the PRB materials’ relative performance with some initial 3-year time-related assessment. Results from the monitoring program and the site cores are presented. Some good correlations are seen together with some clear difference among the materials’ efficiency. These preliminary observations represent a potential for further investigations and highlighted the main lessons learned in a filed scale.

Keywords: in-situ remediation, groundwater, permeable reactive barrier, site cores

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
199 Enzymatic Remediation in Standard Crude Palm Oil for Superior Quality Oil

Authors: Haniza Ahmad, Norliza Saparin, Ahmadilfitri Md Noor, Mohd Suria Affandi Yusoff

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Enzymatic remediation is applied in low free fatty acid (FFA) (<4%) crude palm oil (CPO) to investigate if further FFA reduction is able to take place to produce premium CPO (<1% FFA). There are four different lipase Candida Antartica brands used in this study. Samples submit to enzymatic remediation using rotary evaporator under 100mbar vacuum with rotation at 260rpm. Samples were taken at 4hours, 8hours and 24hours for analyses. FFA less than 1% was achieved after 24hours reaction with 1% enzyme and 2% glycerol. The FFA reduction was intensified with the presence of glycerol who provides more sites for fatty acid attachment. At 2% glycerol, 71-88% FFA was reduced whereas at 1% glycerol, 46-75% FFA reduced. However, partial glycerides was increased with presence of glycerol with 2% add in glycerol showed greater partial glycerides increment compared to 1% glycerol.

Keywords: enzymes, crude palm oil, free fatty acid, glycerol

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198 Mass Flux and Forensic Assessment: Informed Remediation Decision Making at One of Canada’s Most Polluted Sites

Authors: Tony R. Walker, N. Devin MacAskill, Andrew Thalhiemer

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Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada has long been subject to effluent and atmospheric inputs of contaminants, including thousands of tons of PAHs from a large coking and steel plant which operated in Sydney for nearly a century. Contaminants comprised of coal tar residues which were discharged from coking ovens into a small tidal tributary, which became known as the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs), and subsequently discharged into Sydney Harbour. An Environmental Impact Statement concluded that mobilization of contaminated sediments posed unacceptable ecological risks, therefore immobilizing contaminants in the STPs using solidification and stabilization was identified as a primary source control remediation option to mitigate against continued transport of contaminated sediments from the STPs into Sydney Harbour. Recent developments in contaminant mass flux techniques focus on understanding “mobile” vs. “immobile” contaminants at remediation sites. Forensic source evaluations are also increasingly used for understanding origins of PAH contaminants in soils or sediments. Flux and forensic source evaluation-informed remediation decision-making uses this information to develop remediation end point goals aimed at reducing off-site exposure and managing potential ecological risk. This study included reviews of previous flux studies, calculating current mass flux estimates and a forensic assessment using PAH fingerprint techniques, during remediation of one of Canada’s most polluted sites at the STPs. Historically, the STPs was thought to be the major source of PAH contamination in Sydney Harbour with estimated discharges of nearly 800 kg/year of PAHs. However, during three years of remediation monitoring only 17-97 kg/year of PAHs were discharged from the STPs, which was also corroborated by an independent PAH flux study during the first year of remediation which estimated 119 kg/year. The estimated mass efflux of PAHs from the STPs during remediation was in stark contrast to ~2000 kg loading thought necessary to cause a short term increase in harbour sediment PAH concentrations. These mass flux estimates during remediation were also between three to eight times lower than PAHs discharged from the STPs a decade prior to remediation, when at the same time, government studies demonstrated on-going reduction in PAH concentrations in harbour sediments. Flux results were also corroborated using forensic source evaluations using PAH fingerprint techniques which found a common source of PAHs for urban soils, marine and aquatic sediments in and around Sydney. Coal combustion (from historical coking) and coal dust transshipment (from current coal transshipment facilities), are likely the principal source of PAHs in these media and not migration of PAH laden sediments from the STPs during a large scale remediation project.

Keywords: contaminated sediment, mass flux, forensic source evaluations, remediation

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197 Semiconducting Nanostructures Based Organic Pollutant Degradation Using Natural Sunlight for Water Remediation

Authors: Ankur Gupta, Jayant Raj Saurav, Shantanu Bhattacharya

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In this work we report an effective water filtration system based on the photo catalytic performance of semiconducting dense nano-brushes under natural sunlight. During thin-film photocatalysis usually performed by a deposited layer of photocatalyst, a stagnant boundary layer is created near the catalyst which adversely affects the rate of adsorption because of diffusional restrictions. One strategy that may be used is to disrupt this laminar boundary layer by creating a super dense nanostructure near the surface of the catalyst. Further it is adequate to fabricate a structured filter element for a through pass of the water with as grown nanostructures coming out of the surface of such an element. So, the dye remediation is performed through solar means. This remediation was initially limited to lower efficiency because of diffusional restrictions but has now turned around as a fast process owing to the development of the filter materials with standing out dense nanostructures. The effect of increased surface area due to microholes on fraction adsorbed is also investigated and found that there is an optimum value of hole diameter for maximum adsorption.

Keywords: nano materials, photocatalysis, waste water treatment, water remediation

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196 Electrokinetic Remediation of Nickel Contaminated Clayey Soils

Authors: Waddah S. Abdullah, Saleh M. Al-Sarem

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Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils has undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar contaminants (such as heavy metals) and nonpolar organic contaminants. It can efficiently be used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. EK processes have proved to be superior to other conventional methods, such as the pump and treat, and soil washing, since these methods are ineffective in such cases. This paper describes the use of electrokinetic remediation to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Open cells, as well as advanced cylindrical cells, were used to perform electrokinetic experiments. Azraq green clay (low permeability soil, taken from the east part of Jordan) was used for the experiments. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel. The EK experiments were conducted under direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA. Chelating agents (NaEDTA), disodium ethylene diamine-tetra-ascetic acid was used to enhance the electroremediation processes. The effect of carbonates presence in soils was, also, investigated by use of sodium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by using buffer solutions. The results showed that the average removal efficiency was 64%, for the Nickel spiked saturated clayey soil.Experiment results have shown that carbonates retarded the remediation process of nickel contaminated soils. Na-EDTA effectively enhanced the decontamination process, with removal efficiency increased from 64% without using the NaEDTA to over 90% after using Na-EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, contaminated soils, EDTA enhancement, electrokinetic processes, Nickel contaminated soil, soil remediation

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195 Simultaneous Removal of Arsenic and Toxic Metals from Contaminated Soil: a Pilot-Scale Demonstration

Authors: Juan Francisco Morales Arteaga, Simon Gluhar, Anela Kaurin, Domen Lestan

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Contaminated soils are recognized as one of the most pressing global environmental problems. As is one of the most hazardous elements: chronic exposure to arsenic has devastating effects on health, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and eventually death. Pb, Zn and Cd are very highly toxic metals that affect almost every organ in the body. With this in mind, new technologies for soil remediation processes are urgently needed. Calcareous artificially contaminated soil containing 231 mg kg-1 As and historically contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd was washed with a 1:1.5 solid-liquid ratio of 90 mM EDTA, 100 mM oxalic acid, and 50 mM sodium dithionite to remove 59, 75, 29, and 53% of As, Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively. To reduce emissions of residual EDTA and chelated metals from the remediated soil, zero valent iron (ZVI) was added (1% w/w) to the slurry of the washed soil immediately prior to rinsing. Experimental controls were conducted without the addition of ZVI after remediation. The use of ZVI reduced metal leachability and minimized toxic emissions 21 days after remediation. After this time, NH4NO3 extraction was performed to determine the mobility of toxic elements in the soil. In addition, Unified Human BioaccessibilityMethod (UBM) was performed to quantify the bioaccessibility levels of metals in stimulated human gastric and gastrointestinal phases.

Keywords: soil remediation, soil science, soil washing, toxic metals removal

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194 A Case Study: Remediation of Abandoned Mines for Residential Development

Authors: Issa S. Oweis, Gary Gartenberg, Luma J. Oweis

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The site for a residential apartment building overlies an abandoned iron mine in granitic gneiss in northern New Jersey. The mine stope is about 137 m (450 long) and dipping over 344m (800 feet) at 450 to 500. As the building footprint straddles, the mine site needed remediation. The remediation scheme consisted of compaction grouting a minimum 10 m (30 ft.) depth of the mine stope in rock to establish a buttress for the hanging wall and allow support of the building foundation. The rock strength parameters (friction and cohesion) were established based on Hoek Geologic Strength Index (GSI). The derived strength parameters were used in the wedge analysis to simulate rock cave-in. It was concluded that a cave-in would be unlikely. Verification holes confirmed the effectiveness of grouting. Although post grouting micro gravity survey depicted a few anomalies, no anomalies were found to exist by further drilling and excavation.

Keywords: grout, stope, rock, properties

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193 Bioremediation of Arsenic from Industrially Polluted Soil of Vatva, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Authors: C. Makwana, S. R. Dave

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Arsenic is toxic to almost all living cells. Its contamination in natural sources affects the growth of microorganisms. The presence of arsenic is associated with various human disorders also. The attempt of this sort of study provides information regarding the performance of our isolated microorganisms in the presence of Arsenic, which have ample scope for bioremediation. Six isolates were selected from the polluted sample of industrial zone Vatva, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, out of which two were Thermophilic organisms. The thermophilic exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Bacillus was used for microbial enhance oil recovery (MEOR) and in the bio beneficiation. Inorganic arsenic primarily exists in the form of arsenate or arsenite. This arsenic resistance isolate was capable of transforming As +3 to As+5. This isolate would be useful for arsenic remediation standpoint from aquatic systems. The study revealed that the thermophilic microorganism was growing at 55 degree centigrade showed considerable remediation property. The results on the growth and enzyme catalysis would be discussed in response to Arsenic remediation.

Keywords: aquatic systems, thermophilic, exopolysacchride, arsenic

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192 Data Management System for Environmental Remediation

Authors: Elizaveta Petelina, Anton Sizo

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Environmental remediation projects deal with a wide spectrum of data, including data collected during site assessment, execution of remediation activities, and environmental monitoring. Therefore, an appropriate data management is required as a key factor for well-grounded decision making. The Environmental Data Management System (EDMS) was developed to address all necessary data management aspects, including efficient data handling and data interoperability, access to historical and current data, spatial and temporal analysis, 2D and 3D data visualization, mapping, and data sharing. The system focuses on support of well-grounded decision making in relation to required mitigation measures and assessment of remediation success. The EDMS is a combination of enterprise and desktop level data management and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools assembled to assist to environmental remediation, project planning, and evaluation, and environmental monitoring of mine sites. EDMS consists of seven main components: a Geodatabase that contains spatial database to store and query spatially distributed data; a GIS and Web GIS component that combines desktop and server-based GIS solutions; a Field Data Collection component that contains tools for field work; a Quality Assurance (QA)/Quality Control (QC) component that combines operational procedures for QA and measures for QC; Data Import and Export component that includes tools and templates to support project data flow; a Lab Data component that provides connection between EDMS and laboratory information management systems; and a Reporting component that includes server-based services for real-time report generation. The EDMS has been successfully implemented for the Project CLEANS (Clean-up of Abandoned Northern Mines). Project CLEANS is a multi-year, multimillion-dollar project aimed at assessing and reclaiming 37 uranium mine sites in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The EDMS has effectively facilitated integrated decision-making for CLEANS project managers and transparency amongst stakeholders.

Keywords: data management, environmental remediation, geographic information system, GIS, decision making

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191 Assessing Sydney Tar Ponds Remediation and Natural Sediment Recovery in Nova Scotia, Canada

Authors: Tony R. Walker, N. Devin MacAskill, Andrew Thalhiemer

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Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia has long been subject to effluent and atmospheric inputs of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from a large coking operation and steel plant that operated in Sydney for nearly a century until closure in 1988. Contaminated effluents from the industrial site resulted in the creation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, one of Canada’s largest contaminated sites. Since its closure, there have been several attempts to remediate this former industrial site and finally, in 2004, the governments of Canada and Nova Scotia committed to remediate the site to reduce potential ecological and human health risks to the environment. The Sydney Tar Ponds and Coke Ovens cleanup project has become the most prominent remediation project in Canada today. As an integral part of remediation of the site (i.e., which consisted of solidification/stabilization and associated capping of the Tar Ponds), an extensive multiple media environmental effects program was implemented to assess what effects remediation had on the surrounding environment, and, in particular, harbour sediments. Additionally, longer-term natural sediment recovery rates of select contaminants predicted for the harbour sediments were compared to current conditions. During remediation, potential contributions to sediment quality, in addition to remedial efforts, were evaluated which included a significant harbour dredging project, propeller wash from harbour traffic, storm events, adjacent loading/unloading of coal and municipal wastewater treatment discharges. Two sediment sampling methodologies, sediment grab and gravity corer, were also compared to evaluate the detection of subtle changes in sediment quality. Results indicated that overall spatial distribution pattern of historical contaminants remains unchanged, although at much lower concentrations than previously reported, due to natural recovery. Measurements of sediment indicator parameter concentrations confirmed that natural recovery rates of Sydney Harbour sediments were in broad agreement with predicted concentrations, in spite of ongoing remediation activities. Overall, most measured parameters in sediments showed little temporal variability even when using different sampling methodologies, during three years of remediation compared to baseline, except for the detection of significant increases in total PAH concentrations noted during one year of remediation monitoring. The data confirmed the effectiveness of mitigation measures implemented during construction relative to harbour sediment quality, despite other anthropogenic activities and the dynamic nature of the harbour.

Keywords: contaminated sediment, monitoring, recovery, remediation

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190 A Low-Cost and Easy-To-Operate Remediation Technology of Heavy Metals Contaminated Agricultural Soil

Authors: Xiao-Hua Zhu, Xin Yuan, Yi-Ran Zhao

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High-cadmium pollution in rice is a serious problem in many parts of China. Many kinds of remediation technologies have been tested and applied in many farmlands. Because of the productive function of the farmland, most technologies are inappropriate due to their destruction to the tillage soil layer. And the large labours and expensive fees of many technologies are also the restrictive factors for their applications. The conception of 'Root Micro-Geochemical Barrier' was proposed to reduce cadmium (Cd) bioavailability and the concentration of the cadmium in rice. Remediation and mitigation techniques were demonstrated on contaminated farmland in the downstream of some mine. According to the rule of rice growth, Cd would be absorbed by the crops in every growth stage, and the plant-absorb efficiency in the first stage of the tillering stage is almost the highest. We should create a method to protect the crops from heavy metal pollution, which could begin to work from the early growth stage. Many materials with repair property get our attention. The materials will create a barrier preventing Cd from being absorbed by the crops during all the growing process because the material has the ability to adsorb soil-Cd and making it losing its migration activity. And we should choose a good chance to put the materials into the crop-growing system cheaply as soon as early. Per plant, rice has a little root system scope, which makes the roots reach about 15cm deep and 15cm wide. So small root radiation area makes it possible for all the Cd approaching the roots to be adsorbed with a small amount of adsorbent. Mixing the remediation materials with the seed-raising soli and adding them to the tillage soil in the process of transplanting seedlings, we can control the soil-Cd activity in the range of roots to reduce the Cd-amount absorbed by the crops. Of course, the mineral materials must have enough adsorptive capacity and no additional pollution. More than 3000 square meters farmlands have been remediated. And on the application of root micro-geochemical barrier, the Cd-concentration in rice and the remediation-cost have been decreased by 90% and 80%, respectively, with little extra labour brought to the farmers. The Cd-concentrations in rice from remediated farmland have been controlled below 0.1 ppm. The remediation of one acre of contaminated cropland costs less than $100. The concept has its advantage in the remediation of paddy field contaminated by Cd, especially for the field with outside pollution sources.

Keywords: cadmium pollution, growth stage, cost, root micro-geochemistry barrier

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189 Ecosystem Restoration: Remediation of Crude Oil-Polluted Soil by Leuceana leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit

Authors: Ayodele Adelusi Oyedeji

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The study was carried out under a controlled environment with the aim of examining remediation of crude oil polluted soil. The germination rate, heights and girths, number of leaves and nodulation was determined following standard procedures. Some physicochemical (organic matter, pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium) characteristics of soil used were determined using standard protocols. Results showed that at varying concentration of crude oil i.e 0 ml, 25 ml, 50 ml, 75 ml and 100 ml, Leuceana leucocephala had germination rate of 92%, 90%, 84%, 62% and 56% respectively, mean height of 73.70cm, 58.30cm, 49.50cm, 46.45cm and 41.80cm respectively after 16 weeks after planting (WAP), mean girth of 0.54mm, 0.34mm, 0.33mm, 0.21mm and 0.19mm respectively at 16 WAP, number of nodules 18, 10, 10, 6 and 2 respectively and number of leaves 24.00, 16.00, 13.00, 10.00 and 6.00 respectively. The organic matter, pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium decreased with the increase in the concentration of crude oil. Furthermore, as the concentration of crude oil increased the germination rate, height, girth, and number of leaves and nodules decreased, suggesting the effect of crude oil on Leuceana leucocephala. The plant withstands the varying concentration of the crude oil means that it could be used for the remediation of crude oil contaminated soil in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Keywords: ecosystem conservation, Leuceana leucocephala, phytoremediation, soil pollution

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188 Consequences of Some Remediative Techniques Used in Sewaged Soil Bioremediation on Indigenous Microbial Activity

Authors: E. M. Hoballah, M. Saber, A. Turky, N. Awad, A. M. Zaghloul

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Remediation of cultivated sewage soils in Egypt become an important aspect in last decade for having healthy crops and saving the human health. In this respect, a greenhouse experiment was conducted where contaminated sewage soil was treated with modified forms of 2% bentonite (T1), 2% kaolinite (T2), 1% bentonite+1% kaolinite (T3), 2% probentonite (T4), 2% prokaolinite (T5), 1% bentonite + 0.5% kaolinite + 0.5% rock phosphate (RP) (T6), 2% iron oxide (T7) and 1% iron oxide + 1% RP (T8). These materials were applied as remediative materials. Untreated soil was also used as a control. All soil samples were incubated for 2 months at 25°C at field capacity throughout the whole experiment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from both treated and untreated soils as a biomass indicator was measured through the incubation time and kinetic parameters of the best fitted models used to describe the phenomena were taken to evaluate the succession of sewaged soils remediation. The obtained results indicated that according to the kinetic parameters of used models, CO2 effluxes from remediated soils was significantly decreased compared to control treatment with variation in rate values according to type of remediation material applied. In addition, analyzed microbial biomass parameter showed that Ni and Zn were the most potential toxic elements (PTEs) that influenced the decreasing order of microbial activity in untreated soil. Meanwhile, Ni was the only influenced pollutant in treated soils. Although all applied materials significantly decreased the hazards of PTEs in treated soil, modified bentonite was the best treatment compared to other used materials. This work discussed different mechanisms taking place between applied materials and PTEs founded in the studied sewage soil.

Keywords: remediation, potential toxic elements, soil biomass, sewage

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187 Acetic Acid Assisted Phytoextraction of Chromium (Cr) by Energy Crop (Arundo donax L.) in Cr Contaminated Soils

Authors: Muhammad Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer, Hamza Rafaqat, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Awais Irshad

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Soil pollution with chromium (Cr) has become one of the most important concerns due to its toxicity for humans. To date, various remediation approaches have been employed for the remediation and management of Cr contaminated soils. Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and emerging remediation approach which has gained attention due to several advantages over conventional remediation approach. The use of energy crops for phytoremediation is an emerging trend worldwide. These energy crops have high tolerance against various environmental stresses, the potential to grow in diverse ecosystems and high biomass production make them a suitable candidate for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The removal efficiency of plants in phytoextraction depends upon several soil and plant factors including solubility, bioavailability and metal speciation in soils. A pot scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the phytoextraction potential of Arundo donax L. with the application of acetic acid (A.A) in Cr contaminated soils. Plants were grown in pots filled with 5 kg soils for 90 days. After 30 days plants acclimatization in pot conditions, plants were treated with various levels of Cr (2.5 mM, 5 mM, 7.5 mM, 10 mM) and A.A (Cr 2.5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM, Cr 5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM, Cr 7.5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM, Cr 10 mM + A.A 2.5 mM). The application of A.A significantly increased metal uptake and in roots and shoots of A. donax. This increase was observed at Cr 7.5 mM + A.A 2.5 mM but at high concentrations, visual symptoms of Cr toxicity were observed on leaves. Similarly, A.A applications also affect the activities of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in leaves of A. donax. Based on results it is concluded that the applications of A.A acid for phytoextraction is an alternative approach for the management of Cr affected soils and synthetic chelators should be replaced with organic acids.

Keywords: acetic acid, A. donax, chromium, energy crop, phytoextraction

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186 Removal of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Soils by Electrochemical Method

Authors: D. M. Cocârță, I. A. Istrate, C. Streche, D. M. Dumitru

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Soil contamination phenomena are a wide world issue that has received the important attention in the last decades. The main pollutants that have affected soils are especially those resulted from the oil extraction, transport and processing. This paper presents results obtained in the framework of a research project focused on the management of contaminated sites with petroleum products/ REMPET. One of the specific objectives of the REMPET project was to assess the electrochemical treatment (improved with polarity change respect to the typical approach) as a treatment option for the remediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from contaminated soils. Petroleum hydrocarbon compounds attach to soil components and are difficult to remove and degrade. Electrochemical treatment is a physicochemical treatment that has gained acceptance as an alternative method, for the remediation of organic contaminated soils comparing with the traditional methods as bioremediation and chemical oxidation. This type of treatment need short time and have high removal efficiency, being usually applied in heterogeneous soils with low permeability. During the experimental tests, the following parameters were monitored: pH, redox potential, humidity, current intensity, energy consumption. The electrochemical method was applied in an experimental setup with the next dimensions: 450 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm (L x l x h). The setup length was devised in three electrochemical cells that were connected at two power supplies. The power supplies configuration was provided in such manner that each cell has a cathode and an anode without overlapping. The initial value of TPH concentration in soil was of 1420.28 mg/kgdw. The remediation method has been applied for only 21 days, when it was already noticed an average removal efficiency of 31 %, with better results in the anode area respect to the cathode one (33% respect to 27%). The energy consumption registered after the development of the experiment was 10.6 kWh for exterior power supply and 16.1 kWh for the interior one. Taking into account that at national level, the most used methods for soil remediation are bioremediation (which needs too much time to be implemented and depends on many factors) and thermal desorption (which involves high costs in order to be implemented), the study of electrochemical treatment will give an alternative to these two methods (and their limitations).

Keywords: electrochemical remediation, pollution, total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil contamination

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185 Bacteria Immobilized Electrospun Fibrous Biocomposites for Cr (VI) Remediation in Water

Authors: Omer Faruk Sarioglu, Asli Celebioglu, Turgay Tekinay, Tamer Uyar

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Fibrous biocomposites were developed by immobilization of a Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strain, morganella morganii STB5, on electrospun polystyrene (PS) and polysulfone (PSU) webs. Cr(VI) removal characteristics of STB5/PS and STB5/PSU fibrous biocomposites were determined at 25 mg L-1 of initial Cr(VI) and 70.41% and 68.27% of removal were observed within 72 h, respectively. Reusability test results indicate that both biocomposites are potentially reusable and can be used for at least 5 cycles. After storage test results suggest that the biocomposites can be stored awhile without losing their Cr(VI) bioremoval capabilities. SEM images of STB5 immobilized PS and PSU webs after the reusability test exhibit strong attachment of bacterial biofilms onto fibrous surfaces. Our results are quite promising and suggesting that reusable bacteria immobilized electrospun fibrous biocomposites might be applicable for Cr(VI) remediation in water systems.

Keywords: electrospinning, polystyrene, polysulfone, Cr(VI) bioremoval, environmental sustainability

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184 The Role of Phycoremediation in the Sustainable Management of Aquatic Pollution

Authors: Raymond Ezenweani, Jeffrey Ogbebor

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The menace of aquatic pollution has become increasingly of great concern and the effects of this pollution as a result of anthropogenic activities cannot be over emphasized. Phycoremediation is the application of algal remediation technology in the removal of harmful products from the environment. Harmful products also known as pollutants are usually introduced into the environment through variety of processes such as industrial discharge, agricultural runoff, flooding, and acid rain. This work has to do with the capability of algae in the efficient removal of different pollutants, ranging from hydrocarbons, eutrophication, agricultural chemicals and wastes, heavy metals, foul smell from septic tanks or dumps through different processes such as bioconversion, biosorption, bioabsorption and biodecomposition. Algae are capable of bioconversion of environmentally persistent compounds to degradable compounds and also capable of putting harmful bacteria growth into check in waste water remediation. Numerous algal organisms such as Nannochloropsis spp, Chlorella spp, Tetraselmis spp, Shpaerocystics spp, cyanobacteria and different macroalgae have been tested by different researchers in laboratory scale and shown to have 100% efficiency in environmental remediation. Algae as a result of their photosynthetic capacity are also efficient in air cleansing and management of global warming by sequestering carbon iv oxide in air and converting it into organic carbon, thereby making food available for the other organisms in the higher trophic level of the aquatic food chain. Algae play major role in the sustenance of the aquatic ecosystem by their virtue of being photosynthetic. They are the primary producers and their role in environmental sustainability is remarkable.

Keywords: Algae , Pollutant, ., Phycoremediation, Aquatic, Sustainability

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183 3-Dimensional Contamination Conceptual Site Model: A Case Study Illustrating the Multiple Applications of Developing and Maintaining a 3D Contamination Model during an Active Remediation Project on a Former Urban Gasworks Site

Authors: Duncan Fraser

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A 3-Dimensional (3D) conceptual site model was developed using the Leapfrog Works® platform utilising a comprehensive historical dataset for a large former Gasworks site in Fitzroy, Melbourne. The gasworks had been constructed across two fractured geological units with varying hydraulic conductivities. A Newer Volcanic (basaltic) outcrop covered approximately half of the site and was overlying a fractured Melbourne formation (Siltstone) bedrock outcropping over the remaining portion. During the investigative phase of works, a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) plume (coal tar) was identified within both geological units in the subsurface originating from multiple sources, including gasholders, tar wells, condensers, and leaking pipework. The first stage of model development was undertaken to determine the horizontal and vertical extents of the coal tar in the subsurface and assess the potential causality between potential sources, plume location, and site geology. Concentrations of key contaminants of interest (COIs) were also interpolated within Leapfrog to refine the distribution of contaminated soils. The model was subsequently used to develop a robust soil remediation strategy and achieve endorsement from an Environmental Auditor. A change in project scope, following the removal and validation of the three former gasholders, necessitated the additional excavation of a significant volume of residual contaminated rock to allow for the future construction of two-story underground basements. To assess financial liabilities associated with the offsite disposal or thermal treatment of material, the 3D model was updated with three years of additional analytical data from the active remediation phase of works. Chemical concentrations and the residual tar plume within the rock fractures were modelled to pre-classify the in-situ material and enhance separation strategies to prevent the unnecessary treatment of material and reduce costs.

Keywords: 3D model, contaminated land, Leapfrog, remediation

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182 Oil Pollution Analysis of the Ecuadorian Rainforest Using Remote Sensing Methods

Authors: Juan Heredia, Naci Dilekli

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The Ecuadorian Rainforest has been polluted for almost 60 years with little to no regard to oversight, law, or regulations. The consequences have been vast environmental damage such as pollution and deforestation, as well as sickness and the death of many people and animals. The aim of this paper is to quantify and localize the polluted zones, which something that has not been conducted and is the first step for remediation. To approach this problem, multi-spectral Remote Sensing imagery was utilized using a novel algorithm developed for this study, based on four normalized indices available in the literature. The algorithm classifies the pixels in polluted or healthy ones. The results of this study include a new algorithm for pixel classification and quantification of the polluted area in the selected image. Those results were finally validated by ground control points found in the literature. The main conclusion of this work is that using hyperspectral images, it is possible to identify polluted vegetation. The future work is environmental remediation, in-situ tests, and more extensive results that would inform new policymaking.

Keywords: remote sensing, oil pollution quatification, amazon forest, hyperspectral remote sensing

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181 Feasibility of Washing/Extraction Treatment for the Remediation of Deep-Sea Mining Trailings

Authors: Kyoungrean Kim

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Importance of deep-sea mineral resources is dramatically increasing due to the depletion of land mineral resources corresponding to increasing human’s economic activities. Korea has acquired exclusive exploration licenses at four areas which are the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone in the Pacific Ocean (2002), Tonga (2008), Fiji (2011) and Indian Ocean (2014). The preparation for commercial mining of Nautilus minerals (Canada) and Lockheed martin minerals (USA) is expected by 2020. The London Protocol 1996 (LP) under International Maritime Organization (IMO) and International Seabed Authority (ISA) will set environmental guidelines for deep-sea mining until 2020, to protect marine environment. In this research, the applicability of washing/extraction treatment for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings was mainly evaluated in order to present preliminary data to develop practical remediation technology in near future. Polymetallic nodule samples were collected at the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone in the Pacific Ocean, then stored at room temperature. Samples were pulverized by using jaw crusher and ball mill then, classified into 3 particle sizes (> 63 µm, 63-20 µm, < 20 µm) by using vibratory sieve shakers (Analysette 3 Pro, Fritsch, Germany) with 63 µm and 20 µm sieve. Only the particle size 63-20 µm was used as the samples for investigation considering the lower limit of ore dressing process which is tens to 100 µm. Rhamnolipid and sodium alginate as biosurfactant and aluminum sulfate which are mainly used as flocculant were used as environmentally friendly additives. Samples were adjusted to 2% liquid with deionized water then mixed with various concentrations of additives. The mixture was stirred with a magnetic bar during specific reaction times and then the liquid phase was separated by a centrifugal separator (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA) under 4,000 rpm for 1 h. The separated liquid was filtered with a syringe and acrylic-based filter (0.45 µm). The extracted heavy metals in the filtered liquid were then determined using a UV-Vis spectrometer (DR-5000, Hach, USA) and a heat block (DBR 200, Hach, USA) followed by US EPA methods (8506, 8009, 10217 and 10220). Polymetallic nodule was mainly composed of manganese (27%), iron (8%), nickel (1.4%), cupper (1.3 %), cobalt (1.3%) and molybdenum (0.04%). Based on remediation standards of various countries, Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) were selected as primary target materials. Throughout this research, the use of rhamnolipid was shown to be an effective approach for removing heavy metals in samples originated from manganese nodules. Sodium alginate might also be one of the effective additives for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings such as polymetallic nodules. Compare to the use of rhamnolipid and sodium alginate, aluminum sulfate was more effective additive at short reaction time within 4 h. Based on these results, sequencing particle separation, selective extraction/washing, advanced filtration of liquid phase, water treatment without dewatering and solidification/stabilization may be considered as candidate technologies for the remediation of deep-sea mining tailings.

Keywords: deep-sea mining tailings, heavy metals, remediation, extraction, additives

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180 Solid Waste Management through Mushroom Cultivation: An Eco Friendly Approach

Authors: Mary Josephine

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Waste of certain process can be the input source of other sectors in order to reduce environmental pollution. Today there are more and more solid wastes are generated, but only very small amount of those are recycled. So, the threatening of environmental pressure to public health is very serious. The methods considered for the treatment of solid waste are biogas tanks or processing to make animal feed and fertilizer, however, they did not perform well. An alternative approach is growing mushrooms on waste residues. This is regarded as an environmental friendly solution with potential economic benefit. The substrate producers do their best to produce quality substrate at low cost. Apart from other methods, this can be achieved by employing biologically degradable wastes used as the resource material component of the substrate. Mushroom growing is a significant tool for the restoration, replenishment and remediation of Earth’s overburdened ecosphere. One of the rational methods of waste utilization involves locally available wastes. The present study aims to find out the yield of mushroom grown on locally available waste for free and to conserve our environment by recycling wastes.

Keywords: biodegradable, environment, mushroom, remediation

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179 Combined Use of Microbial Consortia for the Enhanced Degradation of Type-IIx Pyrethroids

Authors: Parminder Kaur, Chandrajit B. Majumder

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The unrestrained usage of pesticides to meet the burgeoning demand of enhanced crop productivity has led to the serious contamination of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. The remediation of mixture of pesticides is a challenging affair regarding inadvertent mixture of pesticides from agricultural lands treated with various compounds. Global concerns about the excessive use of pesticides have driven the need to develop more effective and safer alternatives for their remediation. We focused our work on the microbial degradation of a mixture of three Type II-pyrethroids, namely Cypermethrin, Cyhalothrin and Deltamethrin commonly applied for both agricultural and domestic purposes. The fungal strains (Fusarium strain 8-11P and Fusarium sp. zzz1124) had previously been isolated from agricultural soils and their ability to biotransform this amalgam was studied. In brief, the experiment was conducted in two growth systems (added carbon and carbon-free) enriched with variable concentrations of pyrethroids between 100 to 300 mgL⁻¹. Parameter optimization (pH, temperature, concentration and time) was done using a central composite design matrix of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). At concentrations below 200 mgL⁻¹, complete removal was observed; however, degradation of 95.6%/97.4 and 92.27%/95.65% (in carbon-free/added carbon) was observed for 250 and 300 mgL⁻¹ respectively. The consortium has been shown to degrade the pyrethroid mixture (300 mg L⁻¹) within 120 h. After 5 day incubation, the residual pyrethroids concentration in unsterilized soil were much lower than in sterilized soil, indicating that microbial degradation predominates in pyrethroids elimination with the half-life (t₁/₂) of 1.6 d and R² ranging from 0.992-0.999. Overall, these results showed that microbial consortia might be more efficient than single degrader strains. The findings will complement our current understanding of the bioremediation of mixture of Type II pyrethroids with microbial consortia and potentially heighten the importance for considering bioremediation as an effective alternative for the remediation of such pollutants.

Keywords: bioremediation, fungi, pyrethroids, soil

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