Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Search results for: internationalization

68 Culture and Internationalization: A Study About Brazilian Companies in Bolivia

Authors: Renato Dias Baptista

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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the elements of the cultural dimension in the internationalization process of Brazilian companies in Bolivia. This paper is based on research on two major Brazilian transnational companies which have plants in Bolivia. To achieve the objectives, the interconnective characteristics of culture in the process of productive internationalization were analyzed aiming to highlight it as a guiding element opposite the premises of the Brazilian leadership in the integration and development of the continent. The analysis aims to give relevance to the culture of a country and its relations with internationalization.

Keywords: interculturalism, transnational, internationalization, organizational development

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67 Determinants of Internationalization of Social Enterprises: A 20-Year Review

Authors: Xiaoqing Li

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Social entrepreneurship drives the global movement as social enterprises create best ways to satisfy social needs through connecting international resources. However, what determines social enterprises to internationalize is underexplored. This study aims to answer this question by conducting a systematic review of studies of past 20 years on social enterprises' internationalization. Findings reveal that factors at the individual (entrepreneur), firm, and environment (home and host country) levels determine the degree of social enterprises' internationalization. Future research is challenged by: a. adopting an integrated approach examining the three levels to explain social enterprises' internationalization; b. the different nature of social enterprises from commercial businesses demands scholars to refine and develop appropriate theoretical models to capture the dynamism of social enterprises' internationalization behavior.

Keywords: determinants, entrepreneurship, internationalization, social enterprises

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66 The Dimensions of Culture in the Productive Internationalization Process: An Overview about Brazilian Companies in Bolivia

Authors: Renato Dias Baptista

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the elements of the cultural dimension in the internationalization process of Brazilian companies in Bolivia. This paper is based on research on two major Brazilian transnational companies which have plants in Bolivia. To achieve the objectives, the interconnective characteristics of culture in the process of productive internationalization were analyzed aiming to highlight it as a guiding element opposite the premises of the Brazilian leadership in the integration and development of the continent. The analysis aims to give relevance to the culture of a country and its relations with internationalization.

Keywords: culture, transnational, internationalization, Bolivia, Brazil

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65 ASEAN Citizenship in the Internationalization of Thai Higher Education

Authors: Bella Llego

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This research aims to study on “ASEAN Citizenship in the Internationalization of Thai Higher Education.” The purposes of this research are (1) to examine the Thai academics and scholars defined in the concept of internationalization of higher education, (2) to know how Thailand tries to fulfill its internationalization on education goal, (3) to find out the advantages and disadvantages of Thailand hub for higher education in Asia. Sequential mixed methods, qualitative and quantitative research methods were utilized to gather the data collected. By using a qualitative method (individual interviews from key Thai administrators and educators in the international higher education sector), a quantitative method (survey) was utilized to draw upon and to elaborate the recurring themes present during the interviews. The study found that many aspects of Thai international higher education programs received heavy influence from both the American and European higher education systems. Thailand’s role and leadership in the creation and launch of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015 gives its unique context for its internationalization efforts. English is being designated as the language of all Thai international programs; its influence further strengthened being the current language of academia, international business, and the internet, having global influence.

Keywords: ASEAN citizenship, internationalization, Thai higher education, academics

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64 A Survey on How Faculty Perceive and Quest for Modes of Internationalization in a Private Higher Education Institution

Authors: Hanife Akar, Basak Calik, Gulcin Gulmez-Dag, Elanur Yilmaz

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Internationalization in higher education (IHE) has been a longstanding issue in the Western World but its impact has travelled beyond its borders. As a developing country, universities in Turkey also have put into their agendas strategic plans for IHE to compete with global trends and benchmarked universities. The purpose of this study was to explore how faculty in a private university in Mid Anatolia would like see modes of internationalization in their institution through a survey design and understand their quest for internationalization. Findings indicate that participants (N=49) are internationalized in different ways, from holding international Ph.D. degrees to postdoctoral degrees, or being international faculty themselves. Participants’ visions seem to be affected by the type of programs they are in, and many consider being a part of an international joint program or having international students and faculty are an essential component in IHE. In addition to holding joints degrees, and exchange or international human sources, participants quest for more collaboration for R&D, more comparative research opportunities, and examine or develop curricula from a global perspective.

Keywords: faculty, higher education, internationalization, visions

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63 Status of Hospitality and Tourism Management Progam of Selected Private Higher Education Institutions: Basis for Internationalization

Authors: Ruth Estrada Javier - Reyes

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The study assessed the status of HTM program of selected private higher education institutions for internationalization across the eleven regions of the country. The descriptive survey method of research was used in this study. A devised survey questionnaire was utilized to gather information about the status of Philippine Higher Education Institutions’ internationalization of hospitality and tourism management education programs. The respondents were 12 administrators, 17 deans and program heads, 104 faculty members and 860 HTM students. Frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test and F-test were used to treat the data. The results of the study are as follows: HEIs’ HTM education had complied with the policies/standards of CHED as per CMO No. 30 S. 2006. The respondents of the HTM education program were qualified for internationalization as assessed both by administrators and faculty. The private HEIs are ready to apply for international certification of their HTM education programs. The curriculum of HTM education programs in private HEIs are enriched by internationalization requirements. The administrators and faculty of HTM education programs are qualified educators but have limited participation in collaborative international research and linkages. The HEIs are qualified to apply for the internationalization of the Hospitality and Tourism Management education program in preparation to the ASEAN 2015.

Keywords: status, Hospitality and Tourism Management Program, internationalization, Private Higher Education Institutions

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62 Internationalization and Multilingualism in Brazil: Possibilities of Content and Language Integrated Learning and Intercomprehension Approaches

Authors: Kyria Rebeca Finardi

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The study discusses the role of foreign languages in general and of English in particular in the process of internationalization of higher education (IHE), defined as the intentional integration of an international, intercultural or global dimension in the purpose, function or offer of higher education. The study is bibliographical and offers a brief outline of the current political, economic and educational scenarios in Brazil, before discussing some possibilities and challenges for the development of multilingualism and IHE there. The theoretical background includes a review of Brazilian language and internationalization policies. The review and discussion concludes that the use of the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach and the Intercomprehension approach to foreign language teaching/learning are relevant alternatives to foster multilingualism in that context.

Keywords: Brazil, higher education, internationalization, multilingualism

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61 Reflections on Mechanism of Foreign Teachers’ Administration in Colleges and Universities in China

Authors: YangHui

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Foreign teachers play an important role in the process of internationalization of higher education in China. Based on the method of literature analysis, firstly study the contents about the mechanism of the foreign teachers’ administration in our country, then secondly analyze the main barriers of the foreign teacher’s administration mechanism. Finally, it is suggested that the international exchange department in universities should constantly improve the employment mechanism, training mechanism, appraisal mechanism and incentive mechanism to promote the internationalization of higher education.

Keywords: internationalization of higher education, mechanism, administration of foreign teachers, colleges and universities, China

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60 Implications of Internationalization for Management and Practice in Higher Education

Authors: Naziema B. Jappie

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Internationalization is very complex and multifaceted and has implications for the entire university sector, and the larger community which it serves. Higher education strategic plans require sustainability on all levels of academic engagement and internationalization contributes to the sustainability because of the global competition but, at the same time, ensures diversity on campuses. Universities all over the world are increasingly recognizing the challenges of globalization and the pressures towards internationalization. The past 25 years of internationalization has faded away, and new challenges have emerged. Although internationalization remains a central strategic objective for all universities, for many leaders and education practitioners it has remained a confused concept. It has various interpretations, and it intersects with numerous other national agendas in higher education domain; it often builds upon narrow notions limited to one of its facets –attracting international student fees for financial sustainability or for ensuring a diverse campus culture. It is essential to have clear institutional views, but it is imperative that everyone reflects on the values and beliefs that underpin the internationalization of higher education and have a global focus. This paper draws together the international experience locally and globally to explore the emerging patterns of strategy and practice in internationalizing higher education. This will highlight some critical notions of how the concepts of internationalization and globalization in the context of higher education is understood by those who lead universities and what new challenges are being created as universities seek to become more international. Institutions cannot simply have bullet points in the strategic plan about recruitment of international students; there has to be a complete commitment to an international strategy of inclusivity. This paper will further examine the leadership styles that ensure transformation together with the goals set out for internationalization. The interviews with the senior leadership are in-depth semi-structured recorded interviews of approximately one-hour to learn about their institutional experiences, promotion, and enhancement of the value of internationalisation to the tertiary education sector and initiating discussions around adding the international relations dimension to the curriculum. This paper will address the issues relevant to the cross-border delivery of higher education. To ensure anonymity throughout this study, the interviewees are identified only by their institutions.

Keywords: challenges, globalization, higher education, internationalization, strategic focus

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59 'Internationalization': Discussing the Ethics of the Global North Developing Social Work Courses for the Global South

Authors: Mary Goitom, Maria Liegghio

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In this paper, we critically explore the ethics of Schools of Social Work from the global North developing courses for programs within the Global South. In it, we discuss our experiences of partnering with the University of Guyana to develop and teach graduate courses in a newly formed Masters of Social Work program. Under the umbrella of our university’s goal for 'internationalization', that is, developing and establishing global and local collaborations for teaching, research and scholarship, we bring into question whether a new form of academic imperialism is occurring under the guise of global citizenship and social justice.

Keywords: academic imperialism, global north and south, internationalization, social work education

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58 Developing a Test Specifications for an Internationalization Course: Environment for Health in Thai Context

Authors: Rungrawee Samawathdana, Aim-Utcha Wattanaburanon

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Test specifications for open book or notes exams provide the essential information to identify the types of the test items with validity of the evaluations process. This article explains the purpose of test specifications and illustrates how to use it to help construct the approach of open book or notes exams. The complication of the course objectives is challenging for the test designing.

Keywords: course curriculum, environment for health, internationalization, test specifications

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57 Decision-Making in the Internationalization Process of Small and Medium Sized Companies: Experience from Managers in a Small Economy

Authors: Gunnar Oskarsson, Gudjon Helgi Egilsson

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Due to globalization, small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) increasingly offer their products and services in foreign markets. The main reasons are either to compensate for a decreased market share in their home market or to exploit opportunities in foreign markets, which are becoming less distant and better accessible than before. International markets are particularly important for companies located in a small economy and offering specialized products. Although more accessible, entering international markets is both expensive and difficult. In order to select the most appropriate markets, it is, therefore, important to gain an insight into the factors that have an impact on success, or potential failure. Although there has been a reasonable volume of research into the theory of internationalization, there is still a need to gain further understanding of the decision-making process of SMEs in small economies and the most important characteristics that distinguish between success and failure. The main objective of this research is to enhance knowledge on the internationalization of SMEs, including the drivers for the decision to internationalize, and the most important factors contributing to success in their internationalization activities. A qualitative approach was found to be most appropriate for this kind of research, with the objective of gaining a deeper understanding and discovering factors which impact a company’s decision-making and potential success. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 companies in different industries located in Iceland, a country extensively dependent on export revenues. The interviews revealed several factors as drivers of internationalization and, not surprisingly, the most frequently mentioned source of motivation was that the local market is inadequate to maintain a sustainable operation. Good networking relationships were seen as a particular priority for potential success, searching for new markets was mainly carried out through the internet, although sales exhibitions and sales trips were also considered important. When it comes to the final decision as to whether a market should be considered for further analysis, economy, labor cost, legal environment, and cultural barriers were the most common factors to be weighted. The ultimate answer to successful internationalization, however, is largely dependent on a coordinated and experienced management team. The main contribution of this research is offering an insight into factors affecting decision-making in the internationalization process of SMEs, based on the opinion and experience of managers of SMEs in a small economy.

Keywords: internationalization, success factors, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), drivers, decision making

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56 Wireless Response System Internationalisation Testing for Multilingual

Authors: Bakhtiar Amen, Abduladim Ali, Joan Lu

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Recently, wireless technologies have made tremendous influences in advanced technology era, precisely on the learning environment through PADs and smart phones to engage learners to collaborate effectively. In fact, the wireless communication technologies are widely adopted in the education sectors within most of the countries to deliver education support electronically. Today, Introducing multilingual Wireless Response System (WRS) application is an enormous challenge and complex. The purpose of this paper is to implementing internationalization testing strategy through WRS application case study and proposed a questionnaire in multilingual speakers like (Arabic, Kurdish, Chines, Malaysian, Turkish, Dutch, Polish, Russian) to measure the internationalization testing results which includes localization and cultural testing results. This paper identifies issues with each language’s specification attributes for instance right to left (RTL) screen direction related languages, Linguistic test or word spaces in Chines and Dutch languages. Finally, this paper attempt to emphasizes many challenges and solutions that associated with globalization testing model.

Keywords: mobile WRS, internationalization, globalization testing

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55 Family Firm Internationalization: Identification of Alternative Success Pathways

Authors: Sascha Kraus, Wolfgang Hora, Philipp Stieg, Thomas Niemand, Ferdinand Thies, Matthias Filser

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In most countries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are the backbone of the economy due to their impact on job creation, innovation and wealth creation. Moreover, the ongoing globalization makes it inevitable – even for SME that traditionally focused on their domestic markets – to internationalize their business activities to realize further growth and survive in international markets. Thus, internationalization has become one of the most common growth strategies for SME and has received increasing scholarly attention over the last two decades. One the downside internationalization can be also regarded as the most complex strategy that a firm can undertake. Particularly for family firms, that are often characterized by limited financial capital, a risk-averse nature and limited growth aspirations, it could be argued that family firms are more likely to face greater challenges when taking the pathway to internationalization. Especially the triangulation of family, ownership, and management (so-called ‘familiness’) manifests in a unique behavior and decision-making process which is often characterized by the importance given to noneconomic goals and distinguishes a family firm from other businesses. Taking this into account, the concept of socio-emotional wealth (SEW) has been evolved to describe the behavior of family firms. In order to investigate how different internal and external firm characteristics shape internationalization success of family firms, we drew on a sample consisting of 297 small and medium-sized family firms from Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein. Thus, we include SEW as essential family firm characteristic and added the two major intra-organizational characteristics, entrepreneurial orientation (EO), absorptive capacity (AC) as well as collaboration intensity (CI) and relational knowledge (RK) as two major external network characteristics. Based on previous research we assume that these characteristics are important to explain internationalization success of family firm SME. Regarding the data analysis, we applied a Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), an approach that allows identifying configurations of firm characteristics, specifically used to study complex causal relationships where traditional regression techniques reach their limits. Results indicate that several combinations of these family firm characteristics can lead to international success, with no permanently required key characteristic. Instead, there are many roads to walk down for family firms to achieve internationalization success. Consequently, our data states that family owned SME are heterogeneous and internationalization is a complex and dynamic process. Results further show that network related characteristics occur in all sets, thus represent an essential element in the internationalization process of family owned SME. The contribution of our study is twofold, as we investigate different forms of international expansion for family firms and how to improve them. First, we are able to broaden the understanding of the intersection between family firm and SME internationalization with respect to major intra-organizational and network-related variables. Second, from a practical perspective, we offer family firm owners a basis for setting up internal capabilities to achieve international success.

Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation, family firm, fsQCA, internationalization, socio-emotional wealth

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54 Companies’ Internationalization: Multi-Criteria-Based Prioritization Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Jorge Anibal Restrepo Morales, Sonia Martín Gómez

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A model based on a logical framework was developed to quantify SMEs' internationalization capacity. To do so, linguistic variables, such as human talent, infrastructure, innovation strategies, FTAs, marketing strategies, finance, etc. were integrated. It is argued that a company’s management of international markets depends on internal factors, especially capabilities and resources available. This study considers internal factors as the biggest business challenge because they force companies to develop an adequate set of capabilities. At this stage, importance and strategic relevance have to be defined in order to build competitive advantages. A fuzzy inference system is proposed to model the resources, skills, and capabilities that determine the success of internationalization. Data: 157 linguistic variables were used. These variables were defined by international trade entrepreneurs, experts, consultants, and researchers. Using expert judgment, the variables were condensed into18 factors that explain SMEs’ export capacity. The proposed model is applied by means of a case study of the textile and clothing cluster in Medellin, Colombia. In the model implementation, a general index of 28.2 was obtained for internationalization capabilities. The result confirms that the sector’s current capabilities and resources are not sufficient for a successful integration into the international market. The model specifies the factors and variables, which need to be worked on in order to improve export capability. In the case of textile companies, the lack of a continuous recording of information stands out. Likewise, there are very few studies directed towards developing long-term plans, and., there is little consistency in exports criteria. This method emerges as an innovative management tool linked to internal organizational spheres and their different abilities.

Keywords: business strategy, exports, internationalization, fuzzy set methods

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53 An Extended Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning: Impact of New International Business Processes

Authors: D. De Matías Batalla

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This paper develops and extended eclectic paradigm to fit the firm internationalization process with the real international business world. The approach is based on Dunning´s, introducing new concepts like mode of entry, international joint venture o international mergers and acquisitions. At the same time is presented a model to describe the Spanish international mergers and acquisitions in order to determinate the most important factor that influence in this type of foreign direct investment.

Keywords: dunning, eclectic paradigm, foreign direct investment, IJV, international business, international management, multinational firms, firm internationalization process, M&A

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52 The Internationalization of Capital Market Influencing Debt Sustainability's Impact on the Growth of the Nigerian Economy

Authors: Godwin Chigozie Okpara, Eugine Iheanacho

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The paper set out to assess the sustainability of debt in the Nigerian economy. Precisely, it sought to determine the level of debt sustainability and its impact on the growth of the economy; whether internationalization of capital market has positively influenced debt sustainability’s impact on economic growth; and to ascertain the direction of causality between external debt sustainability and the growth of GDP. In the light of these objectives, ratio analysis was employed for the determination of debt sustainability. Our findings revealed that the periods 1986 – 1994 and 1999 – 2004 were periods of severe unsustainable borrowing. The unit root test showed that the variables of the growth model were integrated of order one, I(1) and the cointegration test provided evidence for long run stability. Considering the dawn of internationalization of capital market, the researcher employed the structural break approach using Chow Breakpoint test on the vector error correction model (VECM). The result of VECM showed that debt sustainability, measured by debt to GDP ratio exerts negative and significant impact on the growth of the economy while debt burden measured by debt-export ratio and debt service export ratio are negative though insignificant on the growth of GDP. The Cho test result indicated that internationalization of capital market has no significant effect on the debt overhang impact on the growth of the Economy. The granger causality test indicates a feedback effect from economic growth to debt sustainability growth indicators. On the bases of these findings, the researchers made some necessary recommendations which if followed religiously will go a long way to ameliorating debt burdens and engendering economic growth.

Keywords: debt sustainability, internalization, capital market, cointegration, chow test

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51 International Student Mobility to China: A Fastest and Emerging Market for International Students among Developing Countries

Authors: Yasir Khan, Qiu Bin, Antonio-Mihi Ramirez

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This study determines the inflow of international students to China in recent years and the corresponding internationalization strategies in the higher education sector. China has placed attracting international students on in its plan along with the growing of global impact. Acknowledging the stable economy, growth rate, trade, lower renminbi rate, high wages, employment opportunities, high level income per capita, relative low taxes and political system consolidate to attract more international students. A large number of international students making a vast contribution to the higher education sector of China. Understanding the significance of education mission as well as of financial ‘bottom line’ the Chinese government gave great importance to invite more international students from worldwide. The large number of international students in the China has been particularly notable from Asian countries specifically neighboring countries, Pakistan, Thailand, India, Vietnam, South Korea, Magnolia, Malaysia, and Russia. This study summarizes internationalization of higher education in China and also provides directions for future research in this regard.

Keywords: international student mobility, 2020 Govt Planning, emerging market, internationalization of higher education

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50 Internationalization Using Strategic Alliances: A Comparative Study between Family and Non-Family Businesses

Authors: Guadalupe Fuentes-Lombardo, Manuel Carlos Vallejo-Martos, Rubén Fernández-Ortiz, Miriam Cano-Rubio

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The different ways in which companies enter foreign markets, exporting their products and direct investment and using strategic alliances or not, are influenced by a series of peculiarities specific to family businesses. In these companies, different systems, such as the family, property, and business overlap; giving them unique and specific characteristics which on occasions can enhance the development of cooperation agreements and in other situations can hinder them. Previous research has shown that these companies are more likely to enter into strategic alliances with certain specific features, and are more reluctant to take part in others in which some of the advantages of the family business are put at risk, such as control of ownership and decision-making over the company by the family, among others. These arguments show that there is a wide range of interesting aspects and peculiarities in the process of internationalization of the family business, although the research objectives of this paper focus on three in particular. Our first objective will be to discover why family businesses decide to establish or not strategic alliances in their internationalization processes in comparison with other companies that are not family owned. Secondly we will be identifying the idiosyncratic aspects of family businesses that favor or hinder the use of strategic alliances as a means of entering foreign markets. Our third and final objective will be to define the types of strategic alliance most commonly used by family businesses and the reasons why they choose these particular forms of alliance rather than others. We chose these research objectives for three main reasons. Firstly because research on this subject shows that alliances are the best way to begin the international expansion process, among other reasons because they provide the partners with different kinds of resources and capacity, so increasing the probability of successful internationalization. Secondly, because family and non-family businesses are often equipped with different types of resources and strategic alliances, offer them the chance to acquire resources less frequently found in family businesses. Thirdly, because the strengths and weaknesses of these companies could affect their decisions whether or not to use strategic alliances in their international expansion process and the success achieved in these alliances. As a result, these companies prefer to enter into cooperation agreements with conditions that do not put their specific status as family companies at risk.

Keywords: family business, internationalization, strategic alliances, olive-oil and wine industry

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49 Internationalization of Higher Education in Malaysia-Rationale for Global Citizens

Authors: Irma Wani Othman

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The internationalization of higher education in Malaysia mainly focuses to place the implementation of the strategic, comprehensive and integrated range of stakeholders in order to highlight the visibility of Malaysia as a hub of academic excellence. While the concept of 'global citizenship' is used as a two-pronged strategy of aggressive marketing by universities which includes; (i) the involvement of the academic expatriates in stimulating international activities of higher education and (ii) an increase in international student enrollment capacity for the enculturation of science and the development of first class mentality. In this aspect, aspirations for a transnational social movement through global citizenship status to establish the identity of the university community without borders (borderless universities) - regardless of skin colour, thus rationalize and liberalize the universal principles of life and cultural traditions of a nation. The education system earlier referred by the spirit of nationalism is now progressing due to globalization, hence forming a system of higher education that is relevant and generated by the need of all time. However, debates arose when the involvement of global citizenship is said to threaten the ultimate university autonomy in determining the direction of academic affairs and governance of their human resources. Stemming from this debate, this study aims to explore the experience of 'global citizenship' that the academic expatriates and international students in shaping the university's strategic needs and interests which are in line with the transition of contemporary higher education. The objective of this study is to examine the acculturation experience of the global citizen in the form of transnational higher education system and suggest policy and policing IHE which refers directly to the experience of the global citizen. This study offers a detailed understanding of how the university communities assess their expatriation experience, thus becoming useful information for learning and transforming education. The findings also open an advanced perspective on the international mobility of human resources and the implications on the implementation of the policy of internationalization of higher education. The contribution of this study is expected to give new input, thus shift the focus of contextual literature for the internationalization of the education system. Instead of focusing on the purpose of generating income of a university, to a greater understanding of subjective experience in utilizing international human resources hence contributing to the prominent transnational character of higher education.

Keywords: internationalization, global citizens, Malaysia higher education, academic expatriate, international students

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48 Intersectional Perspectives on Gender Equality in Higher Education: A Survey on Swiss Universities of Applied Science

Authors: Birgit Schmid, Brigitte Liebig, Susanne Burren, Maritza Le Breton, Martin Boehnel, Celestina Porta

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Internationalization of students is part of the agenda of many universities worldwide. Yet, how well do universities achieve to guarantee educational success for male and female students of migrant background? This contribution aims on analyzing the effects of the Swiss university environment on perceived educational outcome of migrant students from a gender sensitive perspective. Social selectivity and gender inequalities strongly influence students’ access and success at universities. However, the complex interaction between universities and their disciplinary environments, and educational success of migrant students of both sex remains rarely examined so far. Starting from an intersectional perspective and neo-institutional approaches on higher education organizations, this contribution addresses formal/informal factors in the university environment in its impact on male/female students’ perception of well-being, success and dropout motivation. The paper starts from a most recent Swiss online-survey of Bachelor-students in two Universities of Applied Science and a University of Education in Switzerland. It compares students’ perspectives in four large BA degree courses with different male/female ratio, i.e. educational science, technical/computer science, economy, and social work (N=9`608). Results highlight the complex interplay of gender, migrant background and further dimensions of social differentiation on students’ perception in these different fields of education. Further, they illustrate correlations between students’ perception of discriminatory contexts, poor ratings of social integration and study success, as well a higher rate of dropout ideas. The paper lines out, that formal aspects of internationalization are less important for successfully integrating male/female migrant students than informal university conditions, such as a culture of diversity, which has to become integral part of internationalization strategies.

Keywords: gender and migration, higher education, internationalization, success

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47 Managing Student Internationalization during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Three Approaches That Should Endure beyond the Present

Authors: David Cobham

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In higher education, a great degree of importance is placed on the internationalization of the student experience. This is seen as a valuable contributor to elements such as building confidence, broadening knowledge, creating networks and connections, and enhancing employability for current students who will become the next generation of managers in technology and business. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all areas of people’s lives. The limitations of travel coupled with the fears and concerns generated by the health risks have dramatically reduced the opportunity for students to engage with this agenda. Institutions of higher education have been required to rethink fundamental aspects of their business model from recruitment and enrolment through learning approaches, assessment methods, and the pathway to employment. This paper presents a case study which focuses on student mobility and how the physical experience of being in another country, either to study, to work, to volunteer or to gain cultural and social enhancement, has of necessity been replaced by alternative approaches. It considers trans-national education as an alternative to physical study overseas, virtual mobility and internships as an alternative to international work experience, and adopting collaborative online projects as an alternative to in-person encounters. The paper concludes that although these elements have been adopted to address the current situation, the lessons learned and the feedback gained suggests that they have contributed successfully in new and sometimes unexpected ways and that they will persist beyond the present to become part of the 'new normal' for the future. That being the case, senior leaders of institutions of higher education will be required to revisit their international plans and to rewrite their international strategies to take account of and build upon these changes.

Keywords: higher education management, internationalization, transnational education, virtual mobility

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46 Antecedents of MNE Performance and Managing Firm-Specific and Country-Specific Advantages: An Empirical Study of Optoelectronics Industry in Taiwan

Authors: Jyh-Yi Shih, Chie-Bein Chen, Kuang-Yi Lin, Yu-Wei Huang

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Because of the trend toward globalization, Taiwanese companies have gradually focused more on overseas market operations. Overseas market performance has gradually increased as a proportion of Taiwanese companies’ total business revenues. Existing international investment theories cannot explain numerous new phenomena in this domain. Opinions are inconsistent, and contradictory positions exist regarding the antecedents of multinational enterprise (MNE) performance. This study applied contemporary internalization theory to establish and extend approaches adopted by previous relevant studies. In the context of the overseas market, the influence that MNE investment in research and development (R&D) and marketing has on enterprise performance was investigated from the firm-specific advantages (FSAs) and country-specific advantages (CSAs) perspectives. CSAs and internationalization speed were addressed as moderators, and hypotheses regarding how internationalization and performance were achieved through MNE overseas market operation were explored to ensure the completeness of the investigation. The list of enterprises was sourced from the Taiwan Economic Journal. After examining the relevant data, the following conclusions were obtained: (a) The relationship between the level of FSAs in R&D and enterprise performance exhibited an S-shaped curve. (b) The relationship between the level of FSAs in marketing and enterprise performance displayed a U-shaped curve. (c) The extent to which potential CFAs were obtained positively moderated the relationship between enterprise investment in R&D to gain FSAs and MNE performance. (d) Internationalization speed positively moderated the relationship between MNEs and enterprise investment in R&D and marketing to gain FSAs.

Keywords: multinational corporation, firm-specific advantages, country-specific advantages, international speed

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45 Critical Understanding on Equity and Access in Higher Education Engaging with Adult Learners and International Student in the Context of Globalisation

Authors: Jin-Hee Kim

Abstract:

The way that globalization distinguishes itself from the previous changes is scope and intensity of changes, which together affect many parts of a nation’s system. In this way, globalization has its relation with the concept of ‘internationalization’ in that a nation state formulates a set of strategies in many areas of its governance to actively react to it. In short, globalization is a ‘catalyst,’ and internationalization is a ‘response’. In this regard, the field of higher education is one of the representative cases that globalization has several consequences that change the terrain of national policy-making. Started and been dominated mainly by the Western world, it has now been expanded to the ‘late movers,’ such as Asia-Pacific countries. The case of internationalization of Korean higher education is, therefore, located in a unique place in this arena. Yet Korea still is one of the major countries of sending its students to the so-called, ‘first world.’ On the other hand, it has started its effort to recruit international students from the world to its higher education system. After new Millennium, particularly, internationalization of higher education has been launched in its full-scale and gradually been one of the important global policy agenda, striving in both ways by opening its turf to foreign educational service providers and recruiting prospective students from other countries. Particularly the latter, recruiting international students, has been highlighted under the government project named ‘Study Korea,’ launched in 2004. Not only global, but also local issues and motivations were based to launch this nationwide project. Bringing international students means various desirable economic outcomes such as reducing educational deficit as well as utilizing them in Korean industry after the completion of their study, to name a few. In addition, in a similar vein, Korea's higher education institutes have started to have a new comers of adult learners. When it comes to the questions regarding the quality and access of this new learning agency, the answer is quite tricky. This study will investigate the different dimension of education provision and learning process to empower diverse group regardless of nationality, race, class and gender in Korea. Listening to the voices of international students and adult learning as non-traditional participants in a changing Korean higher educational space not only benefit students themselves, but Korean stakeholders who should try to accommodate more comprehensive and fair educational provisions for more and more diversifying groups of learners.

Keywords: education equity, access, globalisation, international students, adult learning, learning support

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44 International Student Recruitment in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of the Countries in the Middle East

Authors: Ali Arabkheradmand, Enayat A. Shabani, Shabnam Ranjbar Nikkhoo

Abstract:

Historical and ancestral bonds of the countries in the Middle East have led to similarities in culture and context of their societies. In addition, economic resources, such as the oil industry, have generally been an integrative point in the region. Higher education of a country is influenced by different national and international factors and regarding the mentioned bonds, it is inviting to study the development of the countries of the Middle East in higher education and draw some practical implications which can be used in the educational policy-making of the region. This review includes a data analysis on the population of international students in the countries of the Middle East. As its second objective, a review study on the successful countries, that is those which host the highest number of international students and the strategies they have developed to reach this state among the countries of the region has been conducted. Suggestions are made as to the strategies in higher education systems of these countries which could prove useful and practical in the development of internationalization of higher education in the region, specifically with regard to the recruitment of international students.

Keywords: internationalization of higher education, international student recruitment, Middle East countries, educational policy making

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43 The Global Language Teaching Spots to Accelerate Globalization and Equitable Economic Development Worldwide

Authors: Setyo Pamuji

Abstract:

The basis of this research is to create an international business project by developing an area in every country which focused on global language teaching to accelerate huge project of internationalization for mankind better with equity. It is to make an ease, learning more effective and efficient as well as economic development significantly at the place. Some have attempted to establish it, but could have not succeeded. This study uses stratified random sampling method to determine respondents. It is caused by population coming from around of Indonesia which is heterogeneity. Above all, researcher has already known well the spot including the mapping of students and societies, over 5-year, from beginning studying English (2011) until teaching English (2015). This quantitative research is able to analyze the vital factor of successful Language Village at Pare, Kediri, East Java, Indonesia which has never been obtained anywhere. This project provides valuable information regarding management used by the Language Village. Overall approach depicts vigorous marketing strategy and dedication blended. This will allow for more individual consideration of economist and may direct future research on the uniqueness of the Language Village to ascertain more profound understanding of the village which succeeds inviting people from other places to come, beside formal management and marketing.

Keywords: internationalization, accelerate, global language, economic development, blended, globalization

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42 The Socio-Economic Consequences of Educational Migration for Georgia

Authors: Eteri Kharaishvili, Marina Chavleishvili, Manana Lobzhanidze, Nino Grigolia

Abstract:

The article analyzes Georgia's involvement in global migration processes, assessing migration research and policy regulatory documents. The socio-economic situation of young people has been studied in the paper, their employment and unemployment levels are analyzed, reasons for migration of youth are revealed, the impact of migration on the socio-economic development of the country is substantiated. Youth demand on education is also assessed, problems in the education sector are identified, educational migration indicators are analyzed according to the internationalization process of this sector. Based on the analysis of the motivations of young people in Georgia, orientation of values and the aspects conditioning life strategies the factors affecting educational migration are determined and the results of the positive and negative impact of educational migration on the socio-economic development of the country are substantiated. The importance of efficient management of educational migration for Georgia in getting closer to the EU and achieving inclusive economic grow this substantiated. Recommendations for efficient management of the process of Georgian citizens’ learning and acquiring experience, as well as the internationalization of education sector and educational migration, are drawn.

Keywords: educational migration, migration management, migration of youth, socio-economic results of educational migration, youth employment

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41 Enhancing Chinese Foreign Language Teachers’ Intercultural Competence: An Action Research Study

Authors: Wei Hing Rosenkvist

Abstract:

In the past few decades, concerns and demands of promoting student intercultural communicative competence in foreign language education have been increasing along with the rapid growth of information technologies and globalization in the 21st century. In Sweden, related concepts such as internationalization, global citizenship, multiculturalism, and intercultural communication, are also keywords that would be found in the written learning objectives of foreign language education at all levels. Being one of the leading higher institutes in distance education in Europe, Dalarna University clearly states that after completion of the teacher education program, students shall understand the needs for integrating internationalization, intercultural and global perspective in teaching and learning in Swedish schools and implement their studies to promote education in an international and global context. Even though many teachers and educators agree with the institutes’ mission and vision about the importance of internationalization and the need to increase student understanding of intercultural and global perspectives, they might find this objective unattainable and restricted due to the nature of the subject and their knowledge of intercultural competence. When conducting a comprehensive Chinese language course for the students who are going to become Chinese foreign language teachers, the researcher found that all the learning objectives are linguistic oriented while grammatical components dominate the entire course. Apparently, there is a gap between the learning objectives of the course and the DU’s mission of fostering an international learner with intercultural and globalized perspectives. How to include this macro-learning objective in a foreign language course is a great challenge to the educator. Although scholars from different academic domains have provided different theoretical frameworks and approaches for developing student intercultural competence, research that focuses on the didactic perspectives of developing student intercultural competence in teaching Chinese as a foreign language education (CFL) is limited, and practical examples are rare. This challenge has motivated the researcher to conduct an action research study that aims at integrating DU’s macro-learning objective in a current CFL course through different didactic practices to develop the student's intercultural competence. This research study aims to, firstly, illustrate the cross-cultural knowledge integrated into the present Chinese language course for developing intercultural competence. Secondly, it investigates different didactic means that can be utilized to deliver cross-cultural knowledge to student teachers in the present course without generating dramatic disturbance of the syllabus. Thirdly, it examines the effectiveness of these didactic means in enhancing student-teacher intercultural competence regarding the need for integrating and implementing internationalization, intercultural and global perspectives in teaching and learning in Swedish schools. Last but not least, it intends to serve as a practical example for developing the student teachers’ intercultural competence in foreign language education in DU and fill in the research gap of this academic domain worldwide.

Keywords: action research, intercultural competence, Chinese as a foreign language education, teacher education

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40 An Action Research Study of Developing Foreign Language Teachers’ Intercultural Competence

Authors: Wei Hing Rosenkvist

Abstract:

In the past few decades, concerns and demands of promoting student intercultural communicative competence in foreign language education have been increasing along with the rapid growth of information technologies and globalization in the 21st century. In Sweden, related concepts such as internationalization, global citizenship, multiculturalism, and intercultural communication etc., are also keywords that would be found in the written learning objectives of the foreign language education in all levels. Being one of the leading higher institutes in distance education in Europe, Dalarna University clearly states that after completion of the teacher education program, students shall understand the needs for integrating internationalization, intercultural and global perspective in teaching and learning in Swedish schools and implement their own studies to promote education in an international and global context. Despite the fact that many teachers and educators agree with the institutes’ mission and vision about the importance of internationalization and the need of increasing student understanding of intercultural and global perspective, they might find this objective unattainable and restricted due to the nature of the subject and their personal knowledge of intercultural competence. When conducting a comprehensive Chinese language course for the students who are going to become Chinese foreign language teachers, the researcher found that all the learning objectives are linguistic oriented while grammatical components dominate the entire course. Apparently, there is a gap between the learning objectives of the course and the DU’s mission of fostering an international learner with intercultural and globalized perspectives. How to include this macro-learning objective in a foreign language course is a great challenge to the educator. Although scholars from different academic domains have provided different theoretical frameworks and approaches for developing student intercultural competence, research that focuses on the didactic perspectives of developing student intercultural competence in teaching Chinese as a foreign language education (CFL) is limited and practical examples are rare. This has motivated the researcher to conduct an action research study that aims at integrating DU’s macro-learning objective in a current CFL course through different didactic practices with a purpose of developing the teacher student intercultural competence. This research study aims to, firstly, illustrate the cross-cultural knowledge integrated into the present Chinese language course for developing intercultural competence. Secondly, it investigates different didactic means that can be utilized to deliver cross-cultural knowledge to student teachers in the present course without generating dramatic disturbance of the syllabus. Thirdly, it examines the effectiveness of these didactic means in enhancing teacher student intercultural competence regarding the need for integrating and implementing internationalization, intercultural and global perspectives in teaching and learning in Swedish schools. Last but not least, it intends to serve as a practical example for developing the student teachers’ intercultural competence in foreign language education in DU and fill in the research gap of this academic domain worldwide.

Keywords: intercultural competence, foreign language education, action research, teacher education

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
39 The Importance of Value Added Services Provided by Science and Technology Parks to Boost Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in Turkey

Authors: Faruk Inaltekin, Imran Gurakan

Abstract:

This paper will aim to discuss the importance of value-added services provided by Science and Technology Parks for entrepreneurship development in Turkey. Entrepreneurship is vital subject for all countries. It has not only fostered economic development but also promoted innovation at local and international levels. To foster high tech entrepreneurship ecosystem, Technopark (Science and Technology Park/STP) concept was initiated with the establishment of Silicon Valley in the 1950s. The success and rise of Silicon Valley led to the spread of technopark activities. Developed economies have been setting up projects to plan and build STPs since the 1960s and 1970s. To promote the establishment of STPs, necessary legislations were made by Ministry of Science, Industry, and Technology in 2001, Technology Development Zones Law (No. 4691) and it has been revised in 2016 to provide more supports. STPs’ basic aim is to provide customers high-quality office spaces with various 'value added services' such as business development, network connections, cooperation programs, investor/customers meetings and internationalization services. For this aim, STPs should help startups deal with difficulties in the early stages and to support mature companies’ export activities in the foreign market. STPs should support the production, commercialization and more significantly internationalization of technology-intensive business and foster growth of companies. Nowadays within this value-added services, internationalization is very popular subject in the world. Most of STPs design clusters or accelerator programs in order to support their companies in the foreign market penetration. If startups are not ready for international competition, STPs should help them to get ready for foreign market with training and mentoring sessions. These training and mentoring sessions should take a goal based approach to working with companies. Each company has different needs and goals. Therefore the definition of ‘success' varies for each company. For this reason, it is very important to create customized value added services to meet the needs of startups. After local supports, STPs should also be able to support their startups in foreign market. Organizing well defined international accelerator program plays an important role in this mission. Turkey is strategically placed between key markets in Europe, Russia, Central Asia and the Middle East. Its population is young and well educated. So both government agencies and the private sectors endeavor to foster and encourage entrepreneurship ecosystem with many supports. In sum, the task of technoparks with these and similar value added services is very important for developing entrepreneurship ecosystem. The priorities of all value added services are to identify the commercialization and growth obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and get rid of them with the one-to-one customized services. Also, in order to have a healthy startup ecosystem and create sustainable entrepreneurship, stakeholders (technoparks, incubators, accelerators, investors, universities, governmental organizations etc.) should fulfill their roles and/or duties and collaborate with each other. STPs play an important role as bridge for these stakeholders & entrepreneurs. STPs always should benchmark and renew services offered to how to help the start-ups to survive, develop their business and benefit from these stakeholders.

Keywords: accelerator, cluster, entrepreneurship, startup, technopark, value added services

Procedia PDF Downloads 54