Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 251

Search results for: Italy

251 Islamic Finance: What is the Outlook for Italy?

Authors: Paolo Pietro Biancone

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The spread of Islamic financial instruments is an opportunity to offer integration for the immigrant population and to attract, through the specific products, the richness of sovereign funds from the "Arab" countries. However, it is important to consider the possibility of comparing a traditional finance model, which in recent times has given rise to many doubts, with an "alternative" finance model, where the ethical aspect arising from religious principles is very important.

Keywords: banks, Europe, Islamic finance, Italy

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
250 Old and New Paradigms for Pre-Earthquake Prevention and Post-Earthquake Regeneration of Territories in Crisis in Italy

Authors: Maria Angela Bedini, Fabio Bronzini

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Most of the Italian territory is at seismic risk. Many earthquakes have hit Italy, and devastating effects have been generated. The specific objective of the research is to distinguish the negative approaches that have generated unacceptable social situations of marginalization, abandonment, and economic regression, from positive methodological approaches. On the basis of the different situations examined, the study proposes strategies and guidelines to obtain the best possible results, in Italy or abroad, in the event of new earthquakes. At national and international level, many theoretical studies address the aspects of prevention, while the comparisons, carried out in this study, between the techniques and the operative procedures applied and the results obtained are rare. The adopted methodology compares the different pre-earthquake urban-planning approaches, for the emergency (temporary urban planning), and for the post-earthquake (socio-economic-territorial processes) in Italy. Attention is placed on the current consolidated planning and programming acquisitions, pre and post-earthquake. The main results of the study concern the prospects in Italy of protection from seismic risks in the next decades. An integrated settlement system for a new economic and social model, aimed at the rebirth of territories in crisis, is proposed. Finally, the conclusions describe the disciplinary positions, procedures and the fundamental points generally shared by the scientific community for each approach, in order to identify the strategic choices and the disciplinary and management paths that will be followed in the coming decades.

Keywords: post-earthquake, seismic emergency, seismic prevention, urban planning interventions in Italy

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
249 Utilization of Online Risk Mapping Techniques versus Desktop Geospatial Tools in Making Multi-Hazard Risk Maps for Italy

Authors: Seyed Vahid Kamal Alavi

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Italy has experienced a notable quantity and impact of disasters due to natural hazards and technological accidents caused by diverse risk sources on its physical, technological, and human/sociological infrastructures during past decade. This study discusses the frequency and impacts of the most three physical devastating natural hazards in Italy for the period 2000–2013. The approach examines the reliability of a range of open source WebGIS techniques versus a proposed multi-hazard risk management methodology. Spatial and attribute data which include USGS publically available hazard data and thirteen years Munich RE recorded data for Italy with different severities have been processed, visualized in a GIS (Geographic Information System) framework. Comparison of results from the study showed that the multi-hazard risk maps generated using open source techniques do not provide a reliable system to analyze the infrastructures losses in respect to national risk sources while they can be adopted for general international risk management purposes. Additionally, this study establishes the possibility to critically examine and calibrate different integrated techniques in evaluating what better protection measures can be taken in an area.

Keywords: multi-hazard risk mapping, risk management, GIS, Italy

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
248 Spatial Distribution and Time Series Analysis of COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy: A Geospatial Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Farhan Ul Moazzam, Tamkeen Urooj Paracha, Ghani Rahman, Byung Gul Lee, Nasir Farid, Adnan Arshad

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The novel coronavirus pandemic disease (COVID-19) affected the whole globe, though there is a lack of clinical studies and its epidemiological features. But as per the observation, it has been seen that most of the COVID-19 infected patients show mild to moderate symptoms, and they get better without any medical assistance due to a better immune system to generate antibodies against the novel coronavirus. In this study, the active cases, serious cases, recovered cases, deaths and total confirmed cases had been analyzed using the geospatial inverse distance weightage technique (IDW) within the time span of 2nd March to 3rd June 2020. As of 3rd June, the total number of COVID-19 cases in Italy were 231,238, total deaths 33,310, serious cases 350, recovered cases 158,951, and active cases were 39,177, which has been reported by the Ministry of Health, Italy. March 2nd-June 3rd, 2020 a sum of 231,238 cases has been reported in Italy out of which 38.68% cases reported in the Lombardia region with a death rate of 18%, which is high from its national mortality rate followed by Emilia-Romagna (14.89% deaths), Piemonte (12.68% deaths), and Vento (10% deaths). As per the total cases in the region, the highest number of recoveries has been observed in Umbria (92.52%), followed by Basilicata (87%), Valle d'Aosta (86.85%), and Trento (84.54%). The COVID-19 evolution in Italy has been particularly found in the major urban area, i.e., Rome, Milan, Naples, Bologna, and Florence. Geospatial technology played a vital role in this pandemic by tracking infected patient, active cases, and recovered cases. Geospatial techniques are very important in terms of monitoring and planning to control the pandemic spread in the country.

Keywords: COVID-19, public health, geospatial analysis, IDW, Italy

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
247 Occupational Safety Need Analysis for Turkey and Europe

Authors: Ismail Muratoglu, Ahmet Meyveci, Abdurrahman Tuncer, Erkan Demirci

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This study is dedicated to the analysis of the problems of occupational safety in Turkey, Italy and Poland. The need analysis was applied to three different countries which are Turkey; 4, Poland; 1, Italy; 1 state. The number of the subjects is 891 in Turkey. The number of the subjects is 26 in Italy and the number of the subjects is 19 in Poland. The total number of samples of study is 936. Four different forms (Job Security Experts Form, Student Form, Teacher Form and Company Form) were applied. Results of experts of job security forms are rate of 7.1%. Then, the students’ forms are rate of 34.3%, teacher or instructor forms are rate of 9.9%. The last corporation forms are rate of 48.7%.

Keywords: Europe, need analysis, occupational safety, Turkey, vocational education

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
246 Outcomes from a Qualitative Research: Ethnic Prejudice and Identity Difficulties in Experiences of Young People of Foreign Origin Adopted in Italy

Authors: Stefania Lorenzini

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Italy is a country where the phenomenon of international adoption is very considerable: indeed, it is second in the world only to the United States. This contribution deals with issues related to the development of children's identities in international and interethnic adoption. Process of identity construction can be complex in adopted children born and, often, lived for some years of their young life, in geographical, human, social and cultural contexts very different from those they live after adoption. The results of a qualitative research conducted by interviewing young people adopted in Italy make it possible to grasp the different facets of discrimination episodes related to somatic traits, and in particular to the color of the skin, that refer to these young people foreign origin. Outcomes from the research show difficulties in identy construction but also highlight how that evolution of an "intercultural identity" during international and interethnic adoption is possible.

Keywords: discrimination, identity, intercultural education, international adoption

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
245 Establishment of Air Quality Zones in Italy

Authors: M. G. Dirodi, G. Gugliotta, C. Leonardi

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The member states shall establish zones and agglomerations throughout their territory to assess and manage air quality in order to comply with European directives. In Italy decree 155/2010, transposing Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe, merged into a single act the previous provisions on ambient air quality assessment and management, including those resulting from the implementation of Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air. Decree 155/2010 introduced stricter rules for identifying zones on the basis of the characteristics of the territory in spite of considering pollution levels, as it was in the past. The implementation of such new criteria has reduced the great variability of the previous zoning, leading to a significant reduction of the total number of zones and to a complete and uniform ambient air quality assessment and management throughout the Country. The present document is related to the new zones definition in Italy according to Decree 155/2010. In particular, the paper contains the description and the analysis of the outcome of zoning and classification.

Keywords: zones, agglomerations, air quality assessment, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
244 The Tragedy of Colonialism in Non-colonised Society: Italy’s Historical Narratives and the Amhara Genocide in Ethiopia

Authors: Birhanu Bitew Geremew

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In its attempt to colonize Ethiopia, Italy challenged the nationalism of Ethiopiawinet, claiming that Ethiopia is a mere collection of discrete ethnic groups brought together by Amhara colonialism. Extracting data from a variety of sources including secondary materials, opinions expressed in the broadcast, print and social media platforms, party documents, official letters and key informant interviews, this paper provides a critical reflection on how the colonial presence of Italy made a political mess in Ethiopia by asserting ethnic nationalism. The paper argues that the narratives invented by the Italians greatly contributed to the emergence of ethnic nationalism following the advent of Marxism-Leninism in Ethiopia. Borrowing narratives from the Italians, Ethiopian ethnic elites of the 1960s, who were the advocates of Marxism, simplistically categorized the Amhara as oppressor while ‘others’ as oppressed in Leninist fashion. This categorization negatively shaped the attitude of ‘others’ towards the Amhara and instigated massively executed genocide against these people.

Keywords: Amhara colonialism, Ethiopia, Genocide, historical narratives, Marxism

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
243 Media Representation of Romanian Migrants in the Italian Media: A Comparative Study

Authors: Paula-Catalina Meirosu

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The economic migration (intra-EU) is a topic of debate in the public space in both countries of origin and countries of destination. Since the 1990s, after the collapse of communist regimes and then the accession of some former communist countries to the EU, the migratory flows of migrants (including Romanian migrants) to EU countries has been increased constantly. Italy is one of the main countries of destination among Romanians since at the moment Italy hosts more than one million Romanian migrants. Based on an interdisciplinary analytical framework focused on the theories in the field of transnationalism, media and migration studies and critical media analysis, this paper investigates the media construction of intra-EU economic migration in the Italian press from two main perspectives. The first point of view is the media representation of Romanian migrants in the Italian press in a specific context: the EU elections in 2014. The second one explores the way in which Romanian journalists use the media in the destinations countries (such as Italy) as a source to address the issue of migration. In this context, the paper focuses on online articles related to the Romanian migrants’ representation in the media before and during the EU elections in two newspapers (La Repubblica from Italy and Adevarul from Romania), published during January-May 2014. The methodology is based on a social-constructivist approach, predominantly discursive and includes elements of critical discourse analysis (CDA) to identify the patterns of Romanian migrants in the Italian press as well as strategies for building categories, identities, and roles of migrants. The aim of such an approach is to find out the dynamic of the media discourse on migration from a destination country in the light of a European electoral context (EU elections) and based on the results, to propose scenarios for the elections to be held this year.

Keywords: migration, media discourse, Romanian migrants, transnationalism

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242 Influence of the Popularity of Opera during Risorgimento on Foreign Presence in Italy

Authors: Andrew Wee

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As a result of the Italian Independence Wars starting in 1848, Italy began to change through unification. People gradually moved away from some of their traditional practices and values, such as the long-held belief that women were inferior to men, as part of the Risorgimento. Italians began to take interest in opera as a form of emotional release. As opera became more popular and prominent in their culture, it aided in the dissemination of ideas, especially stimulating the spread of imperialism, in the late 19th century, as Italy began extending its presence to other countries. In order to collect the information needed to analyze Italy’s foreign presence, it was necessary to consult texts concerning the culture of the Risorgimento. These texts included primary sources from operatic composers and contemporary recorded accounts. Letters from Giuseppe Verdi, a leader in opera during the Risorgimento, have been scrutinized for indications of popular attitudes of the time. The cultural context of the Risorgimento is essential to understanding the Italian motives and attitudes towards the outside world. On the more political side, research has also entailed the study of historical data of general laws, policies, and their purposes concerning geopolitical boundaries and foreign affairs, such as Edward Said’s thesis on Orientalism. By establishing these two characteristics of Italy, the paper will thoroughly illustrate Italy’s presence in foreign affairs. Texts have been searched with the intent of using information that reveals Italian attitudes toward exotic countries to determine whether their demeanor was positive or condescending. Motives behind sources have been interpreted in context in order to form a complete picture of the Italian sentiment towards foreigners. Additionally, research pertaining to Italian nationalism and imperialism such as song and literature has been used. The primary form of research has been the division of sources that are culturally based and those that are political in nature. Opera had always been developing since its creation in the 17th century, and in the 19th century, the bel canto movement revolutionized opera and its role in Italian society. This paper uses evidence that popular sentiment was influenced by opera to support the belief that the evolution of opera was as a result of the nationalist sentiment, and in turn fueled the cultural movement known as the Risorgimento. In this way, opera proceeded to affect Italian culture by spreading the idea of imperialism.

Keywords: opera, Italian unification, music history, imperialism

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
241 Chemical Profile of Extra Virgin Olive Oil from Frantoio Cultivar Growing in Calabria, Italy

Authors: Monica Rosa Loizzo, Tiziana Falco, Marco Bonesi, Maria Concetta Tenuta, Mariarosaria Leporini, Rosa Tundis

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Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) is a major source of fat in the Mediterranean diet and its nutritional properties are the main reason for the increment of its consumption all over the world in recent years. In terms of olive oil production, Italy ranks the second in the world. EVOO is obtained exclusively by physical methods from the fruit of Olea europea L. Frantoio cv is spread in all the Italian territory. The aim of this work is to identify the phenolic and fatty acids profile of EVOO from Frantoio cv growing in different area of Calabria (Italy). The phenolic profile was obtained by HPLC coupled to a diode array detector and mass spectrometry. Analyses revealed the presence of phenolic alcohols, phenolic acid, several secoiridoids, and two flavones as main components. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are present in reasonable content. Fatty acids were monitored by gas chromatography. Oleic acid was the most abundant compounds. A moderate level of linoleic acid, in accordance with the general observations for oils derived from Mediterranean countries, was also found.

Keywords: extra virgin olive oils, frantoio cv, phenolic compounds, fatty acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
240 High Speed Rail vs. Other Factors Affecting the Tourism Market in Italy

Authors: F. Pagliara, F. Mauriello

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The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the increase of accessibility brought by high speed rail (HSR) systems and the tourism market in Italy. The impacts of HSR projects on tourism can be quantified in different ways. In this manuscript, an empirical analysis has been carried out with the aid of a dataset containing information both on tourism and transport for 99 Italian provinces during the 2006-2016 period. Panel data regression models have been considered, since they allow modelling a wide variety of correlation patterns. Results show that HSR has an impact on the choice of a given destination for Italian tourists while the presence of a second level hub mainly affects foreign tourists. Attraction variables are also significant for both categories and the variables concerning security, such as number of crimes registered in a given destination, have a negative impact on the choice of a destination.

Keywords: tourists, overnights, high speed rail, attractions, security

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239 Social Metamorphosis in Italy between the Seventies and Eighties: Sequenza VIII for Solo Violin and Duets for Two Violins of L. Berio

Authors: Daria Baiocchi

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The goal of this article is to inseparably link the social metamorphosis that took place in Italy between the seventies and eighties, and the genesis of two works: the Sequenza VIII for solo violin and Duets for two violins, by L.Berio. Passing through a presentation of Sequenza and Duets, the italian socio-cultural change has been described in the seventies and eighties. Ipso facto the two works of Berio have been compared: if in the early seventies emerges a large youthful aggregative strength towards innovation, in the eighties the rediscovery of subjectivity leads to the enhancement of everyday life in its most inward sides. Through the analysis of social change of the time and of the different compositional cuts, given by Berio in Sequenze and in Duets, the composer is, in this case, an expression of its time

Keywords: music composition, music and society, L. Berio, Sequenza VIII and duets

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
238 Ageing Population and Generational Turn-Over in the Italian Labour Market: Towards a Sustainable Solidarity

Authors: Marianna Russo

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Ageing population and youth unemployment are the major challenges that Western Countries – and Italy in particular – are facing in recent years. These phenomena have a significant impact not only on the labour market and the welfare system, but also on the organisational models of work. Therefore, in Italy, in the past few years, there have been some attempts to regulate the management of generational turn-over: intergenerational pacts, early retirement incentives, solidarity contracts, etc. In particular, this paper aims to focus on the expansive solidarity contracts, that were introduced in the Italian legal system for the first time in 1984. Indeed, they have been little used during the thirty years of their lives, so the Legislative Decree no. 148/2015, implementing the so-called Jobs Act, has given them another opportunity. The paper tries to analyse the rules and the empirical data, looking for a sustainable model of generational turn-over management.

Keywords: ageing population, generational turn-over, Italian jobs' act, solidarity contracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
237 The Impact of COVID-19 on Italian Tourism: the Current Scenario, Opportunity and Future Tourism Organizational Strategies

Authors: Marco Camilli

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This article examines the impact of the pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 in the tourism sector in Italy, analyzing the current scenario, the government decisions and the private company reaction for the summer season 2020. The framework of the data analyzed shows how massive it’s the impact of the pandemic outbreak in the tourism revenue, and the weaknesses of the measures proposed. Keywords Travel &Tourism, Transportation, Sustainability, COVID-19, Businesses Introduction The current COVID-19 scenario shows a shocking situation for the tourism and transportation sectors: it could be the most affected by the Coronavirus in Italy. According to forecasts, depending on the duration of the epidemic outbreak and the lockdown strategy applied by the Government, businesses in the supply chain could lose between 24 and 66 billion in turnover in the period of 2020-21, with huge diversified impacts at the national and regional level. Many tourist companies are on the verge of survival and if there are no massive measures by the government they risk closure. Data analysis The tourism and transport sector could be among the sectors most damaged by Covid-19 in Italy. Considering the two-year period 2020-21, companies operating in the travel & tourism sector (Tour operator, Travel Agencies, Hotel, Guides, Bus Company, etc..) could in suffer losses in revenues of 24 to 64 billion euros, especially in the sectors such as the travel agencies, hotel and rental. According to Statista Research Department, from April 2020 estimated that the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic will have a significant impact on revenues of the tourism industry in Italy. Revenues are expected to decrease by over 40 billion euros in the first semester of 2020, compared to the same period of the previous year. According to the study, hotel and non-hotel accommodations will experience the highest loss. Revenues of this sector are expected to decrease by 13 billion euros compared to the first semester of 2019 when accommodations registered revenues for about 17 billion euros. According to Statista.com, in 2020, Italy is expected to register a decrease of roughly 28.5 million tourist arrivals due to the impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) on the country's tourist sector. According to the estimate, the region of Veneto will record the highest drop with a decrease of roughly 4.61 million arrivals. Similarly, Lombardy is expected to register a decrease of about 3.87 million arrivals in 2020.

Keywords: travel and tourism, sustainability, COVID-19, businesses, transportation

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236 Development and Control of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation: The Case of Colzate-Vertova Landslide, Bergamo, Northern Italy

Authors: Paola Comella, Vincenzo Francani, Paola Gattinoni

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This paper presents the Colzate-Vertova landslide, a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) located in the Seriana Valley, Northern Italy. The paper aims at describing the development as well as evaluating the factors that influence the evolution of the landslide. After defining the conceptual model of the landslide, numerical simulations were developed using a finite element numerical model, first with a two-dimensional domain, and later with a three-dimensional one. The results of the 2-D model showed a displacement field typical of a sackung, as a consequence of the erosion along the Seriana Valley. The analysis also showed that the groundwater flow could locally affect the slope stability, bringing about a reduction in the safety factor, but without reaching failure conditions. The sensitivity analysis carried out on the strength parameters pointed out that slope failures could be reached only for relevant reduction of the geotechnical characteristics. Such a result does not fit the real conditions observed on site, where a number of small failures often develop all along the hillslope. The 3-D model gave a more comprehensive analysis of the evolution of the DSGSD, also considering the border effects. The results showed that the convex profile of the slope favors the development of displacements along the lateral valley, with a relevant reduction in the safety factor, justifying the existing landslides.

Keywords: deep seated gravitational slope deformation, Italy, landslide, numerical modeling

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235 The Analysis of Competitive Balance Progress among Five Most Valuable Football Leagues from 1966 to 2015

Authors: Seyed Salahedin Naghshbandi, Zahra Bozorgzadeh, Leila Zakizadeh, Siavash Hamidzadeh

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From the sport economy experts point of view, the existence of competitive balance among sport leagues and its numerous effects on league is an important and undeniable issue. In general, sport events fans are so eager to unpredictable results of competition in order to reach the top of excitement and necessary motivation for following competitions. The purpose of this research is to consider and compare the competitive balance among five provisional European football leagues (Spain, England, Italy, France and Germany) during 1966 - 2015 seasons. Research data are secondary and obtained from Premier League final tables of selected countries in 1966 - 2015 seasons. For analyzing data, C5 and C5ICB indicators used. whatever these indicators be less, more balance establishes in the league and vice-versa. The result showed that Le champion of France reached from 1,259 to 1,395; Italy Serie-A league from 1,316 to 1,432; England premier league from 1, 342 to 1,455; Germany Bundesliga from 1,238 to 1,465 and Spain La liga from 1,295 to 1,495. So by comparing C5ICB charts during 1966 - 2015 seasons, La liga of Spain moved more toward imbalance and enjoyed less balance with other European Leagues. Also, La champion of France during the mentioned season, enjoyed less imbalance and preserved its relative balance with monotonous process. It seems that football in France has been followed as stable during 1966 to 2015, and prediction of results was more difficult and competitions were so attractive for spectators, but in Italy, England, Germany, and Spain there were less balance, respectively.

Keywords: competitive balance, professional football league, competition, C5ICB

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234 Alignment in Earnings Management Research: Italy Looking towards US

Authors: Giulia Leoni, Cristina Florio

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The paper aims to investigate the factors driving the increasing alignment of Italian earnings management (EM) research to US research on the same field. After characterizing the progressive similarity of Italian EM research with respect to US one by means of an historical comparison, the paper relies on a subsequent secondary source analysis to detect the possible causes of said alignment. Once identified that the alignment increased along three subsequent periods, the paper analyses and discusses this incremental similarity according to new institutional sociology (NIS) and highlights the presence of different combination of isomorphic pressures that help explaining this incremental similarity. The paper contributes to the institutional literature by providing evidence of isomorphism in academic research; it also contributes to accounting research by indicating the forces that are able to drive change and development in accounting research at national and international level. The paper also enlarges the explanatory value of NIS in alternative contexts, like academic accounting research.

Keywords: accounting research, earnings management, international comparison, Italy, new institutional sociology, US

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233 Volatility Transmission between Oil Price and Stock Return of Emerging and Developed Countries

Authors: Algia Hammami, Abdelfatteh Bouri

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In this work, our objective is to study the transmission of volatility between oil and stock markets in developed (USA, Germany, Italy, France and Japan) and emerging countries (Tunisia, Thailand, Brazil, Argentina, and Jordan) for the period 1998-2015. Our methodology consists of analyzing the monthly data by the GARCH-BEKK model to capture the effect in terms of volatility in the variation of the oil price on the different stock market. The empirical results in the emerging countries indicate that the relationships are unidirectional from the stock market to the oil market. For the developed countries, we find that the transmission of volatility is unidirectional from the oil market to stock market. For the USA and Italy, we find no transmission between the two markets. The transmission is bi-directional only in Thailand. Following our estimates, we also noticed that the emerging countries influence almost the same extent as the developed countries, while at the transmission of volatility there a bid difference. The GARCH-BEKK model is more effective than the others versions to minimize the risk of an oil-stock portfolio.

Keywords: GARCH, oil prices, stock market, volatility transmission

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232 West Nile Virus in North-Eastern Italy: Overview of Integrated Surveillance Activities

Authors: Laura Amato, Paolo Mulatti, Fabrizio Montarsi, Matteo Mazzucato, Laura Gagliazzo, Michele Brichese, Manlio Palei, Gioia Capelli, Lebana Bonfanti

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West Nile virus (WNV) re-emerged in north-eastern Italy in 2008, after ten years from its first appearance in Tuscany. In 2009, a national surveillance programme was implemented, and re-modulated in north-eastern Italy in 2011. Hereby, we present the results of surveillance activities in 2008-2016 in the north-eastern Italian regions, with inferences on WNV epidemiological trend in the area. The re-modulated surveillance programmes aimed at early detecting WNV seasonal reactivation by searching IgM antibodies in horses. In 2013, the surveillance plans were further modified including a risk-based approach. Spatial analysis techniques, including Bernoulli space-time scan-statistics, were applied to the results of 2010–2012 surveillance on mosquitoes, equines, and humans to identify areas where WNV reactivation was more likely to occur. From 2008 to 2016, residential horses tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies on a yearly basis (503 cases), also in areas where WNV circulation was not detected in mosquito populations. Surveillance activities detected 26 syndromic cases in horses, 102 infected mosquito pools and WNV in 18 dead wild birds. Human cases were also recurrently detected in the study area during the surveillance period (68 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease). The recurrent identification of WNV in animals, mosquitoes, and humans indicates the virus has likely become endemic in the area. In 2016, findings of WNV positives in horses or mosquitoes were included as triggers for enhancing screening activities in humans. The evolution of the epidemiological situation prompts for continuous and accurate surveillance measures. The results of the 2013-2016 surveillance indicate that the risk-based approach was effective in early detecting seasonal reactivation of WNV, key factor of the integrated surveillance strategy in endemic areas.

Keywords: arboviruses, horses, Italy, surveillance, west nile virus, zoonoses

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
231 Modal Analysis for Study of Minor Historical Architecture

Authors: Milorad Pavlovic, Anna Manzato, Antonella Cecchi

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Cultural heritage conservation is a challenge for contemporary society. In recent decades, significant resources have been allocated for the conservation and restoration of architectural heritage. Historical buildings were restored, protected and reinforced with the intent to limit the risks of degradation or loss, due to phenomena of structural damage and to external factors such as differential settlements, earthquake effects, etc. The wide diffusion of historic masonry constructions in Italy, Europe and the Mediterranean area requires reliable tools for the evaluation of their structural safety. In this paper is presented a free modal analysis performed on a minor historical architecture located in the village of Bagno Grande, near the city of L’Aquila in Italy. The location is characterized by a complex urban context, seriously damaged by the earthquake of 2009. The aim of this work is to check the structural behavior of a masonry building characterized by several boundary conditions imposed by adjacent buildings and infrastructural facilities.

Keywords: FEM, masonry, minor historical architecture, modal analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
230 Solar Power Forecasting for the Bidding Zones of the Italian Electricity Market with an Analog Ensemble Approach

Authors: Elena Collino, Dario A. Ronzio, Goffredo Decimi, Maurizio Riva

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The rapid increase of renewable energy in Italy is led by wind and solar installations. The 2017 Italian energy strategy foresees a further development of these sustainable technologies, especially solar. This fact has resulted in new opportunities, challenges, and different problems to deal with. The growth of renewables allows to meet the European requirements regarding energy and environmental policy, but these types of sources are difficult to manage because they are intermittent and non-programmable. Operationally, these characteristics can lead to instability on the voltage profile and increasing uncertainty on energy reserve scheduling. The increasing renewable production must be considered with more and more attention especially by the Transmission System Operator (TSO). The TSO, in fact, every day provides orders on energy dispatch, once the market outcome has been determined, on extended areas, defined mainly on the basis of power transmission limitations. In Italy, six market zone are defined: Northern-Italy, Central-Northern Italy, Central-Southern Italy, Southern Italy, Sardinia, and Sicily. An accurate hourly renewable power forecasting for the day-ahead on these extended areas brings an improvement both in terms of dispatching and reserve management. In this study, an operational forecasting tool of the hourly solar output for the six Italian market zones is presented, and the performance is analysed. The implementation is carried out by means of a numerical weather prediction model, coupled with a statistical post-processing in order to derive the power forecast on the basis of the meteorological projection. The weather forecast is obtained from the limited area model RAMS on the Italian territory, initialized with IFS-ECMWF boundary conditions. The post-processing calculates the solar power production with the Analog Ensemble technique (AN). This statistical approach forecasts the production using a probability distribution of the measured production registered in the past when the weather scenario looked very similar to the forecasted one. The similarity is evaluated for the components of the solar radiation: global (GHI), diffuse (DIF) and direct normal (DNI) irradiation, together with the corresponding azimuth and zenith solar angles. These are, in fact, the main factors that affect the solar production. Considering that the AN performance is strictly related to the length and quality of the historical data a training period of more than one year has been used. The training set is made by historical Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) forecasts at 12 UTC for the GHI, DIF and DNI variables over the Italian territory together with corresponding hourly measured production for each of the six zones. The AN technique makes it possible to estimate the aggregate solar production in the area, without information about the technologic characteristics of the all solar parks present in each area. Besides, this information is often only partially available. Every day, the hourly solar power forecast for the six Italian market zones is made publicly available through a website.

Keywords: analog ensemble, electricity market, PV forecast, solar energy

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229 Homogeneity and Trend Analyses of Temperature Indices: The Case Study of Umbria Region (Italy) in the Mediterranean Area

Authors: R. Morbidelli, C. Saltalippi, A. Flammini, A. Garcia-Marin, J. L. Ayuso-Munoz

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The climate change, mainly due to greenhouse gas emissions associated to human activities, has been modifying hydrologic processes with a direct effect on air surface temperature that has significantly increased in the last century at global scale. In this context the Mediterranean area is considered to be particularly sensitive to the climate change impacts on temperature indices. An analysis finalized to study the evolution of temperature indices and to check the existence of significant trends in the Umbria Region (Italy) is presented. Temperature data were obtained by seven meteorological stations uniformly distributed in the study area and characterized by very long series of temperature observations (at least 60 years) spanning the 1924-2015 period. A set of 39 temperature indices represented by monthly and annual mean, average maximum and average minimum temperatures, has been derived. The trend analysis was realized by applying the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, while the non-parametric Pettit test and the parametric Standard Normal Homogeneity test (SNHT) were used to check the presence of breakpoints or in-homogeneities due to environmental changes/anthropic activity or climate change effects. The Umbria region, in agreement with other recent studies exploring the temperature behavior in Italy, shows a general increase in all temperature indices, with the only exception of Gubbio site that exhibits very light negative trends or absence of trend. The presence of break points and in-homogeneity was widely explored through the selected tests and the results were checked on the basis of the well-known metadata of the meteorological stations.

Keywords: reception theory, reading, literary translation, horizons of expectation, reader

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228 Precursors Signatures of Few Major Earthquakes in Italy Using Very Low Frequency Signal of 45.9kHz

Authors: Keshav Prasad Kandel, Balaram Khadka, Karan Bhatta, Basu Dev Ghimire

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Earthquakes still exist as a threating disaster. Being able to predict earthquakes will certainly help prevent substantial loss of life and property. Perhaps, Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency (VLF/LF) signal band (3-30 kHz), which is effectively reflected from D-layer of ionosphere, can be established as a tool to predict earthquake. On May 20 and May 29, 2012, earthquakes of magnitude 6.1 and 5.8 respectively struck Emilia-Romagna of Italy. A year back, on August 24, 2016, an earthquake of magnitude 6.2 struck Central Italy (42.7060 N and 13.2230 E) at 1:36 UT. We present the results obtained from the US Navy VLF Transmitter’s NSY signal of 45.9 kHz transmitted from Niscemi, in the province of Sicily, Italy and received at the Kiel Longwave Monitor, Germany for 2012 and 2016. We analyzed the terminator times, their individual differences and nighttime fluctuation counts. We also analyzed trends, dispersion and nighttime fluctuation which gave us a possible precursors to these earthquakes. Since perturbations in VLF amplitude could also be due to various other factors like lightning, geomagnetic activities (storms, auroras etc.) and solar activities (flares, UV flux, etc.), we filtered the possible perturbations due to these agents to guarantee that the perturbations seen in VLF/LF amplitudes were as a precursor to Earthquakes. As our TRGCP path is North-south, the sunrise and sunset time in transmitter and receiver places matches making pathway for VLF/LF smoother and therefore hoping to obtain more natural data. To our surprise, we found many clear anomalies (as precursors) in terminator times 5 days to 16 days before the earthquakes. Moreover, using night time fluctuation method, we found clear anomalies 5 days to 13 days prior to main earthquakes. This exactly correlates with the findings of previous authors that ionospheric perturbations are seen few days to one month before the seismic activity. In addition to this, we were amazed to observe unexpected decrease of dispersion on certain anomalies where it was supposed to increase, thereby not supporting our finding to some extent. To resolve this problem, we devised a new parameter called dispersion nighttime (dispersion). On analyzing, this parameter decreases significantly on days of nighttime anomalies thereby supporting our precursors to much extent.

Keywords: D-layer, TRGCP (Transmitter Receiver Great Circle Path), terminator times, VLF/LF

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227 Italian Emigration to Germany as Represented in the Films Francesco Rosi and Toni Trupia

Authors: Patrizia Palumbo

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There are only two Italian films dealing with the Italian emigration to Germany: I magliari directed by Francesco Rosi and Itaker. Vietato agli italiani directed by Toni Trupia. Consequently, the analysis of these two films is essential to any study of the representation of the Italians’ experience in Germany, their hosting country. Francesco Rosi’s I magliari and Toni Trupia’s Itaker. Vietato agli italiani, released respectively in 1959 and in 2012, are both set in the second half of the twentieth century and deal with door to door Italian cloth sellers in German cities, con artists marketing rags as fine fabric to exclusively German customers. However, the perspective of the directors and screenwriters are, if not antithetical, profoundly different. Indeed, from 1959 to 2012, years in which the two films were released, Italy went from being a country of emigration to a country of both immigration (albeit now temporary) and emigration. The paper entitled ‘Representation of the Italian Emigration to Germany in the Films of Francesco Rosi and Toni Trupia’ will analyze, therefore, the two substantially different historical contingencies in which the two movies were produced and cast light on how the same historical reality, that of Italian cloth sellers in German cities, is portrayed by Rosi and Trupia’s films. In particular, it will show how in both films the female character is the site on which power (or the lack of it) is contested. More precisely, it will highlight how the German blond woman in Rosi’s film and the dark haired Albanian woman in Trupia’s film are a reflection of the changes Italy underwent in the last fifty years. Finally, this paper will comment on why Italian emigration to Germany has been overlooked by Italian scholars. Although these scholars are all familiar with many of the films directed by Francesco Rosi, one of the auteurs of Italian cinema, no real critical study of I magliari exists. Rosi’s film, it can be argued, may have aroused the uneasiness engendered by all works dealing with facts evoking shameful and humiliating times. The same is true for Trupia’s film. Even though his Itaker. Vietato agli italiani is set in the sixties, it cannot prescind from the reality of contemporary Italian emigration to Germany and Italy’s economic and political crisis. Bringing attention to Rosi and Trupia’s film seems to be a valid way to rekindle the interest in Italian emigration to Germany, a phenomenon that has contributed to the economic, social and cultural history of both Italy and Germany.

Keywords: film, Germany, history, Italian emigration

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
226 Multilingualism and the Creation of New Languages: The Case of Camfranglais Spoken in Italy and Germany

Authors: Jocelyne Kenne Kenne

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Previous works in the field of sociolinguistics have explored the various outcomes of linguistic pluralism. One of these outcomes is the creation of new languages. The presentation will focus on one of such languages, Camfranglais, a hybrid language spoken by Cameroonians. It appeared in the 1970s in the francophone area in Cameroon and developed as a result of interactions between French, English, Cameroonian Pidgin English and local Cameroonian languages, all languages spoken in Cameroon. With the migration of Cameroonians to Europe, researches have been conducted to analyze the sociolinguistic profile of Cameroonians in their new environment. The emphasis on this presentation will be on two recent studies that have been conducted to analyze the peculiarity of Camfranglais in two European countries: Germany and Italy. The research involved 59 Cameroonians living in Italy and 49 Cameroonians residing in Germany. The respondents were composed of participants from different linguistic background, students and workers, married and single. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed. The field study was divided into three parts. The first part was focused on observing the Cameroonians interact in different places such as in canteens, in the university halls of residence, lecture theatres, at homes, at various Cameroonian meetings. Those observations were accompanied by audio-recordings of the various interactions. The aim was to study communication between Cameroonians to see whether they use Camfranglais or not; if yes, in which domains and what were the speakers’ linguistic profiles. Additionally, questionnaires of different lengths were used to collect biographical information concerning the participants and their sociolinguistic profile and finally, in-depth interviews with Cameroonians were conducted to inquire about the use, the functions and the importance of this language in the migratory context. The results of the research demonstrate how a widespread use of Camfranglais by Cameroonians in Germany and Italy reveal a longing for home on the one hand and a sign of belonging on the other. It also shows the differences that exist between the profiles of Camfranglais speakers in Europe and the speakers in Cameroon notably in terms of age and social class. Finally, it points out some differences in the use, the structure and the functions of this hybrid language in the migratory setting. This study is a contribution to existing research in the field of contact languages and can serve as a comparison for other situations of multilingualism and the creation of mixed languages. Furthermore, with globalization, the study of migrant languages and the contact of these languages with new languages are topics that might be productive for further research in the field of sociolinguistics.

Keywords: interaction, migrants language, multilingualism, mixed languages

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225 Site Effect Observations after 2016 Amatrice Earthquake, Central Italy

Authors: Giovanni Forte, Melania De Falco, Antonio Santo

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On 24th August 2016, central Italy was affected by a Mw 6.0 earthquake, representing the main shock of a long seismic sequence, which had a second shock Mw 6.6 on 26th October and lasts still nowadays. After the event, several field survey were carried out in the affected areas, which is made of historical masonry buildings. The post event reconnaissance missions were aimed at collecting information on the damage states of the buildings, the triggering of the landslides and the relationships with site effects. In this paper, the data collected after the event are analyzed considering the role of the geological and geomorphological setting and the ground motion scenario. The buildings displayed an uneven damage distribution, which was affected by both topographic and stratigraphic amplification. As pertains the landslides, which were the most recurrent among the ground failures, consisted mainly of rock falls and subordinately of translational slides. Finally, the collected knowledge showed a strong contribution of the local geological and geomorphological site condition on the resulting damage.

Keywords: Amatrice earthquake, damage states, landslides, site effects

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224 A Protocol of Procedures and Interventions to Accelerate Post-Earthquake Reconstruction

Authors: Maria Angela Bedini, Fabio Bronzini

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The Italian experiences, positive and negative, of the post-earthquake are conditioned by long times and structural bureaucratic constraints, also motivated by the attempt to contain mafia infiltration and corruption. The transition from the operational phase of the emergency to the planning phase of the reconstruction project is thus hampered by a series of inefficiencies and delays, incompatible with the need for rapid recovery of the territories in crisis. In fact, intervening in areas affected by seismic events means at the same time associating the reconstruction plan with an urban and territorial rehabilitation project based on strategies and tools in which prevention and safety play a leading role in the regeneration of territories in crisis and the return of the population. On the contrary, the earthquakes that took place in Italy have instead further deprived the territories affected of the minimum requirements for habitability, in terms of accessibility and services, accentuating the depopulation process, already underway before the earthquake. The objective of this work is to address with implementing and programmatic tools the procedures and strategies to be put in place, today and in the future, in Italy and abroad, to face the challenge of the reconstruction of activities, sociality, services, risk mitigation: a protocol of operational intentions and firm points, open to a continuous updating and implementation. The methodology followed is that of the comparison in a synthetic form between the different Italian experiences of the post-earthquake, based on facts and not on intentions, to highlight elements of excellence or, on the contrary, damage. The main results obtained can be summarized in technical comparison cards on good and bad practices. With this comparison, we intend to make a concrete contribution to the reconstruction process, certainly not only related to the reconstruction of buildings but privileging the primary social and economic needs. In this context, the recent instrument applied in Italy of the strategic urban and territorial SUM (Minimal Urban Structure) and the strategic monitoring process become dynamic tools for supporting reconstruction. The conclusions establish, by points, a protocol of interventions, the priorities for integrated socio-economic strategies, multisectoral and multicultural, and highlight the innovative aspects of 'inversion' of priorities in the reconstruction process, favoring the take-off of 'accelerator' interventions social and economic and a more updated system of coexistence with risks. In this perspective, reconstruction as a necessary response to the calamitous event can and must become a unique opportunity to raise the level of protection from risks and rehabilitation and development of the most fragile places in Italy and abroad.

Keywords: an operational protocol for reconstruction, operational priorities for coexistence with seismic risk, social and economic interventions accelerators of building reconstruction, the difficult post-earthquake reconstruction in Italy

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223 Formal Institutions and Women's Electoral Participation in Four European Countries

Authors: Sophia Francesca D. Lu

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This research tried to produce evidence that formal institutions, such as electoral and internal party quotas, can advance women’s active roles in the public sphere using the cases of four European countries: Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. The quantitative dataset was provided by the University of Chicago and the Inter-University Consortium of Political and Social Research based on a two-year study (2008-2010) of political parties. Belgium engages in constitutionally mandated electoral quotas. Germany, Italy and the Netherlands, on the other hand, have internal party quotas, which are voluntarily adopted by political parties. In analyzing each country’s chi-square and Pearson’s r correlation, Belgium, having an electoral quota, is the only country that was analyzed for electoral quotas. Germany, Italy and the Netherlands’ internal voluntary party quotas were correlated with women’s descriptive representations. Using chi-square analysis, this study showed that the presence of electoral quotas is correlated with an increase in the percentage of women in decision-making bodies as well as with an increase in the percentage of women in decision-making bodies. Likewise, using correlational analysis, a higher number of political parties employing internal party voluntary quotas is correlated with an increase in the percentage of women occupying seats in parliament as well as an increase in the percentage of women nominees in electoral lists of political parties. In conclusion, gender quotas, such as electoral quotas or internal party quotas, are an effective policy tool for greater women’s representation in political bodies. Political parties and governments should opt to have gender quotas, whether electoral or internal party quotas, to address the underrepresentation of women in parliament, decision-making bodies, and policy-formulation.

Keywords: electoral quota, Europe, formal institutions, institutional feminism, internal party quota, women’s electoral participation

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222 The Interaction of Climate Change and Human Health in Italy

Authors: Vito Telesca, Giuseppina A. Giorgio, M. Ragosta

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The effects of extreme heat events are increasing in recent years. Humans are forced to adjust themselves to adverse climatic conditions. The impact of weather on human health has become public health significance, especially in light of climate change and rising frequency of devasting weather events (e.g., heat waves and floods). The interest of scientific community is widely known. In particular, the associations between temperature and mortality are well studied. Weather conditions are natural factors that affect the human organism. Recent works show that the temperature threshold at which an impact is seen varies by geographic area and season. These results suggest heat warning criteria should consider local thresholds to account for acclimation to local climatology as well as the seasonal timing of a forecasted heat wave. Therefore, it is very important the problem called ‘local warming’. This is preventable with adequate warning tools and effective emergency planning. Since climate change has the potential to increase the frequency of these types of events, improved heat warning systems are urgently needed. This would require a better knowledge of the full impact of extreme heat on morbidity and mortality. The majority of researchers who analyze the associations between human health and weather variables, investigate the effect of air temperature and bioclimatic indices. These indices combine air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and are very important to determine the human thermal comfort. Health impact studies of weather events showed that the prevention is an essential element to dramatically reduce the impact of heat waves. The summer Italian of 2012 was characterized with high average temperatures (con un +2.3°C in reference to the period 1971-2000), enough to be considered as the second hottest summer since 1800. Italy was the first among countries in Europe which adopted tools for to predict these phenomena with 72 hours in advance (Heat Health Watch Warning System - HHWWS). Furthermore, in Italy heat alert criteria relies on the different Indexes, for example Apparent temperature, Scharlau index, Thermohygrometric Index, etc. This study examines the importance of developing public health policies that protect the most vulnerable people (such as the elderly) to extreme temperatures, highlighting the factors that confer susceptibility.

Keywords: heat waves, Italy, local warming, temperature

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