Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: AgNO3

36 Comparative Study of Amyloidogenic Potential of AgNO3 and Freund's Adjuvant (AF) with That of Vitamin Free Casein, on Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Experimental Amyloidosis in Mice

Authors: Alireza Javed, Keivan Jamshidi

Abstract:

Reactive amyloidosis is a condition that complicates a long list of chronic inflammation, chronic infectious, malignant, and hereditary disorders. In the present study the potential effects of two amyloidogenic substances: ie. AgNO3 and Freund's Adjuvant (AF) with that of vitamin free casein, on spatio-temporal pattern of experimental amyloidosis in mice, were compared. For this purpose, a total of 40 male Swees mice, obtained from Pasteur Institute Tehran, after being weighted were randomly divided into 4 groups including 2 treatments, 1 control (vitamin free casein) and 1 positive control (normal saline). At the end of 3rd, 5th and 7th weeks of experiment 3 mice were randomly selected and euthnised. Spleen sample of each animal obtained and preserved in 10% neutral buffer formalin. Sample were then processed through different stages of dehydration, clearing and impregnation and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by alkaline Congo red techniques. Spleen weights and the data obtained from the microscopic quantitative analysis did show no significant differences between groups A and B, A and C, and B and C. However, significant differences were observed between groups A and D, B and D, and C and D respectively. It is concluded that two compounds ie; AgNO3 and Freund's Adjuvant have the same potential, as does vitamin free casein have, in spatio – temporal pattern of experimental amyloidosis in mice.

Keywords: amyloidosis, mice, AgNO3, Freund's Adjuvant

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35 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Leaf Extract of Tithonia diversifolia and Its Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Babatunde Oluwole Ogunsile, Omosola Monisola Fasoranti

Abstract:

High costs and toxicological hazards associated with the physicochemical methods of producing nanoparticles have limited their widespread use in clinical and biomedical applications. An ethically sound alternative is the utilization of plant bioresources as a low cost and eco–friendly biological approach. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia plant. The UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of the AgNPs at different time intervals and different ratios of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Antimicrobial activities of the AgNPs were investigated against ten human pathogens using agar well diffusion method. The AgNPs yields were modeled using a second-order factorial design. The result showed that the rate of formation of the AgNPs increased with respect to time while the optimum ratio of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution was 1:1. The hydroxyl group was strongly involved in the bioreduction of the silver salt as indicated by the FTIR spectra. The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature, with a uniformly distributed network of the web-like structure. The factorial model predicted the nanoparticles yields with minimal errors. The nanoparticles were active against all the tested pathogens and thus have great potentials as antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles, Tithonia diversifolia

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34 Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Trachyspermum Ammi

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Meena, Suman Jhajharia, Goutam Chakraborty

Abstract:

Plasmonic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was synthesized by chemical reduction method using Trachyspermum Ammi (TA, Ajwain) seeds extract in aqueous medium and AgNO3 solution at different time interval. Reaction time, and concentration of AgNO3 and TA could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect AgNPs size and concentration of NPs. Surface plasmon resonance band centered at 420-430 nm (88.78nm) was recognised as first exitonic peak of UV-Vis absorption spectra of AgNPs that used to calculate the particle size (10-30 nm). FTIR results TA supported AgNPs showed decrease in intensity of peaks at 3394, 1716 and 1618 cm-1 with respect to the plain TA indicating the involvement of O-H, carbonyl group and C=C stretching in formation of TA-AgNPs aggregates. The C-O-C and C-N stretching suggested the presence of many phytochemicals on the surface of the NPs. Impedance study reveals that at low concentration of TA the rate of charge transfer is in TA-AgNPs aggregates, found higher than the higher TA concentration condition that confirms the stability of AgNPs in water. Extract reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles (NPs) of size 6-50nm. Pronounce effect of the time on Ag NPs concentration and particle size, was exhibited by the system These biogenic Ag NPs are characterized using UV- Vis spectrophotometry (UV-Visible), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) and XRD. These studies give us inside view of the most probable mechanism of biosynthesis and optoelectronic properties of the as synthesised Ag NPs.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bioreduction, capping agent, silver nanoparticles

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33 Antimicrobial Activity of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Different Bacteria

Authors: Malalage Mudara Peiris

Abstract:

Objectives of the study are: the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus, characterization of silver nanoparticles and determination of antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, MRSA, and C. Albicans. Methods: E. coli (ATCC 25922), A. baumanii (clinical strain), S. aureus (clinical strain) cultured in nutrient broth medium were used for biosynthesis of AgNPs. Culture conditions (AgNO3 concentration, pH, incubation time and temperature) were optimized. Characterization of synthesized NPs was done by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized NPs was studied using the good diffusion assay against E. coli, S. aureus, MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), P. aeruginosa and C. Albicans. Results: All the selected bacteria produced silver nanoparticles at alkaline pH above 0.3 g/L AgNO3 concentration. The optimum reaction temperature was 60oC. According to the UV-Visible spectroscopy, the maximum absorbance was found to be around 420 - 430 nm indicating the presence of AgNPs. According to the good diffusion results, AgNPs produced by S. aureus resulted in the larger zone of inhibition (ZOI) against the selected pathogens, while AgNPs produced by E. coli showed comparatively smaller ZOI. In general, biosynthesized AgNPs were highly effective against gram-negative bacteria compared to gram-positive bacterial and fungal species. Conclusions: Green AgNPs produced by each bacterium show antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogens. AgNPs produced by S. aureus are the most effective NPs among tested AgNPs, while AgNPs produced by E. coli are the least effective. Further characterization of NPs is required to study the physical properties of silver NPs.

Keywords: green nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles, bacteria, antimicrobial activity

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32 Antimicrobial Nanocompositions Made of Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Polymers

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, Mzevinar Bedinashvili, Tamar Memanishvili, Manana Gurielidze, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Bacteria easily colonize the surfaces of tissues, surgical devices (implants, orthopedics, catheters, etc.), and instruments causing surgical device related infections. Therefore, the battle against bacteria and the prevention of surgical devices from biofilm formation is one of the main challenges of biomedicine today. Our strategy to the solution of this problem consists in using antimicrobial polymeric coatings as effective “shields” to protect surfaces from bacteria’s colonization and biofilm formation. As one of the most promising approaches look be the use of antimicrobial bioerodible polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We assume that the combination of an erodible polymer with a strong bactericide should put obstacles to bacteria to occupy the surface and to form biofilm. It has to be noted that this kind of nanocomposites are also promising as wound dressing materials to treat infected superficial wounds. Various synthetic and natural polymers were used for creating biocomposites containing AgNPs as both particles' stabilizers and matrices forming elastic films at surfaces. One of the most effective systems to fabricate AgNPs is an ethanol solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) with dissolved AgNO3–ethanol serves as a AgNO3 reductant and PVP as AgNPs stabilizer (through the interaction of nanoparticles with nitrogen atom of the amide group). Though PVP is biocompatible and film-forming polymer, it is not a good candidate to design either "biofilm shield" or wound dressing material because of a high solubility in water – though the solubility of PVP provides the desirable release of AgNPs from the matrix, but the coating is easily washable away from the surfaces. More promising as matrices look water insoluble but bioerodible polymers that can provide the release of AgNPs and form long-lasting coatings at the surfaces. For creating bioerodible water-insoluble antimicrobial coatings containing AgNPs, we selected amino acid based biodegradable polymers(AABBPs)–poly(ester amide)s, poly(ester urea)s, their copolymers containing amide and related groups capable to stabilize AgNPs. Among a huge variety of AABBPs reported we selected the polymers soluble in ethanol. For preparing AgNPs containing nanocompositions AABBPs and AgNO3 were dissolved in ethanol and subjected to photochemical reduction using daylight-irradiation. The formation of AgNPs was observed visually by coloring the solutions in brownish-red. The obtained AgNPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and dynamic light scattering(DLS). According to the UV and TEM data, the photochemical reduction resulted presumably in spherical AgNPs with rather high contribution of the particles below 10 nm that are known as responsible for the antimicrobial activity. DLS study showed that average size of nanoparticles formed after photo-reduction in ethanol solution ranged within 50 nm. The in vitro antimicrobial activity study of the new nanocomposite material is in progress now.

Keywords: nanocomposites, silver nanoparticles, polymer, biodegradable

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31 Cytotoxic Effects of Ag/TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Unicellular Organism Paramecium tetraurelia

Authors: Juan Bernal-Martinez, Zoe Quinones-Jurado, Miguel Waldo-Mendoza, Elias Perez

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Introduction and Objective: Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) have been characterized as effective antibacterial compounds against E. aureous, E. coli, Salmonella and others. Because these nanoparticles have been used in plastic-food containers, there is a concern about the toxicity of Ag-TiO2 NP for higher organisms from protozoan, invertebrates, and mammals. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of Ag-TiO2 NP on the survival and swimming behavior of the unicellular organism Paramecium tetraurelia. Material and Methods: Preparation of metallic silver on TiO2 surface was based on chemical reduction route of AgNO3. Aqueous suspension of TiO2 nanoparticles was preparing by adding 5 g of TiO2 to 250 ml of deionized water and followed by sonication for 10 min. The required amount of AgNO3 solutions was added to TiO2 suspension, maintaining heating and stirring. Silver concentration was 0.5, 1.5, 5.0, 25, 35 and 45 % w/w versus TiO2. Paramecium tetraurelia (Carolina Biological, Cat. # 131560) was used as a biological preparation. It was cultured in artificial culture media made as follows: Stigmasterol 5 mg/ml of ethanol, Caseaminoacids 0.3 gr/lt.; KCl 4mM; CaCl2 1mM; MgCl2 100uM and MOPS 1mM, pH 7.3. This media was inoculated with Enterobacter-sp. Paramecium was concentrated after 24 hours of incubation by centrifugation. The pellet of cells was resuspended in 4.1.1 solution prepared as follows (in mM): KCl, 4 mM; CaCl2, 1mM and Trizma, 1mM; pH 7.3. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed to evaluate the appropriate dispersion and topographic distribution AgNPs deposited on TiO2. The experimental solutions were prepared as follows: 50 mg of Polyvinyhlpirolidone were added to 5 ml of 4.1.1. solution. Then, 50 mg of powder 25-Ag-TiO2 was added, mixing for 10 min and sonicated for 60 min. Survival of Paramecium and possible toxic effects after 25-Ag-TiO2 treatment was observed through an inverted microscope. The Paramecium swimming behavior and possible dead cells were recorded for periods of approximately 20-50 seconds by using a digital USB camera adapted to the microscope. Results and Discussion: TEM micrographs demonstrated the topographic distribution of AgNPs deposited on TiO2. 25Ag-TiO2 NP was efficiently dissolved and dispersed in 4.1.1 solution at concentrations from 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/ml. When Paramecium were treated with 25Ag-TiO2 NP at 100 ug/ml, it was observed that cells started swimming backwards. This backward swimming behavior is the typical avoiding reaction of the ciliate in response to a noxious stimulus. After 10 min of incubation, it was observed that Paramecium stopped swimming backwards and exploited. We can argue that this toxic effect of 25Ag-TiO2 NP is probably due to the calcium influx and calcium accumulation during the long-lasting swimming backwards. Conclusions: Here we have demonstrated that 25Ag-TiO2 NP has a specific toxic effect on an organism higher than bacteria such as the protozoan Paremecium. Probably these toxic phenomena could be expected to be observed in a higher organism such as invertebrates and mammals.

Keywords: Ag-TiO2, calcium permeability, cytotoxicity, paramecium

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30 Synthesis of Silver Powders Destined for Conductive Paste Metallization of Solar Cells Using Butyl-Carbitol and Butyl-Carbitol Acetate Chemical Reduction

Authors: N. Moudir, N. Moulai-Mostefa, Y. Boukennous, I. Bozetine, N. Kamel, D. Moudir

Abstract:

the study focuses on a novel process of silver powders synthesis for the preparation of conductive pastes used for solar cells metalization. Butyl-Carbitol and butyl-carbitol Acetate have been used as solvents and reducing agents of silver nitrate (AgNO3) as precursor to get silver powders. XRD characterization revealed silver powders with a cubic crystal system. SEM micro graphs showed spherical morphology of the particles. Laser granulometer gives similar particles distribution for the two agents. Using same glass frit and organic vehicle for comparative purposes, two conductive pastes were prepared with the synthesized silver powders for the front-side metalization of multi-crystalline cells. The pastes provided acceptable fill factor of 59.5 % and 60.8 % respectively.

Keywords: chemical reduction, conductive paste, silver nitrate, solar cell

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29 Silver Nanoparticles-Enhanced Luminescence Spectra of Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Benjamin R. Horrocks

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Metal-enhanced luminescence of silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) was determined using two different particle sizes of silver nano particles (AgNPs). SiNCs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm and FCC lattice. AgNPs were synthesized using photochemical reduction of AgNO3 with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The enhanced luminescence of SiNCs by AgNPs was evaluated by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. Enhancement up to ×9 and ×3 times were observed for SiNCs that mixed with AgNPs which have an average particle size of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. Silver NPs-enhanced luminescence of SiNCs occurs as a result of the coupling between the excitation laser light and the plasmon bands of AgNPs; thus this intense field at AgNPs surface couples strongly to SiNCs.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS), silicon nanocrystals, luminescence

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28 Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Using Water Extract of Satureja hortensis L. and Evaluation of the Antibacterial Capacities

Authors: Sajjad Sedaghat

Abstract:

In this work, facile and green biosynthesis and characterization of silver–montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposite is reported at room temperature. Silver nanoparticles (Ag–NPs) were synthesized into the interlamellar space of (MMT) by using water extract of Satureja hortensis L as reducing agent. The MMT was suspended in the aqueous AgNO₃ solution, and after the absorption of silver ions, Ag⁺ was reduced using water extract of Satureja hortensis L to Ag°. Evaluation of the antibacterial properties are also reported. The nanocomposite was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM study showed the formation of nanocomposite using water extract of Satureja hortensis L in the 4.88 – 26.70 nm range and average particles size were 15.79 nm also the XRD study showed that the particles have a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. The nanocomposite showed the antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Keywords: antibacterial effects, montmorillonite, Satureja hortensis l, transmission electron microscopy, nanocomposite

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27 Flexible Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Nanofibers Decorated with Ag Nanoparticles as Effective 3D Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates

Authors: Yi Li, Rui Lu, Lianjun Wang

Abstract:

With the rapid development of chemical industry, the consumption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has increased extensively. In the process of VOCs production and application, plenty of them have been transferred to environment. As a result, it has led to pollution problems not only in soil and ground water but also to human beings. Thus, it is important to develop a sensitive and cost-effective analytical method for trace VOCs detection in environment. Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), as one of the most sensitive optical analytical technique with rapid response, pinpoint accuracy and noninvasive detection, has been widely used for ultratrace analysis. Based on the plasmon resonance on the nanoscale metallic surface, SERS technology can even detect single molecule due to abundant nanogaps (i.e. 'hot spots') on the nanosubstrate. In this work, a self-supported flexible silver nitrate (AgNO3)/ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPM) hybrid nanofibers was fabricated by electrospinning. After an in-situ chemical reduction using ice-cold sodium borohydride as reduction agent, numerous silver nanoparticles were formed on the nanofiber surface. By adjusting the reduction time and AgNO3 content, the morphology and dimension of silver nanoparticles could be controlled. According to the principles of solid-phase extraction, the hydrophobic substance is more likely to partition into the hydrophobic EPM membrane in an aqueous environment while water and other polar components are excluded from the analytes. By the enrichment of EPM fibers, the number of hydrophobic molecules located on the 'hot spots' generated from criss-crossed nanofibers is greatly increased, which further enhances SERS signal intensity. The as-prepared Ag/EPM hybrid nanofibers were first employed to detect common SERS probe molecule (p-aminothiophenol) with the detection limit down to 10-12 M, which demonstrated an excellent SERS performance. To further study the application of the fabricated substrate for monitoring hydrophobic substance in water, several typical VOCs, such as benzene, toluene and p-xylene, were selected as model compounds. The results showed that the characteristic peaks of these target analytes in the mixed aqueous solution could be distinguished even at a concentration of 10-6 M after multi-peaks gaussian fitting process, including C-H bending (850 cm-1), C-C ring stretching (1581 cm-1, 1600 cm-1) of benzene, C-H bending (844 cm-1 ,1151 cm-1), C-C ring stretching (1001 cm-1), CH3 bending vibration (1377 cm-1) of toluene, C-H bending (829 cm-1), C-C stretching (1614 cm-1) of p-xylene. The SERS substrate has remarkable advantages which combine the enrichment capacity from EPM and the Raman enhancement of Ag nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the huge specific surface area resulted from electrospinning is benificial to increase the number of adsoption sites and promotes 'hot spots' formation. In summary, this work provides powerful potential in rapid, on-site and accurate detection of trace VOCs using a portable Raman.

Keywords: electrospinning, ethylene-propylene copolymer, silver nanoparticles, SERS, VOCs

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26 Influence of AgNO3 Treatment on the Flavonolignan Production in Cell Suspension Culture of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn

Authors: Anna Vildová, H. Hendrychová, J. Kubeš, L. Tůmová

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The abiotic elicitation is one of the methods for increasing the secondary metabolites production in plant tissue cultures and it seems to be more effective than traditional strategies. This study verified the use of silver nitrate as elicitor to enhance flavonolignans and flavonoid taxifolin production in suspension culture of Sylibum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Silver nitrate in various concentrations (5.887.10-3 mol/L, 5.887.10-4 mol/L, 5.887.10-5 mol/L) was used as elicitor. The content of secondary metabolites in cell suspension cultures was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The samples were taken after 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours of treatment. The highest content of taxifolin production (2.2 mg.g-1) in cell suspension culture of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. was detected after silver nitrate (5.887.10-4 mol/L) treatment and 72 h application. Flavonolignans such as silybinA, silybin B, silydianin, silychristin, isosilybin A, isosilybin B were not produced by cell suspension culture of S. marianum after elicitor treatment. Our results show that the secondarymetabolites could be released from S. marianum cells into the nutrient medium by changed permeability of cell wall.

Keywords: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., elicitation, silver nitrate, taxifolin

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25 In-situ Fabrication of Silver-PDMS Nanocomposite Membrane with Application in Olefine Separation

Authors: P. Tirgarbahnamiri, S. Mahravani, N. Haddadpour, F. Yaghmaie, F. Barazandeh

Abstract:

In this study, silver nanoparticle-Polydimethylsiloxane membrane (SNP-PDMS) was prepared with an in-situ reduction method using AgNO3 in poly (dimethylsiloxane) hardener. Optical and mechanical properties as well as functionality of these membranes were determined employing, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, strain-stress test and liquid/liquid filtration measurements. Silver nanoparticles are known to selectively absorb Olefins and may be used for separation of Alkanes from olefins. Yellow color of silver nanocomposites and transparency of blank polymer were observed employing optical microscope. λmax in 415-420 nm regions in UV-Vis spectrophotometry are related to silver nanoparticles absorbance. Based on stress-strain test results, tensile strength of silver nanoparticle PDMS (SNP-PDMS) membranes is higher than PDMS films of comparable size and thickness. Moreover, permeability of SNP-PDMS membranes were characterized using similar olefin/paraffin pair using a simple bench scale separation set- up. The silver -PDMS membranes retain their color and UV-vis characteristics for extended periods of time exceeding several months.

Keywords: nanocomposite membrane, gas separation, facilitated transport, silver nanocomposite, PDMS, in-situ reduction

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24 Preparation and in vitro Bactericidal and Fungicidal Efficiency of NanoSilver/Methylcellulose Hydrogel

Authors: A. Panacek, M. Kilianova, R. Prucek, V. Husickova, R. Vecerova, M. Kolar, L. Kvitek, R. Zboril

Abstract:

In this work we describe the preparation of NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel containing silver nanoparticles (NPs) for topical bactericidal applications. Highly concentrated dispersion of silver NPs as high as of 5g/L of silver with diameter of 10nm was prepared by reduction of AgNO3 via strong reducing agent NaBH4. Silver NPs were stabilized by addition of sodium polyacrylate in order to prevent their aggregation at such high concentration. This way synthesized silver NPs were subsequently incorporated into methylcellulose suspension at elevated temperature resulting in formation of NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel when temperature cooled down to laboratory conditions. In vitro antibacterial activity assay proved high bactericidal and fungicidal efficiency of silver NPs alone in the form of dispersion as well as in the form of hydrogel against broad spectrum of bacteria and yeasts including highly multiresistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A very low concentrations of silver as low as 0.84mg/L Ag in as-prepared dispersion gave antibacterial performance. NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel showed antibacterial action at the lowest used silver concentration equal to 25mg/L. Such prepared NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel represent promising topical antimicrobial formulation for treatment of burns and wounds.

Keywords: antimicrobial, burn, hydrogel, silver NPs

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23 Amino Acid Coated Silver Nanoparticles: A Green Catalyst for Methylene Blue Reduction

Authors: Abhishek Chandra, Man Singh

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Highly stable and homogeneously dispersed amino acid coated silver nanoparticles (ANP) of ≈ 10 nm diameter, ranging from 420 to 430 nm are prepared on AgNO3 solution addition to gum of Azadirachta indica solution at 373.15 K. The amino acids were selected based on their polarity. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR spectroscopy, HR-TEM, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The coated nanoparticles were used as catalyst for the reduction of methylene blue dye in presence of Sn(II) in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media. The rate of reduction of dye was determined by measuring the absorbance at 660 nm, spectrophotometrically and followed the order: Kcationic > Kanionic > Kwater. After 12 min and in absence of the ANP, only 2%, 3% and 6% of the dye reduction was completed in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively while, in presence of ANP coated by polar neutral amino acid with non-polar -R group, the reduction completed to 84%, 95% and 98% respectively. The ANP coated with polar neutral amino acid having non-polar -R group, increased the rate of reduction of the dye by 94, 3205 and 6370 folds in aqueous, anionic and cationic micellar media respectively. Also, the rate of reduction of the dye increased by three folds when the micellar media was changed from anionic to cationic when the ANP is coated by a polar neutral amino acid having a non-polar -R group.

Keywords: silver nanoparticle, surfactant, methylene blue, amino acid

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22 Synthesis of Chitosan/Silver Nanocomposites: Antibacterial Properties and Tissue Regeneration for Thermal Burn Injury

Authors: B.L. España-Sánchez, E. Luna-Hernández, R.A. Mauricio-Sánchez, M.E. Cruz-Soto, F. Padilla-Vaca, R. Muñoz, L. Granados-López, L.R. Ovalle-Flores, J.L. Menchaca-Arredondo, G. Luna-Bárcenas

Abstract:

Treatment of burn injured has been considered an important clinical problem due to the fluid control and the presence of microorganisms during the healing process. Conventional treatment includes antiseptic techniques, topical medication and surgical removal of damaged skin, to avoid bacterial growth. In order to accelerate this process, different alternatives for tissue regeneration have been explored, including artificial skin, polymers, hydrogels and hybrid materials. Some requirements consider a nonreactive organic polymer with high biocompatibility and skin adherence, avoiding bacterial infections. Chitin-derivative biopolymer such as chitosan (CS) has been used in skin regeneration following third-degree burns. The biological interest of CS is associated with the improvement of tissue cell stimulation, biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. In particular, antimicrobial properties of CS can be significantly increased when is blended with nanostructured materials. Silver-based nanocomposites have gained attention in medicine due to their high antibacterial properties against pathogens, related to their high surface area/volume ratio at nanomolar concentrations. Silver nanocomposites can be blended or synthesized with chitin-derivative biopolymers in order to obtain a biodegradable/antimicrobial hybrid with improved physic-mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites based on chitosan/silver nanoparticles (CS/nAg) were synthesized by the in situ chemical reduction method, improving their antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacteria and enhancing the healing process in thermal burn injuries produced in an animal model. CS/nAg was prepared in solution by the chemical reduction method, using AgNO₃ as precursor. CS was dissolved in acetic acid and mixed with different molar concentrations of AgNO₃: 0.01, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 M. Solutions were stirred at 95°C during 20 hours, in order to promote the nAg formation. CS/nAg solutions were placed in Petri dishes and dried, to obtain films. Structural analyses confirm the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (nAg) by means of UV-Vis and TEM, with an average size of 7.5 nm and spherical morphology. FTIR analyses showed the complex formation by the interaction of hydroxyl and amine groups with metallic nanoparticles, and surface chemical analysis (XPS) shows low concentration of Ag⁰/Ag⁺ species. Topography surface analyses by means of AFM shown that hydrated CS form a mesh with an average diameter of 10 µm. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa was improved in all evaluated conditions, such as nAg loading and interaction time. CS/nAg nanocomposites films did not show Ag⁰/Ag⁺ release in saline buffer and rat serum after exposition during 7 days. Healing process was significantly enhanced by the presence of CS/nAg nanocomposites, inducing the production of myofibloblasts, collagen remodelation, blood vessels neoformation and epidermis regeneration after 7 days of injury treatment, by means of histological and immunohistochemistry assays. The present work suggests that hydrated CS/nAg nanocomposites can be formed a mesh, improving the bacterial penetration and the contact with embedded nAg, producing complete growth inhibition after 1.5 hours. Furthermore, CS/nAg nanocomposites improve the cell tissue regeneration in thermal burn injuries induced in rats. Synthesis of antibacterial, non-toxic, and biocompatible nanocomposites can be an important issue in tissue engineering and health care applications.

Keywords: antibacterial, chitosan, healing process, nanocomposites, silver

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21 Elaboration and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles for Therapeutic and Environmental Applications

Authors: Manel Bouloudenine, Karima Djeddou, Hadjer Ben Manser, Hana Soualah Alila, Mohmed Bououdina

Abstract:

This survey research involves the elaboration and characterization of silver nanoparticles for therapeutic and environmental applications. The silver nanoparticles "Ag NPs" were synthesized by reducing AgNO3 with microwaves. The characterization of nanoparticles was done by using Transmission Electron Microscopy " TEM ", Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy "EDS", Selected Area Electron Diffraction "SEAD", UV-Visible Spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering "DLS". Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction have confirmed the nanoscale, the shape, and the crystalline quality of as synthesized silver nanoparticles. Elementary analysis has proved the purity of Ag NPs and the presence of the Surface Plasmon Resonance phenomenon "SPR". A strong absorption shift was observed in the visible range of the UV-visible spectrum of as synthesized Ag NPs, which indicates the presence of metallic silver. When the strong absorption in the ultraviolet range of the spectrum has revealed the presence of ionic Ag NPs ionic Ag aggregates species. The autocorrelation function measured by the Dynamic Light Scattering has shown a strong monodispersed character of Ag NPs, which is indicated by the presence of a single size population, with a minima and a maxima laying between 40 and 111 nm. Related to other research, our results confirm the performance properties of as synthesized Ag NPs, which allows them to be performing in many technological applications, including therapeutic and environmental ones.

Keywords: silvers nanoparticles, microwaves, EDS, TEM

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20 Preparation of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) Impregnated with Ionic Silver Particles from Cotton Woven Waste and Its Performance as Antibacterial Agent

Authors: Jonathan Andres Pullas Navarrete, Ernesto Hale de la Torre Chauvin

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In this work, the antibacterial effect of activated carbon fibers (ACF) impregnated with ionic silver particles was studied. ACF were prepared from samples of cotton woven wastes (cotton based fabrics 5x10 cm) by applying a chemical activation procedure with H3PO4. This treatment was performed using several H3PO4: Cotton based fabrics weight ratios (1:2–2:1), temperatures (600–900 ºC) and activation times (0.5–2 h). The ACF obtained under the best activation conditions showed BET surface area of 1103 m2/g; this result along with iodine index demonstrated the microporous nature of the fibers herein obtained. Then, the obtained fibers were impregnated with ionic silver particles by immersion in 0.1 and 0.5 M AgNO3 solutions followed by drying and thermal decomposition in order to fix the silver particles in the structure of ACF. It was determined that the presence of Ag ions lowered the BET surface area of the ACF in approximately 17 % due to the obstruction of the porosities along the carbonized structure. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the ACF impregnated with silver was studied through direct counting method for coliforms. The antibacterial activity of the impregnated fibers was demonstrated, and it was attributed to the strongly inhibition of bacteria growth because of chemical properties of the particles of silver inside the ACF. This behavior was demonstrated at concentrations of silver as low as 0.035 % w/w.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, antibacterial activity, coliforms, surface area

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19 Antimicrobial Activity of Functionalized Alpaca Fabrics with Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Gina Zavaleta-Espejo, Segundo R. Jáuregui-Rosas, Fanny V. Samanamud-Moreno, José Saldaña Jiménez, Anibal Felix-Quintero, Víctor Montero-Del Aguila, Elsi Mejía-Uriarte

Abstract:

Vicugnapacos "alpaca" fabrics are considered special for their finesse, and the garments in the textile market are very luxurious. It has many special characteristics such as antiallergic, soft, hygroscopic, among others. In this sense, the research aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alpaca fabrics functionalized with silver nanoparticles on the bacteria Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. For the functionalization of the fabrics, AgNO3 and different concentrations of trisodium citrate (TSC) 2, 6, and 10 mg. Tissue characterization was performed using Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The determination of the antimicrobial activity of the alpaca tissues was made by the Kirby-Bauer method with alpaca tissue discs functionalized with silver nanoparticles, an experimental design was made in completely randomized blocks with three treatments and a negative control with three repetitions. The results showed that inhibition halos were formed for both bacteria, therefore, the functionalized tissues have a high antimicrobial activity, whose mechanism of action is attributed to the free radicals (ROS) generated by the nanoparticles that cause oxidative damage to the bacteria. proteins and lipids of the bacterial cell wall.

Keywords: antimicrobial, animal fibers, fabrics, functionalization, trisodium citrate

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18 Nanosilver Containing Biodegradable Bionanocomposites for Antimicrobial Application: Design, Preparation and Study

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, Shorena Tskhadadze, Mzevinar Bedinashvili, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Surgical device-associated infection and biofilm formation are some of the major problems in biomedicine for today. The losing protection ability of conventional antimicrobial-drugs leads to the challenges in the current antibiotic therapy, the most serious of which is antibiotic resistance. Our strategy to overcome the biofilm formation consists in coating devices with polymeric film containing nanosilver(AgNPs) as a bactericidal agent. Such bionanocomposites are also promising as wound dressing materials. For this purpose, we have developed a new generation of AgNPs containing polymeric composites in which amino acid based biodegradable poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) were served as both matrices and AgNPs stabilizers. The AgNPs were formed by photochemical (daylight) reduction of AgNO3 in ethanol solution. The formation of AgNPs was monitored by coloring the solution in brownish-red and appearance of the absorption maximum at 420-430 nm in UV spectrum. Comparative studies of PEAs with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as particle stabilizers were carried out. It was found that PVP is better stabilizer in terms of particles yield and stability. Therefore, in subsequent experiments blends of PEAs and PVP were used as stabilizers for fabricating AgNPs. As expected, PVP increased the stabilizing effect and this apparently observed in the UV spectrum of the samples after 7 h daylight irradiation: for pure PVP λmax = 430 nm, D = 2.03, for pure PEA λmax= 420 nm, D = 0.65, and for the blend of PVP and PEA λmax = 435 nm, D = 1.88. Further study of the obtained nanobiocomposites is in progress now.

Keywords: biodegradation, bionanocompositions, polymer, nanosilver

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17 Synthesis of Plant-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Using Erythrina indica Extract and Evaluation of Their Anti-Microbial Activities

Authors: Chandra Sekhar Singh, P. Chakrapani, B. Arun Jyothi, A. Roja Rani

Abstract:

The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) involves biocompatible ingredients under physiological conditions of temperature and pressure. Moreover, the biologically active molecules involved in the green synthesis of NPs act as functionalizing ligands, making these NPs more suitable for biomedical applications. Among the most important bioreductants are plant extracts, which are relatively easy to handle, readily available, low cost, and have been well explored for the green synthesis of other nanomaterials. Various types of metallic NPs have already been synthesized using plant extracts. They have wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In our study, we were described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1mM AgNO3 solution through the aqueous extract of Erythrina indica as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM analysis showed the average particle size of 30 nm as well as revealed their spherical structure. Further these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against different human pathogens viz. two Gram positive namely Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis bacteria and two were Gram negative bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). This is for the first time reporting that Erythrina indica plant extract was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, antibacterial activity, FTIR, TEM, SEM

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16 A Dual Channel Optical Sensor for Norepinephrine via Situ Generated Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Shalini Menon, K. Girish Kumar

Abstract:

Norepinephrine (NE) is one of the naturally occurring catecholamines which act both as a neurotransmitter and a hormone. Catecholamine levels are used for the diagnosis and regulation of phaeochromocytoma, a neuroendocrine tumor of the adrenal medulla. The development of simple, rapid and cost-effective sensors for NE still remains a great challenge. Herein, a dual-channel sensor has been developed for the determination of NE. A mixture of AgNO₃, NaOH, NH₃.H₂O and cetrimonium bromide in appropriate concentrations was taken as the working solution. To the thoroughly vortexed mixture, an appropriate volume of NE solution was added. After a particular time, the fluorescence and absorbance were measured. Fluorescence measurements were made by exciting at a wavelength of 400 nm. A dual-channel optical sensor has been developed for the colorimetric as well as the fluorimetric determination of NE. Metal enhanced fluorescence property of nanoparticles forms the basis of the fluorimetric detection of this assay, whereas the appearance of brown color in the presence of NE leads to colorimetric detection. Wide linear ranges and sub-micromolar detection limits were obtained using both the techniques. Moreover, the colorimetric approach was applied for the determination of NE in synthetic blood serum and the results obtained were compared with the classic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Recoveries between 97% and 104% were obtained using the proposed method. Based on five replicate measurements, relative standard deviation (RSD) for NE determination in the examined synthetic blood serum was found to be 2.3%. This indicates the reliability of the proposed sensor for real sample analysis.

Keywords: norepinephrine, colorimetry, fluorescence, silver nanoparticles

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15 Influence of Laser Excitation on SERS of Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Ben R. Horrocks

Abstract:

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of Silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) were obtained using two different laser excitations: 488 nm and 514.5 nm. Silver nano particles were used as plasmonics metal nano particles due to a robust SERS effect that observed when they mixed with SiNCs. SiNCs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm and FCC lattice. Silver nano particles (AgNPs) of two different sizes were synthesized using photo chemical reduction of AgNO3 with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The synthesized AgNPs have a polycrystalline structure with an average particle diameter of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A significant enhancement in the SERS intensity was observed for AgNPs100/SiNCs and AgNPs30/SiNCs mixtures increasing up to 9 and 3 times respectively using 488 nm intensity; whereas the intensity of the SERS signal increased up to 7 and 2 times respectively, using 514.5 nm excitation source. The enhancement in SERS intensities occurs as a result of the coupling between the excitation laser light and the plasmon bands of AgNPs; thus this intense field at AgNPs surface couples strongly to SiNCs. The results provide good consensus between the wavelength of the laser excitation source and surface plasmon resonance absorption band of silver nano particles consider to be an important requirement in SERS experiments.

Keywords: silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS)

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14 Fungicidal Action of the Mycogenic Silver Nanoparticles Against Aspergillus niger Inciting Collar Rot Disease in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Authors: R. Sarada Jayalakshmi Devi B. Bhaskar, S. Khayum Ahammed, T. N. V. K. V. Prasad

Abstract:

Use of bioagents and biofungicides is safe to manage the plant diseases and to avoid human health hazards which improves food security. Myconanotechnology is the study of nanoparticles synthesis using fungi and their applications. The present work reports on preparation, characterization and antifungal activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Trichoderma sp. which was collected from groundnut rhizosphere. The culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. was used for the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) in AgNO3 solution to the silver (Ag0) nanoparticles. The different ages (4 days, 6 days, 8 days, 12 days, and 15 days) of culture filtrates were screened for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Among all the treatments the silver nitrate solution treated with six days aged culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. showed the UV absorption peak at 440 nm with maximum intensity (0.59) after 24 hrs incubation. The TEM micrographs showed the spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with an average size of 30 nm. The antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger causing collar rot disease in groundnut and aspergillosis in humans showed the highest per cent inhibition at 100 ppm concentration (74.8%). The results points to the usage of these mycogenic AgNPs in agriculture to control plant diseases.

Keywords: groundnut rhizosphere, Trichoderma sp., silver nanoparticles synthesis, antifungal activity

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13 Liesegang Phenomena: Experimental and Simulation Studies

Authors: Vemula Amalakrishna, S. Pushpavanam

Abstract:

Change and motion characterize and persistently reshape the world around us, on scales from molecular to global. The subtle interplay between change (Reaction) and motion (Diffusion) gives rise to an astonishing intricate spatial or temporal pattern. These pattern formation in nature has been intellectually appealing for many scientists since antiquity. Periodic precipitation patterns, also known as Liesegang patterns (LP), are one of the stimulating examples of such self-assembling reaction-diffusion (RD) systems. LP formation has a great potential in micro and nanotechnology. So far, the research on LPs has been concentrated mostly on how these patterns are forming, retrieving information to build a universal mathematical model for them. Researchers have developed various theoretical models to comprehensively construct the geometrical diversity of LPs. To the best of our knowledge, simulation studies of LPs assume an arbitrary value of RD parameters to explain experimental observation qualitatively. In this work, existing models were studied to understand the mechanism behind this phenomenon and challenges pertaining to models were understood and explained. These models are not computationally effective due to the presence of discontinuous precipitation rate in RD equations. To overcome the computational challenges, smoothened Heaviside functions have been introduced, which downsizes the computational time as well. Experiments were performed using a conventional LP system (AgNO₃-K₂Cr₂O₇) to understand the effects of different gels and temperatures on formed LPs. The model is extended for real parameter values to compare the simulated results with experimental data for both 1-D (Cartesian test tubes) and 2-D(cylindrical and Petri dish).

Keywords: reaction-diffusion, spatio-temporal patterns, nucleation and growth, supersaturation

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12 Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles of Extract of Leaf of Nauclea latifolia (Sm.) against Some Selected Clinical Isolates

Authors: Mustapha Abdulsalam, R. N. Ahmed

Abstract:

Nauclea latifolia is one of the medicinal plants used in traditional Nigerian medicine in the treatment of various diseases such as fever, toothaches, malaria, diarrhea among several other conditions. Nauclea latifolia leaf extract acts as a capping and reducing agent in the formation of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using a combination of aqueous extract of Nauclea latifolia and 1mM of silver nitrate (AgNO₃) solution to obtain concentrations of 100mg/ml-400mg/ml. Characterization of the particles was done by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). In this study, aqueous as well as ethanolic extract of leaf of Nauclea latifolia were investigated for antibacterial activity using the standard agar well diffusion technique against three clinical isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was achieved by microbroth dilution method and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was also determined by plate assay. Characterization by UV-visible spectrometry revealed peak absorbance of 0.463 at 450.0nm, while FTIR showed the presence of two functional groups. At 400mg/ml, the highest inhibitory activities were observed with S.aureus and E.coli with zones of inhibition measuring 20mm and 18mm respectively. The MIC was obtained at 400mg/ml while MBC was at a higher concentration. The data from this study indicate the potential of silver nanoparticle of Nauclea latifolia as a suitable alternative antibacterial agent for incorporation into orthodox medicine in health care delivery in Nigeria.

Keywords: agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, Nauclea latifolia, silver nanoparticles

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11 Thiazolo [5,4-d] Thiazole Based Polymers and Investigation of Optical Properties for Electronic Applications

Authors: Zeynep Dikmen, Vural Bütün

Abstract:

Electron donor or acceptor capability to participate in electron conjugation is the requirement for an electroactive material. Conjugated molecules and polymers bearing heterocyclic units have potential as optically electroactive materials. Thiazolo thiazole based compounds have attention for last two decades, because they have attractive electronic and optical properties, these compounds are useful for electronic application areas such as dye sentisized solar cells (DSSCs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole is bicyclic aromatic structure contains N and S atoms which act as electron donor. A new electron accepting or donating group bound to thiazolo [5,4-d] thiazole fused ring can change the electronic, spectroscopic, stability and dyeing properties of the new material. Polyphenylene(thiazolo [5,4-d] thiazole) (p-PhTT) compound was synthesized via condensation reaction of terephthalaldehyde with dithiooxamide. The chemical structure was determined with solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Optical properties (i.e. absorbance and band gap) was determined via solid UV-vis spectroscopy. The insoluble polymer was quarternized with 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC). Colorless VBC changed into a yellow liquid. AgNO3 complex were prepared and optical properties were investigated with UV-Vis, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies were examined in this research. This structure exhibits good absorbance and fluorescence in UV-vis region. Synthesis scheme of PyTT and preparation of metal complexes are given. PyTT has absorbance at ~360 nm and fluorescence at ~420 nm.

Keywords: thiazolo thiazole, quarternized polymers, polymeric ligands, Ag complexes

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10 Isolation and Characterization of Actinophages Infecting Streptomyces scabies in Egypt

Authors: D. Zahran, M. AlKhazindar, M. Khalil, E. T. A. Sayed

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Streptomyces scabies is a pathogenic actinomycete that infects potato crop causing severe production losses. Actinophages affect the composition and diversity of the bacterial population, thereby, can be used as a biological control. Samples of actinomycetes and phages were collected from different cultivated soils including farms of Faculty of Science, Faculty of Agriculture and different locations in Giza, Egypt. Actinomycetes were identified by using biochemical, morphological tests and molecular studies using 16S rRNA sequencing. Two specific phages (E1 and E2) against Streptomyces scabies and other hosts were isolated. Phages were identified using dilution end point (DEP), longevity in vitro (LIV), thermal inactivation point (TIP), host range and electron microscopy. PhageE1 was characterized by 10-8 (DEP),180 days(LIV), 95°C(TIP), narrow host range and electron microscopy showed ahead (59.9 nm) and neck (10.4nm). On the other hand phageE2 had 10-20 (DEP),180 days(LIV), 90°C(TIP), and the size of head was (67.2 nm) and tail (114nm). Antiviral activity was also studied using different chemicals (NaCL, KCL, CaCL2, BaCL2, CoCL2, AgNO3, ALCL3and HgCL2) with different concentrations and different plant extracts with different concentrations (star anise, tea, tillia, peppermint, ginger, cumin, chamomile, turmeric cinnamon, marjoram and black cumin). Both Phage E1and phage E2 were vulnerable to (cumin, ginger, chamomile, guavas leaves and star anise) but resistant to (Tillie, marjoram, fennelflower seeds, peppermint, and cinnamon).

Keywords: potato scab, actinophages, biological control, electron microscopy, TIP, DEP, LIV, antiviral activity

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9 Harnessing the Generation of Ferromagnetic and Silver Nanostructures from Tropical Aquatic Microbial Nanofactories

Authors: Patricia Jayshree Jacob, Mas Jaffri Masarudinb, Mohd Zobir Hussein, Raha Abdul Rahim

Abstract:

Iron based ferromagnetic nanoparticles (IONP) and silver nanostructures (AgNP) have found a wide range of application in antimicrobial therapy, cell targeting, and environmental applications. As such, the design of well-defined monodisperse IONPs and AgNPs have become an essential tool in nanotechnology. Fabrication of these nanostructures using conventional methods is not environmentally conducive and weigh heavily on energy and outlays. Selected microorganisms possess the innate ability to reduce metallic ions in colloidal aqueous solution to generate nanoparticles. Hence, harnessing this potential is a way forward in constructing microbial nano-factories, capable of churning out high yields of well-defined IONP’s and AgNP's with physicochemical characteristics on par with the best synthetically produced nanostructures. In this paper, we report the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains isolated from the tropical marine and freshwater ecosystems of Malaysia that demonstrated facile and rapid generation of ferromagnetic nanoparticles and silver nanostructures when precursors such as FeCl₃.6H₂O and AgNO₃ were added to the cell-free bacterial lysate in colloidal solution. Characterization of these nanoparticles was carried out using FESEM, UV Spectrophotometer, XRD, DLS and FTIR. This aerobic bioprocess was carried out at ambient temperature and humidity and has the potential to be developed for environmental friendly, cost effective large scale production of IONP’s. A preliminary bioprocess study on the harvesting time, incubation temperature and pH was also carried out to determine pertinent abiotic parameters contributing to the optimal production of these nanostructures.

Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, biosynthesis, aquatic bacteria

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8 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Plant by-Product Extracts

Authors: Cristian Moisa, Andreea Lupitu, Adriana Csakvari, Dana G. Radu, Leonard Marian Olariu, Georgeta Pop, Dorina Chambre, Lucian Copolovici, Dana Copolovici

Abstract:

Green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) represents a promising, accessible, eco-friendly, and safe process with significant applications in biotechnology, pharmaceutical sciences, and farming. The aim of our study was to obtain silver nanoparticles, using plant wastes extracts resulted in the essential oils extraction process: Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Lavandula angustifolia L., and in hemp processing for seed and fibre, Cannabis sativa. Firstly, we obtained aqueous extracts of thyme, oregano, lavender, and hemp (two monoicous and one dioicous varieties), all harvested in western part of Romania. Then, we determined the chemical composition of the extracts by liquid-chromatography coupled with diode array and mass spectrometer detectors. The compounds identified in the extracts were in agreement with earlier published data, and the determination of the antioxidant activity of the obtained extracts by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assays confirmed their antioxidant activity due to their total polyphenolic content evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Then, the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully biosynthesised, as was demonstrated by UV-VIS, FT-IR spectroscopies, and SEM, by reacting AgNO₃ solution and plant extracts. AgNPs were spherical in shape, with less than 30 nm in diameter, and had a good bactericidal activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas fluorescens).

Keywords: plant wastes extracts, chemical composition, high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometer, HPLC-MS, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, silver nanoparticles

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7 Photoluminescent Properties of Noble Metal Nanoparticles Supported Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Nanoparticles Doped with Cerium (Ⅲ) Ions

Authors: Mitsunobu Iwasaki, Akifumi Iseda

Abstract:

Yttrium aluminum garnet doped with cerium (Ⅲ) ions (Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, YAG:Ce3+) has attracted a great attention because it can efficiently convert the blue light into a very broad yellow emission band, which produces white light emitting diodes and is applied for panel displays. To improve the brightness and resolution of the display, a considerable attention has been directed to develop fine phosphor particles. We have prepared YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphors by environmental-friendly wet process. The peak maximum of absorption spectra of surface plasmon of Ag nanopaticles are close to that of the excitation spectra (460 nm) of YAG:Ce3+. It can be expected that Ag nanoparticles supported onto the surface of YAG:Ce3+ (Ag-YAG:Ce3+) enhance the absorption of Ce3+ ions. In this study, we have prepared Ag-YAG:Ce3+ nanophosphors and investigated their photoluminescent properties. YCl3・6H2O and AlCl3・6H2O with a molar ratio of Y:Al=3:5 were dissolved in ethanol (100 ml), and CeCl3•7H2O (0.3 mol%) was further added to the above solution. Then, NaOH (4.6×10-2 mol) dissolved in ethanol (50 ml) was added dropwise to the mixture under reflux over 2 hours, and the solution was further refluxed for 1 hour. After cooling to room temperature, precipitates in the reaction mixture were heated at 673 K for 1 hour. After the calcination, the particles were immersed in AgNO3 solution for 1 hour, followed by sintering at 1123 K for 1 hour. YAG:Ce3+ were confirmed to be nanocrystals with a crystallite size of 50-80 nm in diameter. Ag nanoparticles supported onto YAG:Ce3+ were single nanometers in diameter. The excitation and emission spectra were 454 nm and 539 nm at a maximum wavelength, respectively. The emission intensity was maximum for Ag-YAG:Ce3+ immersed into 0.5 mM AgCl (Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM)). The absorption maximum (461 nm) was increased for Ag-YAG:Ce3+ in comparison with that for YAG:Ce3+, indicating that the absorption was enhanced by the addition of Ag. The external and internal quantum efficiencies became 11.2 % and 36.9 % for Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM), respectively. The emission intensity and absorption maximum of Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM)×n (n=1, 2, 3) were increased with an increase of the number of supporting times (n), respectively. The external and internal quantum efficiencies were increased for the increase of n, respectively. The external quantum efficiency of Ag-YAG:Ce (0.5 mM) (n=3) became twice as large as that of YAG:Ce. In conclusion, Ag nanoparticles supported onto YAG:Ce3+ increased absorption and quantum efficiency. Therefore, the support of Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photoluminescent properties of YAG:Ce3+.

Keywords: plasmon, quantum efficiency, silver nanoparticles, yttrium aluminum garnet

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