Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: droughts

55 Major Mechanisms of Atmospheric Moisture Transport and Their Role in Precipitation Extreme Events in the Amazonia

Authors: Luis Gimeno, Rosmeri da Rocha, Raquel Nieto, Tercio Ambrizzi, Alex Ramos, Anita Drumond

Abstract:

The transport of moisture from oceanic sources to the continents represents the atmospheric branch of the water cycle, forming the connection between evaporation from the ocean and precipitation over the continents. In this regard two large scale dynamical/meteorological structures appear to play a key role, namely Low Level Jet (LLJ) systems and Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The former are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions; the latter is mostly confined to extratropical regions. A key question relates to the anomalies in the transport of moisture observed during natural hazards related to extremes of precipitation (i.e., drought or wet spells). In this study we will be focused on these two major atmospheric moisture transport mechanisms (LLJs and ARs) and its role in precipitation extreme events (droughts and wet spells) in the Amazonia paying particular attention to i) intensification (decreasing) of moisture transport by them and its role in wet spells (droughts), and ii) changes in their positions and occurrence with associated flooding and wet spells.

Keywords: droughts, wet spells, amazonia, LLJs, atmospheric rivers

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54 Multi-Indicator Evaluation of Agricultural Drought Trends in Ethiopia: Implications for Dry Land Agriculture and Food Security

Authors: Dawd Ahmed, Venkatesh Uddameri

Abstract:

Agriculture in Ethiopia is the main economic sector influenced by agricultural drought. A simultaneous assessment of drought trends using multiple drought indicators is useful for drought planning and management. Intra-season and seasonal drought trends in Ethiopia were studied using a suite of drought indicators. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and Z-index for long-rainy, dry, and short-rainy seasons are used to identify drought-causing mechanisms. The Statistical software package R version 3.5.2 was used for data extraction and data analyses. Trend analysis indicated shifts in late-season long-rainy season precipitation into dry in the southwest and south-central portions of Ethiopia. Droughts during the dry season (October–January) were largely temperature controlled. Short-term temperature-controlled hydrologic processes exacerbated rainfall deficits during the short rainy season (February–May) and highlight the importance of temperature- and hydrology-induced soil dryness on the production of short-season crops such as tef. Droughts during the long-rainy season (June–September) were largely driven by precipitation declines arising from the narrowing of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Increased dryness during long-rainy season had severe consequences on the production of corn and sorghum. PDSI was an aggressive indicator of seasonal droughts suggesting the low natural resilience to combat the effects of slow-acting, moisture-depleting hydrologic processes. The lack of irrigation systems in the nation limits the ability to combat droughts and improve agricultural resilience. There is an urgent need to monitor soil moisture (a key agro-hydrologic variable) to better quantify the impacts of meteorological droughts on agricultural systems in Ethiopia.

Keywords: autocorrelation, climate change, droughts, Ethiopia, food security, palmer z-index, PDSI, SPEI, SPI, trend analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
53 Critical Appraisal of Different Drought Indices of Drought Predection and Their Application in KBK Districts of Odisha

Authors: Bibhuti Bhusan Sahoo, Ramakar Jha

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Mapping of the extreme events (droughts) is one of the adaptation strategies to consequences of increasing climatic inconsistency and climate alterations. There is no operational practice to forecast the drought. One of the suggestions is to update mapping of drought prone areas for developmental planning. Drought indices play a significant role in drought mitigation. Many scientists have worked on different statistical analysis in drought and other climatological hazards. Many researchers have studied droughts individually for different sub-divisions or for India. Very few workers have studied district wise probabilities over large scale. In the present study, district wise drought probabilities over KBK (Kalahandi-Balangir-Koraput) districts of Odisha, India, Which are seriously prone to droughts, has been established using Hydrological drought index and Meteorological drought index along with the remote sensing drought indices to develop a multidirectional approach in the field of drought mitigation. Mapping for moderate and severe drought probabilities for KBK districts has been done and regions belonging different class intervals of probabilities of drought have been demarcated. Such type of information would be a good tool for planning purposes, for input in modelling and better promising results can be achieved.

Keywords: drought indices, KBK districts, proposed drought severity index, SPI

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52 Analysis and Quantification of Historical Drought for Basin Wide Drought Preparedness

Authors: Joo-Heon Lee, Ho-Won Jang, Hyung-Won Cho, Tae-Woong Kim

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Drought is a recurrent climatic feature that occurs in virtually every climatic zone around the world. Korea experiences the drought almost every year at the regional scale mainly during in the winter and spring seasons. Moreover, extremely severe droughts at a national scale also occurred at a frequency of six to seven years. Various drought indices had developed as tools to quantitatively monitor different types of droughts and are utilized in the field of drought analysis. Since drought is closely related with climatological and topographic characteristics of the drought prone areas, the basins where droughts are frequently occurred need separate drought preparedness and contingency plans. In this study, an analysis using statistical methods was carried out for the historical droughts occurred in the five major river basins in Korea so that drought characteristics can be quantitatively investigated. It was also aimed to provide information with which differentiated and customized drought preparedness plans can be established based on the basin level analysis results. Conventional methods which quantifies drought execute an evaluation by applying a various drought indices. However, the evaluation results for same drought event are different according to different analysis technique. Especially, evaluation of drought event differs depend on how we view the severity or duration of drought in the evaluation process. Therefore, it was intended to draw a drought history for the most severely affected five major river basins of Korea by investigating a magnitude of drought that can simultaneously consider severity, duration, and the damaged areas by applying drought run theory with the use of SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) that can efficiently quantifies meteorological drought. Further, quantitative analysis for the historical extreme drought at various viewpoints such as average severity, duration, and magnitude of drought was attempted. At the same time, it was intended to quantitatively analyze the historical drought events by estimating the return period by derived SDF (severity-duration-frequency) curve for the five major river basins through parametric regional drought frequency analysis. Analysis results showed that the extremely severe drought years were in the years of 1962, 1988, 1994, and 2014 in the Han River basin. While, the extreme droughts were occurred in 1982 and 1988 in the Nakdong river basin, 1994 in the Geumg basin, 1988 and 1994 in Youngsan river basin, 1988, 1994, 1995, and 2000 in the Seomjin river basin. While, the extremely severe drought years at national level in the Korean Peninsula were occurred in 1988 and 1994. The most damaged drought were in 1981~1982 and 1994~1995 which lasted for longer than two years. The return period of the most severe drought at each river basin was turned out to be at a frequency of 50~100 years.

Keywords: drought magnitude, regional frequency analysis, SPI, SDF(severity-duration-frequency) curve

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51 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Drought in Cholistan Region, Pakistan: An Application of Standardized Precipitation Index

Authors: Qurratulain Safdar

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Drought is a temporary aberration in contrast to aridity, as it is a permanent feature of climate. Virtually, it takes place in all types of climatic regions that range from high to low rainfall areas. Due to the wide latitudinal extent of Pakistan, there is seasonal and annual variability in rainfall. The south-central part of the country is arid and hyper-arid. This study focuses on the spatio-temporal analysis of droughts in arid and hyperarid region of Cholistan using the standardized precipitation index (SPI) approach. This study has assessed the extent of recurrences of drought and its temporal vulnerability to drought in Cholistan region. Initially, the paper described the geographic setup of the study area along with a brief description of the drought conditions that prevail in Pakistan. The study also provides a scientific foundation for preparing literature and theoretical framework in-line with the selected parameters and indicators. Data were collected both from primary and secondary data sources. Rainfall and temperature data were obtained from Pakistan Meteorology Department. By applying geostatistical approach, a standardized precipitation index (SPI) was calculated for the study region, and the value of spatio-temporal variability of drought and its severity was explored. As a result, in-depth spatial analysis of drought conditions in Cholistan area was found. Parallel to this, drought-prone areas with seasonal variation were also identified using Kriging spatial interpolation techniques in a GIS environment. The study revealed that there is temporal variation in droughts' occurrences both in time series and SPI values. The paper is finally concluded, and strategic plan was suggested to minimize the impacts of drought.

Keywords: Cholistan desert, climate anomalies, metrological droughts, standardized precipitation index

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
50 Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) through Harvesting Encosternum delegorguei Insect (Harurwa) in Nerumedzo, Bikita District, Zimbabwe

Authors: Mkhokheli Sithole, Brenda N. Muchapondwa

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Food security is becoming a critical issue for people residing mainly in the rural areas where frequent droughts interrupt food production, reduce income, compromise the ability to save and erode livelihoods. This tends to increase the vulnerability of poor households to food and income insecurity, hence, malnutrition. There is an emerging need for DRR strategies to complement the existing rain fed crop production based livelihoods. One of such strategies employed by the community of Nerumedzo in Bikita district is the harvesting of Encosternum delegorguei insect. This article analyses the livelihood impacts of Encosternum delegorguei insect as a DRR strategy. The research used a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The insect samples were tested in the laboratory for their nutritional composition while surveys were done on a sample of 40 community members. Participatory observations and 5 focus group discussions were also done. The results revealed that harvesting the Encosternum delegorguei insects provides a livelihood for the locals by complementing crop production thereby mitigating potential negative effects of frequent droughts. The insects are now a significant source of income to poor households in the community.

Keywords: disaster risk reduction, livelihoods, human, social sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
49 Statistical Analysis of Rainfall Change over the Blue Nile Basin

Authors: Hany Mustafa, Mahmoud Roushdi, Khaled Kheireldin

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Rainfall variability is an important feature of semi-arid climates. Climate change is very likely to increase the frequency, magnitude, and variability of extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, and storms. The Blue Nile Basin is facing extreme climate change-related events such as floods and droughts and its possible impacts on ecosystem, livelihood, agriculture, livestock, and biodiversity are expected. Rainfall variability is a threat to food production in the Blue Nile Basin countries. This study investigates the long-term variations and trends of seasonal and annual precipitation over the Blue Nile Basin for 102-year period (1901-2002). Six statistical trend analysis of precipitation was performed with nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator. On the other hands, four statistical absolute homogeneity tests: Standard Normal Homogeneity Test, Buishand Range test, Pettitt test and the Von Neumann ratio test were applied to test the homogeneity of the rainfall data, using XLSTAT software, which results of p-valueless than alpha=0.05, were significant. The percentages of significant trends obtained for each parameter in the different seasons are presented. The study recommends adaptation strategies to be streamlined to relevant policies, enhancing local farmers’ adaptive capacity for facing future climate change effects.

Keywords: Blue Nile basin, climate change, Mann-Kendall test, trend analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
48 Effect of Climate Variability on Children Health Outcomes in Rural Uganda

Authors: Emily Injete Amondo, Alisher Mirzabaev, Emmanuel Rukundo

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Children in rural farming households are often vulnerable to a multitude of risks, including health risks associated with climate change and variability. Cognizant of this, this study empirically traced the relationship between climate variability and nutritional health outcomes in rural children while identifying the cause-and-effect transmission mechanisms. We combined four waves of the rich Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS), part of the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS) for the period 2009-2014, with long-term and high-frequency rainfall and temperature datasets. Self-reported drought and flood shock variables were further used in separate regressions for triangulation purposes and robustness checks. Panel fixed effects regressions were applied in the empirical analysis, accounting for a variety of causal identification issues. The results showed significant negative outcomes for children’s anthropometric measurements due to the impacts of moderate and extreme droughts, extreme wet spells, and heatwaves. On the contrary, moderate wet spells were positively linked with nutritional measures. Agricultural production and child diarrhea were the main transmission channels, with heatwaves, droughts, and high rainfall variability negatively affecting crop output. The probability of diarrhea was positively related to increases in temperature and dry spells. Results further revealed that children in households who engaged in ex-ante or anticipatory risk-reducing strategies such as savings had better health outcomes as opposed to those engaged in ex-post coping such as involuntary change of diet. These results highlight the importance of adaptation in smoothing the harmful effects of climate variability on the health of rural households and children in Uganda.

Keywords: extreme weather events, undernutrition, diarrhea, agricultural production, gridded weather data

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47 Root Causes of Child Labour in Hargeisa, Somaliland

Authors: Abdikarim Yusuf

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This study uses data from Somalia to analyse child labour using a descriptive and qualitative method. The study set out to identify root causes of child labour in Hargeisa and its implications for children. The study shows that poverty, droughts, family separation, and loss of properties are primary drivers of child labour in Hargeisa. The study found that children work in very difficult jobs such as car wash, casual work, and shoe shining for boys while girls work as housemaids, selling tea, Khat and sometimes are at risk of exploitation such as sexual abuse, rape and harassment. The majority of the parents responded that they don’t know any policy, act or law that protects children. Men showed greater awareness than the women respondents in recognizing child labour as a child rights violation.

Keywords: abuse, child, violence, protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
46 Economic Impact of Drought on Agricultural Society: Evidence Based on a Village Study in Maharashtra, India

Authors: Harshan Tee Pee

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Climate elements include surface temperatures, rainfall patterns, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, air pressure and wind speed and direction. Change in one element can have an impact on the regional climate. The scientific predictions indicate that global climate change will increase the number of extreme events, leading to more frequent natural hazards. Global warming is likely to intensify the risk of drought in certain parts and also leading to increased rainfall in some other parts. Drought is a slow advancing disaster and creeping phenomenon– which accumulate slowly over a long period of time. Droughts are naturally linked with aridity. But droughts occur over most parts of the world (both wet and humid regions) and create severe impacts on agriculture, basic household welfare and ecosystems. Drought condition occurs at least every three years in India. India is one among the most vulnerable drought prone countries in the world. The economic impacts resulting from extreme environmental events and disasters are huge as a result of disruption in many economic activities. The focus of this paper is to develop a comprehensive understanding about the distributional impacts of disaster, especially impact of drought on agricultural production and income through a panel study (drought year and one year after the drought) in Raikhel village, Maharashtra, India. The major findings of the study indicate that cultivating area as well as the number of cultivating households reduced after the drought, indicating a shift in the livelihood- households moved from agriculture to non-agriculture. Decline in the gross cropped area and production of various crops depended on the negative income from these crops in the previous agriculture season. All the landholding categories of households except landlords had negative income in the drought year and also the income disparities between the households were higher in that year. In the drought year, the cost of cultivation was higher for all the landholding categories due to the increased cost for irrigation and input cost. In the drought year, agriculture products (50 per cent of the total products) were used for household consumption rather than selling in the market. It is evident from the study that livelihood which was based on natural resources became less attractive to the people to due to the risk involved in it and people were moving to less risk livelihood for their sustenance.

Keywords: climate change, drought, agriculture economics, disaster impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
45 Assessing Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change and Agricultural Productivity of Farming Households of Makueni County in Kenya

Authors: Lilian Mbinya Muasa

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Climate change is inevitable and a global challenge with long term implications to the sustainable development of many countries today. The negative impacts of climate change are creating far reaching social, economic and environmental problems threatening lives and livelihoods of millions of people in the world. Developing countries especially sub-Saharan countries are more vulnerable to climate change due to their weak ecosystem, low adaptive capacity and high dependency on rain fed agriculture. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are more vulnerable to climate change impacts due to their weak adaptive capacity and over-reliance on rain fed agriculture. In Kenya, 78% of the rural communities are poor farmers who heavily rely on rain fed agriculture thus are directly affected by climate change impacts.Currently, many parts of Kenya are experiencing successive droughts which are contributing to persistently unstable and declining agricultural productivity especially in semi arid eastern Kenya. As a result, thousands of rural communities repeatedly experience food insecurity which plunge them to an ever over-reliance on relief food from the government and Non-Governmental Organization In addition, they have adopted poverty coping strategies to diversify their income, for instance, deforestation to burn charcoal, sand harvesting and overgrazing which instead contribute to environmental degradation.This research was conducted in Makueni County which is classified as one of the most food insecure counties in Kenya and experiencing acute environmental degradation. The study aimed at analyzing the adaptive capacity to climate change across farming households of Makueni County in Kenya by, 1) analyzing adaptive capacity to climate change and agricultural productivity across farming households, 2) identifying factors that contribute to differences in adaptive capacity across farming households, and 3) understanding the relationship between climate change, agricultural productivity and adaptive capacity. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied to determine adaptive capacity and Total Factor Productivity (TFP) to determine Agricultural productivity per household. Increase in frequency of prolonged droughts and scanty rainfall. Preliminary findings indicate a magnanimous decline in agricultural production in the last 10 years in Makueni County. In addition, there is an over reliance of households on indigenous knowledge which is no longer reliable because of the unpredictability nature of climate change impacts. These findings on adaptive capacity across farming households provide the first step of developing and implementing action-oriented climate change policies in Makueni County and Kenya.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, agricultural productivity, climate change, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
44 Strategic Interventions to Combat Socio-economic Impacts of Drought in Thar - A Case Study of Nagarparkar

Authors: Anila Hayat

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Pakistan is one of those developing countries that are least involved in emissions but has the most vulnerable environmental conditions. Pakistan is ranked 8th in most affected countries by climate change on the climate risk index 1992-2011. Pakistan is facing severe water shortages and flooding as a result of changes in rainfall patterns, specifically in the least developed areas such as Tharparkar. Nagarparkar, once an attractive tourist spot located in Tharparkar because of its tropical desert climate, is now facing severe drought conditions for the last few decades. This study investigates the present socio-economic situation of local communities, major impacts of droughts and their underlying causes and current mitigation strategies adopted by local communities. The study uses both secondary (quantitative in nature) and primary (qualitative in nature) methods to understand the impacts and explore causes on the socio-economic life of local communities of the study area. The relevant data has been collected through household surveys using structured questionnaires, focus groups and in-depth interviews of key personnel from local and international NGOs to explore the sensitivity of impacts and adaptation to droughts in the study area. This investigation is limited to four rural communities of union council Pilu of Nagarparkar district, including Bheel, BhojaBhoon, Mohd Rahan Ji Dhani and Yaqub Ji Dhani villages. The results indicate that drought has caused significant economic and social hardships for the local communities as more than 60% of the overall population is dependent on rainfall which has been disturbed by irregular rainfall patterns. The decline in Crop yields has forced the local community to migrate to nearby areas in search of livelihood opportunities. Communities have not undertaken any appropriate adaptive actions to counteract the adverse effect of drought; they are completely dependent on support from the government and external aid for survival. Respondents also reported that poverty is a major cause of their vulnerability to drought. An increase in population, limited livelihood opportunities, caste system, lack of interest from the government sector, unawareness shaped their vulnerability to drought and other social issues. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the local authorities shall create awareness about drought hazards and improve the resilience of communities against drought. It is further suggested to develop, introduce and implement water harvesting practices at the community level to promote drought-resistant crops.

Keywords: migration, vulnerability, awareness, Drought

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
43 The Eloquent Importance of Knowing Fyodor Dostoevsky: An Understanding of The Dilettante

Authors: Ravi Teja Mandapaka

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Literary assonance and lexical consonance have always put the readers pondering, shirking away, at times too, and beefing on the baffling question that hardly invited any answer. ‘Why should we read Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky today?’ Does he, during a surreal life beneath his bruised and broken soul, writhing in pain, toying with the affirmatives of pleasure in an innate way, draw the readers any sheath of support? Alexithymia has ruled the time and space for a quite a long time as many a reader spent more time than required on reading his works of art in literature. Do his swirling theories of deism and laconic gushiness when put in black and white push us towards reading the lost pieces of exuberant dilettantism? With a view of that, and a hallucinated panorama of another, its best to say, thoughts and droughts’ glorious uncertainties in literature have come forward towards putting the pen on the eloquent importance of knowing Fyodor Dostoevsky, the Socrates of Literature.

Keywords: Dostoyevsky, dilettantism, gushiness, hallucinations, puissance

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
42 The Inequality Effects of Natural Disasters: Evidence from Thailand

Authors: Annop Jaewisorn

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This study explores the relationship between natural disasters and inequalities -both income and expenditure inequality- at a micro-level of Thailand as the first study of this nature for this country. The analysis uses a unique panel and remote-sensing dataset constructed for the purpose of this research. It contains provincial inequality measures and other economic and social indicators based on the Thailand Household Survey during the period between 1992 and 2019. Meanwhile, the data on natural disasters, which are remote-sensing data, are received from several official geophysical or meteorological databases. Employing a panel fixed effects, the results show that natural disasters significantly reduce household income and expenditure inequality as measured by the Gini index, implying that rich people in Thailand bear a higher cost of natural disasters when compared to poor people. The effect on income inequality is mainly driven by droughts, while the effect on expenditure inequality is mainly driven by flood events. The results are robust across heterogeneity of the samples, lagged effects, outliers, and an alternative inequality measure.

Keywords: inequality, natural disasters, remote-sensing data, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
41 Temporal Variation of Reference Evapotranspiration in Central Anatolia Region, Turkey and Meteorological Drought Analysis via Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index Method

Authors: Alper Serdar Anli

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Analysis of temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is important in arid and semi-arid regions where water resources are limited. In this study, temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and meteorological drought analysis through SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) method have been carried out in provinces of Central Anatolia Region, Turkey. Reference evapotranspiration of concerning provinces in the region has been estimated using Penman-Monteith method and one calendar year has been split up four periods as r1, r2, r3 and r4. Temporal variation of reference evapotranspiration according to four periods has been analyzed through parametric Dickey-Fuller test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. As a result, significant increasing trends for reference evapotranspiration have been detected and according to SPEI method used for estimating meteorological drought in provinces, mild drought has been experienced in general, and however there have been also a significant amount of events where moderate and severely droughts occurred.

Keywords: central Anatolia region, drought index, Penman-Monteith, reference evapotranspiration, temporal variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
40 Comprehensive Regional Drought Assessment Index

Authors: A. Zeynolabedin, M. A. Olyaei, B. Ghiasi

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Drought is an inevitable part of the earth’s climate. It occurs regularly with no clear warning and without recognizing borders. In addition, its impact is cumulative and not immediately discernible. Iran is located in a semi-arid region where droughts occur periodically as natural hazard. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI), and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) are three well-known indices which describe drought severity; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. These indices take into account some factors such as precipitation, reservoir storage and discharge, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration in determining drought severity. In this paper, first all three indices are calculated in Aharchay river watershed located in northwestern part of Iran in East Azarbaijan province. Next, based on two other important parameters which are groundwater level and solar radiation, two new indices are defined. Finally, considering all five aforementioned indices, a combined drought index (CDI) is presented and calculated for the region. This combined index is based on all the meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural features of the region. The results show that the most severe drought condition in Aharchay watershed happened in Jun, 2004. The result of this study can be used for monitoring drought and prepare for the drought mitigation planning.

Keywords: drought, GIS, intensity index, regional assessment, variation maps

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
39 Long-Term Climate Patterns in Eastern and Southeastern Ethiopia

Authors: Messay Mulugeta, Degefa Tolossa

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The purpose of this paper is to scrutinize trends of climate risks in eastern and southeastern parts of Ethiopia. This part of the country appears severely affected by recurrent droughts, erratic rainfall, and increasing temperature condition. Particularly, erratic rains and moisture stresses have been forcibly threatening and shoving the people over many decades coupled with unproductive policy frameworks and weak institutional setups. These menaces have been more severe in dry lowlands where rainfall is more erratic and scarce. Long-term climate data of nine weather stations in eastern and southeastern parts of Ethiopia were obtained from National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia (NMA). As issues related to climate risks are very intricate, different techniques and indices were applied to deal with the objectives of the study. It is concluded that erratic rainfall, moisture scarcity, and increasing temperature conditions have been the main challenges in eastern and southeastern Ethiopia. In fact, these risks can be eased by putting in place efficient and integrated rural development strategies, environmental rehabilitation plans of action in overworked areas, proper irrigation and water harvesting practices and well thought-out and genuine resettlement schemes.

Keywords: rainfall variability, erratic rains, precipitation concentration index (PCI), climatic pattern, Ethiopia

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
38 Hydrochemical Assessment and Quality Classification of Water in Torogh and Kardeh Dam Reservoirs, North-East Iran

Authors: Mojtaba Heydarizad

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Khorasan Razavi is the second most important province in north-east of Iran, which faces a water shortage crisis due to recent droughts and huge water consummation. Kardeh and Torogh dam reservoirs in this province provide a notable part of Mashhad metropolitan (with more than 4.5 million inhabitants) potable water needs. Hydrochemical analyses on these dam reservoirs samples demonstrate that MgHCO3 in Kardeh and CaHCO3 and to lower extent MgHCO3 water types in Torogh dam reservoir are dominant. On the other hand, Gibbs binary diagram demonstrates that rock weathering is the main factor controlling water quality in dam reservoirs. Plotting dam reservoir samples on Mg2+/Na+ and HCO3-/Na+ vs. Ca2+/ Na+ diagrams demonstrate evaporative and carbonate mineral dissolution is the dominant rock weathering ion sources in these dam reservoirs. Cluster Analyses (CA) also demonstrate intense role of rock weathering mainly (carbonate and evaporative minerals dissolution) in water quality of these dam reservoirs. Studying water quality by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) WQI index NSF-WQI, Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) and Canadian Water Quality Index DWQI index show moderate and good quality.

Keywords: hydrochemistry, water quality classification, water quality indexes, Torogh and Kardeh dam reservoir

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
37 Climate Change Impact on Water Resources above the Territory of Georgia

Authors: T. Davitashvili

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At present impact of global climate change on the territory of Georgia is evident at least on the background of the Caucasus glaciers melting which during the last century have decreased to half their size. Glaciers are early indicators of ongoing global and regional climate change. Knowledge of the Caucasus glaciers fluctuation (melting) is an extremely necessary tool for planning hydro-electric stations and water reservoir, for development tourism and agriculture, for provision of population with drinking water and for prediction of water supplies in more arid regions of Georgia. Otherwise, the activity of anthropogenic factors has resulted in decreasing of the mowing, arable, unused lands, water resources, shrubs and forests, owing to increasing the production and building. Transformation of one type structural unit into another one has resulted in local climate change and its directly or indirectly impacts on different components of water resources on the territory of Georgia. In the present paper, some hydrological specifications of Georgian water resources and its potential pollutants on the background of regional climate change are presented. Some results of Georgian’s glaciers pollution and its melting process are given. The possibility of surface and subsurface water pollution owing to accidents at oil pipelines or railway routes are discussed. The specific properties of regional climate warming process in the eastern Georgia are studied by statistical methods. The effect of the eastern Georgian climate change upon water resources is investigated.

Keywords: climate, droughts, pollution, water resources

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36 Climate Change and Migration from Ngala and Kala-Balge LGAs, North-Eastern Borno State, Nigeria

Authors: Adam Modu Abbas

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Nigeria, due to its location, size and population is very vulnerable to the impact of climate change. Little effort is however made to address most of the problems, despite the fact that sufficient understanding is made on the impact of climate change and problems emanating from it are also always being propagated. Migration, one of the resultant effects of climate change is however given less attention. This paper focuses on the climate change impact and one of resulting effects, migration and its associated problems. Purposive sampling technique was adopted in sampling 250 respondents who were mainly family members of out-migrants from Ngala and Kala-Balge LGAs of North-eastern Borno State, Nigeria. Available literatures were consulted for the types of climate change impacts. The results revealed that, climate change leads to climatic variation over the space with numerous effects on the environment such as intermittent droughts, desertification/deforestation, low water table and establishment of dams across the courses of the main sources of water supply to the Lake Chad. Many people in the study area either migrated to Cameroon’s Darrak, Lake Doi and Mayo Mbund, Lagos, Nigeria, leaving some members of their families at home. More than half of respondents indicated that the heads of the households migrated as a result of poor harvest due to diminishing or fluctuating rains/drought and/or drying of river Surbewel. It is recommended that; inter-basin water transfers should be embarked upon.

Keywords: climate, change, migration, dam, intermittent

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
35 Rainfall Analysis in the Contest of Climate Change for Jeddah Area, Western Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali M. Subyani

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The increase in the greenhouse gas emission has had a severe impact on global climate change and is bound to affect the weather patterns worldwide. This climate change impacts are among the future significant effects on any society. Rainfall levels are drastically increasing with flash floods in some places and long periods of droughts in others, especially in arid regions. These extreme events are causes of interactions concerning environmental, socio-economic and cultural life and their implementation. This paper presents the detailed features of dry and wet spell durations and rainfall intensity series available (1971-2012) on daily basis for the Jeddah area, Western, Saudi Arabia. It also presents significant articles for combating the climate change impacts on this area. Results show trend changes in dry and wet spell durations and rainfall amount on daily, monthly and annual time series. Three rain seasons were proposed in this investigation: high rain, low rain, and dry seasons. It shows that the overall average dry spell durations is about 80 continuous days while the average wet spell durations is 1.39 days with an average rainfall intensity of 8.2 mm/day. Annual and seasonal autorun analyses confirm that the rainy seasons are tending to have more intense rainfall while the seasons are becoming drier. This study would help decision makers in future for water resources management and flood risk analysis.

Keywords: climate change, daily rainfall, dry and wet spill, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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34 Polyhouse Farming: An Integrated Approach to Organic Farming

Authors: Promila Dahiya, Kiran Singh

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Indian agriculture has come a long way from being an era of frequent droughts and vulnerability to food shortages to becoming a significant exporter of agricultural commodities. Polyhouses are essentially microcosms aimed at providing physical environment suitable for the survival and growth of plants with high degree of temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide. The present study was conducted in 21 districts of Haryana State to review Polyhouse farming is an alternative farming in Haryana State to fulfil the needs of population byminimum use of land, water and energy. The information regarding number, area and type of polyhouses and subsidy provided by Govt. of India and Haryana on polyhouse farming was collected from respective district horticulture offices of Haryana State. Four different types of polyhouses were studied during work viz., Hitechnology polyhouse (Hi-tech), Anti-Insect Net Shade House (AINSH), Naturally Ventilated Polyhouse (NVPH) and Walk-In-Tunnel (WIT).In study it was found that in walk-in-tunnel (WIT) and natural ventilated polyhouses (NVPH) the temperature was 69.54% and 52.29% higher and the humidity was 96.37% and 85.19 % higher in comparison to open farming in the months of January and May. No significant different was found in temperature, humidity, dust, solar radiation and CO2 level between open and anti insect net shade house (AINH). In Hi-tech polyhouse, the environment was totally controlled by computer and was not found to much strenuous. Health status of workers was checked by doctor, and it was found that in polyhouse farming workers were more prone to problems of allergy and asthma.

Keywords: polyhouse, unfavorable climate, walk-in-tunnel, psychological aspect

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33 Drought Risk Analysis Using Neural Networks for Agri-Businesses and Projects in Lejweleputswa District Municipality, South Africa

Authors: Bernard Moeketsi Hlalele

Abstract:

Drought is a complicated natural phenomenon that creates significant economic, social, and environmental problems. An analysis of paleoclimatic data indicates that severe and extended droughts are inevitable part of natural climatic circle. This study characterised drought in Lejweleputswa using both Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and neural networks (NN) to quantify and predict respectively. Monthly 37-year long time series precipitation data were obtained from online NASA database. Prior to the final analysis, this dataset was checked for outliers using SPSS. Outliers were removed and replaced by Expectation Maximum algorithm from SPSS. This was followed by both homogeneity and stationarity tests to ensure non-spurious results. A non-parametric Mann Kendall's test was used to detect monotonic trends present in the dataset. Two temporal scales SPI-3 and SPI-12 corresponding to agricultural and hydrological drought events showed statistically decreasing trends with p-value = 0.0006 and 4.9 x 10⁻⁷, respectively. The study area has been plagued with severe drought events on SPI-3, while on SPI-12, it showed approximately a 20-year circle. The concluded the analyses with a seasonal analysis that showed no significant trend patterns, and as such NN was used to predict possible SPI-3 for the last season of 2018/2019 and four seasons for 2020. The predicted drought intensities ranged from mild to extreme drought events to come. It is therefore recommended that farmers, agri-business owners, and other relevant stakeholders' resort to drought resistant crops as means of adaption.

Keywords: drought, risk, neural networks, agri-businesses, project, Lejweleputswa

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32 Freshwater Lens Observation: Case Study of Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Rebecca Lorennji, Alington Robert, Halston DeBrum, Julious Lucky, Paul Paul

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Atolls are low-lying small islands with highly permeable ground that does not allow rivers and lakes to develop. As the water resources on these atolls basically rely on precipitation, groundwater becomes a very important water resource during droughts. Freshwater lenses develop as groundwater on relatively large atoll islands and play a key role in the stable water supply. Atoll islands in the Pacific Ocean sometimes suffer from drought due to El Nino. The global warming effects are noticeable, particularly on atoll islands. The Republic of the Marshall Islands in Oceania is burdened with the problems common to atoll islands. About half of its population lives in the capital, Majuro, and securing water resources for these people is a crucial issue. There is a freshwater lens on the largest, Laura Island, which serves as a water source for the downtown area. A serious drought that occurred in 1998 resulted in excessive water intake from the freshwater lens on Laura Island causing up-coning. Up-coning mixes saltwater into groundwater pumped from water-intake wells. Because up-coning makes the freshwater lens unusable, there was a need to investigate the freshwater lens on Laura Island. In this study, we observed the electrical conductivities of the groundwater at different depths in existing monitoring wells to determine the total storage volume of the freshwater lens on Laura Island from 2010 to 2013. Our results indicated that most of the groundwater that seeped into the freshwater lens had flowed out into the sea.

Keywords: Atoll islands, drought, El-Nino, freshwater lens, groundwater observation

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31 Effect of Climate Change on Nutritional Status of Women in Nigeria

Authors: Onu Theresa Chinyere

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The study evaluates the perceived effect of climate change on nutritional status of women in Nigeria. Five research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a survey and experimental study research design. One thousand two hundred and fifty one (1,250) respondents were selected from different State in Nigeria using multistage sampling technique. The instruments used to collect data were questionnaire and personal interview on socio economic characteristics of respondents, while Anthropometric data (height and weight) were also used. The data was analyzed using t-test statistic, decided at 50% level of significance. The study found that most states in Nigeria experience high winds, warmer and frequent hot days and night over most land areas, droughts and tides during climate change events. The respondent unanimously agree that climate change causes reduction in food yields, decline in food availability/supply, negatively affecting soil quality, carbon fertilization, decreases flexibilities in technology choices to strengthen food production. The Anthropometric analysis shows that out of 1250 women sampled, 560 (44.8%) maintain normal weight, while 405 (32.40%) women were found to be underweight, since their body mass index is less that 18.5. There were few cases of obesity among the surveyed women since only 80 out of 1250 which represent 6.4% of the women were obese. Bases on the findings, the following recommendations were made-local fertilizer should be encouraged to boost foods yield especially during climate change: women should imbibe the culture of preservation or reservoir that will help in mitigating the effects of climate on food intake and nutritional status, especially during the crisis period, among others.

Keywords: climate change, nutrition anthropometric analysis, obesity culture, environment and women among others

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30 Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Meteorological Droughts

Authors: Alireza Nikbakht Shahbazi

Abstract:

There are various factors that affect climate changes; drought is one of those factors. Investigation of efficient methods for estimating climate change impacts on drought should be assumed. The aim of this paper is to investigate climate change impacts on drought in Karoon3 watershed located south-western Iran in the future periods. The atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) data under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios should be used for this purpose. In this study, watershed drought under climate change impacts will be simulated in future periods (2011 to 2099). Standard precipitation index (SPI) as a drought index was selected and calculated using mean monthly precipitation data in Karoon3 watershed. SPI was calculated in 6, 12 and 24 months periods. Statistical analysis on daily precipitation and minimum and maximum daily temperature was performed. LRAS-WG5 was used to determine the feasibility of future period's meteorological data production. Model calibration and verification was performed for the base year (1980-2007). Meteorological data simulation for future periods under General Circulation Models and climate change IPCC scenarios was performed and then the drought status using SPI under climate change effects analyzed. Results showed that differences between monthly maximum and minimum temperature will decrease under climate change and spring precipitation shall increase while summer and autumn rainfall shall decrease. The precipitation occurs mainly between January and May in future periods and summer or autumn precipitation decline and lead up to short term drought in the study region. Normal and wet SPI category is more frequent in B1 and A2 emissions scenarios than A1B.

Keywords: climate change impact, drought severity, drought frequency, Karoon3 watershed

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29 Evaluating Climate Risks to Enhance Resilience in Durban, South Africa

Authors: Cabangile Ncengeni Ngwane, Gerald Mills

Abstract:

Anthropogenic climate change is exacerbating natural hazards such as droughts, heat waves and sea-level rise. The associated risks are the greatest in places where socio-ecological systems are exposed to these changes and the populations and infrastructure are vulnerable. Identifying the communities at risk and enhancing local resilience are key issues in responding to the current and project climate changes. This paper explores the types of risks associated with multiple overlapping hazards in Durban, South Africa where the social, cultural and economic dimensions that contribute to exposure and vulnerability are compounded by its history of apartheid. As a result, climate change risks are highly concentrated in marginalized communities that have the least adaptive capacity. In this research, a Geographic Information System is to explore the spatial correspondence among geographic layers representing hazards, exposure and vulnerability across Durban. This quantitative analysis will allow authors to identify communities at high risk and focus our study on the nature of the current human-environment relationships that result in risk inequalities. This work will employ qualitative methods to critically examine policies (including educational practices and financial support systems) and on-the-ground actions that are designed to improve the adaptive capacity of these communities and meet UN Sustainable Development Goals. This work will contribute to a growing body of literature on disaster risk management, especially as it relates to developing economies where socio-economic inequalities are correlated with ethnicity and race.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, disaster risk reduction, exposure, resilience, South Africa

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28 The Sub-Optimality of the Electricity Subsidy on Tube Wells in Balochistan (Pakistan): An Analysis Based on Socio-Cultural and Policy Distortions

Authors: Rameesha Javaid

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Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the province of Balochistan which is known as the ‘fruit basket’ of Pakistan. Its climate zones comprising highlands and plateaus, dependent on rain water, are more suited for the production of deciduous fruit. The vagaries of weather and more so the persistent droughts prompted the government to announce flat rates of electricity bills per month irrespective of the size of the farm, quantum or water used and the category of crop group. That has, no doubt, resulted in increased cropping intensity, more production and employment but has enormously burdened the official exchequer which picks up the residual bills in certain percentages amongst the federal and provincial governments and the local electricity company. This study tests the desirability of continuing the subsidy in the present mode. Optimization of social welfare of farmers has been the focus of the study with emphasis on the contribution of positive externalities and distortions caused in terms of negative externalities. By using the optimization technique with due allowance for distortions, it has been established that the subsidy calls for limiting policy distortions as they cause sub-optimal utilization of the tube well subsidy and improved policy programming. The sensitivity analysis with changed rankings of contributing variables towards social welfare does not significantly change the result. Therefore it leads to the net findings and policy recommendations of significantly reducing the subsidy size, correcting and curtailing policy distortions and targeting the subsidy grant more towards small farmers to generate more welfare by saving a sizeable amount from the subsidy for investment in the wellbeing of the farmers in rural Balochistan.

Keywords: distortion, policy distortion, socio-cultural distortion, social welfare, subsidy

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27 Corporate Water Footprint Assessment: The Case of Tata Steel

Authors: Sujata Mukherjee, Arunavo Mukherjee

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Water covers 70 per cent of our planet; however, freshwater is incredibly rare, and scarce has been listed as the highest impact global risk. The problems related to freshwater scarcity multiplies with the human population having more than doubled coupled with climate change, changing water cycles leading to droughts and floods and a rise in water pollution. Businesses, governments, and local communities are constrained by water scarcity and are facing growing challenges to their growth and sustainability. Water foot printing as an indicator for water use was introduced in 2002. Business water footprint measures the total water consumed to produce the goods and services it provides. It is a combination of the water that goes into the production and manufacturing of a product or service and the water used throughout the supply chain, as well as during the use of the product. A case study approach was applied describing the efforts of Tata Steel. It is based on a series of semi-structured in-depth interviews with top executives of the company as well as observation and content analysis of internal and external documents about the company’s efforts in sustainable water management. Tata Steel draws water required for industrial use from surface water sources, primarily perennial rivers and streams, internal reservoirs and water from municipal sources. The focus of the present study was to explore Tata Steel’s engagement in sustainable water management focusing on water foot printing accounting as a tool to account for water use in the steel supply chain at its Jamshedpur plant. The findings enabled the researchers to conclude that no sources of water are adversely affected by the company’s production of steel at Jamshedpur.

Keywords: sustainability, corporate responsibility water management, risk management, business engagement

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26 Evaluating the Water Balance of Sokoto Basement Complex to Address Water Security Challenges

Authors: Murtala Gada Abubakar, Aliyu T. Umar

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A substantial part of Nigeria is part of semi-arid areas of the world, underlain by basement complex (hard) rocks which are very poor in both transmission and storage of appreciable quantity of water. Recently, a growing attention is being paid on the need to develop water resources in these areas largely due to concerns about increasing droughts and the need to maintain water security challenges. While there is ample body of knowledge that captures the hydrological behaviours of the sedimentary part, reported research which unambiguously illustrates water distribution in the basement complex of the Sokoto basin remains sparse. Considering the growing need to meet the water requirements of those living in this region necessitated the call for accurate water balance estimations that can inform a sustainable planning and development to address water security challenges for the area. To meet this task, a one-dimensional soil water balance model was developed and utilised to assess the state of water distribution within the Sokoto basin basement complex using measured meteorological variables and information about different landscapes within the complex. The model simulated the soil water storage and rates of input and output of water in response to climate and irrigation where applicable using data from 2001 to 2010 inclusive. The results revealed areas within the Sokoto basin basement complex that are rich and deficient in groundwater resource. The high potential areas identified includes the fadama, the fractured rocks and the cultivated lands, while the low potential areas are the sealed surfaces and non-fractured rocks. This study concludes that the modelling approach is a useful tool for assessing the hydrological behaviour and for better understanding the water resource availability within a basement complex.

Keywords: basement complex, hydrological processes, Sokoto Basin, water security

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