Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 95

Search results for: croatia

95 The Effect of Catastrophic Losses on Insurance Cycle: Case of Croatia

Authors: Drago Jakovčević, Maja Mihelja Žaja

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This paper provides an analysis of the insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and whether they are affected by catastrophic losses on a global level. In general, it is considered that insurance cycles are particularly pronounced in periods of financial crisis, but are also affected by the growing number of catastrophic losses. They cause the change of insurance cycle and premium growth and intensification and narrowing of the coverage conditions, so these variables move in the same direction and these phenomena point to a new cycle. The main goal of this paper is to determine the existence of insurance cycle in the Republic of Croatia and investigate whether catastrophic losses have an influence on insurance cycles.

Keywords: catastrophic loss, insurance cycle, premium, Republic of Croatia

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94 Water Balance Components under Climate Change in Croatia

Authors: Jelena Bašić, Višnjica Vučetić, Mislav Anić, Tomislav Bašić

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Lack of precipitation combined with high temperatures causes great damage to the agriculture and economy in Croatia. Therefore, it is important to understand water circulation and balance. We decided to gain a better insight into the spatial distribution of water balance components (WBC) and their long-term changes in Croatia. WBC are precipitation (P), potential evapotranspiration (PET), actual evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture content (S), runoff (RO), recharge (R), and soil moisture loss (L). Since measurements of the mentioned components in Croatia are very rare, the Palmer model has been applied to estimate them. We refined method by setting into the account the corrective factor to include influence effects of the wind as well as a maximum soil capacity for specific soil types. We will present one hundred years’ time series of PET and ET showing the trends at few meteorological stations and a comparison of components of two climatological periods. The meteorological data from 109 stations have been used for the spatial distribution map of the WBC of Croatia.

Keywords: croatia, long-term trends, the palmer method, water balance components

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93 SMEs Access to Finance in Croatia – Model Approach

Authors: Vinko Vidučić, Ljiljana Vidučić, Damir Boras

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The goals of the research include the determination of the characteristics of SMEs finance in Croatia, as well as the determination of indirect growth rates of the information model of the entrepreneurs` perception of business environment. The research results show that cost of finance and access to finance are most important constraining factor in setting up and running the business of small entrepreneurs in Croatia. Furthermore, small entrepreneurs in Croatia are significantly dissatisfied with the administrative barriers although relatively to a lesser extent than was the case in the pre-crisis time. High collateral requirement represents the main characteristic of bank lending concerning SMEs followed by long credit elaboration process. Formulated information model has defined the individual impact of indirect growth rates of the remaining variables on the model’s specific variable.

Keywords: business environment, information model, indirect growth rates, SME finance

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92 Corporate Governance and Initial Public Offerings: Case of Croatia

Authors: Domagoj Hruska, Drazen Milkovic, Maja Darabos

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This paper empirically investigates the performance of Croatian initial public offerings (IPOs) throughout 20 years period, from 1996 until 2016. By proving the comprehensive evaluation of reasons and consequences of IPO initiatives in Croatia we give analytic evidence on the influence of this corporate action on the development of corporate governance. Furthermore, the paper discusses the relationship between internal and external corporate governance mechanisms in companies that initialize entering the financial markets. The paper will provide a synthesis of evidence of IPO-s in Croatia based on in-depth case studies of 13 cases of IPO-s. The major findings of the paper include identification of reasons for conducting IPO-s and calculation of underpricing effect and change of market capitalization. To the best of the author's knowledge, the results of the paper provide the analytical framework for understanding the impact of IPOs on the corporate governance system in transition countries.

Keywords: corporate governance, Croatia, initial public offering, transition economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
91 Fiscal Stability Indicators and Public Debt Trajectory in Croatia

Authors: Hrvoje Simovic

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Paper analyses the key problems of fiscal sustainability in Croatia. To point out key challenges of fiscal sustainability, the public debt sustainability is analyzed using standard indicators of fiscal stability, accompanied with the identification of regime changes approach in the public debt trajectory using switching regression approach. The analysis is conducted for the period from 2001 to 2016. Results show huge vulnerability in recession period (2009-14), so key challenges in current fiscal policy and public debt management are recognized in maturity prolongation, interest rates trends, and credit rating expectations.

Keywords: fiscal sustainability, public debt, Croatia, budget deficit

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
90 Managing Company's Reputation during Crisis: An Analysis of Croatia Airlines' Crisis Response Strategy to the Labor Unions' Strike Announcement

Authors: M. Polic, N. Cesarec Salopek

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When it comes to crisis, no company, notwithstanding its financial success, power or reputation is immune to the new environment and circumstances emerging from it. The main challenge company faces with during a crisis is to protect its most valuable intangible asset reputation. Crisis has the serious potential to disrupt company’s everyday operations and damage its reputation extremely fast, especially if the company did not anticipate threats that may cause a crisis. Therefore, when a crisis happens, company must directly respond to it, whilst an effective crisis communication can limit consequences arising from the crisis, protect and repair the reputational damage caused to the company. Since every crisis is unique, each one of it requires different crisis response strategy. In July 2018, airline labor unions threatened Croatia Airlines, the state owned flag carrier of Croatia, to hold a strike that would be called into question regular flights and affect more than 7.600 passengers per day. This study explores the differences between crisis response strategies that Croatia Airlines, the state owned flag carrier of Croatia and airline labor unions used during the crisis period within the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) by analyzing the content of formal communication tools used by Croatia Airlines and airline labor unions. Moreover, this study shows how Croatia Airlines successfully managed to communicate to the general public the threat that airline labor unions imposed on it and how was it received by the Croatian media. By using the qualitative and quantitative content analysis, the study will reveal the frames that dominated in the media articles during the crisis period. The greatest significance of this study is that it will provide the deeper insight into how transparent and consistent communication, the one that Croatia Airlines used before and during the crisis period, contributed to the decision of the competent court (Zagreb County Court) which prohibited labor unions strike in August 2018.

Keywords: crisis communication, crisis response strategy, Croatia Airlines, labor union, reputation management, situational crisis communication theory, strike

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89 The Need for Selective Credit Policy Implementation: Case of Croatia

Authors: Drago Jakovcevic, Mihovil Andelinovic, Igor Husak

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The aim of this paper is to explore the economic circumstances in which the selective credit policy, the least used instrument of four types of instruments on disposal to central banks, should be used. The most significant example includes the use of selective credit policies in response to the emergence of the global financial crisis by the FED. Specifics of the potential use of selective credit policies as the instigator of economic growth in Croatia, a small open economy, are determined by high euroization of financial system, fixed exchange rate and long-term trend growth of external debt that is related to the need to maintain high levels of foreign reserves. In such conditions, the classic forms of selective credit policies are unsuitable for the introduction. Several alternative approaches to implement selective credit policies are examined in this paper. Also, thorough analysis of distribution of selective monetary policy loans among economic sectors in Croatia is conducted in order to minimize the risk of investing funds and maximize the return, in order to influence the GDP growth.

Keywords: global crisis, selective credit policy, small open economy, Croatia

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88 Business Process Orientation: Case of Croatia

Authors: Ljubica Milanović Glavan

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Because of the increasing business pressures, companies must be adaptable and flexible in order to withstand them. Inadequate business processes and low level of business process orientation, that in its core accentuates business processes as opposed to business functions and focuses on process performance and customer satisfaction, hider the ability to adapt to changing environment. It has been shown in previous studies that the companies which have reached higher business process maturity level consistently outperform those that have not reached them. The aim of this paper is to provide a basic understanding of business process orientation concept and business process maturity model. Besides that the paper presents the state of business process orientation in Croatia that has been captured with a study conducted in 2013. Based on the results some practical implications and guidelines for managers are given.

Keywords: business process orientation, business process maturity, Croatia, maturity score

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87 Visual Identity Components of Tourist Destination

Authors: Petra Barisic, Zrinka Blazevic

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In the world of modern communications, visual identity has predominant influence on the overall success of tourist destinations, but despite of these, the problem of designing thriving tourist destination visual identity and their components are hardly addressed. This study highlights the importance of building and managing the visual identity of tourist destination, and based on the empirical study of well-known Mediterranean destination of Croatia analyses three main components of tourist destination visual identity; name, slogan, and logo. Moreover, the paper shows how respondents perceive each component of Croatia’s visual identity. According to study, logo is the most important, followed by the name and slogan. Research also reveals that Croatian economy lags behind developed countries in understanding the importance of visual identity, and its influence on marketing goal achievements.

Keywords: components of visual identity, Croatia, tourist destination, visual identity

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86 The Role of Creative Entrepreneurship in the Development of Croatian Economy

Authors: Marko Kolakovic

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Creative industries are an important sector of growth and development of knowledge economies. They have a positive impact on employment, economic growth, export and the quality of life in the areas where they are developed. Creative sectors include architecture, design, advertising, publishing, music, film, television and radio, video games, visual and performing arts and heritage. Following the positive trends of development of creative industries on the global and European level, this paper analyzes creative industries in general and specific characteristics of creative entrepreneurship. Special focus in this paper is put on the influence of the information communication technology on the development of new creative business models and protection of the intellectual property rights. One part of the paper is oriented on the analysis of the status of creative industries and creative entrepreneurship in Croatia. The main objective of the paper is by using the statistical analysis of creative industries in Croatia and information gained during the interviews with entrepreneurs, to make conclusions about potentials and development of creative industries in Croatia. Creative industries in Croatia are at the beginning of their development and growth strategy still does not exist at the national level. Statistical analysis pointed out that in 2015 creative enterprises made 9% of all enterprises in Croatia, employed 5,5% of employed people and their share in GDP was 4,01%. Croatian creative entrepreneurs are building competitive advantage using their creative resources and creating specific business models. The main obstacles they meet are lack of business experience and impossibility of focusing on the creative activities only. In their business, they use digital technologies and are focused on export. The conclusion is that creative industries in Croatia have development potential, but it is necessary to take adequate measures to use this potential in a right way.

Keywords: creative entrepreneurship, knowledge economy, business models, intellectual property

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85 Analyzing the Participation of Young People in Politics: An Exploratory Study Applied on Motivation in Croatia

Authors: Valentina Piric, Maja Martinovic, Zoran Barac

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The application of marketing to the domain of politics has become relevant in recent times. With this article the authors wanted to explore the issue of the current political engagement among young people in Croatia. The question is what makes young people (age 18-30) politically active in young democracies such as that of the Republic of Croatia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to discover the real or hidden motivations behind the decision to actively participate in politics among young members of the two largest political parties in the country – the Croatian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Croatia. The study expected to find that the motivation for political engagement of young people is often connected with a possible achievement of individual goals and egoistic needs such as: self-acceptance, social success, financial success, prestige, reputation, status, recognition from the others etc. It was also expected that, due to the poor economic and social situation in the country, young people feel an increasing disconnection from politics. Additionally, the authors expected to find that there is a huge potential to engage young people in the political life of the country through a proper and more interactive use of marketing communication campaigns and social media platforms, with an emphasis on highly ethical motives of political activity and their benefits to society. All respondents included in the quantitative survey (sample size [N=100]) are active in one of the two largest political parties in Croatia. The sampling and distribution of the survey occurred in the field in September 2016. The results of the survey demonstrate that in Croatia, the way young people feel about politics and act accordingly, are in fact similar to what the theory describes. The research findings reveal that young people are politically active; however, the challenge is to find a way to motivate even more young people in Croatia to actively participate in the political and democratic processes in the country and to encourage them to see additional benefits out of this practice, not only related to their individual motives, but related more to the well-being of Croatia as a country and of every member of society. The research also discovered a huge potential for political marketing communication possibilities, especially related to interactive social media. It is possible that the social media channels have a stronger influence on the decision-making process among young people when compared to groups of reference. The level of interest in politics among young Croatians varies; some of them are almost indifferent, whilst others express a serious interest in different ways to actively contribute to the political life of the country, defining a participation in the political life of their country almost as their moral obligation. However, additional observations and further research need to be conducted to get a clearer and more precise picture about the interest in politics among young people in Croatia and their social potential.

Keywords: Croatia, marketing communication, motivation, politics, young people

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84 The Determinants of Voluntary Disclosure in Croatia

Authors: Zeljana Aljinovic Barac, Marina Granic, Tina Vuko

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Study investigates the level and extent of voluntary disclosure practice in Croatia. The research was conducted on the sample of 130 medium and large companies. Findings indicate that two thirds of the companies analysed disclose below-average number of additional information. The explanatory analyses has shown that firm size, listing status and industrial sector significantly and positively affect the level and extent of voluntary disclosure in the annual report of Croatian companies. On the other hand, profitability and ownership structure were found statistically insignificant. Unlike previous studies, this paper deals with level of voluntary disclosure of medium and large companies, as well as companies whose shares are not listed on the organized capital market, which can be found as our contribution. Also, the research makes contribution by providing the insights into voluntary disclosure practices in Croatia, as a case of macro-oriented accounting system economy, i.e. bank oriented economy with an emerging capital market.

Keywords: annual report, Croatian companies, disclosure index, voluntary disclosure

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83 Relation of Radar and Hail Parameters in the Continetal Part of Croatia

Authors: Damir Počakal

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Continental part Croatia is exposed, mainly in the summer months, to the frequent occurrence of severe thunderstorms and hail. In the 1960s, aiming to protect and reduce the damage, an operational hail suppression system was introduced in that area. The current protected area is 26800 km2 and has about 580 hail suppression stations (rockets and ground generators) which are managed with 8 radar centres (S-band radars). In order to obtain objective and precise hailstone measurement for different research studies, hailpads were installed on all this stations in 2001. Additionally the dense hailpad network with the dimensions of 20 km x 30 km (1 hailpad per 4 km2), was established in the area with the highest average number of days with hail in Croatia in 2002. This paper presents analysis of relation between radar measured parameters of Cb cells in the time of hail fall with physical parameters of hail (max. diameter, number of hail stones and kinetic energy) measured on hailpads in period 2002 -2014. In addition are compared radar parameters of Cb cells with and without hail on the ground located at the same time over the polygon area.

Keywords: Cb cell, hail, radar, hailpad

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82 Women Entrepreneuship in Croatia: Issues and Policies

Authors: Marko Kolakovic, Mihaela Mikic, Martina Taborin

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Women entrepreneurship is often regarded as the unused economical potential in many countries, including Republic of Croatia. Although women represent a majority in the population, they are still a minority in the field of entrepreneurship and face many challenges in fulfilling their entrepreneurship potential. The reasons are often hided in historical distorted perceptions about value, credibility, competitiveness, responsibility and knowledge which women have, or can have. This is significant for at least two reasons. First, in terms of global economic crisis, the economy needs more quality, more skilled and educated people willing to face entrepreneurial challenges and create new jobs, new opportunities and higher living standards. Second, in the entrepreneurial activity, women finally have a chance to highlight their own abilities, such as knowledge, relentless work, organizational skills, communication and negotiation skills, responsibility, flexibility, etc., in order to insure their economic independence, for a better social position, and to increase confidence and faith in their own abilities. This paper empirically analyses characteristics of women entrepreneurship in Croatia and conducted policies for it improvement. An empirical research was conducted with the goal of discovering real life experiences and attitudes of Croatian women entrepreneurs. Results show that Croatian women entrepreneurs are usually highly educated, have previous work experience and operate in service sector, due to lower need for start-up capital. The biggest obstacle on their entrepreneurial path represents government bureaucracy. Although the number of women entrepreneurs is rising today and the gap between male and women entrepreneurs in Croatia, as well as women entrepreneurship levels lower than the European average, we believe that there is still a long way to reach potential and successful women entrepreneurship development. Research showed that by breaking down the barriers as access to finance, education investments, knowledge, skills and confidence development, women will be able to accomplish more significant and more efficient entrepreneurial outcome.

Keywords: Croatia, policy, SMEs, women entrepreneurial strategy, women entrepreneurship

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81 The Agroclimatic Atlas of Croatia for the Periods 1981–2010 and 1991–2020

Authors: Višnjica Vučetić, Mislav Anić, Jelena Bašić, Petra Sviličić, Ivana Tomašević

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The Agroclimatic Atlas of Croatia (Atlas) for the periods 1981–2010 and 1991–2020 is monograph of six chapters in digital form. Detailed descriptions of particular agroclimatological data are given in separate chapters as follows: agroclimatic indices based on air temperature (degree days, Huglinheliothermal index), soil temperature, water balance components (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture content, runoff, recharge, and soil moisture loss) and fire weather indices. The last chapter is a description of the digital methods for the spatial interpolations (R and GIS). The Atlas comprises textual description of the relevant climate characteristic, maps of the spatial distribution of climatological elements at 109 stations (26 stations for soil temperature), and tables of the 30-year mean monthly, seasonal and annual values of climatological parameters at 24 stations. The Atlas was published in 2021, on the seventieth anniversary of the agrometeorology development at the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia. It is intended to support the improvement of sustainable system of agricultural production and forest protection from fire and as a rich source of information for agronomic and forestry experts, but also for the decision-making bodies to use it for the development of strategic plans.

Keywords: agrometeorology, agroclimatic indices, soil temperature, water balance components, fire weather index, meteorological and hydrological service of croatia

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80 Potential of Croatia as an Attractive Tourist Destination for the Russian Market

Authors: Maja Martinovic, Valentina Zarkovic, Hrvoje Maljak

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Europe is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world, in which tourism occupies a significant place among the most relevant economic activities, and this applies to the Republic of Croatia as well. Based on this study, the authors intended to encourage and support the creation of an effective tourism policy in Croatia that would be based on the profiling of certain target groups. Another objective was to compare the results obtained from the customer analysis with the market analysis of the tourism industry in Croatia. The objective is to adapt the current tourist offer according to the identified needs and expectations of a particular tourist group in order to increase the attractiveness of Croatia as a tourist destination and motivate greater attendance of the targeted tourist groups. The current research was oriented towards the Russian market as the target group. Therefore, the authors wanted to encourage a discussion on how to attract more Russian guests. Consequently, the intention of the research was a detailed analysis of Russian tourists, in order to gain a better understanding of their travelling motives and tendencies. Furthermore, attention was paid to the expectations of Russian customers and to compare them with the Croatian tourist offer, and to determine whether there is a possibility for an overlap. The method used to obtain the information required was a survey conducted among Russian citizens about their travelling habits. The research was carried out on the basis of 166 participants of different age, gender, profession and income group. The sampling and distribution of the survey took place between May and July 2016. The results provided from the research indicate that Croatian tourism has certain unrealized potential considering the popularization of Croatia as a tourist destination, and there is a capacity for increasing the revenues within the group of Russian tourists. Such a conclusion is based on the fact that the Croatian tourist offer and the preferences of the Russian guests are compatible, i.e. they overlap in many aspects. The results demonstrate that beautiful nature, cultural and historical heritage as well as the sun and sea, play a leading role in attracting more Russian tourists. It is precisely these elements that form the three pillars of the Croatian tourist offer. On the other hand, the profiling revealed that the most desirable destinations for the Russian guests are Italy and Spain, both of which provide the same main tourist attractions as Croatia. Therefore, the focus of the strategic ideas given in the paper shifted to other tourism segments, such as type of accommodation, sales channels, travel motives, additional offer and seasonality etc., in order to gain advantage in the Russian market, the Mediterranean region and tourism in general. The purpose of the research is to serve as a foundation for analysing the attractiveness of the other tourist destinations in the Russian market, as well as to be a general basis for a more detailed profiling of the various specific target groups of the Russian and other tourist groups.

Keywords: Croatia, Russian market, target groups, tourism, tourist destination

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79 A View from inside: Case Study of Social Economy Actors in Croatia

Authors: Drazen Simlesa, Jelena Pudjak, Anita Tonkovic Busljeta

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Regarding social economy (SE), Croatia is, on general level, considered as ex-communist country with good tradition, bad performance in second part of 20th Century because of political control in the business sector, which has in transition period (1990-1999) became a problem of ignorance in public administration (policy level). Today, social economy in Croatia is trying to catch up with other EU states on all important levels of SE sector: legislative and institutional framework, financial infrastructure, education and capacity building, and visibility. All four are integral parts of Strategy for the Development of Social Entrepreneurship in the Republic of Croatia for the period of 2015 – 2020. Within iPRESENT project, funded by Croatian Science Foundation, we have mapped social economy actors and after many years there is a clear and up to date social economy base. At the ICSE 2016 we will present main outcomes and results of this process. In the second year of the project we conducted a field research across Croatia carried out 19 focus groups with most influential, innovative and inspirational social economy actors. We divided interview questions in four themes: laws on social economy and public policies, definition/ideology of social economy and cooperation on SE scene, the level of democracy and working conditions, motivation and existence of intrinsic values. The data that are gathered through focus group interviews has been analysed via qualitative data analysis software (Atlas ti.). Major finding that will be presented in ICSA 2016 are: Social economy actors are mostly unsatisfied with legislative and institutional framework in Croatia and consider it as unsupportive and confusing. Social economy actors consider SE to be in the line with WISE model and as a tool for community development. The SE actors that are more active express satisfaction with cooperation amongst SE actors and other partners and stakeholders, but the ones that are in more isolated conditions (spatially) express need for more cooperation and networking. Social economy actors expressed their praise for democratic atmosphere in their organisations and fair working conditions. And finally, they expressed high motivation to continue to work in the social economy and are dedicated to the concept, including even those that were at the beginning interested just in getting a quick job. It means that we can detect intrinsic values for employees in social economy organisations. This research enabled us to describe for the first time in Croatia the view from the inside, attitudes and opinion of employees of social economy organisations.

Keywords: employees, focus groups, mapping, social economy

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78 Material Saving Strategies, Technologies and Effects on Return on Sales

Authors: Jasna Prester, Najla Podrug, Davor Filipović

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Manufacturing companies invest a significant amount of sales into material resources for production. In our sample, 58% of sales is used for manufacturing inputs, while only 24% of sales is used for salaries. This means that if a company is looking to reduce costs, the greater potential is in reduction of material costs than downsizing. This research shows that manufacturing companies in Croatia did realize material savings in last three years. It is also shown by which technologies they achieved materials cost savings. Through literature research, we found research gap as to which technologies reduce material consumption. As methodology of research four regression analyses are used to prove our findings.

Keywords: Croatia, materials savings strategies, technologies, return on sales

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77 Housing Loans Determinants before and during Financial Crisis

Authors: Josip Visković, Ana Rimac Smiljanić, Ines Ivić

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Housing loans play an important role in CEE countries’ economies. This fact is based on their share in total loans to households and their importance for economic activity and growth in CEE countries. Therefore, it is important to find out key determinants of housing loans demand in these countries. The aim of this study is to research and analyze the determinants of the demand for housing loans in Croatia. In this regard, the effect of economic activity, loan terms and real estate prices were analyzed. Also, the aim of this study is to find out what motivates people to take housing loans. Therefore, primarily empirical study was conducted among the Croatian residents. The results show that demand for housing loans is positively affected by economic growth, higher personal income and flexible loan terms, while it is negatively affected by interest rate rise.

Keywords: CEE countries, Croatia, demand determinants, housing loans

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76 Differences in Innovative Orientation of the Entrepreneurially Active Adults: The Case of Croatia

Authors: Nataša Šarlija, Sanja Pfeifer

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This study analyzes the innovative orientation of the Croatian entrepreneurs. Innovative orientation is represented by the perceived extent to which an entrepreneur’s product or service or technology is new, and no other businesses offer the same product. The sample is extracted from the GEM Croatia Adult Population Survey dataset for the years 2003-2013. We apply descriptive statistics, t-test, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Findings indicate that innovative orientations vary with personal, firm, meso and macro level variables, and between different stages in entrepreneurship process. Significant predictors are occupation of the entrepreneurs, size of the firm and export aspiration for both early stage and established entrepreneurs. In addition, fear of failure, expecting to start a new business and seeing an entrepreneurial career as a desirable choice are predictors of innovative orientation among early stage entrepreneurs.

Keywords: multilevel determinants of the innovative orientation, Croatian early stage entrepreneurs, established businesses, GEM evidence

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75 Corporate Female Entrepreneurship, Moving Boundaries

Authors: Morena Paulisic, Marli Gonan Bozac

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Business organization and management in theory are typically presented as gender- neutral. Although in practice female contribution to corporation is not questionable, gender diversity in top management of corporation is and that especially in emerging countries like Croatia. This paper brings insights into obstacles and problems which should be overcome. Furthermore, gives an introspective view on the most important promotion and motivation factors of powerful female CEOs in Croatia. The goal was to clarify perception and performance of female CEOs that contributed to their success and to determine mutual characteristics of women in corporate entrepreneurship regarding the motivation. For our study we used survey instrument that was developed for this research. The research methods used were: table research, field research, generalization method, comparative method, and statistical method (descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chi-square test). Some result showed us that today even more women in corporations are not likely to accept more engagement at work if it harms their families (2003 – 31.9% in 2013 – 33.8%) although their main motivating factor is still interested job (2003 – 95.8%; in 2013-100%). It is also significant that 78.8 % of Croatian top managers (2013) think that women managers in Croatia are insufficiently spoken and written about, and that the reasons for this are that: (1) the society underestimates their ability (37.9%); (2) women underestimate themselves (22.4%); (3) the society still mainly focuses on male managers (20.7%) and (4) women managers avoid interviews and appearing on front pages (19%). The environment still “blocks” the natural course of advancement of women managers in organisations (entrepreneurship in general) and the main obstacle is that women must always or almost always be more capable than men in order to succeed (96.6%). Based on survey results on longitudinal research conducted in 2003 (return rate 30,8%) and 2013 (return rate 29,2%) in Croatia we expand understanding of determination indicators of corporate female entrepreneurship. Theoretically in practice gender structure at the management level (executive management, management board and supervisory board) throw years (2011- 2014) have positive score but still women remain significantly underrepresented at those positions. Findings from different sources have shown that diversity at the top of corporations’ correlates with better performance. In this paper, we have contributed to research on gender in corporate entrepreneurship by offering experiences from successful female CEOs and explanation why in social responsible society women with their characteristics can support needed changes and construct different way forward for corporations. Based on research result we can conclude that in future underrepresentation of female in corporate entrepreneurship should be overcome.

Keywords: Croatia, female entrepreneurship, glass ceiling, motivation

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74 Millennials' Career Expectations: Exploring Attitudes and Individual Differences in Croatia

Authors: Lovorka Galetić, Maja Klindžić, Ivana Načinović Braje

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Generation Y individuals or Millennials are known for their unique views, work values and motivational needs which implies that, in order to attract and retain those individuals, activities in the area of career management should be given special attention by HRM managers. After a theoretical background on Millennials’ life and work attitudes, an empirical research on career preferences of Millennials in Croatia was described. Empirical research was conducted among 249 members of generation Y. The data analysis revealed that respondents generally perceive promotion opportunities as the most important career aspect; however, job security and work-life balance are almost as important. Furthermore, it was shown that Generation Y is not necessarily a homogenous group. More precisely, women assign greater importance than men to work-life balance and job security. Therefore, HRM managers should adapt career planning activities not only with respect to generational preferences, but individual characteristics as well.

Keywords: career, individual differences, millennials, work values

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73 Direct Growth Rates of the Information Model for Traffic at the Service of Sustainable Development of Tourism in Dubrovacko-Neretvanska County 2014-2020

Authors: Vinko Viducic, Jelena Žanic Mikulicic, Maja Racic, Kristina Sladojevic

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The research presented in this paper has been focused on analyzing the impact of traffic on the sustainable development of tourism in Croatia's Dubrovacko-Neretvanska County by the year 2020, based on the figures and trends reported in 2014 and using the relevant variables that characterise the synergy of traffic and tourism in, speaking from the geographic viewpoint, the most problematic county in the Republic of Croatia. The basic hypothesis has been confirmed through scientifically obtained research results, through the quantification of the model's variables and the direct growth rates of the designed model. On the basis of scientific insights into the sustainable development of traffic and tourism in Dubrovacko-Neretvanska County, it is possible to propose a new information model for traffic at the service of the sustainable development of tourism in the County for the period 2014-2020.

Keywords: environment protection, hotel industry, private sector, quantification

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72 Examining How Youth Use Mobile Devices for Health Information: Preliminary Findings of a Survey Study with High School Students in Croatia

Authors: Sung Un Kim, Ivana Martinović, Snježana Stanarević Katavić

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As more and more youth use mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones, for information seeking in their everyday lives, the purpose of this study is to understand the behaviors of youth seeking health information on mobile devices. The specific objective of this study is to examine 1) for what health issues youth use mobile devices, 2) for what reasons youth use mobile devices to obtain health information, 3) in what ways youth use mobile devices for health information, and 4) the features of health applications that youth find useful. The researchers devised a questionnaire for this study. Four hundred eight students from two high schools, located in Osijek, Croatia, participated by answering the questionnaire (281 girls and 127 boys). The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. The results show that among all participants, about 85 percent (n = 344) reported having used mobile devices for health information. The most frequent health topic for which they had been using mobile devices is physical activity (n = 273), followed by eating issues and nutrition (n = 224), mental health (n = 160), sexual health (n = 157), alcohol, drugs, and tobacco (n = 125), safety (n = 96) and particular diseases (n = 62). They use mobile devices to obtain health information due to the ease of use (n = 342), the ease of sharing health information (n = 281), portability (n = 215), timeliness (n = 162), and the ease of tracking/recording/monitoring health status (n = 147). Of those who have used mobile devices for health information, three-quarters (n = 261) use mobile devices to search health information, while 32.8% (n =113) use applications and 31.7% (n =109) browse information. Those who have used applications for health information (n = 113) consider the alert feature (n=107) as the most useful, followed by the tracking/recording/monitoring feature (n =92), the customized information feature (n = 86), the video feature (n = 58), and the sharing feature (n =39). It is notable that although health applications have been actively developed and studied, a majority of the participants search for or browse information on mobile devices, instead of using applications. The researchers will discuss reasons that some of them did not use mobile devices to obtain health information, students’ concerns about using health applications, and features that they wish to have in health applications.

Keywords: Croatia, health information, information seeking behaviors, mobile devices, youth

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71 Encouraging the Creativity of High School Students within the Visual Arts Subject in the Educational System of the Republic of Croatia

Authors: Josipa Alviž, Jasmina Nestić

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The primary and secondary education system of the Republic of Croatia has undergone major reform in recent years, which has resulted in the development of a series of new subject curricula approved by the Ministry of Science and Education in January 2019. In the school year 2019/2020 all subjects began to be taught according to the new curricula, including the Visual Arts subject in grammar school to which this paper is dedicated. Namely, in the Croatian educational system, students are primarily introduced to visual arts through the compulsory primary school subject Visual Culture and the secondary school subject Visual Arts, which is taught as a compulsory in grammar schools and some vocational schools. While in primary school, the emphasis has been given to students' artistic creation and expression, in secondary school, the introduction to art history and theory is dominant. The new subject curriculum for Visual Arts completely reorganized the subject and brought it closer to contemporary educational principles. This document changed the educational paradigm of a subject in which the emphasis has been given to active learning, analytical thinking, the development of critical attitudes, and visual literacy. The paper will present the innovations introduced by the new Visual Arts curriculum, from the educational goals and outcomes of the subject to the shift from a chronological to a thematic approach. The greatest emphasis in the paper will be placed on the opportunities provided by the curriculum in terms of developing student creativity in the field of art in secondary school and on the challenges faced by teachers in this regard as bearers of the educational process. The changes that the curricular reform had on the education of future Visual Arts teachers within the graduate study of the Department of Art History of the University of Zagreb will also be pointed out. The methodology of work that is encouraged within the practical teaching of students and the theoretical preparation for their future vocation that precedes it will be presented. The paper is based on the experience of the authors in the preparation of the mentioned curricular documents as well as on the implementation and innovation of the study program of art history at the University of Zagreb, with the aim of continuous updating. The opportunity to present these significant novelties and innovation of the program at the international conference is of great importance for the exchange of ideas and opening the possibility of further improvement of the educational potentials of learning and teaching visual arts in secondary education in Croatia.

Keywords: croatia, high school subject visual arts, subject curriculum, creativity

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70 Micromorphological Traits and Essential Oil Contents of Valeriana tuberosa L.

Authors: Nada Bezić, Valerija Dunkić, Antonija Markovina, Mirko Rušćić

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Valeriana is a genus of the well-known medicinal plant of Valerianacea family and growing wild in the sub-Mediterranean area. This abstract reports the types and distribution of trichomes and phyto-active composition of the essential oil of the Valeriana tuberosa from mountain Kozjak, near Split, Croatia. Two types of glandular trichomes: peltate (one basal epidermal cell, one short stalk cell and a small head) and capitate trichomes (one basal epidermal cell, one elongated stalk cell) were observed on leaf, using light microscopy. We analyzed the composition of the essential oil of stems and leaves of V. tuberosa species. Water distilled essential oils from aerial parts of investigation plant have been analysed by GC and GC/MS using VF-5ms capillary column. The total yield of oil was 0.2%, based on dry weight of samples. Forty compounds representing 94.1% of the total oil of V. tuberosa. This essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of isovaleric acid (17.2%), geranyl isovalerate (12.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The present study gives additional knowledge about micromorphological traits and secondary metabolites contents on the genus Valeriana.

Keywords: essential oil, isovaleric acid, Valeriana tuberosa, Croatia

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69 Spatial Analysis for Wind Risk Index Assessment

Authors: Ljiljana Seric, Vladimir Divic, Marin Bugaric

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This paper presents methodology for spatial analysis of GIS data that is used for assessing the microlocation risk index from potential damages of high winds. The analysis is performed on freely available GIS data comprising information about wind load, terrain cover and topography of the area. The methodology utilizes the legislation of Eurocode norms for determination of wind load of buildings and constructions. The core of the methodology is adoption of the wind load parameters related to location on geographical spatial grid. Presented work is a part of the Wind Risk Project, supported by the European Commission under the Civil Protection Financial Instrument of the European Union (ECHO). The partners involved in Wind Risk project performed Wind Risk assessment and proposed action plan for three European countries – Slovenia, Croatia and Germany. The proposed method is implemented in GRASS GIS open source GIS software and demonstrated for Case study area of wider area of Split, Croatia. Obtained Wind Risk Index is visualized and correlated with critical infrastructures like buildings, roads and power lines. The results show good correlation between high Wind Risk Index with recent incidents related to wind.

Keywords: Eurocode norms, GIS, spatial analysis, wind distribution, wind risk

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68 Drivers of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction in Camping Tourism: A Case Study from Croatia

Authors: Darko Prebežac, Josip Mikulić, Maja Šerić, Damir Krešić

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Camping tourism is recognized as a growing segment of the broader tourism industry, currently evolving from an inexpensive, temporary sojourn in a rural environment into a highly fragmented niche tourism sector. The trends among public-managed campgrounds seem to be moving away from rustic campgrounds that provide only a tent pad and a fire ring to more developed facilities that offer a range of different amenities, where campers still search for unique experiences that go above the opportunity to experience nature and social interaction. In addition, while camping styles and options changed significantly over the last years, coastal camping in particular became valorized as is it regarded with a heightened sense of nostalgia. Alongside this growing interest in the camping tourism, a demand for quality servicing infrastructure emerged in order to satisfy the wide variety of needs, wants, and expectations of an increasingly demanding traveling public. However, camping activity in general and quality of camping experience and campers’ satisfaction in particular remain an under-researched area of the tourism and consumption behavior literature. In this line, very few studies addressed the issue of quality product/service provision in satisfying nature based tourists and in driving their future behavior with respect to potential re-visitation and recommendation intention. The present study thus aims to investigate the drivers of positive and negative campsite experience using the case of Croatia. Due to the well-preserved nature and indented coastline, camping tourism has a long tradition in Croatia and represents one of the most important and most developed tourism products. During the last decade the number of tourist overnights in Croatian camps has increased by 26% amounting to 16.5 million in 2014. Moreover, according to Eurostat the market share of campsites in the EU is around 14%, indicating that the market share of Croatian campsites is almost double large compared to the EU average. Currently, there are a total of 250 camps in Croatia with approximately 75.8 thousands accommodation units. It is further noteworthy that Croatian camps have higher average occupancy rates and a higher average length of stay as compared to the national average of all types of accommodation. In order to explore the main drivers of positive and negative campsite experiences, this study uses principal components analysis (PCA) and an impact-asymmetry analysis (IAA). Using the PCA, first the main dimensions of the campsite experience are extracted in an exploratory manner. Using the IAA, the extracted factors are investigated for their potentials to create customer delight and/or frustration. The results provide valuable insight to both researchers and practitioners regarding the understanding of campsite satisfaction.

Keywords: Camping tourism, campsite, impact-asymmetry analysis, satisfaction

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67 Residents' Incomes in Local Government Unit as the Major Determinant of Local Budget Transparency in Croatia: Panel Data Analysis

Authors: Katarina Ott, Velibor Mačkić, Mihaela Bronić, Branko Stanić

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The determinants of national budget transparency have been widely discussed in the literature, while research on determinants of local budget transparency are scarce and empirically inconclusive, particularly in the new, fiscally centralised, EU member states. To fill the gap, we combine two strands of the literature: that concerned with public administration and public finance, shedding light on the economic and financial determinants of local budget transparency, and that on the political economy of transparency (principal agent theory), covering the relationships among politicians and between politicians and voters. Our main hypothesis states that variables describing residents’ capacity have a greater impact on local budget transparency than variables indicating the institutional capacity of local government units (LGUs). Additional subhypotheses test the impact of each variable analysed on local budget transparency. We address the determinants of local budget transparency in Croatia, measured by the number of key local budget documents published on the LGUs’ websites. By using a data set of 128 cities and 428 municipalities over the 2015-2017 period and by applying panel data analysis based on Poisson and negative binomial distribution, we test our main hypothesis and sub-hypotheses empirically. We measure different characteristics of institutional and residents’ capacity for each LGU. Age, education and ideology of the mayor/municipality head, political competition indicators, number of employees, current budget revenues and direct debt per capita have been used as a measure of the institutional capacity of LGU. Residents’ capacity in each LGU has been measured through the numbers of citizens and their average age as well as by average income per capita. The most important determinant of local budget transparency is average residents' income per capita at both city and municipality level. The results are in line with most previous research results in fiscally decentralised countries. In the context of a fiscally centralised country with numerous small LGUs, most of whom have low administrative and fiscal capacity, this has a theoretical rationale in the legitimacy and principal-agent theory (opportunistic motives of the incumbent). The result is robust and significant, but because of the various other results that change between city and municipality levels (e.g. ideology and political competition), there is a need for further research (both on identifying other determinates and/or methods of analysis). Since in Croatia the fiscal capacity of a LGU depends heavily on the income of its residents, units with higher per capita incomes in many cases have also higher budget revenues allowing them to engage more employees and resources. In addition, residents’ incomes might be also positively associated with local budget transparency because of higher citizen demand for such transparency. Residents with higher incomes expect more public services and have more access to and experience in using the Internet, and will thus typically demand more budget information on the LGUs’ websites.

Keywords: budget transparency, count data, Croatia, local government, political economy

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66 Social Enterprises over Microfinance Institutions: The Challenges of Governance and Management

Authors: Dean Sinković, Tea Golja, Morena Paulišić

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Upon the end of the vicious war in former Yugoslavia in 1995, international development community widely promoted microfinance as the key development framework to eradicate poverty, create jobs, increase income. Widespread claims were made that microfinance institutions would play vital role in creating a bedrock for sustainable ‘bottom-up’ economic development trajectory, thus, helping newly formed states to find proper way from economic post-war depression. This uplifting neoliberal narrative has no empirical support in the Republic of Croatia. Firstly, the type of enterprises created via microfinance sector are small, unskilled, labor intensive, no technology and with huge debt burden. This results in extremely high failure rates of microenterprises and poor individuals plunging into even deeper poverty, acute indebtedness and social marginalization. Secondly, evidence shows that microcredit is exact reflection of dangerous and destructive sub-prime lending model with ‘boom-to-bust’ scenarios in which benefits are solely extracted by the tiny financial and political elite working around the microfinance sector. We argue that microcredit providers are not proper financial structures through which developing countries should look way out of underdevelopment and poverty. In order to achieve sustainable long-term growth goals, public policy needs to focus on creating, supporting and facilitating the small and mid-size enterprises development. These enterprises should be technically sophisticated, capable of creating new capabilities and innovations, with managerial expertise (skills formation) and inter-connected with other organizations (i.e. clusters, networks, supply chains, etc.). Evidence from South-East Europe suggest that such structures are not created via microfinance model but can be fostered through various forms of social enterprises. Various legal entities may operate as social enterprises: limited liability private company, limited liability public company, cooperative, associations, foundations, institutions, Mutual Insurances and Credit union. Our main hypothesis is that cooperatives are potential agents of social and economic transformation and community development in the region. Financial cooperatives are structures that can foster more efficient allocation of financial resources involving deeper democratic arrangements and more socially just outcomes. In Croatia, pioneers of the first social enterprises were civil society organizations whilst forming a separated legal entity. (i.e. cooperatives, associations, commercial companies working on the principles of returning the investment to the founder). Ever since 1995 cooperatives in Croatia have not grown by pursuing their own internal growth but mostly by relying on external financial support. The greater part of today’s registered cooperatives tend to be agricultural (39%), followed by war veterans cooperatives (38%) and others. There are no financial cooperatives in Croatia. Due to the above mentioned we look at the historical developments and the prevailing social enterprises forms and discuss their advantages and disadvantages as potential agents for social and economic transformation and community development in the region. There is an evident lack of understanding of this business model and of its potential for social and economic development followed by an unfavorable institutional environment. Thus, we discuss the role of governance and management in the formation of social enterprises in Croatia, stressing the challenges for the governance of the country’s social enterprise movement.

Keywords: financial cooperatives, governance and management models, microfinance institutions, social enterprises

Procedia PDF Downloads 207