Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1051

Search results for: trends

1051 A Polyphonic Look at Trends

Authors: Turquesa Topper

Abstract:

The reflection focuses on recording and explaining the considerations, conceptualizations and methodological approach with which from the University, that is to say, from the academic field, the study of Trends is addressed with the intention of training professionals in the area, an area that requires disciplinary boundaries and builds a polyphonic vision. When referring to the objective of our Laboratory the detection of aesthetic trends of consumption, we find ourselves in the requirement to define our object: trends, aesthetic trends of consumption, more specifically. The pages cover a conception of trends from a theoretical framework that incorporates contributions from linguistics, semiotics, sociology, cultural studies and project disciplines, in order to consolidate a polyphonic look. The text investigates in the pre-discursive aspect of the trends, in the circulation of the notion of style and in the dynamics of affirmation - denial as the constitutive dynamics of Fashion linked to any process of innovation. From such inquiry, it is presented to Fashion as a system that operates directly on the construction of socio-individual identities unfolding through the liquefaction of signs in trends.

Keywords: fashion, methodology, narrative, trends

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1050 Twitter's Impact on Print Media with Respect to Real World Events

Authors: Basit Shahzad, Abdullatif M. Abdullatif

Abstract:

Recent advancements in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and easy access to Internet have made social media the first choice for information sharing related to any important events or news. On Twitter, trend is a common feature that quantifies the level of popularity of a certain news or event. In this work, we examine the impact of Twitter trends on real world events by hypothesizing that Twitter trends have an influence on print media in Pakistan. For this, Twitter is used as a platform and Twitter trends as a base line. We first collect data from two sources (Twitter trends and print media) in the period May to August 2016. Obtained data from two sources is analyzed and it is observed that social media is significantly influencing the print media and majority of the news printed in newspaper are posted on Twitter earlier.

Keywords: twitter trends, text mining, effectiveness of trends, print media

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
1049 Trends in Extreme Rainfall Events in Tasmania, Australia

Authors: Orpita U. Laz, Ataur Rahman

Abstract:

Climate change will affect various aspects of hydrological cycle such as rainfall. A change in rainfall will affect flood magnitude and frequency in future which will affect the design and operation of hydraulic structures. In this paper, trends in sub-hourly, sub-daily, and daily extreme rainfall events from 18 rainfall stations located in Tasmania, Australia are examined. Two non-parametric tests (Mann-Kendall and Spearman’s Rho) are applied to detect trends at 10%, 5%, and 1% significance levels. Sub-hourly (6, 12, 18, and 30 minutes) annual maximum rainfall events have been found to experience statistically significant upward trends at 10 % level of significance. However, sub-daily durations (1 hour, 3 and 12 hours) exhibit decreasing trends and no trends exists for longer duration rainfall events (e.g. 24 and 72 hours). Some of the durations (e.g. 6 minutes and 6 hours) show similar results (with upward trends) for both the tests. For 12, 18, 60 minutes and 3 hours durations both the tests show similar downward trends. This finding has important implication for Tasmania in the design of urban infrastructure where shorter duration rainfall events are more relevant for smaller urban catchments such as parking lots, roof catchments and smaller sub-divisions.

Keywords: climate change, design rainfall, Mann-Kendall test, trends, Spearman’s Rho, Tasmania

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1048 Investigating the Trends in Tourism and Hospitality Industry in Nigeria at Centenary

Authors: Pius Agbebi Alaba

Abstract:

The study emphasized on the effects of contemporary and prospect trends on the development of Hospitality and Tourism in Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined globalization, safety and security, diversity, service, technology, demographic changes and price–value as contemporary trends while prospect trends such as green and Eco-lodgings, Development of mega hotels, Boutique hotels, Intelligent hotels with advanced technology using the guest’s virtual fingerprint in order to perform all the operations, increasing employee salaries in order retain the existing Staff, More emphasis on the internet and technology, Guests’ virtual and physical social network were equally examined. The methodology for the study involved review of existing related study, books, journal and internet. The findings emanated from the exercise showed clearly that the impact of both trends on the development of Hospitality and Tourism in Nigeria would bring about rapid positive transformation of her socio-economic, political and cultural environment. The implication of the study is that it will prepare both private and corporate individuals in hospitality and tourism business for the challenges inherent in both trends.

Keywords: hospitality and tourism, Nigeria's centenary, trends, implications

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1047 Identification of Rainfall Trends in Qatar

Authors: Abdullah Al Mamoon, Ataur Rahman

Abstract:

Due to climate change, future rainfall will change at many locations on earth; however, the spatial and temporal patterns of this change are not easy to predict. One approach of predicting such future changes is to examine the trends in the historical rainfall data at a given region and use the identified trends to make future prediction. For this, a statistical trend test is commonly applied to the historical data. This paper examines the trends of daily extreme rainfall events from 30 rain gauges located in the State of Qatar. Rainfall data covering from 1962 to 2011 were used in the analysis. A combination of four non-parametric and parametric tests was applied to identify trends at 10%, 5%, and 1% significance levels. These tests are Mann-Kendall (MK), Spearman’s Rho (SR), Linear Regression (LR) and CUSUM tests. These tests showed both positive and negative trends throughout the country. Only eight stations showed positive (upward) trend, which were however not statistically significant. In contrast, significant negative (downward) trends were found at the 5% and 10% levels of significance in six stations. The MK, SR and LR tests exhibited very similar results. This finding has important implications in the derivation/upgrade of design rainfall for Qatar, which will affect design and operation of future urban drainage infrastructure in Qatar.

Keywords: trends, extreme rainfall, daily rainfall, Mann-Kendall test, climate change, Qatar

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1046 State of Freelancing in IT and Future Trends

Authors: Mihai Gheorghe

Abstract:

Freelancing in IT has seen an increased popularity during the last years mainly because of the fast Internet adoption in the countries with emerging economies, correlated with the continuous seek for reduced development costs as well with the rise of online platforms which address planning, coordination, and various development tasks. This paper conducts an overview of the most relevant Freelance Marketplaces available and studies the market structure, distribution of the workforce and trends in IT freelancing.

Keywords: freelancing in IT, freelance marketplaces, freelance market structure, globalization, online staffing, trends in freelancing

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1045 A Trends Analysis of Yatch Simulator

Authors: Jae-Neung Lee, Keun-Chang Kwak

Abstract:

This paper describes an analysis of Yacht Simulator international trends and also explains about Yacht. Examples of yacht Simulator using Yacht Simulator include image processing for totaling the total number of vehicles, edge/target detection, detection and evasion algorithm, image processing using SIFT (scale invariant features transform) matching, and application of median filter and thresholding.

Keywords: yacht simulator, simulator, trends analysis, SIFT

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
1044 Looking for a Connection between Oceanic Regions with Trends in Evaporation with Continental Ones with Trends in Precipitation through a Lagrangian Approach

Authors: Raquel Nieto, Marta Vázquez, Anita Drumond, Luis Gimeno

Abstract:

One of the hot spots of climate change is the increment of ocean evaporation. The best estimation of evaporation, OAFlux data, shows strong increasing trends in evaporation from the oceans since 1978, with peaks during the hemispheric winter and strongest along the paths of the global western boundary currents and any inner Seas. The transport of moisture from oceanic sources to the continents is the connection between evaporation from the ocean and precipitation over the continents. A key question is to try to relate evaporative source regions over the oceans where trends have occurred in the last decades with their sinks over the continents to check if there have been also any trends in the precipitation amount or its characteristics. A Lagrangian approach based on FLEXPART and ERA-interim data is used to establish this connection. The analyzed period was 1980 to 2012. Results show that there is not a general pattern, but a significant agreement was found in important areas of climate interest.

Keywords: ocean evaporation, Lagrangian approaches, contiental precipitation, Europe

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1043 Analyses of Reference Evapotranspiration in West of Iran under Climate Change

Authors: Saeed Jahanbakhsh Asl, Yaghob Dinpazhoh, Masoumeh Foroughi

Abstract:

Reference evapotranspiration (ET₀) is an important element in the water cycle that integrates atmospheric demands and surface conditions, and analysis of changes in ET₀ is of great significance for understanding climate change and its impacts on hydrology. As ET₀ is an integrated effect of climate variables, increases in air temperature should lead to increases in ET₀. ET₀ estimated by using the globally accepted Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Penman-Monteith (FAO-56 PM) method in 18 meteorological stations located in the West of Iran. The trends of ET₀ detected by using the Mann-Kendall (MK) test. The slopes of the trend lines were computed by using the Sen’s slope estimator. The results showed significant increasing as well as decreasing trends in the annual and monthly ET₀. However, ET₀ trends were increasing. In the monthly scale, the number of the increasing trends was more than the number of decreasing trends, in the majority of warm months of the year.

Keywords: climate change, Mann–Kendall, Penman-Monteith method (FAO-56 PM), reference crop evapotranspiration

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1042 Elaboration Development Strategy and the Analysis of Trends Shaping the Information Economy in Azerbaijan on the Basis of the Experience of Foreign Countries

Authors: Rasim M. Alguliyev, Alovsat G. Aliyev

Abstract:

In the paper information on economic development trends in developed countries are analyzed. The current status of information society and economy of the country is reviewed and some recommendations are given for future development. The problems of Information Society and establishment of its innovative economy are studied. In this turn, development trends information economy in developed countries are analyzed.

Keywords: information economy, ICT sector, ICT infrastructure, innovation, innovation system hi-tech products, antimonopoly policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1041 An Investigation of Trends and Variability of Rainfall in Shillong City

Authors: Kamal Kumar Tanti, Nayan Moni Saikia, Markynti Swer

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate and analyse the trends and variability of rainfall in Shillong and its nearby areas, located in Meghalaya hills of North-East India; which is geographically a neighbouring area to the wettest places of the Earth, i.e., Cherrapunji and Mawsynram. The analysis of variability and trends to annual, seasonal, monthly and daily rainfall was carried out, using the data collected from the IMD station at Shillong; thereby attempting to highlight whether rainfall in Shillong area has been increasing or decreasing over the years. Rainfall variability coefficient is utilized to compare the current rainfall trend of the area with its past rainfall trends. The present study also aims to analyse the frequency of occurrence of extreme rainfall events over the region. These studies will help us to establish a correlation between the current rainfall trend and climate change scenario of the study area.

Keywords: trends and variability of rainfall, annual, seasonal, monthly and daily rainfall, rainfall variability coefficient, extreme rainfall events, climate change, Shillong, Cherrapunji, Mawsynram

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
1040 An Online Adaptive Thresholding Method to Classify Google Trends Data Anomalies for Investor Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Duygu Dere, Mert Ergeneci, Kaan Gokcesu

Abstract:

Google Trends data has gained increasing popularity in the applications of behavioral finance, decision science and risk management. Because of Google’s wide range of use, the Trends statistics provide significant information about the investor sentiment and intention, which can be used as decisive factors for corporate and risk management fields. However, an anomaly, a significant increase or decrease, in a certain query cannot be detected by the state of the art applications of computation due to the random baseline noise of the Trends data, which is modelled as an Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Since through time, the baseline noise power shows a gradual change an adaptive thresholding method is required to track and learn the baseline noise for a correct classification. To this end, we introduce an online method to classify meaningful deviations in Google Trends data. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our method can successfully classify various anomalies for plenty of different data.

Keywords: adaptive data processing, behavioral finance , convex optimization, online learning, soft minimum thresholding

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1039 Reproductive Traits for Holstein Cattle

Authors: Ashraf M. Ward, Ruban S. Yu

Abstract:

Data consisting of 2757 records from tow Holstein herds made between 2000 and 2010 were used to examine environmental factors affecting age at first calving (AFC) and calving intervals (CI) and consequently estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends. The overall means and standard errors for AFC and CI were 39.4 ± 7.2 months and 487.5 ± 151.6 days respectively. The respective heritability estimates were 0.091 ± 0.05 and 0.044 ± 0.032, while the repeatability estimate for CI was 0.096 ± 0.001. The genetic trends for CI and AFC were -0.6 d/yr and -0.01 mo/yr respectively and were both significant (P < 0.001), indicating a decrease in mean breeding value over the study period. Phenotypic trends were -0.31 mo/yr and -0.35 d/yr for AFC and CI respectively though non-significant (P > 0.05). The low heritability for CI and AFC indicated that temporary environmental influences were much greater than genetic influences or permanent environmental influences on these traits.

Keywords: Holstein, reproductive, genetic parameters, heritability

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1038 Analysis of Trends in Environmental Health Research Using Topic Modeling

Authors: Hayoung Cho, Gabi Cho

Abstract:

In response to the continuing increase of demands for living environment safety, the Korean government has established and implemented various environmental health policies and set a high priority to the related R&D. However, the level of related technologies such as environmental risk assessment are still relatively low, and there is a need for detailed investment strategies in the field of environmental health research. As scientific research papers can give valuable implications on the development of a certain field, this study analyzed the global research trends in the field of environmental health over the past 10 years (2005~2015). Research topics were extracted from abstracts of the collected SCI papers using topic modeling to study the changes in research trends and discover emerging technologies. The method of topic modeling can improve the traditional bibliometric approach and provide a more comprehensive review of the global research development. The results of this study are expected to help provide insights for effective policy making and R&D investment direction.

Keywords: environmental health, paper analysis, research trends, topic modeling

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1037 Trends and Prospects for the Development of Georgian Wine Market

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, M. Natsvaladze

Abstract:

The article presents the trends in Georgian wine market development and evaluates the competitive advantages of Georgia to enter the wine market based on its customs, traditions and historical practices combined with modern technologies. In order to analyze the supply of wine, dynamics of vineyard land area and grape varieties are discussed, trends in wine production are presented, trends in export and import are evaluated, local wine market, its micro and macro environments are studied and analyzed based on the interviews with experts and analysis of initial recording materials. For strengthening its position on the international market, the level of competitiveness of Georgian wine is defined, which is evaluated by “ex-ante” and “ex-post” methods, as well as by four basic and two additional factors of the Porter’s diamond method; potential advantages and disadvantages of Georgian wine are revealed. Conclusions are made by identifying the factors that hinder the development of Georgian wine market. Based on the conclusions, relevant recommendations are developed.

Keywords: Georgian wine market, competitive advantage, bio wine, export-import, Porter's diamond model

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1036 The Construction of Healthy Bodies in U.S. and China: A Comparative Analysis of Women's Health and Trends Health

Authors: Yang L. Frances

Abstract:

Women's health and wellness has been becoming an increasingly important issue in mass media in the age of globalization. In this context, the current research focuses on comparing the construction of healthy bodies in women's health magazines of China and U.S. Trends Health in China and Women's Health in U.S are chosen. Textual analysis and in depth interviews are combined to examine how the healthy bodies are constructed in two magazines through discursive strategies. The interviews with the Deputy Editorial Director, Creative Director and Senior Visual Design of two magazines are undertaken to make the further comparisons. In both Trends Health and Women's Health, women's subjectivity is realized in the construction of ideal healthy body; nevertheless in the process of constructing healthy body, the disciplinary practices imposed on women's bodies are different in two magazines. This paper argues that women's health magazines in both China and America provide an alternative discourse to speak their voices on the one hand, but on the other hand, Women's Health and Trends Health construct the healthy body through disparate disciplinary practices because of the different socio-cultural contexts in two societies.

Keywords: healthy body, women's health magazines, Foucault, textual analysis

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1035 Recent Climate Variability and Crop Production in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

Authors: Arragaw Alemayehu, Woldeamlak Bewket

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to understand the influence of current climate variability on crop production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. We used monthly rainfall and temperature data from 132 points each representing a pixel of 10×10 km. The data are reconstructions based on station records and meteorological satellite observations. Production data of the five major crops in the area were collected from the Central Statistical Agency for the period 2004-2013 and for the main cropping season, locally known as Meher. The production data are at the Enumeration Area (EA ) level and hence the best available dataset on crop production. The results show statistically significant decreasing trends in March–May (Belg) rainfall in the area. However, June – September (Kiremt) rainfall showed increasing trends in Efratana Gidim and Menz Gera Meder which the latter is statistically significant. Annual rainfall also showed positive trends in the area except Basona Werana where significant negative trends were observed. On the other hand, maximum and minimum temperatures showed warming trends in the study area. Correlation results have shown that crop production and area of cultivation have positive correlation with rainfall, and negative with temperature. When the trends in crop production are investigated, most crops showed negative trends and below average production was observed. Regression results have shown that rainfall was the most important determinant of crop production in the area. It is concluded that current climate variability has a significant influence on crop production in the area and any unfavorable change in the local climate in the future will have serious implications for household level food security. Efforts to adapt to the ongoing climate change should begin from tackling the current climate variability and take a climate risk management approach.

Keywords: central highlands, climate variability, crop production, Ethiopia, regression, trend

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1034 A Macroeconomic Analysis of Defense Industry: Comparisons, Trends and Improvements in Brazil and in the World

Authors: J. Fajardo, J. Guerra, E. Gonzales

Abstract:

This paper will outline a study of Brazil's industrial base of defense (IDB), through a bibliographic research method, combined with an analysis of macroeconomic data from several available public data platforms. This paper begins with a brief study about Brazilian national industry, including analyzes of productivity, income, outcome and jobs. Next, the research presents a study on the defense industry in Brazil, presenting the main national companies that operate in the aeronautical, army and naval branches. After knowing the main points of the Brazilian defense industry, data on the productivity of the defense industry of the main countries and competing companies of the Brazilian industry were analyzed, in order to summarize big cases in Brazil with a comparative analysis. Concerned the methodology, were used bibliographic research and the exploration of historical data series, in order to analyze information, to get trends and to make comparisons along the time. The research is finished with the main trends for the development of the Brazilian defense industry, comparing the current situation with the point of view of several countries.

Keywords: economics of defence, industry, trends, market

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1033 Trend Analysis for Extreme Rainfall Events in New South Wales, Australia

Authors: Evan Hajani, Ataur Rahman, Khaled Haddad

Abstract:

Climate change will affect the hydrological cycle in many different ways such as increase in evaporation and rainfalls. There have been growing interests among researchers to identify the nature of trends in historical rainfall data in many different parts of the world. This paper examines the trends in annual maximum rainfall data from 30 stations in New South Wales, Australia by using two non-parametric tests, Mann-Kendall (MK) and Spearman’s Rho (SR). Rainfall data were analyzed for fifteen different durations ranging from 6 min to 3 days. It is found that the sub-hourly durations (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 48 minutes) show statistically significant positive (upward) trends whereas longer duration (sub-daily and daily) events generally show a statistically significant negative (downward) trend. It is also found that the MK test and SR test provide notably different results for some rainfall event durations considered in this study. Since shorter duration sub-hourly rainfall events show positive trends at many stations, the design rainfall data based on stationary frequency analysis for these durations need to be adjusted to account for the impact of climate change. These shorter durations are more relevant to many urban development projects based on smaller catchments having a much shorter response time.

Keywords: climate change, Mann-Kendall test, Spearman’s Rho test, trends, design rainfall

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1032 Consumer Market for Georgian Hazelnut and the Strategy to Improve Its Competitiveness

Authors: M. Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The paper presents the trends of Georgian hazelnut market development and analyses the competitive advantages which will help Georgia to enter international hazelnut market using modern technologies. The history of hazelnut crop development and hazelnut species in Georgia are discussed. For hazelnut supply analysis trends in hazelnut production are considered, trends in export and import development is evaluated, domestic hazelnut market is studied and analysed based on expert interviews and initial accounting materials. In order to achieve and strengthen its position in international market, potential advantages and disadvantages of Georgian hazelnut are revealed, analysis of export and import possibilities of hazelnut is presented. Recommendations are developed based on the conclusions, which are made through identifying the key factors that hinder development of Georgian hazelnut market.

Keywords: hazelnut market, hazelnut export and import, competitiveness of hazelnut

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1031 The Effects of Scientific Studies on the Future Fashion Trends

Authors: Basak Ozkendirci

Abstract:

The discovery of chemical dyes, the development of regenerated fibers, and warp knitting technology have enormous effects on the fashion world. The trends created by the information obtained in the context of various studies today shape the fashion world. Trend analysts must follow scientific developments as well as sociological events, political developments and artwork to obtain healthy data on trends. Digital printing technologies have changed the dynamics of textile printing production and also the style of printed designs. Fashion designers already have started design 3D printed accessories and garments. The research fields like the internet of things, artificial intelligence, hologram technologies, mechatronics, energy storage systems, nanotechnology are seen as the technologies that will change the social life and economy of the future. It is clear that research carried out in these areas will affect the textiles of the future and whereat the trends of fashion. The article aims to create a future vision for trend researchers and designers by giving clues about the changes to be experienced in the fashion world. In the first part of the article, information about the scientific studies that are thought to shape the future is given, and the forecasting about how the inventions that can be obtained from these studies can be adapted at the textile are presented. In the second part of the article, examples of how the new generation of innovative textiles will affect the daily life experience of the user are given.

Keywords: biotextiles, fashion trends, nanotextiles, new materials, smart textiles, techno textiles

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1030 Exploring Research Trends and Topics in Intervention on Metabolic Syndrome Using Network Analysis

Authors: Lee Soo-Kyoung, Kim Young-Su

Abstract:

This study established a network related to metabolic syndrome intervention by conducting a social network analysis of titles, keywords, and abstracts, and it identified emerging topics of research. It visualized an interconnection between critical keywords and investigated their frequency of appearance to construe the trends in metabolic syndrome intervention measures used in studies conducted over 38 years (1979–2017). It examined a collection of keywords from 8,285 studies using text rank analyzer, NetMiner 4.0. The analysis revealed 5 groups of newly emerging keywords in the research. By examining the relationship between keywords with reference to their betweenness centrality, the following clusters were identified. Thus if new researchers refer to existing trends to establish the subject of their study and the direction of the development of future research on metabolic syndrome intervention can be predicted.

Keywords: intervention, metabolic syndrome, network analysis, research, the trend

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1029 Keyword Network Analysis on the Research Trends of Life-Long Education for People with Disabilities in Korea

Authors: Jakyoung Kim, Sungwook Jang

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the research trends of life-long education for people with disabilities using a keyword network analysis. For this purpose, 151 papers were selected from 594 papers retrieved using keywords such as 'people with disabilities' and 'life-long education' in the Korean Education and Research Information Service. The Keyword network analysis was constructed by extracting and coding the keyword used in the title of the selected papers. The frequency of the extracted keywords, the centrality of degree, and betweenness was analyzed by the keyword network. The results of the keyword network analysis are as follows. First, the main keywords that appeared frequently in the study of life-long education for people with disabilities were 'people with disabilities', 'life-long education', 'developmental disabilities', 'current situations', 'development'. The research trends of life-long education for people with disabilities are focused on the current status of the life-long education and the program development. Second, the keyword network analysis and visualization showed that the keywords with high frequency of occurrences also generally have high degree centrality and betweenness centrality. In terms of the keyword network diagram, it was confirmed that research trends of life-long education for people with disabilities are centered on six prominent keywords. Based on these results, it was discussed that life-long education for people with disabilities in the future needs to expand the subjects and the supporting areas of the life-long education, and the research needs to be further expanded into more detailed and specific areas. 

Keywords: life-long education, people with disabilities, research trends, keyword network analysis

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1028 Trend Analysis of Annual Total Precipitation Data in Konya

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan

Abstract:

Hydroclimatic observation values ​​are used in the planning of the project of water resources. Climate variables are the first of the values ​​used in planning projects. At the same time, the climate system is a complex and interactive system involving the atmosphere, land surfaces, snow and bubbles, the oceans and other water structures. The amount and distribution of precipitation, which is an important climate parameter, is a limiting environmental factor for dispersed living things. Trend analysis is applied to the detection of the presence of a pattern or trend in the data set. Many trends work in different parts of the world are usually made for the determination of climate change. The detection and attribution of past trends and variability in climatic variables is essential for explaining potential future alteration resulting from anthropogenic activities. Parametric and non-parametric tests are used for determining the trends in climatic variables. In this study, trend tests were applied to annual total precipitation data obtained in period of 1972 and 2012, in the Konya Basin. Non-parametric trend tests, (Sen’s T, Spearman’s Rho, Mann-Kendal, Sen’s T trend, Wald-Wolfowitz) and parametric test (mean square) were applied to annual total precipitations of 15 stations for trend analysis. The linear slopes (change per unit time) of trends are calculated by using a non-parametric estimator developed by Sen. The beginning of trends is determined by using the Mann-Kendall rank correlation test. In addition, homogeneities in precipitation trends are tested by using a method developed by Van Belle and Hughes. As a result of tests, negative linear slopes were found in annual total precipitations in Konya.

Keywords: trend analysis, precipitation, hydroclimatology, Konya

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1027 Time Series Analysis of Air Pollution in Suceava County ( Nord- East of Romania)

Authors: Lazurca Liliana Gina

Abstract:

Different time series analysis of yearly air pollution at Suceava County, Nord-East of Romania, has been performed in this study. The trends in the atmospheric concentrations of the main gaseous and particulate pollutants in urban, industrial and rural environments across Suceava County were estimated for the period of 2008-2014. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the trends in the annual average concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, NO, NOx, SO2, CO, PM10, O3, C6H6). The slope was estimated using the non-parametric Sen’s method. Trend significance was assumed at the 5% significance level (p < 0.05) in the current study. During the 7 year period, trends in atmospheric concentrations may not have been monotonic, in some instances concentrations of species increased and subsequently decreased. The trend in Suceava County is to keep a low concentration of pollutants in ambient air respecting the limit values.All the results that we obtained show that Romania has taken a lot of regulatory measures to decrease the concentrations of air pollutants in the last decade, in Suceava County the air quality monitoring highlight for the most part of the analyzed pollutants decreasing trends. For the analyzed period we observed considerable improvements in background air in Suceava County.

Keywords: pollutant, trend, air quality monitoring, Mann-Kendall

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1026 Using Multi-Level Analysis to Identify Future Trends in Small Device Digital Communication Examinations

Authors: Mark A. Spooner

Abstract:

The growth of technological advances in the digital communications industry has dictated the way forensic examination laboratories receive, analyze, and report on digital evidence. This study looks at the trends in a medium sized digital forensics lab that examines small communications devices (i.e., cellular telephones, tablets, thumb drives, etc.) over the past five years. As law enforcement and homeland security organizations budgets shrink, many agencies are being asked to perform more examinations with less resources available. Using multi-level statistical analysis using five years of examination data, this research shows the increasing technological demand trend. The research then extrapolates the current data into the model created and finds a continued exponential growth curve of said demands is well within the parameters defined earlier on in the research.

Keywords: digital forensics, forensic examination, small device, trends

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1025 Early Childhood Care and Education in the North-West of Nigeria: Trends and Challenges

Authors: Muhammad Adamu Kwankwaso

Abstract:

Early childhood is a critical period of rapid physical, cognitive and psycho-social development of a child. The quality of care and Education which a child receives at this crucial age will determine to a great extent the level of his/her physical and cognitive development in the future. In Nigeria, Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) is a fundamental aspect or form of Education for children between the age of 3-6. It was started after independence as pre-primary Education or early child development as contained in the 1977 National Policy on Education. The trends towards ECCE in Nigeria and the northwestern part of the country in particular keep up changing as in the case of other part of the world. The current trends are now towards expansions, inclusiveness, redefinition, early literacy, increased government participation and the unprecedented societal response and awareness towards the Education of the younger children. While all hands are on deck to ensure successful implementation of the ECCE programme, it is unfortunate that, ECCE is facing some challenges. This paper therefore, examines the trends in Early Childhood Care and Education and the major challenges in the north west of Nigeria. Some of the major challenges include, inadequate trained ECCE teachers, lack of unified curriculum, teacher pupil’s ratio, and the medium of instructions and inadequate infrastructural and teaching facilities respectively. To improve the situation the paper offered the following recommendations; establishment of more ECCE classes, enforcement for the use of mothers’ tongue or the languages of the immediate community as a medium of instructions, and adequate provision of infrastructural facilities and the unified curriculum across the northwestern States of Nigeria.

Keywords: early childhood care, education, trends, challenges

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1024 Horizon Scanning of Disruptive Technology Trends in Marine for 2030 Horizon

Authors: Jose Gonzalez, Fai Cheng, Ivy Fan

Abstract:

Shipping has a mature and ever expanding worldwide market. The future of the marine industry itself is not only irrevocably linked with the global economic, social, and political landscape; it is also subject to the technological developments in different fields. Some of them may have never been linked to the marine industry before. Companies in the marine sector are getting more dependent on technologies to achieve competitive advantage in an increasing open market. Technologies can be fused across different business functions and geopolitical influences. A successful marine business should be prepared to embrace such potential changes that lie ahead. The present paper intends to articulate long-term marine technology strategies from an industrial perspective. Methodology and current development are introduced. The paper will also provide insight into future technological trends demand for major commercial ship types. It may also assist different stakeholders in tailoring their long-term strategies to achieve a Sea Change and to uncap opportunity.

Keywords: commercial sector, marine, trends, technology

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1023 A Joinpoint Regression Analysis of Trends in Tuberculosis Notifications in Two Urban Regions in Namibia

Authors: Anna M. N. Shifotoka, Richard Walker, Katie Haighton, Richard McNally

Abstract:

An analysis of trends in Case Notification Rates (CNR) can be used to monitor the impact of Tuberculosis (TB) control interventions over time in order to inform the implementation of current and future TB interventions. A retrospective analysis of trends in TB CNR for two urban regions in Namibia, namely Khomas and Erongo regions, was conducted. TB case notification data were obtained from annual TB reports of the national TB programme, Ministry of Health and Social Services, covering the period from 1997 to 2015. Joinpoint regression was used to analyse trends in CNR for different types of TB groups. A trend was considered to be statistically significant when a p-value was less than 0.05. During the period under review, the crude CNR for all forms of TB declined from 808 to 400 per 100 000 population in Khomas, and from 1051 to 611 per 100 000 population in Erongo. In both regions, significant change points in trends were observed for all types of TB groups examined. In Khomas region, the trend for new smear positive pulmonary TB increased significantly by an annual rate of 4.1% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.3% to 8.2%) during the period 1997 to 2004, and thereafter declined significantly by -6.2% (95%CI: -7.7% to -4.3%) per year until 2015. Similarly, the trend for smear negative pulmonary TB increased significantly by 23.7% (95%CI: 9.7 to 39.5) per year from 1997 to 2004 and thereafter declined significantly by an annual change of -26.4% (95%CI: -33.1% to -19.8%). The trend for all forms of TB CNR in Khomas region increased significantly by 8.1% (95%CI: 3.7 to 12.7) per year from 1997 to 2004 and thereafter declined significantly a rate of -8.7% (95%CI: -10.6 to -6.8). In Erongo region, the trend for smear positive pulmonary TB increased at a rate of 1.2% (95%CI: -1.2% to 3.6%) annually during the earlier years (1997 to 2008), and thereafter declined significantly by -9.3% (95%CI: -13.3% to -5.0%) per year from 2008 to 2015. Also in Erongo, the trend for all forms of TB CNR increased significantly by an annual rate of 4.0% (95%CI: 1.4% to 6.6%) during the years between 1997 to 2006 and thereafter declined significantly by -10.4% (95%CI: -12.7% to -8.0%) per year during 2006 to 2015. The trend for extra-pulmonary TB CNR declined but did not reach statistical significance in both regions. In conclusion, CNRs declined for all types of TB examined in both regions. Further research is needed to study trends for other TB dimensions such as treatment outcomes and notification of drug resistant TB cases.

Keywords: epidemiology, Namibia, temporal trends, tuberculosis

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1022 Emerging Research Trends in Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Subhra Prosun Paul, Dr. Shruti Aggarwal

Abstract:

Now a days Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network has become a promising technique in the different fields of the latest computer technology. Routing in Wireless Sensor Network is a demanding task due to the different design issues of all sensor nodes. Network architecture, no of nodes, traffic of routing, the capacity of each sensor node, network consistency, service value are the important factor for the design and analysis of Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network. Additionally, internal energy, the distance between nodes, the load of sensor nodes play a significant role in the efficient routing protocol. In this paper, our intention is to analyze the research trends in different routing protocols of Wireless Sensor Network in terms of different parameters. In order to explain the research trends on Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network, different data related to this research topic are analyzed with the help of Web of Science and Scopus databases. The data analysis is performed from global perspective-taking different parameters like author, source, document, country, organization, keyword, year, and a number of the publication. Different types of experiments are also performed, which help us to evaluate the recent research tendency in the Routing Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network. In order to do this, we have used Web of Science and Scopus databases separately for data analysis. We have observed that there has been a tremendous development of research on this topic in the last few years as it has become a very popular topic day by day.

Keywords: analysis, routing protocol, research trends, wireless sensor network

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