Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 119

Search results for: responsiveness

119 A Simulation Model to Analyze the Impact of Virtual Responsiveness in an E-Commerce Supply Chain

Authors: T. Godwin


The design of a supply chain always entails the trade-off between responsiveness and efficiency. The launch of e-commerce has not only changed the way of shopping but also altered the supply chain design while trading off efficiency with responsiveness. A concept called ‘virtual responsiveness’ is introduced in the context of e-commerce supply chain. A simulation model is developed to compare actual responsiveness and virtual responsiveness to the customer in an e-commerce supply chain. The simulation is restricted to the movement of goods from the e-tailer to the customer. Customer demand follows a statistical distribution and is generated using inverse transformation technique. The two responsiveness schemes of the supply chain are compared in terms of the minimum number of inventory required at the e-tailer to fulfill the orders. Computational results show the savings achieved through virtual responsiveness. The insights gained from this study could be used to redesign e-commerce supply chain by incorporating virtual responsiveness. A part of the achieved cost savings could be passed back to the customer, thereby making the supply chain both effective and competitive.

Keywords: e-commerce, simulation modeling, supply chain, virtual responsiveness

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118 Subsidiary Strategy and Importance of Standards: Re-Interpreting the Integration-Responsiveness Framework

Authors: Jo-Ann Müller


The integration-responsiveness (IR) framework presents four distinct internationalization strategies which differ depending on the extent of pressure the company faces for local responsiveness and global integration. This study applies the framework to standards by examining differences in the relative importance of three types of standards depending on the role the subsidiary plays within the corporate group. Hypotheses are tested empirically in a two-stage procedure. First, the subsidiaries are grouped performing cluster analysis. In the second step, the relationship between cluster affiliation and subsidiary strategy is tested using multinomial Probit estimation. While the level of local responsiveness of a firm relates to the relative importance of national and international formal standards, the degree of vertical integration is associated with the application of internal company.

Keywords: FDI, firm-level data, standards, subsidiary strategy

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117 Public Governance in Brazil: The Perception of Professionals and Counselors of the Courts of Auditors on Transparency, Responsiveness and Accountability of Public Policies

Authors: Paulino Varela Tavares, Ana Lucia Romao


Public governance represents an articulated arrangement, dynamic and interactive, present in the exercise of authority aimed at strengthening the decision-making procedure in public administration with transparency, accountability, responsiveness and capable of to emerge control and social empowerment, to pursue and achieve the objectives efficiently and with the effectiveness desired for the collectivity, respecting the laws and provide social, institutional and economic equity in society. In this context, using a multidimensional approach with the application of a questionnaire with four questions directed to twenty Counselors of the Courts of Auditors of the States (Brazil) and twenty professionals (liberals, teachers, and specialists) of the public administration in Brazil, preliminary results indicate that 70% believe that the level of transparency in public policies is low; 40% say that the government makes accountability because it is required by law, but, other instruments must be developed to force the government to account for all accounts with society; 75% say that government responsiveness is very limited because of the lack of long term planning, which is greatly affected by party political issues in Brazil. Therefore, the results, as yet, point out that Brazilian society has a huge challenge regarding the transparency, accountability, and responsiveness of governments in relation to their public policies.

Keywords: accountability, public governance, responsiveness, transparency

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116 Association between Eating Behavior in Children Aged 7-10 Years Old and Their Mother’s Feeding Practice: A Study among the Families in Isfahan, Iran

Authors: Behnaz Farahani, Razieh Sotoudeh, Ali Vahdani, Hamed Abdi


Individual differences in eating behavior can cause underweight or overweight and obesity. Thus influencing factors on children’s eating behavior such as mothers’ feeding practices are needed to be more investigated. The goals of this survey are to evaluate the association of (i) parental pressure and children’s food avoidant tendency, (ii) parental restriction and children’s food approach tendency, (iii) modeling of healthy eating in front of children and their children’s eating behavior. 760 mothers of children aged 7-10 from schools in Isfahan were asked to complete questionnaires including Child Feeding Questionnaire, Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Modeling Questionnaire, and self-administered demographic questionnaire in which mothers reported their children’s height and weight as well. Of those mothers, 745 completed the questionnaires for the children’s index (mean age: 8.513±1.112) during the 2011-2012 school year. The results of this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis indicated that “parental restriction” was positively associated with child food responsiveness (P,0.000) and food enjoyment (P,0.000) and surprisingly, it was positively associated with Food Fussiness(0.000) .Parental pressure to eat was positively associated with child satiety responsiveness (P,0.000), slowness (P,0.000), and fussiness (P,0.00) and negatively associated with Food responsiveness(p,0.000)and Enjoyment of food (p,0.002), modeling of healthy eating were positively associated with Enjoyment of food / q (p,0.000) and negatively with food fussiness (P,0.000). The results of this survey will improve interventions and maternal guidance on their feeding practices and their association with children’s eating behavior and weight.

Keywords: feeding practices, eating behavior, pressure to eat, restriction, modeling, satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, food fussiness, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food

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115 A Qualitative Inquiry of Institutional Responsiveness in Public Land Development in the Urban Areas in Sri Lanka

Authors: Priyanwada I. Singhapathirana


The public land ownership is a common phenomenon in many countries in the world however, the development approaches and the institutional structures are greatly diverse. The existing scholarship around public land development has been greatly limited to Europe and advanced Asian economies. Inferences of such studies seem to be inadequate and inappropriate to comprehend the peculiarities of public land development in developing Asian economies. The absence of critical inquiry on the public land ownership and the long-established institutional structures which govern the development has restrained these countries from institutional innovations. In this context, this research investigates the issues related to public land development and the institutional responses in Sri Lanka. This study introduces the concept of ‘Institutional Responsiveness’ in Public land development, which is conceptualized as the ability of the institutions to respond to the spatial, market and fiscal stimulus. The inquiry was carried out through in-depth interviews with five key informants from apex public agencies in order to explore the responsiveness of land institutions form decision-makers' perspectives. Further, the analysis of grey literature and recent media reports are used to supplement the analysis. As per the findings, long term abandonment of public lands and high transaction costs are some of the key issues in relation to public land development. The inability of the institutions to respond to the market and fiscal stimulus has left many potential public lands underutilized. As a result, the public sector itself and urban citizens have not been able to relish the benefits of the public lands in cities. Spatial analysis at the local scale is suggested for future studies in order to capture the multiple dimensions of the responsiveness of institutions to the development stimulus.

Keywords: institutions, public land, responsiveness, under-utilization

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114 The Supply Chain Management and Supply Chain Responsiveness in the Competitiveness of the Agrofood Sector: An Econometric Analysis

Authors: Alma Lucero Ortiz, Mario Gómez


The purpose of this article is to conduct a theoretical and empirical study in order to analyze how the Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Supply Chain Responsiveness (SCR) affects the competitive advantage of the agrofood sector in 2017, in particular, the exporting companies of berries in Mexico. This work is presented in two parts, as a first part is developed a theoretical analysis of the main studies to measure the variables subject to the study. Subsequently an empirical study is carried out through field work and to process the data a logical econometric model is performed to be able to evaluate the effect of the SCM and SCR on the competitive advantage in the companies exporting berries. The results suggest that the SCM has a positive effect on the competitive advantage of the companies under study, so it is necessary to implement greater practices oriented towards a suitable SCM for the companies to achieve a competitive performance. In the case of SCR, it was found that this variable does not have effect on competitive advantage.

Keywords: competitive advantage, econometric model, supply chain management, supply chain responsiveness, sustained competitive advantage

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113 The Role of Inventory Classification in Supply Chain Responsiveness in a Build-to-Order and Build-To-Forecast Manufacturing Environment: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: Qamar Iqbal


Companies strive to improve their forecasting methods to predict the fluctuations in customer demand. These fluctuation and variation in demand affect the manufacturing operations and can limit a company’s ability to fulfill customer demand on time. Companies keep the inventory buffer and maintain the stocking levels to reduce the impact of demand variation. A mid-size company deals with thousands of stock keeping units (skus). It is neither easy and nor efficient to control and manage each sku. Inventory classification provides a tool to the management to increase their ability to support customer demand. The paper presents a framework that shows how inventory classification can play a role to increase supply chain responsiveness. A case study will be presented to further elaborate the method both for build-to-order and build-to-forecast manufacturing environments. Results will be compared that will show which manufacturing setting has advantage over another under different circumstances. The outcome of this study is very useful to the management because this will give them an insight on how inventory classification can be used to increase their ability to respond to changing customer needs.

Keywords: inventory classification, supply chain responsiveness, forecast, manufacturing environment

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112 Effect of School Environment on Students’ Responsiveness to Learning

Authors: Abel Olayinka Ogbungbemi, I. A. Omunagbe, O. R. King, O. H. Akingbade


This study examined the influence of environmental factors on the academic performance of students in Lagos State Polytechnic. One hundred and thirty-eight students (138) questionnaire was randomly administered among 2,600 students in the 6 departments in the school of environmental studies, Lagos state Polytechnic. The result of the study established that the school environment affects learning. Hence, improper maintenance of fixtures led to lower than average student’s performance. Based on this, the school should endeavour to sustain the school facilities and dull colour points should not be used for painting, interactions between teachers and students should be encouraged, and teachers should relate to all the students irrespective of their age, level of study, department of study and gender.

Keywords: environment, learning, responsiveness, school effect

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111 Intelligent Building as a Pragmatic Approach towards Achieving a Sustainable Environment

Authors: Zahra Hamedani


Many wonderful technological developments in recent years has opened up the possibility of using intelligent buildings for a number of important applications, ranging from minimizing resource usage as well as increasing building efficiency to maximizing comfort, adaption to inhabitants and responsiveness to environmental changes. The concept of an intelligent building refers to the highly embedded, interactive environment within which by exploiting the use of artificial intelligence provides the ability to know its configuration, anticipate the optimum dynamic response to prevailing environmental stimuli, and actuate the appropriate physical reaction to provide comfort and efficiency. This paper contains a general identification of the intelligence paradigm and its impacts on the architecture arena, that with examining the performance of artificial intelligence, a mechanism to analyze and finally for decision-making to control the environment will be described. This mechanism would be a hierarchy of the rational agents which includes decision-making, information, communication and physical layers. This multi-agent system relies upon machine learning techniques for automated discovery, prediction and decision-making. Then, the application of this mechanism regarding adaptation and responsiveness of intelligent building will be provided in two scales of environmental and user. Finally, we review the identifications of sustainability and evaluate the potentials of intelligent building systems in the creation of sustainable architecture and environment.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, intelligent building, responsiveness, adaption, sustainability

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110 Perception of Consumer Behavior on Mobile Banking Offered by the National and Multinational Banks in UAE with Special Reference to Emirates NBD and Citibank

Authors: Aarohi Surya


The number of mobile banking users continues to climb across the world due to its increasing popularity, and UAE is no exception. This type of banking is part of the core strategy of most of the financial institutions that allows its customers to conduct a range of financial transactions through mobile apps to cash in the high demand from the bankers. This study aims at evaluating service quality of online banking in Dubai, one of the swiftly growing cities of Middle East. The paper mainly compares online banking services of Multinational bank and National Bank with special reference to Citibank and Emirates NBD. A structured questionnaire survey is conducted among various target groups. The research has been focused on mainly 4 significant areas of online banking, i.e. Privacy, Responsiveness, Reliability, and Efficiency of customer data. Information was analyzed statistically on SPSS to investigate the service quality of e-banking.

Keywords: customer satisfaction, service quality, responsiveness, online banking

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109 Gender Responsiveness of Water, Sanitation Policies and Legal Frameworks at Makerere University

Authors: Harriet Kebirungi, Majaliwa Jackson-Gilbert Mwanjalolo, S. Livingstone Luboobi, Richard Joseph Kimwaga, Consolata Kabonesa


This paper assessed gender responsiveness of water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks at Makerere University, Uganda. The objectives of the study were to i) examine the gender responsiveness of water and sanitation related policies and frameworks implemented at Makerere University; and ii) assess the challenges faced by the University in customizing national water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks into University policies. A cross-sectional gender-focused study design was adopted. A checklist was developed to analyze national water and sanitation policies and legal frameworks and University based policies. In addition, primary data was obtained from Key informants at the Ministry of Water and Environment and Makerere University. A gender responsive five-step analytical framework was used to analyze the collected data. Key findings indicated that the policies did not adequately address issues of gender, water and sanitation and the policies were gender neutral consistently. The national policy formulation process was found to be gender blind and not backed by situation analysis of different stakeholders including higher education institutions like Universities. At Makerere University, due to lack of customized and gender responsive water and sanitation policy and implementation framework, there were gender differences and deficiencies in access to and utilization of water and sanitation facilities. The University should take advantage of existing expertise within them to customize existing national water policies and gender, and water and sanitation sub-sector strategy. This will help the University to design gender responsive, culturally acceptable and environmental friendly water and sanitation systems that provide adequate water and sanitation facilities that address the needs and interests of male and female students.

Keywords: gender, Makerere University, policies, water, sanitation

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108 Is Liking for Sampled Energy-Dense Foods Mediated by Taste Phenotypes?

Authors: Gary J. Pickering, Sarah Lucas, Catherine E. Klodnicki, Nicole J. Gaudette


Two taste pheno types that are of interest in the study of habitual diet-related risk factors and disease are 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) responsiveness and thermal tasting. Individuals differ considerable in how intensely they experience the bitterness of PROP, which is partially explained by three major single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the TAS2R38 gene. Importantly, this variable responsiveness is a useful proxy for general taste responsiveness, and links to diet-related disease risk, including body mass index, in some studies. Thermal tasting - a newly discovered taste phenotype independent of PROP responsiveness - refers to the capacity of many individuals to perceive phantom tastes in response to lingual thermal stimulation, and is linked with TRPM5 channels. Thermal tasters (TTs) also experience oral sensations more intensely than thermal non-tasters (TnTs), and this was shown to associate with differences in self-reported food preferences in a previous survey from our lab. Here we report on two related studies, where we sought to determine whether PROP responsiveness and thermal tasting would associate with perceptual differences in the oral sensations elicited by sampled energy-dense foods, and whether in turn this would influence liking. We hypothesized that hyper-tasters (thermal tasters and individuals who experience PROP intensely) would (a) rate sweet and high-fat foods more intensely than hypo-tasters, and (b) would differ from hypo-tasters in liking scores. (Liking has been proposed recently as a more accurate measure of actual food consumption). In Study 1, a range of energy-dense foods and beverages, including table cream and chocolate, was assessed by 25 TTs and 19 TnTs. Ratings of oral sensation intensity and overall liking were obtained using gVAS and gDOL scales, respectively. TTs and TnTs did not differ significantly in intensity ratings for most stimuli (ANOVA). In a 2nd study, 44 female participants sampled 22 foods and beverages, assessing them for intensity of oral sensations (gVAS) and overall liking (9-point hedonic scale). TTs (n=23) rated their overall liking of creaminess and milk products lower than did TnTs (n=21), and liked milk chocolate less. PROP responsiveness was negatively correlated with liking of food and beverages belonging to the sweet or sensory food grouping. No other differences in intensity or liking scores between hyper- and hypo-tasters were found. Taken overall, our results are somewhat unexpected, lending only modest support to the hypothesis that these taste phenotypes associate with energy-dense food liking and consumption through differences in the oral sensations they elicit. Reasons for this lack of concordance with expectations and some prior literature are discussed, and suggestions for future research are advanced.

Keywords: taste phenotypes, sensory evaluation, PROP, thermal tasting, diet-related health risk

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107 A Study on Personnel Commitment Factors in Hafes Hospital

Authors: Farzaneh Bayat


Successful and effective presence in regional and global markets along with optimal use of available utilities and proper utilization of new sources for offering desirable services based on customer satisfaction is inevitable. Commitment has a significant role in offering optimal services. Offering high quality job and desirable services to the customers are personnel’s commitment. Thus, Shiraz Chamran Hospital which is affiliated with Shiraz Medical School and is one of the orthopedic poles in southern Iran was studied. This hospital has 750 personnel and physicians which a sample of 200 of them were chosen as the statistic society for a 5 month period from June to November 2009. Main variables in this decision are: responsibility and responsiveness, job security, team work, task autonomy, gradation opportunity, information sharing, payments and commitment. The study approach is descriptive-correlative. With applied and segmental nature of the tests and statistic analysis, the 7 hypotheses were approved with 95% of certainty.

Keywords: commitment, information sharing, responsibility and responsiveness, job security, task autonomy

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106 Significant Factors in Agile Manufacturing and the Role of Product Architecture

Authors: Mehrnoosh Askarizadeh


Agile manufacturing concept was first coined by Iacocca institute in 1991 as a new manufacturing paradigm in order to provide and ensure competitiveness in the emerging global manufacturing order. Afterward, a considerable number of studies have been conducted in this area. Reviewing these studies reveals that they mostly focus on agile manufacturing drivers, definition and characteristics but few of them propose practical solutions to achieve it. Agile manufacturing is recommended as a successful paradigm after lean for the 21st manufacturing firms. This competitive concept has been developed in response to the continuously changes and uncertainties in today’s business environment. In order to become an agile competitor, a manufacturing firm should focus on enriching its agility capabilities. These agility capabilities can be categorized into seven groups: proactiveness, customer focus, responsiveness, quickness, flexibility, basic competence and partnership. A manufacturing firm which is aiming at achieving agility should first develop its own appropriate agility strategy. This strategy prioritizes required agility capabilities.

Keywords: agile manufacturing, product architecture, customer focus, responsiveness, quickness, flexibility, basic competence

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105 Parental Restriction and Children’s Appetitive Traits: A Study Among Children Aged 5-11 Years Old in Dubai Private Schools

Authors: Hajar Aman Key Yekani, Yusra Mushtaq, Behnaz Farahani, Hamed Abdi


This study explores associations between parental restriction and children's appetitive traits, putting to test the hypothesis that parental 'restriction' is associated with having a child with stronger food approach tendencies (food enjoyment (FE) and food over-responsiveness (FR)). The participants, from 55 nationalities, targeting 1081 parents of 5- to 11-year-old children from 7 private schools in Dubai, UAE, who completed self-reported questionnaires over the 2011-2012 school year. The questionnaire has been a tailored amalgamation of CEBQ and CFQ in order to measure the children’s appetitive traits and parental restriction, respectively. The findings of this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional analysis confirmed the hypothesis in that 'parental restriction' was positively associated with child food responsiveness (r, 0.183), food enjoyment (r, 0.102). To conclude, as far as the figures depict, the parents controlling their children’s food intake would seemingly a reverse impact on their eating behaviour in the short term.

Keywords: parental restriction, children, eating behaviour, schools in Dubai

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104 A Study on the Relation between Auditor Rotation and Audit Quality in Iranian Firms

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Marjan Fayyazi, Parisa Sefati


Audit quality is a popular topic in accounting and auditing research because recent decades’ financial crises reduce the reliability of financial reports to public investors and cause significant doubt about the audit profession. Therefore, doing research to identify effective factors in improving audit quality is necessary for bringing back public investors’ trust to financial statements as well as audit reports. In this study, we explore the relationship between audit rotation and audit quality. For this purpose, we employ the Duff (2009) model of audit quality to measure audit quality and use a questionnaire survey of 27 audit service quality attributes. Our results show that there is a negative relationship between auditor’s rotation and audit quality as we consider the auditor’s reputation, capability, assurance, experience, and responsiveness as surrogates for audit quality. There is no evidence for verifying a same relationship when we use the auditor’s independence and expertise for measuring audit quality.

Keywords: audit quality, auditor’s rotation, reputation, capability, assurance, experience, responsiveness, independence, expertise

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103 Determinants of Service Quality on Thai Passengers’ Repeated Purchase of Domestic Flight Service with Thai Airways International

Authors: Nattapong Techarattanased


This research paper aimed to identify determinants of airline service quality on passengers’ repeated purchase of service. The population of this study was Thai passengers flying domestic flights with Thai Airways, making a total of 300 samples. These 300 samples participated in this research by answering a collection of questions by means of a questionnaire. An analysis of means score and multiple regression revealed that perceived service quality for tangible elements, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy had determined repeated purchase of flight service of the passengers at a high level. Moreover, reliability and responsiveness factors could predict the passengers’ repeated purchase of flight service at the percentage of 30.6. The findings gave a signal that Thai Airways may consider a development of route network and fleet strategy as well as an establishment of aircraft and seat qualification to meet passengers’ needs and requirements. Passengers’ level of satisfaction could also be maximized by offering service value through various kinds of special deals and programs, whereas value- added pricing strategy should be considered in order to differentiate from and beat other leading airline competitors.

Keywords: repeated purchase, service quality, domestic flight, Thai Airways

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102 Description and Evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System for Meningitis in the Province of Taza Between 2016 and 2020

Authors: Bennasser Samira


Meningitis, especially the meningococcal one, is a serious problem of public health. A system of vigilanceand surveillance is in place to allow effective actions to be taken on actual or potential health problems caused by all forms of meningitis. Objectives: 1. Describe the epidemiological surveillance system for meningitis in the province of Taza. 2. Evaluate the quality and responsiveness of the epidemiological surveillance system for meningitis in the province of Taza. 3. Propose measures to improve this system at the provincial level. Methods: This was a descriptive study with a purely quantitative approach by evaluating the quality and responsiveness of the system during 5 years between January 2016 and December 2020. We usedfor that the investigation files of meningitis cases and the provincial database of meningitis. We calculated some quality indicators of surveillance system already defined by the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Meningitis. Results: The notification is passive, the completeness of the data is quite good (94%), and the timeliness don’t exceed 71%. The quality of the data is acceptable (91% agreement). The systematic and rapid performance of lumbar punctures increases the diagnostic capabilities of the system. The local response actions are effected in 100%. Conclusion: The improvement of this surveillance system depends on strengthening the staff skills in diagnostic, reviewing surveillance tools, and encouraging judicious use of the data.

Keywords: evaluation, meningitis, system, taza, morocco

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101 Tobacco Taxation and the Heterogeneity of Smokers' Responses to Price Increases

Authors: Simone Tedeschi, Francesco Crespi, Paolo Liberati, Massimo Paradiso, Antonio Sciala


This paper aims at contributing to the understanding of smokers’ responses to cigarette prices increases with a focus on heterogeneity, both across individuals and price levels. To do this, a stated preference quasi-experimental design grounded in a random utility framework is proposed to evaluate the effect on smokers’ utility of the price level and variation, along with social conditioning and health impact perception. The analysis is based on individual-level data drawn from a unique survey gathering very detailed information on Italian smokers’ habits. In particular, qualitative information on the individual reactions triggered by changes in prices of different magnitude and composition are exploited. The main findings stemming from the analysis are the following; the average price elasticity of cigarette consumption is comparable with previous estimates for advanced economies (-.32). However, the decomposition of this result across five latent-classes of smokers, reveals extreme heterogeneity in terms of price responsiveness, implying a potential price elasticity that ranges between 0.05 to almost 1. Such heterogeneity is in part explained by observable characteristics such as age, income, gender, education as well as (current and lagged) smoking intensity. Moreover, price responsiveness is far from being independent from the size of the prospected price increase. Finally, by comparing even and uneven price variations, it is shown that uniform across-brand price increases are able to limit the scope of product substitutions and downgrade. Estimated price-response heterogeneity has significant implications for tax policy. Among them, first, it provides evidence and a rationale for why the aggregate price elasticity is likely to follow a strictly increasing pattern as a function of the experienced price variation. This information is crucial for forecasting the effect of a given tax-driven price change on tax revenue. Second, it provides some guidance on how to design excise tax reforms to balance public health and revenue goals.

Keywords: smoking behaviour, preference heterogeneity, price responsiveness, cigarette taxation, random utility models

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100 Music Responsiveness and Cultural Practice: Tarok Ethnic Group of Plateau State in Focus

Authors: Johnson-Egemba Helen Amaka


Music is emotional in the sense that it controls people’s feelings. The way and manner people react to music at a point in time depend on the type of music that is playing. Music can make someone to march or dance, to cry or laugh, to be happy or sad, to fight or make peace and so on. It therefore makes someone o exhibit some kind of behaviours, either positive or negative. Even dangerous animals have been found to be controlled by music. In the psychiatric homes, mad people are always found to be dancing to music. During funeral ceremony, music singing and dancing are sources of comfort to the bereaved. As a background to the study, Tarok ethnic group in Plateau State was used. The Tarok comprise of Langtang North and South Local Government Areas. The ethnic group of Tarok integrates music in almost all the activities of their lives. A total of six (6) types of folk songs were identified. These songs range from marriages, funeral, royalty, togetherness, war, rituals, festivals, and farming. This paper points out the significance of basic responsiveness of the Tarok people towards the folk songs, their reaction generally whether positive or negative. The methods of data collection employed in this work include oral interview approach, recording of various types of Tarok folk songs, consulting of journals, magazines and textbooks. The researcher used oral interview as her primary source of information which is found to be the most effective procedure in carrying out this task. The songs were textually analyzed with a view to unveiling their meanings, thought processes, and conveying their direction and functions within the context of their rendition. The major findings of the study are that music in Tarok culture covers the physical, mental, emotional and social experiences. The physical aspect is the motor skills, which include dancing and demonstration of the songs. The mental experiences are intellectual levels which include construction and manufacturing of musical instruments, composing songs, teaching and learning etc. Furthermore, this research provided in addition to musical activities, the literature, history and culture of the Tarok communities.

Keywords: cultural, music, practice, responsiveness

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99 Improving Rural Access to Specialist Emergency Mental Health Care: Using a Time and Motion Study in the Evaluation of a Telepsychiatry Program

Authors: Emily Saurman, David Lyle


In Australia, a well serviced rural town might have a psychiatrist visit once-a-month with more frequent visits from a psychiatric nurse, but many have no resident access to mental health specialists. Access to specialist care, would not only reduce patient distress and benefit outcomes, but facilitate the effective use of limited resources. The Mental Health Emergency Care-Rural Access Program (MHEC-RAP) was developed to improve access to specialist emergency mental health care in rural and remote communities using telehealth technologies. However, there has been no current benchmark to gauge program efficiency or capacity; to determine whether the program activity is justifiably sufficient. The evaluation of MHEC-RAP used multiple methods and applied a modified theory of access to assess the program and its aim of improved access to emergency mental health care. This was the first evaluation of a telepsychiatry service to include a time and motion study design examining program time expenditure, efficiency, and capacity. The time and motion study analysis was combined with an observational study of the program structure and function to assess the balance between program responsiveness and efficiency. Previous program studies have demonstrated that MHEC-RAP has improved access and is used and effective. The findings from the time and motion study suggest that MHEC-RAP has the capacity to manage increased activity within the current model structure without loss to responsiveness or efficiency in the provision of care. Enhancing program responsiveness and efficiency will also support a claim of the program’s value for money. MHEC-RAP is a practical telehealth solution for improving access to specialist emergency mental health care. The findings from this evaluation have already attracted the attention of other regions in Australia interested in implementing emergency telepsychiatry programs and are now informing the progressive establishment of mental health resource centres in rural New South Wales. Like MHEC-RAP, these centres will provide rapid, safe, and contextually relevant assessments and advice to support local health professionals to manage mental health emergencies in the smaller rural emergency departments. Sharing the application of this methodology and research activity may help to improve access to and future evaluations of telehealth and telepsychiatry services for others around the globe.

Keywords: access, emergency, mental health, rural, time and motion

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98 Effects of Main Contractors’ Service Quality on Subcontractors’ Behaviours and Project Outcomes

Authors: Zhuoyuan Wang, Benson T. H. Lim, Imriyas Kamardeen


Effective service quality management has long been touted as a means of improving project and organisational performance. Particularly, in construction projects, main contractors are often seen as a broker between clients and subcontractors, and their service quality is thus associated with the overall project affinity and outcomes. While a considerable amount of research has focused on the aspect of clients-main contractors, very little research has been done to explore the effect of contractors’ service quality on subcontractors’ behaviours and so project outcomes. In addressing this gap, this study surveyed 97 subcontractors in the Chinese Construction industry and data was analysed using the Partial Least Square (PLS) Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique. The overall findings reveal that subcontractors categorised main contractors’ service quality into three dimensions: assurance; responsiveness; reliability and empathy. Of these, it is found that main contractors’ ‘assurance’ and ‘responsiveness’ positively influence subcontractors’ intention to engage in contractual behaviours. The results further show that the subcontractors’ intention to engage in organizational citizenship behaviours is associated with how flexible and committed the main contractors are in reliability and empathy. Collectively, both subcontractors’ contractual and organizational citizenship behaviours positively influence the overall project outcomes. In conclusion, the findings inform contractors different strategies towards managing and gaining subcontractors’ behaviour commitment in a socially connected, yet complex and uncertain, business environment.

Keywords: construction firms, organisational citizenship behaviour, service quality, social exchange theory

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97 Understanding John H. Johnson and Ebony Magazine Financial Responsiveness to Rise of Black Power in the U.S, 1966

Authors: Sid Ahmed Ziane


This paper argues for Johnson's financial responsiveness to the rise of Black Power and its advocate, 'Stokely Carmichael' in 1966. John H. Johnson was a Black businessman and the owner of Ebony magazine, one of the widely read Black magazines in the U.S. His magazine, however, was designed only to promoting Black fashion, aesthetic, marketing, and consumerism. In mid-1966, the mainstream of the Civil Rights movement was heading into two distinct camps when some of its advocates, led by Stokely Carmichael, began to question the slow pace of the Civil Rights and sought to pursue a more radical approach to bring about upheaval to the Black community. Their new approach, however, propelled the national media into paying close attention to their activities, their new methods, and their radical orientations. In fact, the major White-oriented media discredited Carmichael and distorted his public image via sensational stories and race-mongering reports. However, the Black owned outlets such as The Liberator advocated his agendas, whereas other magazines such as The Crisis rejected them. Based on such oral sources and Ebony’s online issues, this paper adds and argues that Johnson had also responded to the rise of Black Power and Carmichael. This reaction had, in fact, aimed at scooping and selling Carmichael and his new orientation as well as advertising him in his magazine to attract the readers who showed a strong tendency to hear and read about the heyday and even the ferment of Black Power. This paper is part of an ongoing project which aims at framing our understanding of how the Black print media and the modern Black liberation struggle were correlated and could shape each other by appraising their agendas, milestones, and their pivotal figures.

Keywords: Black power, Ebony magazine, John Johson, Stokely Carmichael

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96 The Role of Behavioral Syndromes in Human-Cattle Interactions: A Physiological Approach

Authors: Fruzsina Luca Kézér, Viktor Jurkovich, Ottó Szenci, János Tőzsér, Levente Kovács


Positive interaction between people and animals could have a favorable effect on the welfare and production by reducing stress levels. However, to the repeated contact with humans (e.g. farm staff, veterinarians or herdsmen), animals may respond with escape behavior or avoidance, which both have negative effects on the ease of handling, welfare and may lead to the expression of aggressive behaviors. Rough or aversive handling can impair health and the function of the cardiac autonomic activity due to fear and stress, which also can be determined by certain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV). Although the essential relationships between fear from humans and basal tone of the autonomic nervous system were described by the authors previously, several questions remained unclear in terms of the associations between different coping strategies (behavioral syndromes) of the animals and physiological responsiveness to humans. The main goal of this study was to find out whether human behavior and emotions to the animals have an impact on cardiac function and behavior of animals with different coping styles in response situations. Therefore, in the present study, special (fear, approaching, restraint, novel arena, novel object) tests were performed on healthy, 2-year old heifers (n = 104) differing in coping styles [reactive (passive) vs. proactive (active) coping]. Animals were categorized as reactive or proactive based on the following tests: 1) aggressive behavior at the feeding bunk, 2) avoidance from an approaching person, 3) immobility, and 4) daily activity (number of posture changes). Heart rate, the high frequency (HF) component of HRV as a measure of vagal activity and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF ratio) as a parameter of sympathetic nervous system activity were calculated for all individual during lying posture (baseline) and for response situations in novel object, novel arena, and unfamiliar person tests (both for 5 min), respectively. The differences between baseline and response were compared between groups. Higher sympathetic (higher heart rates and LF/HF ratios) and lower parasympathetic activity (lower HF) was found for proactive animals in response situations than for reactive (passive) animals either during the novel object, the novel arena and the unfamiliar person test. It suggests that animals with different behavioral traits differ in their immediate autonomic adaptation to novelty and people. Based on our preliminary results, it seems, that the analysis of HRV can help to understand the physiological manifestation of responsiveness to novelty and human presence in dairy cattle with different behavioral syndromes.

Keywords: behavioral syndromes, human-cattle interaction, novel arena test, physiological responsiveness, proactive coping, reactive coping

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95 Motives for Reshoring from China to Europe: A Hierarchical Classification of Companies

Authors: Fabienne Fel, Eric Griette


Reshoring, whether concerning back-reshoring or near-reshoring, is a quite recent phenomenon. Despite the economic and political interest of this topic, academic research questioning determinants of reshoring remains rare. Our paper aims at contributing to fill this gap. In order to better understand the reasons for reshoring, we conducted a study among 280 French firms during spring 2016, three-quarters of which sourced, or source, in China. 105 firms in the sample have reshored all or part of their Chinese production or supply in recent years, and we aimed to establish a typology of the motives that drove them to this decision. We asked our respondents about the history of their Chinese supplies, their current reshoring strategies, and their motivations. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 22 and SPAD 8. Our results show that change in commercial and financial terms with China is the first motive explaining the current reshoring movement from this country (it applies to 54% of our respondents). A change in corporate strategy is the second motive (30% of our respondents); the reshoring decision follows a change in companies’ strategies (upgrading, implementation of a CSR policy, or a 'lean management' strategy). The third motive (14% of our sample) is a mere correction of the initial offshoring decision, considered as a mistake (under-estimation of hidden costs, non-quality and non-responsiveness problems). Some authors emphasize that developing a short supply chain, involving geographic proximity between design and production, gives a competitive advantage to companies wishing to offer innovative products. Admittedly 40% of our respondents indicate that this motive could have played a part in their decision to reshore, but this reason was not enough for any of them and is not an intrinsic motive leading to leaving Chinese suppliers. Having questioned our respondents about the importance given to various problems leading them to reshore, we then performed a Principal Components Analysis (PCA), associated with an Ascending Hierarchical Classification (AHC), based on Ward criterion, so as to point out more specific motivations. Three main classes of companies should be distinguished: -The 'Cost Killers' (23% of the sample), which reshore their supplies from China only because of higher procurement costs and so as to find lower costs elsewhere. -The 'Realists' (50% of the sample), giving equal weight or importance to increasing procurement costs in China and to the quality of their supplies (to a large extend). Companies being part of this class tend to take advantage of this changing environment to change their procurement strategy, seeking suppliers offering better quality and responsiveness. - The 'Voluntarists' (26% of the sample), which choose to reshore their Chinese supplies regardless of higher Chinese costs, to obtain better quality and greater responsiveness. We emphasize that if the main driver for reshoring from China is indeed higher local costs, it is should not be regarded as an exclusive motivation; 77% of the companies in the sample, are also seeking, sometimes exclusively, more reactive suppliers, liable to quality, respect for the environment and intellectual property.

Keywords: China, procurement, reshoring, strategy, supplies

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94 Slave Museums and a Site of Democratic Pedagogy: Engagement, Healing and Tolerance

Authors: Elaine Stavro


In our present world where acts of incivility, intolerance and anger towards minority communities is on the rise, the ways museum practices cultivate ethical generosity is of interest. Democratic theorists differ as to how they believe respect can be generated through active participation. Allowing minority communities a role in determining what artifacts will be displayed and how they will be displayed has been an important step in generating respect. In addition, the rise of indigenous museums, slave museums and curators who represent these communities, contribute to the communication of their history of oppression. These institutional practices have been supplemented by the handling of objects, recognition stories and multisensory exhibitions. Psychoanalysis, object relations theorists believe that the handling of objects: amenable objects and responsive listeners will trigger the expression of anomie, alienation and traumatizing experiences. Not only memorializing but engaging with one’s lose in a very personal way can facilitate the process of mourning. Manchester Museum (UK) gathered together Somalian refugees, who in the process of handling their own objects and those offered at the museum, began to tell their stories. Democratic theorists (especially affect theorists or vital materialists or Actor Network theorists) believe that things can be social actants- material objects have agentic capacities that humans should align with. In doing so, they challenge social constructivism that attributes power to interpreted things, but like them they assume an openness or responsiveness to Otherness can be cultivated. Rich sensory experiences, corporeal engagement (devices that involve bodily movement or objects that involve handling) auditory experiences (songs) all contribute to improve one’s responsiveness and openness to Others. This paper will focus specifically on slave museums/ and exhibits in the U.K, the USA., South Africa to explore and evaluate their democratic strategies in cultivating tolerant practices via the various democratic avenues outlined above.

Keywords: democratic pedagogy, slave exhibitions, affect/emotion, object handling

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93 Using Structural Equation Modeling to Measure the Impact of Young Adult-Dog Personality Characteristics on Dog Walking Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Renata Roma, Christine Tardif-Williams


Engaging in daily walks with a dog (f.e. Canis lupus familiaris) during the COVID-19 pandemic may be linked to feelings of greater social-connectedness and global self-worth, and lower stress after controlling for mental health issues, lack of physical contact with others, and other stressors associated with the current pandemic. Therefore, maintaining a routine of dog walking might mitigate the effects of stressors experienced during the pandemic and promote well-being. However, many dog owners do not walk their dogs for many reasons, which are related to the owner’s and the dog’s personalities. Note that the consistency of certain personality characteristics among dogs demonstrates that it is possible to accurately measure different dimensions of personality in both dogs and their human counterparts. In addition, behavioural ratings (e.g., the dog personality questionnaire - DPQ) are reliable tools to assess the dog’s personality. Clarifying the relevance of personality factors in the context of young adult-dog relationships can shed light on interactional aspects that can potentially foster protective behaviours and promote well-being among young adults during the pandemic. This study examines if and how nine combinations of dog- and young adult-related personality characteristics (e.g., neuroticism-fearfulness) can amplify the influence of personality factors in the context of dog walking during the COVID-19 pandemic. Responses to an online large-scale survey among 440 (389 females; 47 males; 4 nonbinaries, Mage=20.7, SD= 2.13 range=17-25) young adults living with a dog in Canada were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). As extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism, measured through the five-factor model (FFM) inventory, are related to maintaining a routine of physical activities, these dimensions were selected for this analysis. Following an approach successfully adopted in the field of dog-human interactions, the FFM was used as the organizing framework to measure and compare the human’s and the dog’s personality in the context of dog walking. The dog-related personality dimensions activity/excitability, responsiveness to training, and fearful were correlated dimensions captured through DPQ and were added to the analysis. Two questions were used to assess dog walking. The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to check if the young adult’s responses about the dog were biased; no significant bias was observed. Activity/excitability and responsiveness to training in dogs were greatly associated with dog walking. For young adults, high scores in conscientiousness and extraversion predicted more walks with the dog. Conversely, higher scores in neuroticism predicted less engagement in dog walking. For participants high in conscientiousness, the dog’s responsiveness to training (standardized=0.14, p=0.02) and the dog’s activity/excitability (standardized=0.15, p=0.00) levels moderated dog walking behaviours by promoting more daily walks. These results suggest that some combinations in young adult and dog personality characteristics are associated with greater synergy in the young adult-dog dyad that might amplify the impact of personality factors on young adults’ dog-walking routines. These results can inform programs designed to promote the mental and physical health of young adults during the Covid-19 pandemic by highlighting the impact of synergy and reciprocity in personality characteristics between young adults and dogs.

Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic, dog walking, personality, structural equation modeling, well-being

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92 Evaluation of Public Library Adult Programs: Use of Servqual and Nippa Assessment Standards

Authors: Anna Ching-Yu Wong


This study aims to identify the quality and effectiveness of the adult programs provided by the public library using the ServQUAL Method and the National Library Public Programs Assessment guidelines (NIPPA, June 2019). ServQUAl covers several variables, namely: tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. NIPPA guidelines focus on program characteristics, particularly on the outcomes – the level of satisfaction from program participants. The reached populations were adults who participated in library adult programs at a small-town public library in Kansas. This study was designed as quantitative evaluative research which analyzed the quality and effectiveness of the library adult programs by analyzing the role of each factor based on ServQUAL and the NIPPA's library program assessment guidelines. Data were collected from November 2019 to January 2020 using a questionnaire with a Likert Scale. The data obtained were analyzed in a descriptive quantitative manner. The impact of this research can provide information about the quality and effectiveness of existing programs and can be used as input to develop strategies for developing future adult programs. Overall the result of ServQUAL measurement is in very good quality, but still, areas need improvement and emphasis in each variable: Tangible Variables still need improvement in indicators of the temperature and space of the meeting room. Reliability Variable still needs improvement in the timely delivery of the programs. Responsiveness Variable still needs improvement in terms of the ability of the presenters to convey trust and confidence from participants. Assurance Variables still need improvement in the indicator of knowledge and skills of program presenters. Empathy Variable still needs improvement in terms of the presenters' willingness to provide extra assistance. The result of program outcomes measurement based on NIPPA guidelines is very positive. Over 96% of participants indicated that the programs were informative and fun. They learned new knowledge and new skills and would recommend the programs to their friends and families. They believed that together, the library and participants build stronger and healthier communities.

Keywords: ServQual model, ServQual in public libraries, library program assessment, NIPPA library programs assessment

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91 The Judge Citizens Have in Mind, Comparative Lessons about the Rule of Law Matrix

Authors: Daniela Piana


This work casts light on what lies underneath the rule of law. In order to do so it unfolds the arguments in three main steps. The first one is a pars destruens: the mainstreaming scholarship on judicial independence and judicial accountability is questioned under the large amount of data we have at our disposal (this step is accomplished in the first two paragraphs). The second step is the reframe of the concept of the rule of law and the consequent rise of a hidden dimension, which has been so far largely underexplored: responsiveness. The third step consists into offering the readers empirical support and drawing thereby consequences in terms of policy design and citizens engagement into the rule of law implementation (these two steps are accomplished in the third paragraph).

Keywords: rule of law, accountability, trust, citizens

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90 An Analysis of Brand-Building Characteristics in the Iran Airline Websites

Authors: Pedram Behyar, Zahra Bayat


The internet and web are changing ways of “far reaching scope and potential for transformation of the marketing functions”. The web is developing in a faster rate than any previous new communication medium. The website of destination has become a crucial branding channel, that is why all businesses are changing their way to communicate with their customers to encounter their needs and wants in better ways. Website provides numerous opportunities for businesses to strengthen their relationship with their customers. One of these opportunities is website component that enables internet users to make two-way communication with the businesses.

Keywords: marketing communication, brand image, usability, privacy and security, personalization and customization, responsiveness, customer online web experience

Procedia PDF Downloads 384