Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: prisons

42 Unfolding Prison Crisis in India: An Evaluation from a Human Rights Perspective

Authors: Sharmila Sakravarthy


Prison administration in India, even though an important limb of the criminal justice system are worse off in terms of overcrowding, prolonged detention of under-trial prisoners, and a host of other problems. Considering the statistics of the prison population, over a thousand three hundred prisons across the country were overcrowded, even to the extent of more than six hundred percent. A total of eighteen thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight female prisoners were in India, out of which thirteen thousand hundred and sixty-five were under trials and five thousand and sixty-three convicts. A total of around one thousand seven hundred thirty-five children are residing in prisons along with their mothers. District prisons are more overcrowded than the other prisons, and their practices are at odd with human rights standards. This article examines a range of issues in prisons throughout India including pretrial detention, overcrowding, resources and governance, women and children in prison and rehabilitation. A substantial amount of space is devoted to the reforms that are occurring across the nation, and recommendations are made with regard to what further reforms are necessary.

Keywords: human rights, overcrowding, prisons, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
41 Prison Reforms: An Overview of the Nigerian Prisons as a Key Component of an Efficient Criminal Justice Delivery System

Authors: Foluke Dada


Prisons all over the world are set up by law to provide restraint and custody for individuals accused or convicted of crimes by the state. The Nigerian prison dates back to the colonial era and is modelled after the British system. It is a system that lays emphasis on punishment and deterrence. It emphasises retribution rather than reformation. These, it can be argued, results in the inhuman conditions of Nigerian prisons and the conscienceless treatment of convicts and awaiting trial inmates in Nigerian prisons. This paper attempts an examination of the challenges currently beguiling Nigerian prisons, the need for reforms in the prison systems and the imperative of these reforms to an efficient criminal justice delivery system in the country. This paper further postulates that rehabilitation should be favoured as against retribution f the development of the Nigerian criminal justice system in line with the shift towards reform.

Keywords: criminal justice, human rights, prison reforms, rehabilitation and retribution

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40 Availability and the Utilization of Recreational Facilities for Prison Inmate Rehabilitation

Authors: Thomas Ejobowah Boye, Philip Oghenetega Ekpon


The paper examines the availability and the utilization of recreational facilities for prison inmate’s rehabilitation in Nigeria. In order to carry out the study the researchers visited sampled prisons in the six geo-political zones in Nigeria. Instant assessment of available recreational facilities was carried out. Inmates were asked to tick a self-design questionnaire that was validated by experts in the Departments of Physical and Health Education, Delta State University and the College of Physical Education, Mosogar on available recreational facilities and activities engaged in by them. The data collected was subjected to percentage analysis. The study revealed that there is little or no standard recreational facilities in all the prisons visited. Considering the role physical activities play in the overall development of individuals physically, mentally, emotionally, morally, and socially it was recommended that the authorities of the Nigerian prisons should as a matter of urgency include recreational activities as a means of reforming and rehabilitating prison inmates. To achieve the desire to rehabilitate prison inmates the researchers also recommended that facilities and equipment should be made available in all prisons in Nigeria.

Keywords: facility, prison, recreation, rehabilitation

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39 Contextualizing Torture in Closed Institutions

Authors: Erinda Bllaca Ndroqi


The dilemma with which the monitoring professionals are facing in today’s reality is whether to accept that prisons all over the world constitute a place where not all rights are respected (ethical approach), or widen the scope of monitoring by prioritizing the special needs of people deprived of their liberties (human right approach), despite the context and the level of improved prison condition, staff profiling, more services oriented towards rehabilitation instead of punishment. Such dilemma becomes a concern if taking into consideration the fact that prisoners, due to their powerlessness and 'their lives at the hand of the state', are constantly under the threat of abuse of power and neglect, which in the Albanian case, has never been classified as torture. Scientific research in twenty-four (24) Albanian prisons shows that for some rights, prisoners belonging to 'vulnerable groups' such as mental illness, HIV positive status, sexual orientation, and terminal illness remain quite challenged and do not ensure that their basic rights are being met by the current criminal justice system (despite recommendations set forwards to prison authorities by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)). The research orients more discussion about policy and strategic recommendations that would need a thorough assessment of the impact of rehabilitation in special categories of prisoners, including recidivists.

Keywords: prisons, rehabilitation, torture, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
38 Barriers to Tuberculosis Detection in Portuguese Prisons

Authors: M. F. Abreu, A. I. Aguiar, R. Gaio, R. Duarte


Background: Prison establishments constitute high-risk environments for the transmission and spread of tuberculosis (TB), given their epidemiological context and the difficulty of implementing preventive and control measures. Guidelines for control and prevention of tuberculosis in prisons have been described as incomplete and heterogeneous internationally, due to several identified obstacles, for example scarcity of human resources and funding of prisoner health services. In Portugal, a protocol was created in 2014 with the aim to define and standardize procedures of detection and prevention of tuberculosis within prisons. Objective: The main objective of this study was to identify and describe barriers to tuberculosis detection in prisons of Porto and Lisbon districts in Portugal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2ⁿᵈ January 2018 till 30ᵗʰ June 2018. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to health care professionals working in the prisons of the districts of Porto (n=6) and Lisbon (n=8). As inclusion criteria we considered having work experience in the area of tuberculosis (either in diagnosis, treatment, or follow up). The questionnaires were self-administered, in paper format. Descriptive analyses of the questionnaire variables were made using frequencies and median. Afterwards, a hierarchical agglomerative clusters analysis was performed. After obtaining the clusters, the chi-square test was applied to study the association between the variables collected and the clusters. The level of significance considered was 0.05. Results: From the total of 186 health professionals, 139 met the criteria of inclusion and 82 health professionals were interviewed (62,2% of participation). Most were female, nurses, with a median age of 34 years, with term employment contract. From the cluster analysis, two groups were identified with different characteristics and behaviors for the procedures of this protocol. Statistically significant results were found in: elements of cluster 1 (78% of the total participants) work in prisons for a longer time (p=0.003), 45,3% work > 4 years while 50% of the elements of cluster 2 work for less than a year, and more frequently answered they know and apply the procedures of the protocol (p=0.000). Both clusters answered frequently the need of having theoretical-practical training for TB (p=0.000), especially in the areas of diagnosis, treatment and prevention and that there is scarcity of funding to prisoner health services (p=0.000). Regarding procedures for TB screening (periodic and contact screening) and procedures for transferring a prisoner with this disease, cluster 1 also answered more frequently to perform them (p=0.000). They also referred that the material/equipment for TB screening is accessible and available (p=0.000). From this clusters we identified as barriers scarcity of human resources, the need to theoretical-practical training for tuberculosis, inexperience in working in health services prisons and limited knowledge of protocol procedures. Conclusions: The barriers found in this study are the same described internationally. This protocol is mostly being applied in portuguese prisons. The study also showed the need to invest in human and material resources. This investigation bridged gaps in knowledge that could help prison health services optimize the care provided for early detection and adherence of prisoners to treatment of tuberculosis.

Keywords: barriers, health care professionals, prisons, protocol, tuberculosis

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37 Psychological Well Being of Female Prisoners

Authors: Sujata Gupta Kedar, J. N. Tulika


Early researchers suggested that imprisonment had negative psychological and physical effects on its inmates, leading to psychological deterioration. The term “prisons” in the Consensus Statement of WHO is intended to denote, as those institutions which hold people who have been sentenced to a period of imprisonment by the courts for offences against the law. Thus “prisons” if local circumstances justify it, may also be taken to include secure institutions holding on a compulsory basis on any of the following categories of people: remand prisoners; civil prisoners; juvenile detainees; immigration detainees; some categories of mentally disordered patients; asylum seekers; refugees; people detained pending expulsion, deportation, exile, exclusion or any other form of compulsory transfer to other countries or areas of the country; people detained in police cells; and any other compulsorily detained group. Prisons are aimed to cure the criminal and their behavior but their records are not encouraging. Instead the imprisonment affects all prisoners in different way. From withstanding the shock of entry to the new culture, which is very different from their own, prisoners must try to determine how to spend the time in prison, since the hours appears to be endless in prisons. There is also the fear of deterioration. This article aims to provide an overview of the psychological well being of female prisoners in the prison environment in five areas- satisfaction, efficiency, sociability, mental health and interpersonal relations. Research was done on two different types of imprisonment- under trial prisoner and convict. Total sample included 22 female prisoners of Nagaon Special Jail of Assam. The instrument used for the study was based on Psychological Well Being Scale. Statistical analysis was done with t-test and one way anova test. The result demonstrated that there is no significant difference in the psychological wellbeing of female prisoners in the prison and that there is no significant difference in the psychological well being of different types of female prisoners involved in different crimes but there is significant difference in the mental health of the female prisoners in prison.

Keywords: psychological effect, female prisoners, prison, well being of prisoners

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36 Realizing the Rights of Prisoners with Disabilities in Nigeria: A Case Study of Four Lagos State Prisons

Authors: Jacob Bogart, Adaobi Egboka


Nigeria signed and ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2010, which was heralded as a much-needed step towards protecting the rights of persons with disabilities (PWDs). However, even with such progress, incarcerated PWDs have been left behind. The current legal framework in Nigeria does not consider the particular challenges PWDs face in prison nor make provisions to address them, despite the need for such reforms. Indeed, given the closed and restricted nature of prisons, and the violence that results from overcrowding, lack of supervision, and poor facilities, prisoners with disabilities often face significant challenges while incarcerated. While every prisoner is affected by these issues, PWDs are disproportionately harmed by them due to the nature of their disability. A study of four prisons in Lagos State, Nigeria was carried out by interviewing prisoners with disabilities, prison officials, advocates, and academics. The study found that for prisoners with physical disabilities, inaccessible prison facilities and a lack of mobility, hearing, or seeing assistance can often cause them to be dependent on the mercy of the other inmates for assistance in performing such basic functions as using the restroom, going to church, or washing themselves. Prison officials do not assist these PWDs or provide them with aids, such as crutches or a cane. Relatedly, prisoners with psychosocial disabilities (mental health conditions) often are not removed to health care facilities, despite a law to that effect, and are left to languish in prisons without the mental health care treatment they need. This presentation argues that reforms addressing the rights of PWDs must consider and make provisions for prisoners with disabilities, such as ensuring that prison facilities are accessible, providing PWDs with mobility, seeing or hearing aids as needed, and conducting mental health screenings for persons awaiting trial immediately upon entering the prison. These reforms, among others, are necessary first steps toward realizing the rights of prisoners with disabilities in Nigeria.

Keywords: disability rights, human rights, Lagos, Nigeria, prisoners with disabilities

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35 Through Hope and Struggle: The Meaning of the Gaisce Award for Youth in Irish Prisons

Authors: Silvia Gagliardi, Orlaith Rice


This article provides a qualitative evaluation of 'Gaisce - The President's Award' for youth in Irish prisons. Building on previous research on Gaisce, this article makes space for marginalized voices to provide their own feedback on the program they participate in while in custody. Both strengths and limitations in undertaking a positive youth development program in prison are identified and examined. More research with vulnerable and marginalized participants, such as youth in prison, is recommended as a way to further improve youth development programs and thus enhance the opportunities for self-development and psychological wellbeing for youth, including in custodial settings.

Keywords: Gaisce, president's award, youth development program, youth in custody, hope, psychological wellbeing, Ireland, qualitative research, covid-19

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
34 Introducing Information and Communication Technologies in Prison: A Proposal in Favor of Social Reintegration

Authors: Carmen Rocio Fernandez Diaz


This paper focuses on the relevance of information and communication technologies (hereinafter referred as ‘ICTs’) as an essential part of the day-to-day life of all societies nowadays, as they offer the scenario where an immense number of behaviors are performed that previously took place in the physical world. In this context, areas of reality that have remained outside the so-called ‘information society’ are hardly imaginable. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify a means that continue to be behind this reality, and it is the penitentiary area regarding inmates rights, as security aspects in prison have already be improved by new technologies. Introducing ICTs in prisons is still a matter subject to great rejections. The study of comparative penitentiary systems worldwide shows that most of them use ICTs only regarding educational aspects of life in prison and that communications with the outside world are generally based on traditional ways. These are only two examples of the huge range of activities where ICTs can carry positive results within the prison. Those positive results have to do with the social reintegration of persons serving a prison sentence. Deprivation of liberty entails contact with the prison subculture and the harmful effects of it, causing in cases of long-term sentences the so-called phenomenon of ‘prisonization’. This negative effect of imprisonment could be reduced if ICTs were used inside prisons in the different areas where they can have an impact, and which are treated in this research, as (1) access to information and culture, (2) basic and advanced training, (3) employment, (4) communication with the outside world, (5) treatment or (6) leisure and entertainment. The content of all of these areas could be improved if ICTs were introduced in prison, as it is shown by the experience of some prisons of Belgium, United Kingdom or The United States. However, rejections to introducing ICTs in prisons obey to the fact that it could carry also risks concerning security and the commission of new offences. Considering these risks, the scope of this paper is to offer a real proposal to introduce ICTs in prison, trying to avoid those risks. This enterprise would be done to take advantage of the possibilities that ICTs offer to all inmates in order to start to build a life outside which is far from delinquency, but mainly to those inmates who are close to release. Reforming prisons in this sense is considered by the author of this paper an opportunity to offer inmates a progressive resettlement to live in freedom with a higher possibility to obey the law and to escape from recidivism. The value that new technologies would add to education, employment, communications or treatment to a person deprived of liberty constitutes a way of humanization of prisons in the 21st century.

Keywords: deprivation of freedom, information and communication technologies, imprisonment, social reintegration

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33 Recidivism in Brazil: Exploring the Case of the Association of Protection and Assistance to Convicts Methodology

Authors: Robyn Heitzman


The traditional method of punitive justice in Brazil has failed to prevent high levels of recidivism. Combined with overcrowding, a lack of resources, and human rights abuses, the conventional prison approach in Brazil is being questioned; one alternative approach is the association of protection and assistance to convicts (APAC) method. Justice -according to the principles of the APAC methodology- is served through education, reformation, and human development. The model has reported relatively low levels of recidivism and has been internationally recognised for its progress. Through qualitative research such as interviews and case studies, this paper explains why, applying the theory of restorative justice, the APAC methodology yields lower rates of recidivism compared to the traditional models of prisons in Brazil. 

Keywords: Brazil, justice, prisons, restorative

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
32 Criminal Justice System, Health and Imprisonment in India

Authors: Debolina Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra Chatterjee


Imprisonment is an expansive concept, as it is regulated by laws under criminal justice system of the state. The state sets principles of punishment to control offenders and also puts limits to excess punitive control. One significant way through which it exercises control is through rules governing healthcare of imprisoned population. Prisons signify specialized settings which accommodate both medical and legal concerns. The provision of care operates within the institutional paradigm of punishment. This requires the state to negotiate adequately between goals of punishment and fulfilment of basic human rights of offenders. The present study is based on a critical analysis of prison healthcare standards in India, which include government policies and guidelines. It also demonstrates how healthcare is delivered by drawing insights from a primary study conducted in a correctional home in the state of West Bengal, India, which houses both male and female inmates. Forty women were interviewed through semi-structured interviews, followed by focus group discussions. Doctors and administrative personnel were also interviewed. Findings show how institutional practices control women through subversion of the role of doctors to prison administration. Also, poor healthcare infrastructure, unavailability of specialized services, hierarchies between personnel and inmates make prisons unlikely sites for therapeutic intervention. The paper further discusses how institutional practices foster gender-based discriminatory practices.

Keywords: imprisonment, Indian prisons, prison healthcare, punishment

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
31 Pregnant Women and Mothers in Prison, Mother and Baby Units and Mental Health

Authors: Rachel Dolan


Background: Over two thirds of women in prison in England are mothers, and estimates suggest between 100 and 200 women per year give birth during imprisonment. There are currently six mother and baby units (MBUs) in prisons in England which admit women and babies up to the age of 18 months. Although there are only 65 places available, and despite positive impacts, they are rarely full. Mental illness may influence the number of admissions, as may interpretation of admission criteria. They are the only current alternative to separation for imprisoned mothers and their babies. Aims: To identify the factors that affect the decision to apply for/be offered a place in a prison MBU; to measure the impact of a placement upon maternal mental health and wellbeing; To measure the Initial outcomes for mother and child. Methods: A mixed methods approach - 100 pregnant women in English prisons are currently being recruited from prisons in England. Quantitative measures will establish the prevalence of mental disorder, personality disorder, substance misuse and quality of life. Qualitative interviews will document the experiences of pregnancy and motherhood in prison. Results: Preliminary quantitative findings suggest the most prevalent mental disorders are anxiety and depression and approximately half the participants meet the criteria for one or more personality disorders. The majority of participants to date have been offered a place in a prison MBU, and those in a prison with an MBU prior to applying are more likely to be admitted. Those with a previous history of childcare issues, who are known to social services are less likely to be offered a place. Qualitative findings suggest that many women are often hungry and uncomfortable during pregnancy, many have feelings of guilt about having a child in prison and that feelings of anxiety and worry are exacerbated by lack of information.

Keywords: mothers, prison, mother and baby units, mental health

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30 Between Dark and Light: The Construction and the Exclusion of Memory of Prison Heritage in Post-Soviet Period

Authors: Guo Cyuan Deng


This study represents how the Soviet-occupied dark memory in Baltic countries were interpreted and represented by examining the way of management of prison heritage. Based on the formulation of a dark-tourism spectrum which Philip Stone proposed, the Patarei prison in Estonia and the Karosta prison in Latvia are compared, and it is thought that both prisons, which had experienced similar colonial history, face different tourism operation in the present. The former is being run by NGO and remain the situation of “empty" by art intervening. However, the Estonia government attempt to get the operation of museum and transform it to anti-Soviet museum in order show national identity. By contrast, the latter is being managed by private company, whom transformed the prison to "dark fun factories" by entertainment activities in order to private capital accumulation. Moreover, it is not only indicated that both prisons exclude the minority's memory, but also the flaws of dark-tourism spectrum which divide the dark and light are discussed. Finally, given the nature and function of dark heritage, the concept "le métro" is used to supplement Stone's spectrum.

Keywords: dark tourism, prison heritage, Post-Soviet, Baltic countries, national identities

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29 Moving Forward to Stand Still: Social Experiences of Children with a Parent in Prison in Ireland

Authors: Aisling Parkes, Fiona Donson


There is no doubt that parental imprisonment directly alters the social experiences of childhood for many children worldwide today. Indeed, the extent to which meaningful contact with a parent in prison can positively impact on the life of a child is well documented as are the benefits for the prisoner, particularly in the long term and post-release. However, despite the growing acceptance of children’s rights in Ireland over the past decade in particular, it appears that children’s rights have not yet succeeded in breaking through the walls of Irish prisons when children are visiting an incarcerated parent. In a prison system that continues to prioritise security over all other considerations, little attention has been given to the importance of recognising and protecting the rights of children affected by parental imprisonment in Ireland for children, families and society in the long term. This paper will present the findings which have emerged from a national qualitative research project (the first of its kind to be conducted in Ireland) which examines the current visiting conditions for children and families, and the related culture of visitation within the Irish Prison system. This study investigated, through semi-structured interviews and focus groups, the unique and specialist perspectives of senior prison management, prison governors, prison officers, support organisations, prison child care workers, as well as those with a family member in prison who have direct experience of prison visits in Ireland which involve children and young people. The reality of the current system of visitation that operates in Irish prisons and its impact on children’s rights is presented from a variety of perspectives. The idea of what meaningful contact means from a children’s rights based perspective is interrogated as are the benefits long term for both the child and the offender. The current system is benchmarked against well-accepted international children’s rights norms as reflected under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989. The dissonance that continues to exist between the theory of children’s rights which includes the right to maintain meaningful contact with a parent in prison and current practice and procedure in Irish Prisons will be explored. In adopting a children’s rights based perspective combined with socio-legal research, this paper will explore the added value that this approach to prison visiting might offer in responding to this particularly marginalised group of children in terms of their social experience of childhood. Finally, the question will be raised as to whether or not there is a responsibility on prisons to view children as independent rights holders when they come to visit the prison or is the prison entitled to focus solely on the prisoner with their children being viewed as a circumstance of the offender? Do the interests of the child and the prisoner have to be exclusive or is there any way of marrying the two?

Keywords: children’s rights, prisoners, sociology, visitation

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28 Deaf Inmates in Canadian Prisons: Addressing Discrimination through Staff Training Videos with Deaf Actors

Authors: Tracey Bone


Deaf inmates, whose first or preferred language is a Signed Language, experience barriers to accessing the necessary two-way communication with correctional staff, and the educational and social programs that will enhance their eligibility for conditional release from the federal prison system in Canada. The development of visual content to enhance the knowledge and skill development of correctional staff is a contemporary strategy intended to significantly improve the correctional experience for deaf inmates. This presentation reports on the development of two distinct training videos created to enhance staff’s understanding of the needs of deaf inmates; one a two-part simulation of an interaction with a deaf inmate, the second an interview with a deaf academic. Part one of video one demonstrates the challenges and misunderstandings inherent in communicating across languages without a qualified sign language interpreter; the second part demonstrates the ease of communication when communication needs are met. Video two incorporates the experiences of a deaf academic to provide the cultural grounding necessary to educate staff in the unique experiences associated with being a visual language user. Lack of staff understanding or awareness of deaf culture and language must not be acceptable reasons for the inadequate treatment of deaf visual language users in federal prisons. This paper demonstrates a contemporary approach to meeting the human rights and needs of this unique and often ignored inmate subpopulation. The deaf community supports this visual approach to enhancing staff understanding of the unique needs of this population. A study of its effectiveness is currently underway.

Keywords: accommodations, American Sign Language (ASL), deaf inmates, sensory deprivation

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27 Secondary Prisonization and Mental Health: A Comparative Study with Elderly Parents of Prisoners Incarcerated in Remote Jails

Authors: Luixa Reizabal, Inaki Garcia, Eneko Sansinenea, Ainize Sarrionandia, Karmele Lopez De Ipina, Elsa Fernandez


Although the effects of incarceration in prisons close to prisoners’ and their families’ residences have been studied, little is known about the effects of remote incarceration. The present study shows the impact of secondary prisonization on mental health of elderly parents of Basque prisoners who are incarcerated in prisons located far away from prisoners’ and their families’ residences. Secondary prisonization refers to the effects that imprisonment of a family member has on relatives. In the study, psychological effects are analyzed by means of comparative methodology. Specifically, levels of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, and stress) and positive mental health (psychological, social, and emotional well-being) are studied in a sample of parents over 65 years old of prisoners incarcerated in prisons located a long distance away (concretely, some of them in a distance of less than 400 km, while others farther than 400 km) from the Basque Country. The dataset consists of data collected through a questionnaire and from a spontaneous speech recording. The statistical and automatic analyses show that levels of psychopathology and positive mental health of elderly parents of prisoners incarcerated in remote jails are affected by the incarceration of their sons or daughters. Concretely, these parents show higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress and lower levels of emotional (but not psychological or social) wellbeing than parents with no imprisoned daughters or sons. These findings suggest that parents with imprisoned sons or daughters suffer the impact of secondary prisonization on their mental health. When comparing parents with sons or daughters incarcerated within 400 kilometers from home and parents whose sons or daughters are incarcerated farther than 400 kilometers from home, the latter present higher levels of psychopathology, but also higher levels of positive mental health (although the difference between the two groups is not statistically significant). These findings might be explained by resilience. In fact, in traumatic situations, people can develop a force to cope with the situation, and even present a posttraumatic growth. Bearing in mind all these findings, it could be concluded that secondary prisonization implies for elderly parents with sons or daughters incarcerated in remote jails suffering and, in consequence, that changes in the penitentiary policy applied to Basque prisoners are required in order to finish this suffering.

Keywords: automatic spontaneous speech analysis, elderly parents, machine learning, positive mental health, psychopathology, remote incarceration, secondary prisonization

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26 Top-Down, Middle-Out, Bottom-Up: A Design Approach to Transforming Prison

Authors: Roland F. Karthaus, Rachel S. O'Brien


Over the past decade, the authors have undertaken applied research aimed at enabling transformation within the prison service to improve conditions and outcomes for those living, working and visiting in prisons in the UK and the communities they serve. The research has taken place against a context of reducing resources and public discontent at increasing levels of violence, deteriorating conditions and persistently high levels of re-offending. Top-down governmental policies have mainly been ineffectual and in some cases counter-productive. The prison service is characterised by hierarchical organisation, and the research has applied design thinking at multiple levels to challenge and precipitate change: top-down, middle-out and bottom-up. The research employs three distinct but related approaches, system design (top-down): working at the national policy level to analyse the changing policy context, identifying opportunities and challenges; engaging with the Ministry of Justice commissioners and sector organisations to facilitate debate, introducing new evidence and provoking creative thinking, place-based design (middle-out): working with individual prison establishments as pilots to illustrate and test the potential for local empowerment, creative change, and improved architecture within place-specific contexts and organisational hierarchies, everyday design (bottom-up): working with individuals in the system to explore the potential for localised, significant, demonstrator changes; including collaborative design, capacity building and empowerment in skills, employment, communication, training, and other activities. The research spans a series of projects, through which the methodological approach has developed responsively. The projects include a place-based model for the re-purposing of Ministry of Justice land assets for the purposes of rehabilitation; an evidence-based guide to improve prison design for health and well-being; capacity-based employment, skills and self-build project as a template for future open prisons. The overarching research has enabled knowledge to be developed and disseminated through policy and academic networks. Whilst the research remains live and continuing; key findings are emerging as a basis for a new methodological approach to effecting change in the UK prison service. An interdisciplinary approach is necessary to overcome the barriers between distinct areas of the prison service. Sometimes referred to as total environments, prisons encompass entire social and physical environments which themselves are orchestrated by institutional arms of government, resulting in complex systems that cannot be meaningfully engaged through narrow disciplinary lenses. A scalar approach is necessary to connect strategic policies with individual experiences and potential, through the medium of individual prison establishments, operating as discrete entities within the system. A reflexive process is necessary to connect research with action in a responsive mode, learning to adapt as the system itself is changing. The role of individuals in the system, their latent knowledge and experience and their ability to engage and become agents of change are essential. Whilst the specific characteristics of the UK prison system are unique, the approach is internationally applicable.

Keywords: architecture, design, policy, prison, system, transformation

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25 Improving Post Release Outcomes

Authors: Michael Airton


This case study examines the development of a new service delivery model for prisons that focuses on using NGO’s to provide more effective case management and post release support functions. The model includes the co-design of the service delivery model and innovative commercial agreements that encourage embedded service providers within the prison and continuity of services post release with outcomes based payment mechanisms. The collaboration of prison staff, probation and parole officers and NGO’s is critical to the success of the model and its ability to deliver value and positive outcomes in relation to desistance from offending.

Keywords: collaborative service delivery, desistance, non-government organisations, post release support services

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24 ISIS Women Recruitment in Spain and De-Radicalization Programs in Prisons

Authors: Inmaculada Yuste Martinez


Since July 5, 2014, Abubaker al Bagdadi, leader of the Islamic State since 2010 climbed the pulpit of the Great Mosque of Al Nuri of Mosul and proclaimed the Caliphate, the number of fighters who have travelled to Syria to join the Caliphate has increased as never before. Although it is true that the phenomenon of foreign fighters is not a new phenomenon, as it occurred after the Spanish Civil War, Republicans from Ireland and the conflict of the Balkans among others, it is highly relevant the fact that in this case, it has reached figures unknown in Europe until now. The approval of the resolution 2178 (2014) of the Security Council, foreign terrorist fighters placed the subject a priority position on the International agenda. The available data allow us to affirm that women have increasingly assumed operative functions in jihadist terrorism and in the activities linked to it in the development of attacks in the European Union, including minors and young adults. In the case of Spain, one in four of the detainees in 2016 were women, a significant increase compared to 2015. This contrasts with the fact that until 2014 no woman had been prosecuted in Spain for terrorist activities of a jihadist nature. It is fundamental when we talk about the prevention of radicalization and counterterrorism that we do not underestimate the potential threat to the security of countries like Spain that women from the West can assume to the global jihadist movement. This work aims to deepen the radicalization processes of these women and their profiles influencing the female inmate population. It also wants to focus on the importance of creating de-radicalization programs for these inmates since women are a crucial element in radicalization processes. A special focus it is made on young radicalized female inmate population as this target group is the most recoverable and on which it would result more fruitful to intervene. De-radicalization programs must also be designed to fit their profiles and circumstances; a sensitive environment will be prisons and juvenile centers, areas that until now had been unrelated to this problem and which are already hosting the first convicted in judicial offices in Spanish territory. A qualitative research and an empirical and analytical method has been implemented in this work, focused on the cases that took place in Spain of young women and the imaginary that the Islamic State uses for the processes of radicalization for this target group and how it does not fit with their real role in the Jihad, as opposed to other movements in which women do have a real and active role in the armed conflict as YPJ do it as a part of the armed wing of the Democratic Union Party of Syria.

Keywords: caliphate, de-radicalization, foreign fighter, gender perspective, ISIS, jihadism, recruitment

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23 Meeting Criminogenic Needs to Reduce Recidivism: The Diversion of Vulnerable Offenders from the Criminal Justice System into Care

Authors: Paulo Rocha


Once in touch with the Criminal Justice System, offenders with mental disorder tend to return to custody more often than nondisordered individuals, which suggests they have not been receiving appropriate treatment in prison. In this scenario, diverting individuals into care as early as possible in their trajectory seems to be the appropriate approach to rehabilitate mentally unwell offenders and alleviate overcrowded prisons. This paper builds on an ethnographic research investigating the challenges encountered by practitioners working to divert offenders into care while attempting to establish cross-boundary interactions with professionals in the Criminal Justice System and Mental Health Services in the UK. Drawing upon the findings of the study, this paper suggests the development of adequate tools to enable liaison between agencies which ultimately results in successful interventions.

Keywords: criminogenic needs, interagency collaboration, liaison and diversion, recidivism

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22 Indicators of Radicalization in Prisons Facilities: Identification and Assessment

Authors: David Kramsky, Barbora Vegrichtova


The prison facility is generally considered as an environment having a corrective purpose. Besides the social sense of remedy, prison is also an environment that potentially determines and affects socially dangerous behavior. The authors, based on long-term empirical research, present the significant indicators that are directly related to the transformation of personality attitudes, motivations and behavior associating with a process of radicalization. One of the most significant symptoms of radicalization is a particular social moral decision making. Individuals in the radicalism process primarily prefer utilitarian manners of decision-making more than personal aspects like empathy for others. The authors will present the method of social moral profiling of the subject in radicalization process as an effective prevention system reducing security risks in society.

Keywords: indicators, moral decision, radicalism, social profile

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21 Perceived Procedural Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Evidence from a Security Organization

Authors: Noa Nelson, Orit Appel, Rachel Ben-ari


Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is voluntary employee behavior that contributes to the organization beyond formal job requirements. It can take different forms, such as helping teammates (OCB toward individuals; hence, OCB-I), or staying after hours to attend a task force (OCB toward the organization; hence, OCB-O). Generally, OCB contributes substantially to organizational climate, goals, productivity, and resilience, so organizations need to understand what encourages it. This is particularly challenging in security organizations. Security work is characterized by high levels of stress and burnout, which is detrimental to OCB, and security organizational design emphasizes formal rules and clear hierarchies, leaving employees with less freedom for voluntary behavior. The current research explored the role of Perceived Procedural Justice (PPJ) in enhancing OCB in a security organization. PPJ refers to how fair decision-making processes are perceived to be. It involves the sense that decision makers are objective, attentive to everyone's interests, respectful in their communications and participatory - allowing individuals a voice in decision processes. Justice perceptions affect motivation, and it was specifically suggested that PPJ creates an attachment to one's organization and personal interest in its success. Accordingly, PPJ had been associated with OCB, but hardly any research tested their association with security organizations. The current research was conducted among prison guards in the Israel Prison Service, to test a correlational and a causal association between PPJ and OCB. It differentiated between perceptions of direct commander procedural justice (CPJ), and perceptions of organization procedural justice (OPJ), hypothesizing that CPJ would relate to OCB-I, while OPJ would relate to OCB-O. In the first study, 336 prison guards (305 male) from 10 different prisons responded to questionnaires measuring their own CPJ, OPJ, OCB-I, and OCB-O. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated the significance of commander procedural justice (CPJ): It associated with OCB-I and also associated with OPJ, which, in turn, associated with OCB-O. The second study tested CPJ's causal effects on prison guards' OCB-I and OCB-O; 311 prison guards (275 male) from 14 different prisons read scenarios that described either high or low CPJ, and then evaluated the likelihood of that commander's prison guards performing OCB-I and OCB-O. In this study, CPJ enhanced OCB-O directly. It also contributed to OCB-I, indirectly: CPJ enhanced the motivation for collaboration with the commander, which respondents also evaluated after reading scenarios. Collaboration, in turn, associated with OCB-I. The studies demonstrate that procedural justice, especially commander's PJ, promotes OCB in security work environments. This is important because extraordinary teamwork and motivation are needed to deal with emergency situations and with delicate security challenges. Following the studies, the Israel Prison Service implemented personal procedural justice training for commanders and unit level programs for procedurally just decision processes. From a theoretical perspective, the studies extend the knowledge on PPJ and OCB to security work environments and contribute evidence on PPJ's causal effects. They also call for further research, to understand the mechanisms through which different types of PPJ affect different types of OCB.

Keywords: organizational citizenship behavior, perceived procedural justice, prison guards, security organizations

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20 The Development of Psychosis in Offenders and Its Relationship to Crime

Authors: Belinda Crissman


Serious mental disorder is greatly overrepresented in prisoners compared to the general community, with consequences for prison management, recidivism and the prisoners themselves. Incarcerated individuals with psychotic disorders experience insufficient detection and treatment and higher rates of suicide in custody. However direct evidence to explain the overrepresentation of individuals with psychosis in prisons is sparse. The current study aimed to use a life course criminology perspective to answer two key questions: 1) What is the temporal relationship between psychosis and offending (does first mental health contact precede first recorded offence, or does the offending precede the mental health diagnosis)? 2) Are there key temporal points or system contacts prior to incarceration that could be identified as opportunities for early intervention? Data from the innovative Queensland Linkage project was used to link individuals with their corrections, health and relevant social service systems to answer these questions.

Keywords: mental disorder, crime, life course criminology, prevention

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19 Detention Experiences of Asylum Seeking Children in Canada: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Zohra Faize


Globalization has expanded the mobility privileges of the Global North population while simultaneously, those in the Global South, namely poor, and racialized minorities are increasingly criminalized for crossing international borders. As part of this global trend, Canada also engages in tight border control practices, which often result in marginalization and criminalization of asylum seekers, including children. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis as a theoretical framework and methodology, this research explores the effects of tight border control practices on children asylum-seekers; with a specific focus on detention experiences in Canadian prisons and immigration Holding Centers. The preliminary results of interviews with 8 participants confirm the violations of child rights that stem from the detention practice. Children also report that they find immigration detention to be a stressful and a confusing experience, often resulting in feeling of shame and guilt after their release into the community.

Keywords: border control, crimmigration, Canada, children asylum seekers, immcarceration, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA)

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18 Incarcerated Students' Participation Rates in Open Distance Education: Exploring the Role of South African Universities

Authors: Veisiwe Gasa


Many higher institutions of education that offer Open Distance Learning (ODL) and e-Learning have opened their doors to accommodate prisoners who want to further their studies. The provision of education for prisoners in South Africa emanates from a number of reasons. The alarmingly high numbers of the prison population in South Africa has called for the government to provide desperate measures. It is on these premises that the provision of higher education in prison is recommended. Higher education is recommended because of the belief that it creates employability and thereby reduces recidivism. Using targeted sampling, 5 universities were required to elaborate on their awareness strategies, how they ensure that Distance Education is accessible to the prisoners and also the ways in which they cater to the needs of incarcerated students. The research findings reveal that there is so little that has been done by these particular institutions to cater for prisoners. This raises a concern and indicates a need to raise awareness of the value of higher and distance education among prisoners. It also calls for higher education institutions to make prisons aware of their course offerings.

Keywords: e-Learning, incarcerated students, open distance learning, recidivism

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17 Strategies by National Health Systems in the Northern Hemisphere Against COVID-19

Authors: Aysha Zahidie, Meesha Iqbal


This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of strategies adopted by national health systems across the globe in different ‘geographical regions’ in the Northern Hemisphere to combat COVID-19 pandemic. Data is included from the first case reported in November 2019 till mid-April 2020. Sources of information are COVID-19 case repositories, official country websites, university research teams’ perspectives, official briefings, and available published research articles to date. We triangulated all data to formulate a comprehensive illustration of COVID-19 situation in each country included. It has been found that the 2002-2004 SARS outbreak experienced in China, Taiwan, and South Korea saw better strategies adopted by leadership to combat COVID-19 pandemic containment as compared to Iran, Italy, and the United States of America. Saudi Arabia has so far been successful in the implementation of containment strategies as there have been no large outbreaks in major cities or confined areas such as prisons. The situation has yet to unfold in India and Pakistan, which exhibit their own weaknesses in policy formulation or implementation in response to health crises.

Keywords: national health systems, COVID-19, prevention, response

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16 Games behind Bars: A Longitudinal Study of Inmates Pro-Social Preferences

Authors: Mario A. Maggioni, Domenico Rossignoli, Simona Beretta, Sara Balestri


The paper presents the results of a Longitudinal Randomized Control Trial implemented in 2016 two State Prisons in California (USA). The subjects were randomly assigned to a 10-months program (GRIP, Guiding Rage Into Power) aiming at undoing the destructive behavioral patterns that lead to criminal actions by raising the individual’s 'mindfulness'. This study tests whether the participation to this program (treatment), based on strong relationships and mutual help, affects pro-social behavior of participants, in particular with reference to trust and inequality aversion. The research protocol entails the administration of two questionnaires including a set of behavioral situations ('games') - widely used in the relevant literature in the field - to 80 inmates, 42 treated (enrolled in the program) and 38 controls. The first questionnaire has been administered before treatment and randomization took place; the second questionnaire at the end of the program. The results of a Difference-in-Differences estimation procedure, show that trust significantly increases GRIP participants to compared to the control group. The result is robust to alternative estimation techniques and to the inclusion of a set of covariates to further control for idiosyncratic characteristics of the prisoners.

Keywords: behavioral economics, difference in differences, longitudinal study, pro-social preferences

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15 Study on the Characteristics of Victims and Victimizers of Intimate Partner Violence in Spain and Its Impact on Criminal Intervention

Authors: María José Benitez Jimenez


This research is based on the hypothesis that, despite being found that the problem of violence against the female partner occurs in all social classes, the criminal intervention falls, above all, on victims and aggressors with sociodemographic characteristics of the most excluded social groups. The methodology used in this study has been a collection of information through Spanish official statistics from 2004 to 2016: population, police, judicial and penitentiary data from Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice and statistics National Institute. The data provided show that women victims and aggressors who come into contact with criminal intervention bodies for filing a complaint or having been reported, respectively, show a very high percentage, usually well above 50%, only primary studies or even that. Their employment situation is also precarious, in a percentage that could also be around 70%. The percentage distribution of these two variables is clearly above that which occurs in the whole of the Spanish population, in a particularly marked way as regards the employment situation. Immigrants triple, as victims or as aggressors of gender violence, the percentages of the Spanish population in terms of their contact with the organs of criminal intervention. Also the rate of foreign inmates in prisons for violence against the female couple doubles that of Spanish inmates.

Keywords: inmigrants, intimate partner violence, Spain, sociodemographic characteristics

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14 Restorative Justice Programmes in South African Prison Environment: A Qualitative Enquiry

Authors: Clarice Zimbili Zondi


This study investigates the effect of restorative justice programmes offered to offenders in prison environment (Correctional Centres) during their rehabilitation. The study looks specifically to programmes offered by a Non-Profit Organisation (NPO), Phoenix Zululand (PZ) in twelve (12) different prisons in Zululand, South Africa. Document analysis, interviews and participant observation methods were used to test whether the work done by Phoenix Zululand is in line with the remarks made on restorative justice as encapsulated in the White Paper on Corrections 2005 in South Africa. Also tested was whether a better understanding of restorative justice programmes assists in coming up with better strategies to change the behaviour of offenders. The study findings discovered that the work that is done by PZ is not in line with the remarks made in the White Paper on Corrections. Also the importance of a full comprehension of what one is doing in order to be effective in rehabilitation. However, rehabilitation that is aimed at only changing the decision-making processes of offenders not to reoffend, does not serve as a total rehabilitation programme. Rehabilitation is only successful if ex-offenders, whilst still in prison, have developed market-related skills and become employed or self-employed. Restorative Justice Programmes offered by PZ, although they play a critical role, appears to be lacking in equipping offenders with skills for effective reintegration into society and, subsequently, self-reliance.

Keywords: offender, rehabilitation, restorative justice, prison

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13 Racism in Drug Policies: A Report on United States Legislation

Authors: Frederick Monyepao


Crack cocaine first appeared on the scene in the form of cocaine freebasing in the late 1970s. Stockbrokers, investment bankers, rock stars, Hollywood elites, and a few pro athletes were regular users of the substance. As criminogenic factors associated with substance abuse began to surface, congress passed new legislation. The laws led to the increase of health coverage insurances and the expansion of hospitals. By the mid-1980s, crack use spread into America's inner cities among impoverished African Americans and Latinos. While substance abuse increased among minority communities, legislation pertaining to substance abuse evolved. The prison industry also expanded the number of cells available. A qualitative approach was taken, drawing from a range secondary sources for contextual analysis. This paper traces out the continued marginalisation and racist undertones towards minorities as perpetuated by certain drug policies. It was discovered that the new legislation on crack was instrumental in the largest incarcerations the United States ever faced. Drug offenders increased in prisons eightfold from 1986 to 2000. The paper concludes that American drug control policies are consistently irrational and ineffective when measured by levels of substance use and abuse. On the contrary, these policies have been successful as agents of social control in maintaining the stratification patterns of racial/ethnic minorities and women. To move beyond prohibition, radical law and policy reform may require a change in narratives on substance use.

Keywords: crack, drug policy, minorities, racism, substance abuse

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