Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1447

Search results for: acute pain

1447 Outcomes of Pain Management for Patients in Srinagarind Hospital: Acute Pain Indicator

Authors: Chalermsri Sorasit, Siriporn Mongkhonthawornchai, Darawan Augsornwan, Sudthanom Kamollirt

Abstract:

Background: Although knowledge of pain and pain management is improving, they are still inadequate to patients. The Nursing Division of Srinagarind Hospital is responsible for setting the pain management system, including work instruction development and pain management indicators. We have developed an information technology program for monitoring pain quality indicators, which was implemented to all nursing departments in April 2013. Objective: To study outcomes of acute pain management in process and outcome indicators. Method: This is a retrospective descriptive study. The sample population was patients who had acute pain 24-48 hours after receiving a procedure, while admitted to Srinagarind Hospital in 2014. Data were collected from the information technology program. 2709 patients with acute pain from 10 Nursing Departments were recruited in the study. The research tools in this study were 1) the demographic questionnaire 2) the pain management questionnaire for process indicators, and 3) the pain management questionnaire for outcome indicators. Data were analyzed and presented by percentages and means. Results: The process indicators show that nurses used pain assessment tool and recorded 99.19%. The pain reassessment after the intervention was 96.09%. The 80.15% of the patients received opioid for pain medication and the most frequency of non-pharmacological intervention used was positioning (76.72%). For the outcome indicators, nearly half of them (49.90%) had moderate–severe pain, mean scores of worst pain was 6.48 and overall pain was 4.08. Patient satisfaction level with pain management was good (49.17%) and very good (46.62%). Conclusion: Nurses used pain assessment tools and pain documents which met the goal of the pain management process. Patient satisfaction with pain management was at high level. However the patients had still moderate to severe pain. Nurses should adhere more strictly to the guidelines of pain management, by using acute pain guidelines especially when pain intensity is particularly moderate-high. Nurses should also develop and practice a non-pharmacological pain management program to continually improve the quality of pain management. The information technology program should have more details about non-pharmacological pain techniques.

Keywords: outcome, pain management, acute pain, Srinagarind Hospital

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1446 Acute Asthma in Emergency Department, Prevalence of Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Symptoms

Authors: Sherif Refaat, Hassan Aref

Abstract:

Background: Although asthma is a well-identified presentation to the emergency department, little is known about the frequency and percentage of respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in patients with acute asthma in the emergency department (ED). Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between acute asthma exacerbation and different respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms including chest pain encountered by patients visiting the emergency department. Subjects and methods: Prospective study included 169 (97 females and 72 males) asthmatic patients who were admitted to emergency department of two tertiary care facility hospitals for asthma exacerbation from the period of September 2010 to August 2013, an anonyms questionnaire was used to collect symptoms and analysis of symptoms. Results: Females were 97 (57%) of the patients, mean age was 35.6 years; dyspnea on exertion was the commonest symptom accounting for 161 (95.2%) of patients, followed by dyspnea at rest 155 (91.7%), wheezing in 152 (89.9%), chest pain was present in 82 patients (48.5%), the pain was burning in 36 (43.9%) of the total patients with chest pain. Non-respiratory symptoms were seen frequently in acute asthma in ED. Conclusions: Dyspnea was the commonest chest symptoms encountered in patients with acute asthma followed by wheezing. Chest pain in acute asthma is a common symptom and should be fully studied to exclude misdiagnosis as of cardiac origin; there is a need for a better dissemination of knowledge about this disease association with chest pain. It was also noted that other non-respiratory symptoms are frequently encountered with acute asthma in emergency department.

Keywords: asthma, emergency department, respiratory symptoms, non respiratory system

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
1445 The Use of Regional Blocks Versus IV Opioid Analgesics for Acute Traumatic Pain Management in the Emergency Department

Authors: Lajeesh Jabbar, Shibu T. Varghese

Abstract:

Being under pain is a very distressing factor that it prolongs the healing of any kind of trauma and add to the post traumatic stressful state. Alleviating the pain from acute traumatic conditions like fracture, degloving injury etc will help in faster recovery and also decrease the incidence of post traumatic stress disorder. Most of the emergency departments in INDIA are using IV opioid analgesics to relieve the patient from pain in cases of acute traumatic injuries. None of the Emergency Departments practice regional blocks in the country. In this study, we are comparing the efficacy of Regional Blocks in relieving the pain in lower limb fractures versus the use of IV analgesics for the same in the emergency department. The site of study is Malabar Institute Of Medical Sciences in Calicut in Kerala in India and is a place which receives approximately 10-20 traumatic fracture cases per day. The fracture sites used for the study purpose are femur fracture and phalangeal fractures.

Keywords: regional blocks, IV analgesia, acute traumatic pain, femur fractures, phalanx fractures

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1444 Chronic and Sub-Acute Lumbosacral Radiculopathies Behave Differently to Repeated Back Extension Exercises

Authors: Sami Alabdulwahab

Abstract:

Background: Repeated back extension exercises (RBEEs) are among the management options for symptoms associated with lumbosacral radiculopathy (LSR). RBEEs have been reported to cause changes in the distribution and intensity of radicular symptoms caused by possible compression/decompression of the compromised nerve root. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the RBEEs on the neurophysiology of the compromised nerve root and on standing mobility and pain intensity in patients with sub-acute and chronic LSR. Methods: A total of 40 patients with unilateral sub-acute/chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy voluntarily participated in the study; the patients performed 3 sets of 10 RBEEs in the prone position with 1 min of rest between the sets. The soleus H-reflex, standing mobility and pain intensity were recorded before and after the RBEEs. Results: The results of the study showed that the RBEEs significantly improved the H-reflex, standing mobility and pain intensity in patients with sub-acute LSR (p<0.01); there was not a significant improvement in the patients with chronic LSR (p<0.61). Conclusion: RBEEs in prone position is recommended for improving the neurophysiological function of the compromised nerve root and standing mobility in patients with sub-acute LSR. Implication: Sub-acute and chronic LSR responded differently to RBEEs. Sub-acute LSR appear to have flexible and movable disc structures, which could be managed with RBEEs.

Keywords: h-reflex, back extension, lumbosacral radiculopathy, pain

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1443 Investigating Acute and Chronic Pain after Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Patti Kastanias, Wei Wang, Karyn Mackenzie, Sandra Robinson, Susan Wnuk

Abstract:

Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and is recognized as a chronic disease. Pain in the obese individual is a multidimensional issue. An increase in BMI is positively correlated with pain incidence and severity, especially in central obesity where individuals are twice as likely to have chronic pain. Both obesity and chronic pain are also associated with mood disorders. Pain is worse among obese individuals with depression and anxiety. Bariatric surgery provides patients with an effective solution for long-term weight loss and associated health problems. However, not much is known about acute and chronic pain after bariatric surgery and its contributing factors, including mood disorders. Nurse practitioners (NPs) at one large multidisciplinary bariatric surgery centre led two studies to examine acute and chronic pain and pain management over time after bariatric surgery. The purpose of the initial study was to examine the incidence and severity of acute and chronic pain after bariatric surgery. The aim of the secondary study was to further examine chronic pain, specifically looking at psychological factors that influence severity or incidence of both neuropathic and somatic pain as well as changes in opioid use. The initial study was a prospective, longitudinal study where patients having bariatric surgery at one surgical center were followed up to 6 months postop. Data was collected at 7 time points using validated instruments for pain severity, pain interference, and patient satisfaction. In the second study, subjects were followed longitudinally starting preoperatively and then at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively to capture changes in chronic pain and influencing variables over time. Valid and reliable instruments were utilized for all major study outcomes. In the first study, there was a trend towards decreased acute post-operative pain over time. The incidence and severity of chronic pain was found to be significantly reduced at 6 months post bariatric surgery. Interestingly, interference of chronic pain in daily life such as normal work, mood, and walking ability was significantly improved at 6 months postop however; this was not the case with sleep. Preliminary results of the secondary study indicate that pain severity, pain interference, anxiety and depression are significantly improved at 6 months postoperatively. In addition, preoperative anxiety, depression and emotional regulation were predictive of pain interference, but not pain severity. The results of our regression analyses provide evidence for the impact of pre-existing psychological factors on pain, particularly anxiety in obese populations.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, mood disorders, obesity, pain

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1442 Evaluation of the Pain of Patients with Chronic Renal Disease in Hemodialysis

Authors: Fabiana Souza Orlandi, Izabel Cristina Chavez Gomes, Barbara Isabela De Paula Morais, Ana Carolina Ottaviani

Abstract:

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered a public health problem. Patients who present CKD in their more advanced stages usually present several biopsychosocial changes, which may include pain. Pain can be considered subjective and personal, and its perception is characterized as a multidimensional experience. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level and descriptors of pain of adults and elderly patients with chronic kidney disease, through the Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 100 subjects with CKD in hemodialysis treatment at a Renal Replacement Therapy Service in the interior of the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through an individual interview, using a Sociodemographic Characterization and Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). All ethical precepts were respected. The majority of the respondents were men (61.0%), white (56.0%) and with a high school education (34.0%). Regarding the pain of the individuals, 89 patients reported pain, with Chronic Pain predominating (50.0%, n = 50), followed by Acute Pain (39.0%, n = 39). Of the subjects who presented acute pain most of the 89.0% described the pain felt as unbearable, and of those who presented chronic pain, 35.0% described the pain felt as painful, unbearable and uncomfortable. It was concluded that there was a significant presence of pain, being the chronic pain dominant in the studied population. Faced with such factors, the present study motivates researches in this population, in order to establish interventions with the objective of improving the quality of life of these individuals.

Keywords: pain, chronic kidney disease, dialysis, evaluation

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1441 Development of a Pain Detector Using Microwave Radiometry Method

Authors: Nanditha Rajamani, Anirudhaa R. Rao, Divya Sriram

Abstract:

One of the greatest difficulties in treating patients with pain is the highly subjective nature of pain sensation. The measurement of pain intensity is primarily dependent on the patient’s report, often with little physical evidence to provide objective corroboration. This is also complicated by the fact that there are only few and expensive existing technologies (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-fMRI). The need is thus clear and urgent for a reliable, non-invasive, non-painful, objective, readily adoptable, and coefficient diagnostic platform that provides additional diagnostic information to supplement its current regime with more information to assist doctors in diagnosing these patients. Thus, our idea of developing a pain detector was conceived to take a step further the detection and diagnosis of chronic and acute pain.

Keywords: pain sensor, microwave radiometery, pain sensation, fMRI

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1440 Characterization of Chest Pain in Patients Consulting to the Emergency Department of a Health Institution High Level of Complexity during 2014-2015, Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Jorge Iván Bañol-Betancur, Lina María Martínez-Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez-Gázquez, Estefanía Bahamonde-Olaya, Ana María Gutiérrez-Tamayo, Laura Isabel Jaramillo-Jaramillo, Camilo Ruiz-Mejía, Natalia Morales-Quintero

Abstract:

Acute chest pain is a distressing sensation between the diaphragm and the base of the neck and it represents a diagnostic challenge for any physician in the emergency department. Objective: To establish the main clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients who present with chest pain to the emergency department in a private clinic from the city of Medellin, during 2014-2015. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective observational study. Population and sample were patients who consulted for chest pain in the emergency department who met the eligibility criteria. The information was analyzed in SPSS program vr.21; qualitative variables were described through relative frequencies, and the quantitative through mean and standard deviation ‬or medians according to their distribution in the study population. Results: A total of 231 patients were evaluated, the mean age was 49.5 ± 19.9 years, 56.7% were females. The most frequent pathological antecedents were hypertension 35.5%, diabetes 10,8%, dyslipidemia 10.4% and coronary disease 5.2%. Regarding pain features, in 40.3% of the patients the pain began abruptly, in 38.2% it had a precordial location, for 20% of the cases physical activity acted as a trigger, and 60.6% was oppressive. Costochondritis was the most common cause of chest pain among patients with an established etiologic diagnosis, representing the 18.2%. Conclusions: Although the clinical features of pain reported coincide with the clinical presentation of an acute coronary syndrome, the most common cause of chest pain in study population was costochondritis instead, indicating that it is a differential diagnostic in the approach of patients with pain acute chest.

Keywords: acute coronary syndrome, chest pain, epidemiology, osteochondritis

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1439 Uncommon Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain: A Pictorial Essay

Authors: Mahesh Hariharan, Rajan Balasubramaniam, Sharath Kumar Shetty, Shanthala Yadavalli, Mohammed Ahetasham, Sravya Devarapalli

Abstract:

Acute abdomen is one of the most common clinical conditions requiring a radiological investigation. Ultrasound is the primary modality of choice which can diagnose some of the common causes of acute abdomen. However, sometimes the underlying cause for the pain is far more complicated than expected to mandate a high degree of suspicion to suggest further investigation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we have compiled a comprehensive series of selected cases to highlight the conditions which can be easily overlooked unless carefully sought for. This also emphasizes the importance of multimodality approach to arrive at the final diagnosis with an increased overall diagnostic accuracy which in turn improves patient management and prognosis.

Keywords: acute abdomen, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, plain radiographs, ultrasound

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1438 A Study of Emergency Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pain

Authors: Liqun Zou, Ling Wang, Xiaoli Chen

Abstract:

Objective: Through the questionnaire about emergency nurses’ knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management to understand whether they are well mastered and practiced the related knowledge about pain management, providing a reference for continuous improvement of the quality of nursing care in acute pain and for improving the effect of management on emergency pain patients. Method: The Chinese version questionnaire about KASRP (knowledge and attitudes survey regarding pain) was handed out to 132 emergency nurses to do a study about the knowledge and attitude of pain management. Meanwhile, SPSS17.0 was used to do a descriptive analysis and variance analysis on collected data. Results: The emergency nurses’ correct answer rate about KASRP questionnaire is from 25% to 65% and the average correct rate is (44.65 + 7.85)%. In addition, there are 10 to 26 items being given the right answer. Therefore, the average correct items are (17.86 ± 3.14). Moreover, there is no statistical significant on the differences about the correct rate for different age, gender and work experience to answer; however, the difference of the correct rate in different education background and the professional title is significant. Conclusion: There is a remarkable lack of knowledge and attitude towards pain management in emergency nurses, whose basic knowledge of pain is sufficient. Besides, there is a deviation between the knowledge of pain management and clinical practice, which needs to be improved.

Keywords: emergency nurse, pain, KASRP questionnaire, pain management

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1437 Manage an Acute Pain Unit based on the Balanced Scorecard

Authors: Helena Costa Oliveira, Carmem Oliveira, Rita Moutinho

Abstract:

The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a continuous strategic monitoring model focused not only on financial issues but also on internal processes, patients/users, and learning and growth. Initially dedicated to business management, it currently serves organizations of other natures - such as hospitals. This paper presents a BSC designed for a Portuguese Acute Pain Unit (APU). This study is qualitative and based on the experience of collaborators at the APU. The management of APU is based on four perspectives – users, internal processes, learning and growth, and financial and legal. For each perspective, there were identified strategic objectives, critical factors, lead indicators and initiatives. The strategic map of the APU outlining sustained strategic relations among strategic objectives. This study contributes to the development of research in the health management area as it explores how organizational insufficiencies and inconsistencies in this particular case can be addressed, through the identification of critical factors, to clearly establish core outcomes and initiatives to set up.

Keywords: acute pain unit, balanced scorecard, hospital management, organizational performance, Portugal

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1436 A Rare Case of Endometriosis Lesion in Caecum Causing Acute Small Bowel Obstruction

Authors: Freda Halim

Abstract:

Endometriosis in bowel is rare condition, about 3-37% of endometriosis cases. Most of bowel endometriosis rising in the rectosigmoid (90% of bowel endometriosis). The incidence of caecal endometriosis is very low ( < 5% of bowel endometriosis) and almost never causing acute small bowel obstruction. The aim of this paper is to show that although bowel obstruction caused by caecal endometriosis is difficult to diagnose as it is rare, and may require laparotomy to make definite diagnosis, but it should be considered in infertile female patient. The case is 37 years old woman infertile woman with intestinal obstruction with pre-operative diagnosis total acute small bowel obstruction caused by right colonic mass, with sepsis as the complication. Before the acute small bowel obstruction, she complained of chronic right lower quadrant pain with chronic constipation alternate with chronic diarrhea, symptoms that happened both in bowel endometriosis and colorectal malignancy. She also complained of chronic pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. She was married for 10 years with no child. The patient was never diagnosed with endometriosis and never seek medical attention for infertility and the chronic pelvic pain. The patient underwent Abdominal CT Scan, with results: massive small bowel obstruction, and caecal mass that causing acute small bowel obstruction. Diagnosis of acute small bowel obstruction due to right colonic mass was made, and exploratory laparotomy was performed in the patient. During the laparotomy, mass at caecum and ileocaecal that causing massive small bowel obstruction was found and standard right hemicolectomy and temporary ileostomy were performed. The pathology examination showed ectopic endometriosis lesions in caecum and ileocaecal valve. The histopathology also confirmed with the immunohistochemistry, in which positive ER, PR, CD 10 and CD7 was found the ileocaecal and caecal mass. In the second operation, reanastomosis of the ileum was done 3 months after the first operation. The chronic pelvic pain is decreasing dramatically after the first and second operation. In conclusion, although bowel obstruction caused by caecal endometriosis is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, but it can be considered as a cause in infertile female patient

Keywords: acute, bowel obstruction, caecum, endometriosis

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1435 Placebo Analgesia in Older Age: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

Authors: Angelika Dierolf, K. Rischer, A. Gonzalez-Roldan, P. Montoya, F. Anton, M. Van der Meulen

Abstract:

Placebo analgesia is a powerful cognitive endogenous pain modulation mechanism with high relevance in pain treatment. Older people would benefit, especially from non-pharmacologic pain interventions, since this age group is disproportionately affected by acute and chronic pain, while pharmacological treatments are less suitable due to polypharmacy and age-related changes in drug metabolism. Although aging is known to affect neurobiological and physiological aspects of pain perception, as for example, changes in pain threshold and pain tolerance, its effects on cognitive pain modulation strategies, including placebo analgesia, have hardly been investigated so far. In the present study, we are assessing placebo analgesia in 35 older adults (60 years and older) and 35 younger adults (between 18 and 35 years). Acute pain was induced with short transdermal electrical pulses to the inner forearm, using a concentric stimulating electrode. Stimulation intensities were individually adjusted to the participant’s threshold. Next to the stimulation site, we applied sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Participants were informed that sometimes the TENS device would be switched on (placebo condition), and sometimes it would be switched off (control condition). In reality, it was always switched off. Participants received alternating blocks of painful stimuli in the placebo and control condition and were asked to rate the intensity and unpleasantness of each stimulus on a visual analog scale (VAS). Pain-related evoked potentials were recorded with a 64-channel EEG. Preliminary results show a reduced placebo effect in older compared to younger adults in both behavioral and neurophysiological data. Older people experienced less subjective pain reduction under sham TENS treatment compared to younger adults, as evidenced by the VAS ratings. The N1 and P2 event-related potential components were generally reduced in the older group. While younger adults showed a reduced N1 and P2 under sham TENS treatment, this reduction was considerably smaller in older people. This reduced placebo effect in the older group suggests that cognitive pain modulation is altered in aging and may at least partly explain why older adults experience more pain. Our results highlight the need for a better understanding of the efficacy of non-pharmacological pain treatments in older adults and how these can be optimized to meet the specific requirements of this population.

Keywords: placebo analgesia, aging, acute pain, TENS, EEG

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1434 A Study of Gender Differences in Expressing Pain

Authors: A. Estaji

Abstract:

The first part of the present paper studies the role of language in expressing pain. Pain is usually described as a personal and mental experience, so language has an important role in describing, expressing and measuring pain and sometimes it is believed that language is the only device for accessing this personal experience. The second part of this paper studies gender differences in expressing pain. Considering the biological, psychological and social differences between men and women, we raise this question whether men and women express their pain in the same way or differently. To answer this question, we asked 44 Farsi speaking participants to write about the most painful experience they had in the past. Qualitative analysis of the data shows that women, have expressed their pain more severely, have expressed their feelings about pain instead of describing the pain itself, have made their pain more personal and have given more details about the circumstances in which they experienced pain, while men have given a more neutral description of their pain and have given a description of their pain by distancing themselves from the painful event. Knowing these gender differences in expressing pain can help medical practitioners in assessing the pain level.

Keywords: discourse analysis, expressing pain, measuring pain, gender

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1433 Investigating the Dose Effect of Electroacupuncture on Mice Inflammatory Pain Model

Authors: Wan-Ting Shen, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

Abstract:

Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported effective for many kinds of pain and is a common treatment for acute or chronic pain. However, to date, there are limited studies examining the effect of acupuncture dosage. In our experiment, after injecting mice with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) to induce inflammatory pain, two groups of mice were administered two different 15 min EA treatments at 2Hz. The first group received EA at a single acupuncture point (ST36, Zusanli) in both legs (two points), whereas the second group received two acupuncture points in both legs (four points) and the analgesic effect was compared. It was found that double points (ST36, Zusanli and SP6, Sanyinjiao) were significantly superior to single points (ST36, Zusanli) when evaluated using the electronic von Frey Test (mechanic) and Hargreaves’ Test (thermal). Through this study, it is expected more novel physiological mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia will be discovered.

Keywords: anti-inflammation, dose effect, electroacupuncture, pain control

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1432 Efficacy and Safety of Sublingual Sufentanil for the Management of Acute Pain

Authors: Neil Singla, Derek Muse, Karen DiDonato, Pamela Palmer

Abstract:

Introduction: Pain is the most common reason people visit emergency rooms. Studies indicate however, that Emergency Department (ED) physicians often do not provide adequate analgesia to their patients as a result of gender and age bias, opiophobia and insufficient knowledge of and formal training in acute pain management. Novel classes of analgesics have recently been introduced, but many patients suffer from acute pain in settings where the availability of intravenous (IV) access may be limited, so there remains a clinical need for rapid-acting, potent analgesics that do not require an invasive route of delivery. A sublingual sufentanil tablet (SST), dispensed using a single-dose applicator, is in development for treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain in a medically-supervised setting. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the repeat-dose efficacy, safety and tolerability of sufentanil 20 mcg and 30 mcg sublingual tablets compared to placebo for the management of acute pain as determined by the time-weighted sum of pain intensity differences (SPID) to baseline over the 12-hour study period (SPID12). Key secondary efficacy variables included SPID over the first hour (SPID1), Total pain relief over the 12-hour study period (TOTPAR12), time to perceived pain relief (PR) and time to meaningful PR. Safety variables consisted of adverse events (AE), vital signs, oxygen saturation and early termination. Methods: In this Phase 2, double-blind, dose-finding study, an equal number of male and female patients were randomly assigned in a 2:2:1 ratio to SST 20 mcg, SS 30 mcg or placebo, respectively, following bunionectomy. Study drug was dosed as needed, but not more frequently than hourly. Rescue medication was available as needed. The primary endpoint was the Summed Pain Intensity Difference to baseline over 12h (SPIDI2). Safety was assessed by continuous oxygen saturation monitoring and adverse event reporting. Results: 101 patients (51 Male/50 Female) were randomized, 100 received study treatment (intent-to-treat [ITT] population), and 91 completed the study. Reasons for early discontinuation were lack of efficacy (6), adverse events (2) and drug-dosing error (1). Mean age was 42.5 years. For the ITT population, SST 30 mcg was superior to placebo (p=0.003) for the SPID12. SPID12 scores in the active groups were superior for both male (ANOVA overall p-value =0.038) and female (ANOVA overall p-value=0.005) patients. Statistically significant differences in favour of sublingual sufentanil were also observed between the SST 30mcg and placebo group for SPID1(p<0.001), TOTPAR12(p=0.002), time to perceived PR (p=0.023) and time to meaningful PR (p=0.010). Nausea, vomiting and somnolence were more frequent in the sufentanil groups but there were no significant differences between treatment arms for the proportion of patients who prematurely terminated due to AE or inadequate analgesia. Conclusions: Sufentanil tablets dispensed sublingually using a single-dose applicator is in development for treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe acute pain in a medically-supervised setting where immediate IV access is limited. When administered sublingually, sufentanil’s pharmacokinetic profile and non-invasive delivery makes it a useful alternative to IM or IV dosing.

Keywords: acute pain, pain management, sublingual, sufentanil

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1431 Clinical Features of Acute Aortic Dissection Patients Initially Diagnosed with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Min Jee Lee, Young Sun Park, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Jae Ho Lee, Yoon Seon Lee, Kyung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim

Abstract:

Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) concomitant with acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is rare but prompt recognition of concomitant AAS is crucial, especially in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) because misdiagnosis with early thrombolytic or anticoagulant treatment may result in catastrophic consequences. Objectives: This study investigated the clinical features of patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS that may lead to the diagnostic clue. Method: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014, 22 patients who were the initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (AMI and unstable angina) and AAS (aortic dissection, intramural hematoma and ruptured thoracic aneurysm) in our emergency department were reviewed. Among these, we excluded 10 patients who were transferred from other hospital and 4 patients with non-STEMI, leaving a total of 8 patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS for analysis. Result: The mean age of study patients was 57.5±16.31 years and five patients were Standford type A and three patients were type B aortic dissection. Six patients had ST-segment elevation in anterior leads and two patients had in inferior leads. Most of the patients had acute onset, severe chest pain but no patients had dissecting nature chest pain. Serum troponin I was elevated in three patients but all patients had D-dimer elevation. Aortic regurgitation or regional wall motion abnormality was founded in four patients. However, widened mediastinum was seen in all study patients. Conclusion: When patients with STEMI have elevated D-dimer and widened mediastinum, concomitant AAS may have to be suspected.

Keywords: aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, ST-segment, d-dimer

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1430 Efficacy and Safety of Tapentadol Nasal Spray Versus Oral Tramadol for the Treatment of Acute Postoperative Pain Management

Authors: Kamal Tolani, Sandeep Kumar, Rohit Luthra, Ankit Dadhania, Krishnaprasad K., Ram Gupta, Deepa Joshi

Abstract:

Background: Post-operative analgesia remains a clinical challenge, with central and peripheral sensitization playing a pivotal role in treatment related complications and impaired QoL. Centrally acting opioids offer poor risk benefit profile with increased intensity of gastrointestinal or central side effects and slow onset of clinical analgesia. The clinical efficacy and safety of Tapentadol nasal spray (NS) formulation was assessed as compared to Switch therapy with Tramadol for severe or acute post-operative pain in hospitalized cases undergoing major surgeries. Methods: Phase III, randomized, active- controlled, clinical trial was planned at 21 centres in India involving 294 cases who had undergone surgical procedures. These patients were randomized to receive either Tapentadol NS 45 mg (one spray/each nostril) or Tramadol 100mg i.v/oral every 4-6 hours for five days for pain management. The statistical analysis plan was envisaged as a non-inferiority trial involving comparison with Tramadol for Sum of Pain intensity difference (SPID60min) and PGA24 hrs. Results: The per-protocol analyses involved 255 hospitalized cases (Median age: 38 years) undergoing surgical procedures, of which most common were fracture reduction surgeries. The most common concomitant medications were anti-bacterials (98.3%). PID60min and PGA24hrs on NRS showed that Tapentadol NS was non–inferior to Tramadol. However, on further assessment on day 2, 3, and 5, there was clinically greater pain relief with the NS formulation (p <0.05). Secondary efficacy measures, including onset of Clinical analgesia and TOTPAR showed non-inferiority to IV Tramadol formulation. The safety profile and need for rescue medication was also similar in both the groups at the end of 5 days therapy. Conclusion: Tapentadol NS is an effective strategy for the management of moderate to severe post –operative pain with ease of administration and better clinical benefit and may prevent complications related to central sensitization in post-surgical settings.

Keywords: tapentadol nasal spray, acute pain, tramadol, post-operative pain

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1429 Pain Analysis in Musicians Using Digital Pain Drawings

Authors: Cinzia Cruder, Deborah Falla, Francesca Mangili, Laura Azzimonti, Liliana Araujo, Aaron Williamon, Marco Barbero

Abstract:

Background and aims: According to the existing literature, musicians are at risk to experience a range of musculoskeletal painful conditions. Recently, digital technology has been developed to investigate pain location and pain extent. The aim of this study was to describe pain location and pain extent in musicians using a digital method for pain drawing analysis. Additionally, the association between pain drawing (PD) variables and clinical features in musicians with pain were explored. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-eight musicians (90 women and 68 men; age 22.4±3.6 years) were recruited from Swiss and UK conservatoires. Participants were asked to complete a survey including both background musical information and clinical features, the Quick Dash (QD) questionnaire and the digital PDs. Results: Of the 158 participants, 126 musicians (79.7%) reported having pain, with more prevalence in the areas of the neck and shoulders, the lower back and the right arm. The mean of pain extent was 3.1% ±6.5. The mean of QD was larger for musicians showing the presence of pain than for those without pain. Additionally, the results indicated a positive correlation between QD score and pain extent, and there were significant correlations between age and pain intensity, as well as between pain extent and pain intensity. Conclusions: The high prevalence of pain among musicians has been confirmed using a digital PD. In addition, positive correlations between pain extent and upper limb disability has been demonstrated. Our findings highlight the need for effective prevention and treatment strategies for musicians.

Keywords: pain location, pain extent, musicians, pain drawings

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1428 Applying the Regression Technique for ‎Prediction of the Acute Heart Attack ‎

Authors: Paria Soleimani, Arezoo Neshati

Abstract:

Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of ‎death in the world. Some of these deaths occur even before the patient ‎reaches the hospital. Myocardial infarction occurs as a result of ‎impaired blood supply. Because the most of these deaths are due to ‎coronary artery disease, hence the awareness of the warning signs of a ‎heart attack is essential. Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, but ‎most of them start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort, then early ‎detection and successful treatment of these symptoms is vital to save ‎them. Therefore, importance and usefulness of a system designing to ‎assist physicians in the early diagnosis of the acute heart attacks is ‎obvious.‎ The purpose of this study is to determine how well a predictive ‎model would perform based on the only patient-reportable clinical ‎history factors, without using diagnostic tests or physical exams. This ‎type of the prediction model might have application outside of the ‎hospital setting to give accurate advice to patients to influence them to ‎seek care in appropriate situations. For this purpose, the data were ‎collected on 711 heart patients in Iran hospitals. 28 attributes of clinical ‎factors can be reported by patients; were studied. Three logistic ‎regression models were made on the basis of the 28 features to predict ‎the risk of heart attacks. The best logistic regression model in terms of ‎performance had a C-index of 0.955 and with an accuracy of 94.9%. ‎The variables, severe chest pain, back pain, cold sweats, shortness of ‎breath, nausea, and vomiting were selected as the main features.‎

Keywords: Coronary heart disease, Acute heart attacks, Prediction, Logistic ‎regression‎

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1427 Disability and Quality of Life in Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zarina Zahari, Maria Justine, Kamaria Kamaruddin

Abstract:

Low back pain (LBP) is a major musculoskeletal problem in global population. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pain, disability and quality of life in patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). One hundred LBP participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study (mean age = 42.23±11.34 years old). Pain was measured using Numerical Rating Scale (11-point). Disability was assessed using the revised Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (ODQ) and quality of life (QoL) was evaluated using the SF-36 v2. Majority of participants (58%) presented with moderate pain and 49% experienced severe disability. Thus, the pain and disability were found significant with negative correlation (r= -0.712, p<0.05). The pain and QoL also showed significant and positive correlation with both Physical Health Component Summary (PHCS) (r= .840, p<0.05) and Mental Health Component Summary (MHCS) (r= 0.446, p<0.05). Regression analysis indicated that pain emerged as an indicator of both disability and QoL (PHCS and MHCS) accounting for 51%, 71% and 21% of the variances respectively. This indicates that pain is an important factor in predicting disability and QoL in LBP sufferers.

Keywords: disability, low back pain, pain, quality of life

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1426 Laser Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Clinical Trial

Authors: Joao Paulo Matheus, Renan Fangel

Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory, systemic and progressive disease that affects the synovial joints bilaterally, causing definitive orthopedic damage. It has a higher prevalence in postmenopausal female patients. It is a disabling disease that causes joint deformities that may compromise the functionality of the affected segment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of low-intensity therapeutic laser on the perception of pain and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This is a randomized clinical study involving 6 women with a mean age of 56.8+6.3 years. Exclusion criteria: patients with acute pain, chronic infectious disease, underlying acute or chronic underlying disease. An AsGaAl laser with 808nm wavelength, 100mW power, beam output area of 0.028cm2, power density of 3.57W/cm2 was used. The laser was applied at pre-defined points in the interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints, totaling 24 points, 2 times a week, for 4 weeks, totaling 8 sessions. The Pain Inventory (IBD) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used for the analysis of pain and for the WHOQOL-bref quality of life assessment. There was no statistical difference between the onset (5.67±2.66) and the final (4.67±3.78) of treatments (p=0.70). There was also no statistical difference between the beginning (5.67±2.66) and the final (4.67±3.78) of the treatments in the VAS analysis (p=0.68). The overall mean quality of life obtained by the questionnaire at the start of treatment was 42.3±7.6, while at the end of treatment it was 58.5±7.6 (p=0.01) and the domains of the questionnaire with significant differences were: psychological domain 42.9±6.8 and 66.7±12.9 (p=0.004), social domain 39.9±5.7 and 68.1±6.3 (p=0,0005) and environmental domain 36.3±7.3 and 56.3±12.5 (p=0.003). It can be concluded that the low-intensity therapeutic laser did not produce significant changes in the painful period of rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, there was an improvement in patients' quality of life in the psychological, social and environmental aspects.

Keywords: laser therapy, pain, quality of life, rheumatoid arthritis

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1425 Two Weeks of Multi-Modal Inpatient Treatment: Patients Suffering from Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain for over 12 Months

Authors: D. Schafer, H. Booke, R. Nordmeier

Abstract:

Patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain ( > 12 months) are a challenging clientele for pain specialists. A multimodal approach, characterized by a two weeks inpatient treatment, often is the ultimate therapeutic attempt. The lasting effects of such a multimodal approach were analyzed, especially since two weeks of inpatient therapy, although very intense, often seem too short to make a difference in patients suffering from chronic pain for years. The study includes 32 consecutive patients suffering from chronic pain over years who underwent a two weeks multimodal inpatient treatment of pain. Twelve months after discharge, each patient was interviewed to objectify any lasting effects. Pain was measured on admission and 12 months after discharge using the numeric rating scale (NRS). For statistics, a paired students' t-test was used. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. The average intensity of pain on admission was 8,6 on the NRS. Twelve months after discharge, the intensity of pain was still reduced by an average of 48% (average NRS 4,4), p < 0.05. Despite this significant improvement in pain severity, two thirds (66%) of the patients still judge their treatment as not sufficient. In conclusion, inpatient treatment of chronic pain has a long-lasting effect on the intensity of pain in patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain for more than 12 months.

Keywords: chronic pain, inpatient treatment, multimodal pain treatment, musculoskeletal pain

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1424 Comparison Between Vegans and Omnivores on the Recovery of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Young Females

Authors: Njeim Pressila, Hajj-Boutros Guy, Antony D. Karelis

Abstract:

Background: Acute resistance exercise is associated with an elevated inflammation response, which could lead to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). There is evidence that suggests that ingesting foods that have anti-inflammation properties may help reduce DOMS. A vegan diet has also been shown to be an anti-inflammatory diet which could, in turn, decrease DOMS. Objective and hypothesis: The purpose of the present study will be to compare markers of DOMS between vegans and omnivores after acute resistance exercise in young females. We hypothesize that vegans will have a better recovery of DOMS markers after a resistance exercise session compared to omnivores. Methods: Population: We will recruit30 vegans and 30 omnivores to participate in this study. Allvolunteers will follow either a vegan or an omnivore diet for at least 2 years. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, musclestrength (leg and chest press), markers of DOMS (swelling, pain, and stiffness), and dietary factors, as well as a wellness and anxiety questionnaire will be measured. All participants will also perform an acute resistance exercise session in order to induce DOMS. Pertinence: This project will give us a better understanding on the recovery process of vegans after a resistance training session and, as such, provide useful information to health professionals and athletes/coaches (kinesiologists and nutritionists)

Keywords: vgeans, omnivores, delayed onset muscle soreness, pain, stifness

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1423 Case Report: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

Authors: Farah Al Zaabi, Sarah Amrani

Abstract:

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition that develops in an extremity following a fracture, soft tissue injury, or surgery. It is a neuropathic pain disorder that is accompanied by the characteristic skin manifestations that are needed for the diagnosis. We report the case of a 30 year old male, who has findings consistent with CRPS and has been followed for over two years by multiple specialties within the healthcare system without obtaining a diagnosis. The symptoms he presented with were treated based on the specialty he was seeing, rather than unified and recognized as a single disease process. Our case highlights the complexity of chronic pain, which can sometimes present with skin manifestations, and the importance of involving a pain specialist early for both the medical and physical recovery of CRPS patients.

Keywords: complex regional pain syndrome, chronic pain, skin changes of CRPS, dermatological manifestions of CRPS

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1422 Patterns of Change in Perception of Imagined and Physically Induced Pain over the Course of Repeated Thermal Stimulations

Authors: Boroka Gács, Tibor Szolcsányi, Árpad Csathó

Abstract:

Background: Individuals frequently show habituation to repeated noxious heat. However, given the defensive function of human pain processing, it is reasonable to assume that individuals imagine that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated thermal pain stimuli. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no previous studies have, however, been addressed to this assumption. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated how healthy human individuals imagine the intensity of repeated thermal pain stimulations, and compared this with the intensity ratings given after physically induced thermal pain trials. Methods: Healthy participants (N = 20) gave pain intensity ratings in two conditions: imagined and real thermal pain. In the real pain condition thermal pain stimuli of two intensities (minimal and moderate pain) were delivered in four consecutive trials. The duration of the peak temperature was 20s, and stimulation was always delivered to the same location. In each trial, participants rated the pain intensity twice, 5s and 15s after the onset of the peak temperature. In the imagined pain condition, participants were subjected to a reference pain stimulus and then asked to imagine and rate the same sequence of stimulations as in the induced pain condition. Results: Ratings of imagined pain and physically induced pain followed opposite courses over repeated stimulation: Ratings of imagined pain indicated sensitization whereas ratings for physically induced pain indicated habituation. The findings were similar for minimal and moderate pain intensities. Conclusions: The findings suggest that, rather than habituating to pain, healthy individuals imagine that they would become increasingly sensitive to repeated thermal pain stimuli.

Keywords: habituation, imagined pain, pain perception, thermal stimulation

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1421 A Primary Care Diagnosis of Middle-Aged Men with Oral Cancer Who Underwent Extensive Resection and Flap Repair: A Case Report

Authors: Ching-Yi Huang, Pi-Fen Cheng, Hui-Zhu Chen, Shi Ting Huang, Heng-Hua Wang

Abstract:

This is a case of oral cancer after extensive resection and modified right lateral neck lymph node dissection followed by reconstruction with a skin flap. The nursing period lasted From September 25 to October 3, 2017, through observation, interview, physical assessment, and medical record review, the author identified the following nursing problems: acute pain, impaired oral mucous membrane, and body image change. During the nursing period, the author provided individual and overall nursing care and established mutual trust through the use of empathy. Author listened and eased the patient's physical indisposition, such as wound pain, we use medications and acupuncture massage to relieve pain. However, for oral mucosa change caused by surgery, provide continuous and complete oral care and oral exercise training to improve oral mucosal healing and restore swallowing function. In the body-image changes, guided him to express his feeling after the body-image change, and enhanced support and from the family, and encouraged him to attend head and neck cancer survivor alliance which allowed the patient to accept the altered body image and reaffirm self-worth. Hopefully, through sharing this nursing experience will help to the nursing care quality of nursing care for oral cancer patients after extensive resection and modified right lateral neck lymph node dissection followed by reconstruction with a skin flap.

Keywords: oral cancer, acute pain, impaired oral mucous membrane, body image change

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1420 Characteristics of Acute Poisoning in Emergency Departments: Multicenter Study in Korea

Authors: Hyuk-Hoon Kim, Young Gi Min

Abstract:

Background: Acute poisoning is the common cause of morbidity and mortality. Characteristics of acute poisoning differ between countries. While other countries operate the database system for poisoning, Korea has not collected the database for acute poisoning. Distribution of incidence of acute poisoning depending on the types of materials have also not studied in Korea. Our aims are to evaluate the etiologic and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning cases and to obtain up-to-date information on acute poisonings. Method: We retrospectively recorded cases of acute poisoning from eight emergency departments of second level or university hospitals from different cities in Gyeonggi province in Korea from April 2006 and March 2015. The distributions of incidence of acute poisoning depending on the types of materials are mapped by geographic information system. Result: A total of 3,449 poisoned cases were analyzed. Mean estimated age of patients was 39.56 ± 22.40 years. Mean male to female ratio of patients was 1:1.4. Mean proportion of intentional poisoning was 57.9%. Common materials are benzodiazepine (16.6%), carbon monoxide (10.5%), pesticide (8.1%) and zolpidem (7.1%) Common route of exposure is ingestion (79.5%) and followed by inhalation (16.5%). Common treatment methods are gastric lavage (20%) and activated charcoal (30%). Most cases had uneventful recovery; 61.4% were treated as outpatients and 0.1% of the poisoning resulted in death in ER. Conclusion: Even though the cases enrolled in our study is not the overall cases of acute poisoning in Korea, our study could be the basis of countermeasures for analysis and prevention of acute poisoning in Korea.

Keywords: acute poisoning, emergency department, epidemiology, Korea

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1419 Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic and Static Magnetic Fields on Musculoskeletal Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review Approach

Authors: Mohammad Javaherian, Siamak Bashardoust Tajali, Monavvar Hadizadeh

Abstract:

Objective: This systematic review study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic (PEMF) and Static Magnetic Fields (SMG) on pain relief and functional improvement in patients with musculoskeletal Low Back Pain (LBP). Methods: Seven electronic databases were searched by two researchers independently to identify the published Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic, static magnetic, and therapeutic nuclear magnetic fields. The identified databases for systematic search were Ovid Medline®, Ovid Cochrane RCTs and Reviews, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and EMBASE from 1968 to February 2016. The relevant keywords were selected by Mesh. After initial search and finding relevant manuscripts, all references in selected studies were searched to identify second hand possible manuscripts. The published RCTs in English would be included to the study if they reported changes on pain and/or functional disability following application of magnetic fields on chronic musculoskeletal low back pain. All studies with surgical patients, patients with pelvic pain, and combination of other treatment techniques such as acupuncture or diathermy were excluded. The identified studies were critically appraised and the data were extracted independently by two raters (M.J and S.B.T). Probable disagreements were resolved through discussion between raters. Results: In total, 1505 abstracts were found following the initial electronic search. The abstracts were reviewed to identify potentially relevant manuscripts. Seventeen possibly appropriate studies were retrieved in full-text of which 48 were excluded after reviewing their full-texts. Ten selected articles were categorized into three subgroups: PEMF (6 articles), SMF (3 articles), and therapeutic nuclear magnetic fields (tNMF) (1 article). Since one study evaluated tNMF, we had to exclude it. In the PEMF group, one study of acute LBP did not show significant positive results and the majority of the other five studies on Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) indicated its efficacy on pain relief and functional improvement, but one study with the lowest sessions (6 sessions during 2 weeks) did not report a significant difference between treatment and control groups. In the SMF subgroup, two articles reported near significant pain reduction without any functional improvement although more studies are needed. Conclusion: The PEMFs with a strength of 5 to 150 G or 0.1 to 0.3 G and a frequency of 5 to 64 Hz or sweep 7 to 7KHz can be considered as an effective modality in pain relief and functional improvement in patients with chronic low back pain, but there is not enough evidence to confirm their effectiveness in acute low back pain. To achieve the appropriate effectiveness, it is suggested to perform this treatment modality 20 minutes per day for at least 9 sessions. SMFs have not been reported to be substantially effective in decreasing pain or improving the function in chronic low back pain. More studies are necessary to achieve more reliable results.

Keywords: pulsed electromagnetic field, static magnetic field, magnetotherapy, low back pain

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1418 Executive Functions Directly Associated with Severity of Perceived Pain above and beyond Depression in the Context of Medical Rehabilitation

Authors: O. Elkana, O Heyman, S. Hamdan, M. Franko, J. Vatine

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate whether a direct link exists between perceived pain (PP) and executive functions (EF), above and beyond the influence of depression symptoms, in the context of medical rehabilitation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Rehabilitation Hospital. Participants: 125 medical records of hospitalized patients were screened for matching to our inclusion criteria. Only 60 patients were found fit and were asked to participate. 19 decline to participate on personal basis. The 41 neurologically intact patients (mean age 46, SD 14.96) that participated in this study were in their sub-acute stage of recovery, with fluent Hebrew, with intact upper limb (to neutralize influence on psychomotor performances) and without an organic brain damage. Main Outcome Measures: EF were assessed using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Stop-Signal Test (SST). PP was measured using 3 well-known pain questionnaires: Pain Disability Index (PDI), The Short-Form McGill Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Perceived pain index (PPI) was calculated by the mean score composite from the 3 pain questionnaires. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results: The results indicate that irrespective of the presence of depression symptoms, PP is directly correlated with response inhibition (SST partial correlation: r=0.5; p=0.001) and mental flexibility (WSCT partial correlation: r=-0.37; p=0.021), suggesting decreased performance in EF as PP severity increases. High correlations were found between the 3 pain measurements: SF-MPQ with PDI (r=0.62, p<0.001), SF-MPQ with PCS (r=0.58, p<0.001) and PDI with PCS (r=0.38, p=0.016) and each questionnaire alone was also significantly associated with EF; thus, no specific questionnaires ‘pulled’ the results obtained by the general index (PPI). Conclusion: Examining the direct association between PP and EF, beyond the contribution of depression symptoms, provides further clinical evidence suggesting that EF and PP share underlying mediating neuronal mechanisms. Clinically, the importance of assessing patients' EF abilities as well as PP severity during rehabilitation is underscored.

Keywords: depression, executive functions, mental-flexibility, neuropsychology, pain perception, perceived pain, response inhibition

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