Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: radiosensitizer

5 Bionaut™: A Microrobotic Drug-Device Platform for the Local Treatment of Brainstem Gliomas

Authors: Alex Kiselyov, Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington; Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Michael Shpigelmacher


Despite the most aggressive surgical and adjuvant therapeutic strategies, treatment of both pediatric and adult brainstem tumors remains problematic. Novel strategies, including targeted biologics, immunotherapy, and specialized delivery systems such as convection-enhanced delivery (CED), have been proposed. While some of these novel treatments are entering phase I trials, the field is still in need of treatment(s) that exhibits dramatically enhanced potency with optimal therapeutic ratio. Bionaut Labs has developed a modular microrobotic platform for performing localized delivery of diverse therapeutics in vivo. Our biocompatible particles (Bionauts™) are externally propelled and visualized in real-time. Bionauts™ are specifically designed to enhance the effect of radiation therapy via anatomically precise delivery of a radiosensitizing agent, as exemplified by temozolomide (TMZ) and Avastin™ to the brainstem gliomas of diverse origin. The treatment protocol is designed to furnish a better therapeutic outcome due to the localized (vs systemic) delivery of the drug to the neoplastic lesion(s) for use as a synergistic combination of radiation and radiosensitizing agent. In addition, the procedure is minimally invasive and is expected to be appropriate for both adult and pediatric patients. Current progress, including platform optimization, selection of the lead radiosensitizer as well as in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of porcine and ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut, brainstem, glioma, local delivery, micro-robot, radiosensitizer

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4 Multifunctional Bismuth-Based Nanoparticles as Theranostic Agent for Imaging and Radiation Therapy

Authors: Azimeh Rajaee, Lingyun Zhao, Shi Wang, Yaqiang Liu


In recent years many studies have been focused on bismuth-based nanoparticles as radiosensitizer and contrast agent in radiation therapy and imaging due to the high atomic number (Z = 82), high photoelectric absorption, low cost, and low toxicity. This study aims to introduce a new multifunctional bismuth-based nanoparticle as a theranostic agent for radiotherapy, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We synthesized bismuth ferrite (BFO, BiFeO3) nanoparticles by sol-gel method and surface of the nanoparticles were modified by Polyethylene glycol (PEG). After proved biocompatibility of the nanoparticles, the ability of them as contract agent in Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was investigated. The relaxation time rate (R2) in MRI and Hounsfield unit (HU) in CT imaging were increased with the concentration of the nanoparticles. Moreover, the effect of nanoparticles on dose enhancement in low energy was investigated by clonogenic assay. According to clonogenic assay, sensitizer enhancement ratios (SERs) were obtained as 1.35 and 1.76 for nanoparticle concentrations of 0.05 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, our experimental results demonstrate that the multifunctional nanoparticles have the ability to employ as multimodal imaging and therapy to enhance theranostic efficacy.

Keywords: molecular imaging, nanomedicine, radiotherapy, theranostics

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3 Combined Treatment of PARP-1 Inhibitor and Carbon Ion or Gamma Exposure Reduces the Metastatic Potential in Cultured Human Cells

Authors: Priyanka Chowdhury, Asitikantha Sarma, Utpal Ghosh


Hadron therapy using high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) ion beam is producing promising clinical results worldwide. The major advantages are its ability to kill radio-resistant tumor and its anti-metastatic activity. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors have been widely used as radiosensitizer, but its role in metastasis is unknown. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of PARP-1 depletion in combination with either Carbon Ion Beam (CIB) or gamma irradiation on metastatic potential of cultured cancerous cells. A549 cells were irradiated with CIB (0-4Gy) or gamma (0, 2, 4, 6 and 10 Gy) with and without PARP-1 inhibition. The metastatic potential of the cells was determined by cell migratory assay, expression, and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, expression of Cadherin, Fibronectin, and Vimentin. CIB exposure reduced migratory property and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 significantly. CIB with PARP-1 inhibition reduced cell migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMPs) activity in a synergistic manner. Expression of MMPs was also down-regulated in CIB and combined treatment. On the contrary, MMP- 2 and MMP-9 activity was significantly increased in gamma irradiated cells but decreased upon combined treatment of gamma and PARP-1 inhibitor. MMPs expression and migration was reduced when gamma irradiation was combined with PARP-1 inhibition. Thus, our study clearly demonstrates that PARP-1 inhibition in combination with either high or low LET can significantly suppress metastatic potential in cancer cells and thereby can be a promising tool in controlling metastatic cancers.

Keywords: high LET, low LET, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), PARP-1

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2 Enhancing Sensitization of Cervical Cancer Cells to γ-Radiation Ellagic Acid

Authors: Vidhula Ahire, Amit Kumar, K. P. Mishra, Gauri Kulkarni


Herbal polyphenols have gained significance because of their increasing promise in prevention and treatment of cancer. Therefore, development of a dietary compound as an effective radiosensitizer and a radioprotector is highly warranted for cervical cancer patients undergoing therapy. This study describes the cytotoxic effects of the flavonoid, ellagic acid (EA) when administered either alone or in combination with gamma radiation on cervical cancer HeLa cells in vitro. Apoptotic index and proliferation were measured by using trypan blue assay. Reproductive cell death was analyzed by clonogenic assay. Propidium iodide staining for flowcytometry was performed to analyze cell cycle modulation. Nuclear and mitochondrial changes were studied with specific dyes. DNA repair kinetics was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. Evaluation and comparison of EA effects were performed with other clinically used breast cancer drugs. When tumor cells were exposed to 2 and 4 Gy of irradiation in presence of EA (10 μM), it yielded a synergistic cytotoxic effect on cervical cancer cells whereas in NIH3T3 cells it reversed the injury caused by irradiation and abetted in the regaining of normal healthy cells. At 24h ~25foci/cell was observed and 2.6 fold decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Up to 40% cell were arrested in the G1 phase and 20-36% cells exhibited apoptosis. Our results demonstrate the role of increased apoptosis and cell cycle modulation in the mechanism of EA mediated radiosensitization of cervical cancer cells and thus advocating EA as an adjuvant for preclinical trials in cancer chemo- radiotherapy.

Keywords: cervical cancer, ellagic acid, sensitization, radiation therapy

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1 Mixed Monolayer and PEG Linker Approaches to Creating Multifunctional Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: D. Dixon, J. Nicol, J. A. Coulter, E. Harrison


The ease with which they can be functionalized, combined with their excellent biocompatibility, make gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) ideal candidates for various applications in nanomedicine. Indeed several promising treatments are currently undergoing human clinical trials (CYT-6091 and Auroshell). A successful nanoparticle treatment must first evade the immune system, then accumulate within the target tissue, before enter the diseased cells and delivering the payload. In order to create a clinically relevant drug delivery system, contrast agent or radiosensitizer, it is generally necessary to functionalize the AuNP surface with multiple groups; e.g. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) for enhanced stability, targeting groups such as antibodies, peptides for enhanced internalization, and therapeutic agents. Creating and characterizing the biological response of such complex systems remains a challenge. The two commonly used methods to attach multiple groups to the surface of AuNPs are the creation of a mixed monolayer, or by binding groups to the AuNP surface using a bi-functional PEG linker. While some excellent in-vitro and animal results have been reported for both approaches further work is necessary to directly compare the two methods. In this study AuNPs capped with both PEG and a Receptor Mediated Endocytosis (RME) peptide were prepared using both mixed monolayer and PEG linker approaches. The PEG linker used was SH-PEG-SGA which has a thiol at one end for AuNP attachment, and an NHS ester at the other to bind to the peptide. The work builds upon previous studies carried out at the University of Ulster which have investigated AuNP synthesis, the influence of PEG on stability in a range of media and investigated intracellular payload release. 18-19nm citrate capped AuNPs were prepared using the Turkevich method via the sodium citrate reduction of boiling 0.01wt% Chloroauric acid. To produce PEG capped AuNPs, the required amount of PEG-SH (5000Mw) or SH-PEG-SGA (3000Mw Jenkem Technologies) was added, and the solution stirred overnight at room temperature. The RME (sequence: CKKKKKKSEDEYPYVPN, Biomatik) co-functionalised samples were prepared by adding the required amount of peptide to the PEG capped samples and stirring overnight. The appropriate amounts of PEG-SH and RME peptide were added to the AuNP to produce a mixed monolayer consisting of approximately 50% PEG and 50% RME. The PEG linker samples were first fully capped with bi-functional PEG before being capped with RME peptide. An increase in diameter from 18-19mm for the ‘as synthesized’ AuNPs to 40-42nm after PEG capping was observed via DLS. The presence of PEG and RME peptide on both the mixed monolayer and PEG linker co-functionalized samples was confirmed by both FTIR and TGA. Bi-functional PEG linkers allow the entire AuNP surface to be capped with PEG, enabling in-vitro stability to be achieved using a lower molecular weight PEG. The approach also allows the entire outer surface to be coated with peptide or other biologically active groups, whilst also offering the promise of enhanced biological availability. The effect of mixed monolayer versus PEG linker attachment on both stability and non-specific protein corona interactions was also studied.

Keywords: nanomedicine, gold nanoparticles, PEG, biocompatibility

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