Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: TDDFT

3 Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of an Oscillating Electron Density around a Nanoparticle

Authors: Nilay K. Doshi

Abstract:

A theoretical probe describing the excited energy states of the electron density surrounding a nanoparticle (NP) is presented. An electromagnetic (EM) wave interacts with a NP much smaller than the incident wavelength. The plasmon that oscillates locally around the NP comprises of excited conduction electrons. The system is based on the Jellium model of a cluster of metal atoms. Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) equations and the variational Kohn-Sham (SK) scheme have been used to obtain the NP electron density in the ground state. Furthermore, a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) theory is used to treat the excited states in a density functional theory (DFT) framework. The non-interacting fermionic kinetic energy is shown to be a functional of the electron density. The time dependent potential is written as the sum of the nucleic potential and the incoming EM field. This view of the quantum oscillation of the electron density is a part of the localized surface plasmon resonance.

Keywords: electron density, energy, electromagnetic, DFT, TDDFT, plasmon, resonance

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2 The Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure to the Anti-Corrosion Layer in the Liquid Metal Coolant: A Density Functional Theory Simulation

Authors: Rui Tu, Yakui Bai, Huailin Li

Abstract:

The lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy is a promising candidate of coolant in the fast neutron reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADS) because of its good properties, such as low melting point, high neutron yields and high thermal conductivity. Although the corrosion of the structure materials caused by the liquid metal (LM) coolant is a challenge to the safe operating of a lead-bismuth eutectic nuclear reactor. Thermodynamic theories, experiential formulas and experimental data can be used for explaining the maintenance of the protective oxide layers on stainless steels under satisfaction oxygen concentration, but the atomic scale insights of such anti-corrosion mechanisms are little known. In the present work, the first-principles calculations are carried out to study the effects of oxygen partial pressure on the formation energies of the liquid metal coolant relevant impurity defects in the anti-corrosion oxide films on the surfaces of the structure materials. These approaches reveal the microscope mechanisms of the corrosion of the structure materials, especially for the influences from the oxygen partial pressure. The results are helpful for identifying a crucial oxygen concentration for corrosion control, which can ensure the systems to be operated safely under certain temperatures.

Keywords: oxygen partial pressure, liquid metal coolant, TDDFT, anti-corrosion layer, formation energy

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1 Ab-initio Calculations on the Mechanism of Action of Platinum and Ruthenium Complexes in Phototherapy

Authors: Eslam Dabbish, Fortuna Ponte, Stefano Scoditti, Emilia Sicilia, Gloria Mazzone

Abstract:

The medical techniques based on the use of light for activating the drug are occupying a prominent place in the cancer treatment due to their selectivity that contributes to reduce undesirable side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Among these therapeutic treatments, photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT) are emerging as complementary approaches for selective destruction of neoplastic tissue through direct cellular damage. Both techniques rely on the employment of a molecule, photosensitizer (PS), able to absorb within the so-called therapeutic window. Thus, the exposure to light of otherwise inert molecules promotes the population of excited states of the drug, that in PDT are able to produce the cytotoxic species, such as 1O2 and other ROS, in PACT can be responsible of the active species release or formation. Following the success of cisplatin in conventional treatments, many other transition metal complexes were explored as anticancer agents for applications in different medical approaches, including PDT and PACT, in order to improve their chemical, biological and photophysical properties. In this field, several crucial characteristics of candidate PSs can be accurately predicted from first principle calculations, especially in the framework of density functional theory and its time-dependent formulation, contributing to the understanding of the entire photochemical pathways involved which can ultimately help in improving the efficiency of a drug. A brief overview of the outcomes on some platinum and ruthenium-based PSs proposed for the application in the two phototherapies will be provided.

Keywords: TDDFT, metal complexes, PACT, PDT

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