Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Gordon Nigh

43 Exact Solutions of Discrete Sine-Gordon Equation

Authors: Chao-Qing Dai


Two families of exact travelling solutions for the discrete sine-Gordon equation are constructed based on the variable-coefficient Jacobian elliptic function method and different transformations. When the modulus of Jacobian elliptic function solutions tends to 1, soliton solutions can be obtained. Some soliton solutions degenerate into the known solutions in literatures. Moreover, dynamical properties of exact solutions are investigated. Our analysis and results may have potential values for certain applications in modern nonlinear science and textile engineering.

Keywords: exact solutions, discrete sine-Gordon equation, variable-coefficient Jacobian elliptic function method, dynamical behaviors

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42 1D Klein-Gordon Equation in an Infinite Square Well with PT Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Authors: Suleiman Bashir Adamu, Lawan Sani Taura


We study the role of boundary conditions via -symmetric quantum mechanics, where denotes parity operator and denotes time reversal operator. Using the one-dimensional Schrödinger Hamiltonian for a free particle in an infinite square well, we introduce symmetric boundary conditions. We find solutions of the 1D Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle in an infinite square well with Hermitian boundary and symmetry boundary conditions, where in both cases the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunction, respectively, are obtained.

Keywords: eigenvalues, Eigenfunction, Hamiltonian, Klein- Gordon equation, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

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41 Ideological and Poetological Tensions: Wu Mi’s Enterprise of Imitating and Translating George Gordon Byron

Authors: Hanjin Yan


The English Romantic George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) was widely celebrated by men of letters in early republican China as a Satanic freedom fighter challenging classical poetics and traditional values. However, Wu Mi (1894-1978), the most persistent critic of contemporary iconoclasm, perceived Byron as a paragon of self-righteous poet-exiles who maintained moral integrity and achieved poetic excellence during times of frustration, just like canonized classical Chinese poets. Wu Mi not only composed lengthy imitations of the third canto of Byron’s Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage (1816) but also patronized a rendering of the canto. Taking André Lefevere’s rewriting theory as a framework, this paper explores the interplay of ideology and poetics by examining Wu Mi’s imitations against Byron’s original and its Chinese translation patronized by Wu Mi. Textual analysis shows that Wu Mi’s approach to Byron’s poetry was informed not only by his endeavor to invigorate classical Chinese poetics, but also by his program to preserve China’s cultural traditions and integrate Western new humanism, a theory proposed by his Harvard mentor Irving Babbitt (1865-1933). This study reveals how Byron was appropriated to serve conflicting poetic and ideological purposes in early republican China and suggests that imitation as a type of rewriting merits further attention.

Keywords: Translation, Ideology, Imitation, poetics, George Gordon Byron

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40 The Application of Variable Coefficient Jacobian elliptic Function Method to Differential-Difference Equations

Authors: Chao-Qing Dai


In modern nonlinear science and textile engineering, nonlinear differential-difference equations are often used to describe some nonlinear phenomena. In this paper, we extend the variable coefficient Jacobian elliptic function method, which was used to find new exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations, to nonlinear differential-difference equations. As illustration, we derive two series of Jacobian elliptic function solutions of the discrete sine-Gordon equation.

Keywords: exact solutions, discrete sine-Gordon equation, variable coefficient Jacobian elliptic function method, equation

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39 Historical Tree Height Growth Associated with Climate Change in Western North America

Authors: Yassine Messaoud, Gordon Nigh, Faouzi Messaoud, Han Chen


The effect of climate change on tree growth in boreal and temperate forests has received increased interest in the context of global warming. However, most studies were conducted in small areas and with a limited number of tree species. Here, we examined the height growth responses of seventeen tree species to climate change in Western North America. 37009 stands from forest inventory databases in Canada and USA with varying establishment date were selected. Dominant and co-dominant trees from each stand were sampled to determine top tree height at 50 years breast height age. Height was related to historical mean annual and summer temperatures, annual and summer Palmer Drought Severity Index, tree establishment date, slope, aspect, soil fertility as determined by the rate of carbon organic matter decomposition (carbon/nitrogen), geographic locations (latitude, longitude, and elevation), species range (coastal, interior, and both ranges), shade tolerance and leaf form (needle leaves, deciduous needle leaves, and broadleaves). Climate change had mostly a positive effect on tree height growth. The results explained 62.4% of the height growth variance. Since 1880, height growth increase was greater for coastal, high shade tolerant, and broadleaf species. Height growth increased more on steep slopes and high soil fertility soils. Greater height growth was mostly observed at the leading range and upward. Conversely, some species showed the opposite pattern probably due to the increase of drought (coastal Mediterranean area), precipitation and cloudiness (Alaska and British Columbia) and peculiarity (higher latitudes-lower elevations and vice versa) of western North America topography. This study highlights the role of the species ecological amplitude and traits, and geographic locations as the main factors determining the growth response and its magnitude to the recent global climate change.

Keywords: Global climate change, Height growth, species range, species characteristics, species ecological amplitude, geographic locations, western North America

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38 Visualization of Energy Waves via Airy Functions in Time-Domain

Authors: E. Eroglu, E. Sener, O. Isik, U. Sahin


The main idea is to solve the system of Maxwell’s equations in accordance with the causality principle to get the energy quantities via Airy functions in a hollow rectangular waveguide. We used the evolutionary approach to electromagnetics that is an analytical time-domain method. The boundary-value problem for the system of Maxwell’s equations is reformulated in transverse and longitudinal coordinates. A self-adjoint operator is obtained and the complete set of Eigen vectors of the operator initiates an orthonormal basis of the solution space. Hence, the sought electromagnetic field can be presented in terms of this basis. Within the presentation, the scalar coefficients are governed by Klein-Gordon equation. Ultimately, in this study, time-domain waveguide problem is solved analytically in accordance with the causality principle. Moreover, the graphical results are visualized for the case when the energy and surplus of the energy for the time-domain waveguide modes are represented via airy functions.

Keywords: Maxwell’s equations, airy functions, Klein-Gordon Equation, Surplus of energy, wave boundary operators

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37 Architectural Framework to Preserve Information of Cardiac Valve Control

Authors: Lucia Carrion Gordon, Jaime Santiago Sanchez Reinoso


According to the relation of Digital Preservation and the Health field as a case of study, the architectural model help us to explain that definitions. .The principal goal of Data Preservation is to keep information for a long term. Regarding of Mediacal information, in order to perform a heart transplant, physicians need to preserve this organ in an adequate way. This approach between the two perspectives, the medical and the technological allow checking the similarities about the concepts of preservation. Digital preservation and medical advances are related in the same level as knowledge improvement.

Keywords: Data, Preservation, Digital, heritage, Medical Management

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36 Preservation Model to Process 'La Bomba Del Chota' as a Living Cultural Heritage

Authors: Lucia Carrion Gordon, Maria Gabriela Lopez Yanez


This project focuses on heritage concepts and their importance in every evolving and changing Digital Era where system solutions have to be sustainable, efficient and suitable to the basic needs. The prototype has to cover the principal requirements for the case studies. How to preserve the sociological ideas of dances in Ecuador like ‘La Bomba’ is the best example and challenge to preserve the intangible data. The same idea is applicable with books and music. The History and how to keep it, is the principal mission of Heritage Preservation. The dance of La Bomba is rooted on a specific movement system whose main part is the sideward hip movement. La Bomba´s movement system is the surface manifestation of a whole system of knowledge whose principal characteristics are the historical relation of Chote˜nos with their land and their families.

Keywords: Ontology, Data, Metadata, heritage, Digital Preservation, IT management, serendipity

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35 Optimizing Pick and Place Operations in a Simulated Work Cell for Deformable 3D Objects

Authors: Troels Bo Jørgensen, Preben Hagh Strunge Holm, Henrik Gordon Petersen, Norbert Kruger


This paper presents a simulation framework for using machine learning techniques to determine robust robotic motions for handling deformable objects. The main focus is on applications in the meat sector, which mainly handle three-dimensional objects. In order to optimize the robotic handling, the robot motions have been parameterized in terms of grasp points, robot trajectory and robot speed. The motions are evaluated based on a dynamic simulation environment for robotic control of deformable objects. The evaluation indicates certain parameter setups, which produce robust motions in the simulated environment, and based on a visual analysis indicate satisfactory solutions for a real world system.

Keywords: Simulation, Robotic Manipulation, deformable objects, real world system

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34 Nature as a Human Health Asset: An Extensive Review

Authors: C. Sancho Salvatierra, J. M. Martinez Nieto, R. García Gonzalez-Gordon, M. I. Martinez Bellido


Introduction: Nature could act as an asset for human health protecting against possible diseases and promoting the state of both physical and mental health. Goals: This paper aims to determine which natural elements present evidence that show positive influence on human health, on which particular aspects and how. It also aims to determine the best biomarkers to measure such influence. Method: A systematic literature review was carried out. First, a general free text search was performed in databases, such as Scopus, PubMed or PsychInfo. Secondly, a specific search was performed combining keywords in order of increasing complexity. Also the Snowballing technique was used and it was consulted in the CSIC’s (The Spanish National Research Council). Databases: Of the 130 articles obtained and reviewed, 80 referred to natural elements that influenced health. These 80 articles were classified and tabulated according to the nature elements found, the health aspects studied, the health measurement parameters used and the measurement techniques used. In this classification the results of the studies were codified according to whether they were positive, negative or neutral both for the elements of nature and for the aspects of health studied. Finally, the results of the 80 selected studies were summarized and categorized according to the elements of nature that showed the greatest positive influence on health and the biomarkers that had shown greater reliability to measure said influence. Results: Of the 80 articles studied, 24 (30.0%) were reviews and 56 (70.0%) were original research articles. Among the 24 reviews, 18 (75%) found positive results of natural elements on health, and 6 (25%) both positive and negative effects. Of the 56 original articles, 47 (83.9%) showed positive results, 3 (5.4%) both positive and negative, 4 (7.1%) negative effects, and 2 (3.6%) found no effects. The results reflect positive effects of different elements of nature on the following pathologies: diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, psychotic, anxiety and affective disorders. They also show positive effects on the following areas: immune system, social interaction, recovery after illness, mood, decreased aggressiveness, concentrated attention, cognitive performance, restful sleep, vitality and sense of well-being. Among the elements of nature studied, those that show the greatest positive influence on health are forest immersion, natural views, daylight, outdoor physical activity, active transport, vegetation biodiversity, natural sounds and the green residences. As for the biomarkers used that show greater reliability to measure the effects of natural elements are the levels of cortisol (both in blood and saliva), vitamin D levels, serotonin and melatonin, blood pressure, heart rate, muscle tension and skin conductance. Conclusions: Nature is an asset for health, well-being and quality of life. Awareness programs, education and health promotion are needed based on the elements that nature brings us, which in turn generate proactive attitudes in the population towards the protection and conservation of nature. The studies related to this subject in Spain are very scarce. Aknowledgements. This study has been promoted and partially financed by the Environmental Foundation Jaime González-Gordon.

Keywords: Health, Well-being, Nature, green areas

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33 On Transferring of Transient Signals along Hollow Waveguide

Authors: E. Eroglu, S. Semsit, E. Sener, U.S. Sener


In Electromagnetics, there are three canonical boundary value problem with given initial conditions for the electromagnetic field sought, namely: Cavity Problem, Waveguide Problem, and External Problem. The Cavity Problem and Waveguide Problem were rigorously studied and new results were arised at original works in the past decades. In based on studies of an analytical time domain method Evolutionary Approach to Electromagnetics (EAE), electromagnetic field strength vectors produced by a time dependent source function are sought. The fields are took place in L2 Hilbert space. The source function that performs signal transferring, energy and surplus of energy has been demonstrated with all clarity. Depth of the method and ease of applications are emerged needs of gathering obtained results. Main discussion is about perfect electric conductor and hollow waveguide. Even if well studied time-domain modes problems are mentioned, specifically, the modes which have a hollow (i.e., medium-free) cross-section domain are considered.

Keywords: Dirichlet boundary value problem, evolutionary approach to electromagnetics, time-domain waveguide mode, Neumann problem, Klein-Gordon

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32 Analyzing Boson Star as a Candidate for Dark Galaxy Using ADM Formulation of General Relativity

Authors: Aria Ratmandanu


Boson stars can be viewed as zero temperature ground state, Bose-Einstein condensates, characterized by enormous occupation numbers. Time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime can be a model of Boson Star. We use (3+1) split of Einstein equation (ADM formulation of general relativity) to solve Einstein field equation coupled to a complex scalar field (Einstein-Klein-Gordon Equation) on time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime, We get the result that Boson stars are pulsating stars with the frequency of oscillation equal to its density. We search for interior solution of Boson stars and get the T.O.V. (Tollman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) equation for Boson stars. Using T.O.V. equation, we get the equation of state and the relation between pressure and density, its total mass and along with its gravitational Mass. We found that the hypothetical particle Axion could form a Boson star with the size of a milky way galaxy and make it a candidate for a dark galaxy, (a galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter).

Keywords: axion, boson star, dark galaxy, time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime

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31 Dual Language Immersion Models in Theory and Practice

Authors: S. Gordon


Dual language immersion is growing fast in language teaching today. This study provides an overview and evaluation of the different models of Dual language immersion programs in US K-12 schools. First, the paper provides a brief current literature review on the theory of Dual Language Immersion (DLI) in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) studies. Second, examples of several types of DLI language teaching models in US K-12 public schools are presented (including 50/50 models, 90/10 models, etc.). Third, we focus on the unique example of DLI education in the state of Utah, a successful, growing program in K-12 schools that includes: French, Chinese, Spanish, and Portuguese. The project investigates the theory and practice particularly of the case of public elementary and secondary school children that study half their school day in the L1 and the other half in the chosen L2, from kindergarten (age 5-6) through high school (age 17-18). Finally, the project takes the observations of Utah French DLI elementary through secondary programs as a case study. To conclude, we look at the principal challenges, pedagogical objectives and outcomes, and important implications for other US states and other countries (such as France currently) that are in the process of developing similar language learning programs.

Keywords: Teaching, Language Teaching, pedagogy, French, Second language acquisition, dual language immersion

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30 Effect of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction Parameters on the Moringa oleifera Oil Yield and Formation of Emulsion

Authors: Masni Mat Yusoff, Michael H. Gordon, Keshavan Niranjan


The study reports on the effect of aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) parameters on the Moringa oleifera (MO) oil yield and the formation of emulsion at the end of the process. A mixture of protease and cellulase enzymes was used at 3:1 (w/w) ratio. The highest oil yield of 19% (g oil/g sample) was recovered with the use of a mixture of pH 6, 1:4 material/moisture ratio, and incubation temperature, time, and shaking speed of 50 ⁰C, 12.5 hr, and 300 stroke/min, respectively. The use of pH 6 and 8 resulted in grain emulsions, while solid-intact emulsion was observed at pH 4. Upon fixing certain parameters, higher oil yield was extracted with the use of lower material/moisture ratio and higher shaking speed. Longer incubation time of 24 hr resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) similar oil yield with that of 12.5 hr, and an incubation temperature of 50 ⁰C resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) higher oil yield than that of 60 ⁰C. In overall, each AEE parameter showed significant effects on both the MO oil yields and the emulsions formed. One of the major disadvantages of an AEE process is the formation of emulsions which require further de-emulsification step for higher oil recovery. Therefore, critical studies on the effect of each AEE parameter may assist in minimizing the amount of emulsions formed whilst extracting highest total MO oil yield possible.

Keywords: enzyme, oil yield, Moringa oleifera, emulsion

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29 Mixed Number Algebra and Its Application

Authors: Md. Shah Alam


Mushfiq Ahmad has defined a Mixed Number, which is the sum of a scalar and a Cartesian vector. He has also defined the elementary group operations of Mixed numbers i.e. the norm of Mixed numbers, the product of two Mixed numbers, the identity element and the inverse. It has been observed that Mixed Number is consistent with Pauli matrix algebra and a handy tool to work with Dirac electron theory. Its use as a mathematical method in Physics has been studied. (1) We have applied Mixed number in Quantum Mechanics: Mixed Number version of Displacement operator, Vector differential operator, and Angular momentum operator has been developed. Mixed Number method has also been applied to Klein-Gordon equation. (2) We have applied Mixed number in Electrodynamics: Mixed Number version of Maxwell’s equation, the Electric and Magnetic field quantities and Lorentz Force has been found. (3) An associative transformation of Mixed Number numbers fulfilling Lorentz invariance requirement is developed. (4) We have applied Mixed number algebra as an extension of Complex number. Mixed numbers and the Quaternions have isomorphic correspondence, but they are different in algebraic details. The multiplication of unit Mixed number and the multiplication of unit Quaternions are different. Since Mixed Number has properties similar to those of Pauli matrix algebra, Mixed Number algebra is a more convenient tool to deal with Dirac equation.

Keywords: Quantum Mechanics, Electrodynamics, special relativity, mixed number, pauli matrix

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28 The Experience of Applying Multi-Sensory Stimulation ICU for Arousing a Patient with Traumatic Brain Injury in Intensive Care

Authors: Hsiao-Wen Tsai


Motor vehicle accident is the first cause of head injury in the world; severe head injury cases may cause conscious disturbance and death. This is a report about a case of a young adult patient suffering from motor vehicle accident leading to severe head injury who passed through three time surgical procedures, and his mother (who is the informal caregiver). This case was followed from 28th January to 15th February 2011 by using Gordon’s 11 functional health patterns. Patient’s cognitive-perceptual and self-perception-self-concept patterns were altered. Anxiety was also noted on his informal caregiver due to patients’ condition. During the intensive care period, maintaining patient’s vital signs and cerebral perfusion pressure were essential to avoid secondary neuronal injury. Multi-sensory stimulation, caring accompanying, supporting, listening and encouraging patient’s family involved in patient care were very important to reduce informal caregiver anxiety. Finally, the patient consciousness improved from GCS 4 to GCS 11 before discharging from ICU. Patient’s primary informal caregiver, his mother, also showed anxiety improvement. This is was successful case with traumatic brain injury recovered from coma.

Keywords: Anxiety, traumatic brain injury, multi-sensory stimulation, reduce intracranial adaptive capacity

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27 Microfinance for the Marginalised: The Impact of the Rojiroti Approach in India

Authors: John Best, Gil Yaron, Rebecca Gordon, Sunil Choudhary


There have been a number of studies examining the impact of microfinance; however, the magnitude of impact varies across regions, and there has been mixed evidence due to the differences in the nature of interventions, context and the way in which microfinance is implemented. The Rojiroti approach to microfinance involves the creation of women's self-help groups (SHGs), rotated loans from savings and subsequent credit from a Bihar-based NGO. Rojiroti serves customers who are significantly poorer and more marginalised than those typically served by microfinance in India. In the data analysed, more than 90 percent of members are from scheduled caste and tribes (62 percent) or other disadvantaged castes. This paper analyses the impact of Rojiroti microfinance using panel data on 740 new SHG members and 340 women in matched control sites at baseline and after 18 months. We consider changes in assets, children's education, women's mobility and domestic violence among other indicators. These results show significant gains for Rojiroti borrowers relative to control sites for important, but not all, variables. Comparison with more longstanding SHGs (at least 36 months) helps to explain how the borrowing patterns of poor and marginalised SHG members evolve. The context of this intervention is also important; in this case, innovative microfinance is provided too much poorer and marginalised women than is typically the case, and so the results seen are in contrast to numerous studies that show little or no effect of microfinance on the lives of their clients.

Keywords: Gender, Microfinance, Impact, pro-poor

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26 Autonomous Kuka Youbot Navigation Based on Machine Learning and Path Planning

Authors: Carlos Gordon, Patricio Encalada, Henry Lema, Diego Leon, Dennis Chicaiza


The following work presents a proposal of autonomous navigation of mobile robots implemented in an omnidirectional robot Kuka Youbot. We have been able to perform the integration of robotic operative system (ROS) and machine learning algorithms. ROS mainly provides two distributions; ROS hydro and ROS Kinect. ROS hydro allows managing the nodes of odometry, kinematics, and path planning with statistical and probabilistic, global and local algorithms based on Adaptive Monte Carlo Localization (AMCL) and Dijkstra. Meanwhile, ROS Kinect is responsible for the detection block of dynamic objects which can be in the points of the planned trajectory obstructing the path of Kuka Youbot. The detection is managed by artificial vision module under a trained neural network based on the single shot multibox detector system (SSD), where the main dynamic objects for detection are human beings and domestic animals among other objects. When the objects are detected, the system modifies the trajectory or wait for the decision of the dynamic obstacle. Finally, the obstacles are skipped from the planned trajectory, and the Kuka Youbot can reach its goal thanks to the machine learning algorithms.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Path Planning, autonomous navigation, robotic operative system, open source computer vision library

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25 Integral Form Solutions of the Linearized Navier-Stokes Equations without Deviatoric Stress Tensor Term in the Forward Modeling for FWI

Authors: Anyeres N. Atehortua Jimenez, J. David Lambraño, Juan Carlos Muñoz


Navier-Stokes equations (NSE), which describe the dynamics of a fluid, have an important application on modeling waves used for data inversion techniques as full waveform inversion (FWI). In this work a linearized version of NSE and its variables, neglecting deviatoric terms of stress tensor, is presented. In order to get a theoretical modeling of pressure p(x,t) and wave velocity profile c(x,t), a wave equation of visco-acoustic medium (VAE) is written. A change of variables p(x,t)=q(x,t)h(ρ), is made on the equation for the VAE leading to a well known Klein-Gordon equation (KGE) describing waves propagating in variable density medium (ρ) with dispersive term α^2(x). KGE is reduced to a Poisson equation and solved by proposing a specific function for α^2(x) accounting for the energy dissipation and dispersion. Finally, an integral form solution is derived for p(x,t), c(x,t) and kinematics variables like particle velocity v(x,t), displacement u(x,t) and bulk modulus function k_b(x,t). Further, it is compared this visco-acoustic formulation with another form broadly used in the geophysics; it is argued that this formalism is more general and, given its integral form, it may offer several advantages from the modern parallel computing point of view. Applications to minimize the errors in modeling for FWI applied to oils resources in geophysics are discussed.

Keywords: Modeling, Navier-Stokes equations, visco-acoustic, inversion FWI

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24 Comparison of Quality Indices for Sediment Assessment in Ireland

Authors: James Wilson, Tayyaba Bibi, Jenny Ronan, Robert Hernan, Kathleen O’Rourke, Brendan McHugh, Evin McGovern, Michelle Giltrap, Gordon Chambers


Sediment contamination is a major source of ecosystem stress and has received significant attention from the scientific community. Both the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) require a robust set of tools for biological and chemical monitoring. For the MSFD in particular, causal links between contaminant and effects need to be assessed. Appropriate assessment tools are required in order to make an accurate evaluation. In this study, a range of recommended sediment bioassays and chemical measurements are assessed in a number of potentially impacted and lowly impacted locations around Ireland. Previously, assessment indices have been developed on individual compartments, i.e. contaminant levels or biomarker/bioassay responses. A number of assessment indices are applied to chemical and ecotoxicological data from the Seachange project (Project code) and compared including the metal pollution index (MPI), pollution load index (PLI) and Chapman index for chemistry as well as integrated biomarker response (IBR). The benefits and drawbacks of the use of indices and aggregation techniques are discussed. In addition to this, modelling of raw data is investigated to analyse links between contaminant and effects.

Keywords: Marine Environment, Ecotoxicity, Sediments, contamination indices, bioassays

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23 Technology and Educational Gaps: A Literature Review on the Proportionate Infusion of Technology into Education

Authors: Tamika Gordon


As technology continues to progress every second, educational institutions attempt to stay abreast of the latest developments through the acquisition of technological devices. Within schools, soft and hard technologies have assisted with reaching more students and expedient communication. As schools continue to grow, the need for simultaneous communication and efficient feedback has grown, and technology has allowed for these avenues to be explored and incorporated within a variety of daily operations. With the rapid inclusion of technology comes the potential for less face-to-face interactions among stakeholders. Although technology plays an integral role in education, the elements of both soft and hard technological devices must be proportionally utilized and coexist for the overall advancement and longevity of organizations. Over 20 articles were referenced to obtain a multitude of views on technology reflecting effects for students and teachers. Throughout this literature review, the effects of technology in the workplace will be discussed including views of current researchers, pros and cons surrounding technological inclusion, and implications for future research and further consideration. Upon the completion of the literature review, the benefits and necessity of technology remained high, however, low availability of resources, limited exposure to technological devices, and decreasing soft skills remained high as well. Recommendations are made for proportionate balances of technology and face-to-face interactions in order to minimize societal, educational, and organizational gaps.

Keywords: Education, Communication, Devices, Technology, Organizations

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22 A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Meditation Awareness Training (Mat) on Work-Related Stress and Job Performance

Authors: Edo Shonin, William Van Gordon, Mark D. Griffiths


Due to its potential to concurrently improve Work-Related Wellbeing (WRW) and job performance; occupational stakeholders are becoming increasingly interested in meditation. Despite this, there is a scarcity of methodologically robust research examining the utility of meditation within occupational contexts. This study conducted the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of meditation on outcomes relating to both WRW and job performance. Office-based middle-hierarchy managers (n=152) were allocated to either an eight-week meditation intervention (Meditation Awareness Training: MAT) or an active control intervention. MAT participants demonstrated significant improvements (with strong effect-sizes) over control-group participants in levels of work-related stress, job satisfaction, psychological distress, and employer-rated job performance. It is concluded that MAT appears to be effective for improving both WRW and job performance in middle-hierarchy managers. There are a number of novel implications: (i) meditation can effectuate a perceptual shift in how employees experience their work and psychological environment and may thus constitute a cost-effective WRW intervention, (ii) meditation-based (i.e., present-moment-focused) working styles may be more effective than goal-based (i.e., future-orientated) working styles, and (iii) meditation may reduce the separation made by employees between their own interests and those of the organizations they work for.

Keywords: Mindfulness, Occupational Stress, Job Performance, Work-Related Stress, workplace wellbeing, meditation awareness training

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21 Caring for a Spinal Cord Injury Patient with Diabetic Nephropathy Receiving Hospice Palliative Care

Authors: Li-Ting Kung, Hui-Zhu Chen, Hsin-Tzu Lee, Wan-Yin Hsu


Patients with spinal cord injury combined with diabetic nephropathy may under a lot of painful conditions due to complications related to the illness itself or treatments, such as recurrent pressure ulcers, autonomic and peripheral neuropathy, as well as dialysis, for long term. This case report illustrated the nursing experience of transferring a spine cord injure patient who received hemodialysis due to adverse lifestyle-induced diabetic nephropathy to the hospice ward. Nursing care was provided in this patient from July 25th to August 30th, 2015. The tool of 'Gordon’s 11-item functional health assessment' and clinical observation, interviews as well as physical examination were used as data collections. Based on results of health assessment as above, the patient’s health problems were identified as the following: impaired skin integrity, chronic pain, and hopeless. Besides to relieve the symptom of pain due to disease or the treatment of hemodialysis and provide wound care, the first author also played a role to assist the patient to achieve his goal of receiving the hospice palliative care. Finally, with much effort of nurses to communicate with medical teams between the surgical and hospice wards, the patient was transferred to the hospice ward to have fulfilled his last wish of having a good death. We hope this nursing experience can be applied to other similar cases in the future.

Keywords: palliative care, Spinal Cord Injury, Diabetic Nephropathy, hospice care

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20 Predicting High-Risk Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinomas Using Protein Markers

Authors: Gordon B. Mills, Yuexin Liu, Russell R. Broaddus, John N. Weinstein


The lethality of endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) is primarily attributable to the high-stage diseases. However, there are no available biomarkers that predict EEC patient staging at the time of diagnosis. We aim to develop a predictive scheme to help in this regards. Using reverse-phase protein array expression profiles for 210 EEC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we constructed a Protein Scoring of EEC Staging (PSES) scheme for surgical stage prediction. We validated and evaluated its diagnostic potential in an independent cohort of 184 EEC cases obtained at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to examine the association of PSES score with patient outcome, and Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to identify relevant signaling pathways. Two-sided statistical tests were used. PSES robustly distinguished high- from low-stage tumors in the TCGA cohort (area under the ROC curve [AUC]=0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 0.82) and in the validation cohort (AUC=0.67; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76). Even among grade 1 or 2 tumors, PSES was significantly higher in high- than in low-stage tumors in both the TCGA (P = 0.005) and MDACC (P = 0.006) cohorts. Patients with positive PSES score had significantly shorter progression-free survival than those with negative PSES in the TCGA (hazard ratio [HR], 2.033; 95% CI, 1.031 to 3.809; P = 0.04) and validation (HR, 3.306; 95% CI, 1.836 to 9.436; P = 0.0007) cohorts. The ErbB signaling pathway was most significantly enriched in the PSES proteins and downregulated in high-stage tumors. PSES may provide clinically useful prediction of high-risk tumors and offer new insights into tumor biology in EEC.

Keywords: Protein, Endometrial carcinoma, stage, protein scoring of EEC staging (PSES)

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19 Investigations into the Efficiencies of Steam Conversion in Three Reactor Chemical Looping

Authors: Ratnakumar V. Kappagantula, Gordon D. Ingram, Hari B. Vuthaluru


This paper analyzes a three reactor chemical looping process for hydrogen production from natural gas, allowing for carbon dioxide capture through chemical looping technology. An oxygen carrier is circulated to separate carbon dioxide, to reduce steam for hydrogen production and to supply oxygen for combustion. In this study, the emphasis is placed on the steam conversion in the steam reactor by investigating the hydrogen efficiencies of the complete system at steam conversions of 15.8% and 50%. An Aspen Plus model was developed for a Three Reactor Chemical Looping process to study the effects of operational parameters on hydrogen production is investigated. Maximum hydrogen production was observed under stoichiometric conditions. Different conversions in the steam reactor, which was modelled as a Gibbs reactor, were found when Gibbs-identified products and user identified products were chosen. Simulations were performed for different oxygen carriers, which consist of an active metal oxide on an inert support material. For the same metal oxide mass flowrate, the fuel reactor temperature decreased for different support materials in the order: aluminum oxide (Al2O3) > magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) > zirconia (ZrO2). To achieve the same fuel reactor temperature for the same oxide mass flow rate, the inert mass fraction was found to be 0.825 for ZrO2, 0.7 for MgAl2O4 and 0.6 for Al2O3. The effect of poisoning of the oxygen carrier was also analyzed. With 3000 ppm sulfur-based impurities in the feed gas, the hydrogen product energy rate of the process were found to decrease by 0.4%.

Keywords: aspen plus, oxygen carrier, chemical looping combustion, inert support balls

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18 An Experimental Approach to the Influence of Tipping Points and Scientific Uncertainties in the Success of International Fisheries Management

Authors: Jules Selles


The Atlantic and Mediterranean bluefin tuna fishery have been considered as the archetype of an overfished and mismanaged fishery. This crisis has demonstrated the role of public awareness and the importance of the interactions between science and management about scientific uncertainties. This work aims at investigating the policy making process associated with a regional fisheries management organization. We propose a contextualized computer-based experimental approach, in order to explore the effects of key factors on the cooperation process in a complex straddling stock management setting. Namely, we analyze the effects of the introduction of a socio-economic tipping point and the uncertainty surrounding the estimation of the resource level. Our approach is based on a Gordon-Schaefer bio-economic model which explicitly represents the decision making process. Each participant plays the role of a stakeholder of ICCAT and represents a coalition of fishing nations involved in the fishery and decide unilaterally a harvest policy for the coming year. The context of the experiment induces the incentives for exploitation and collaboration to achieve common sustainable harvest plans at the Atlantic bluefin tuna stock scale. Our rigorous framework allows testing how stakeholders who plan the exploitation of a fish stock (a common pool resource) respond to two kinds of effects: i) the inclusion of a drastic shift in the management constraints (beyond a socio-economic tipping point) and ii) an increasing uncertainty in the scientific estimation of the resource level.

Keywords: Game theory, Fisheries Management, Policy making, economic experiment, Atlantic Bluefin tuna

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17 Field Theories in Chiral Liquid Crystals: A Theory for Helicoids and Skyrmions

Authors: G. De Matteis, L. Martina, V. Turco


The work is focused on determining and comparing special nonlinear static configurations in cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs), confined between two parallel plates and in the presence of an external static electric/magnetic field. The solutions are stabilised by topological and non-topological conservation laws since they are described in terms of integrable or partially integrable nonlinear boundary value problems. In cholesteric liquid crystals which are subject to geometric frustration; anchoring conditions at boundaries, i.e., homeotropic conditions, are incompatible with the cholesteric twist. This aspect turns out to be essential in the admissible classes of solutions, allowing also for disclination type singularities. Within the framework of Frank-Oseen theory, we study the static configurations for CLCs. First, we find numerical solutions for isolated axisymmetric states in confined CLCs with weak homeotropic anchoring at the boundaries. These solutions describe 3-dimensional modulations, namely spherulites or cholesteric bubbles, actually observed in these systems, of standard baby skyrmions. Relations with well-known nonlinear integrable systems are found and are used to explore the asymptotic behavior of the solutions. Then we turn our attention to extended periodic static configurations called Helicoids or cholesteric fingers, described by an elliptic sine-Gordon model with appropriate boundary conditions, showing how their period and energies are determined by both the thickness of the cell and the intensity of the external electric/magnetic field. We explicitly show that helicoids with π or 2π of rotations of the molecular director are different in many aspects and are not simply algebraically related. The behaviour of the solutions, their energy and the properties of the associated disclinations are discussed in detail, both analytically and numerically.

Keywords: cholesteric liquid crystals, geometric frustration, helicoids, skyrmions

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16 Using Multi-Specialist Team to Care for a Breast Cancer Patient Who Received Total Mastectomy during Pregnancy

Authors: Hui-Zhu Chen, Pi-Fen Cheng, Heng-Hua Wang, Yun-Tsuen Chen, Shih-Ting Huang


This paper discusses the experience of caring for a patient diagnosed with breast cancer and later received total mastectomy during a 2nd trimester pregnancy. She was hospitalized from January 31 to February 4, 2018. Using 'Gordon’s 11 Functional Health Patterns' through physical exams and interviews, the researcher assessed the patient’s physical and mental health and determined the patient to have anxiety, acute pain, and body image disturbance. After establishing a strong relationship with the patient, the researcher helped the patient express her anxiety and personal feelings. A multi-specialist team was formed to evaluate both the patient and her unborn child, before, during, and after surgery. This individualized care allowed the patient and her child to optimize the post-operative results. Aside from medication, the patient also received non-medicinal treatment, including improvement of sleep quality with body positioning, diaphragmatic breathing exercises for pain and stress relief after surgery. Throughout hospitalization, the patient’s physical and emotional needs were addressed daily with listening sessions and empathy. The patient’s husband was also incorporated in the patient’s recovery by teaching both he and the patient how to change the sterile wound dressing, which may have the added benefit of improving marital relationships through shared activities of nurturing. The patient was also given advice about how to improve self-confidence through clothing. Lastly, the patient was encouraged to join a support group for breast cancer patients. Through the sharing of experience in groups and within the family, the patient was helped to adapt to the change of her appearance and re-establish her self-confidence. This level of care expedited the patient’s return to her family life and role of being a mother.

Keywords: Anxiety, Breast Cancer during Pregnancy, body image disturbance, multi-specialist team

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15 Development of a Robust Protein Classifier to Predict EMT Status of Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Endocervical Adenocarcinoma (CESC) Tumors

Authors: Yiling Lu, ZhenlinJu, Christopher P. Vellano, RehanAkbani, Gordon B. Mills


The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal characteristics, such as profound disruption of cell-cell junctions, loss of apical-basolateral polarity, and extensive reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton to induce cell motility and invasion. A hallmark of EMT is its capacity to promote metastasis, which is due in part to activation of several transcription factors and subsequent downregulation of E-cadherin. Unfortunately, current approaches have yet to uncover robust protein marker sets that can classify tumors as possessing strong EMT signatures. In this study, we utilize reverse phase protein array (RPPA) data and consensus clustering methods to successfully classify a subset of cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma (CESC) tumors into an EMT protein signaling group (EMT group). The overall survival (OS) of patients in the EMT group is significantly worse than those in the other Hormone and PI3K/AKT signaling groups. In addition to a shrinkage and selection method for linear regression (LASSO), we applied training/test set and Monte Carlo resampling approaches to identify a set of protein markers that predicts the EMT status of CESC tumors. We fit a logistic model to these protein markers and developed a classifier, which was fixed in the training set and validated in the testing set. The classifier robustly predicted the EMT status of the testing set with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.975 by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. This method not only identifies a core set of proteins underlying an EMT signature in cervical cancer patients, but also provides a tool to examine protein predictors that drive molecular subtypes in other diseases.

Keywords: consensus clustering, TCGA CESC, Silhouette, Monte Carlo LASSO

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14 Twist2 Is a Key Regulator of Cell Proliferation in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

Authors: Magdalena Rusady Goey, Gordon Strathdee, Neil Perkins


Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most frequent type of childhood malignancy, accounting for 25% of all cases. TWIST2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, has been implicated in ALL development. Prior studies found that TWIST2 undergoes epigenetic silencing in more than 50% cases of ALL through promoter hypermethylation and suggested that re-expression of TWIST2 may inhibit cell growth/survival of leukaemia cell lines. TWIST2 has also been implicated as a regulator of NF-kappaB activity, which is constitutively active in leukaemia. Here, we use a lentiviral transductions system to confirm the importance of TWIST2 in controlling leukaemia cell growth and to investigate whether this is achieved through altered regulation of NF-kappaB activity. Method: Re-expression of TWIST2 in leukaemia cell lines was achieved using lentiviral-based transduction. The lentiviral vector also expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), allowing transduced cells to be tracked using flow cytometry. Analysis of apoptosis and cell proliferation were done using annexinV and VPD450 staining, respectively. Result and Discussion: TWIST2-expressing cells were rapidly depleted from a mixed population in ALL cell lines (NALM6 and Reh), indicating that TWIST2 inhibited cell growth/survival of ALL cells. In contrast, myeloid cell lines (HL60 and K562) were comparatively insensitive to TWIST2 re-expression. Analysis of apoptosis and cell proliferation found no significant induction of apoptosis, but did find a rapid induction of proliferation arrest in TWIST2-expressing Reh and NALM6 cells. Initial experiment with NF-kappaB inhibitor demonstrated that inhibition of NF-kappaB has similar impact on cell proliferation in the ALL cell lines, suggesting that TWITST2 may induce cell proliferation arrest through inhibition of NF-kappaB. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that epigenetic inactivation of TWIST2 in primary ALL leads to increased proliferation, potentially by altering the regulation of NF-kappaB.

Keywords: Leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, NF-kappaB, TWIST2, lentivirus

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