Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Ernesto Hale de la Torre Chauvin

37 Preparation of Activated Carbon Fibers (ACF) Impregnated with Ionic Silver Particles from Cotton Woven Waste and Its Performance as Antibacterial Agent

Authors: Jonathan Andres Pullas Navarrete, Ernesto Hale de la Torre Chauvin

Abstract:

In this work, the antibacterial effect of activated carbon fibers (ACF) impregnated with ionic silver particles was studied. ACF were prepared from samples of cotton woven wastes (cotton based fabrics 5x10 cm) by applying a chemical activation procedure with H3PO4. This treatment was performed using several H3PO4: Cotton based fabrics weight ratios (1:2–2:1), temperatures (600–900 ºC) and activation times (0.5–2 h). The ACF obtained under the best activation conditions showed BET surface area of 1103 m2/g; this result along with iodine index demonstrated the microporous nature of the fibers herein obtained. Then, the obtained fibers were impregnated with ionic silver particles by immersion in 0.1 and 0.5 M AgNO3 solutions followed by drying and thermal decomposition in order to fix the silver particles in the structure of ACF. It was determined that the presence of Ag ions lowered the BET surface area of the ACF in approximately 17 % due to the obstruction of the porosities along the carbonized structure. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the ACF impregnated with silver was studied through direct counting method for coliforms. The antibacterial activity of the impregnated fibers was demonstrated, and it was attributed to the strongly inhibition of bacteria growth because of chemical properties of the particles of silver inside the ACF. This behavior was demonstrated at concentrations of silver as low as 0.035 % w/w.

Keywords: Adsorption, antibacterial activity, activated carbon, surface area, coliforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
36 Design and Optimization of a Mini High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Multi-Role Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: M. Senthil Kumar, Vishaal Subramanian, Annuatha Vinod Kumar, Santosh Kumar Budankayala

Abstract:

This paper discusses the aerodynamic and structural design, simulation and optimization of a mini-High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) UAV. The applications of this mini HALE UAV vary from aerial topological surveys, quick first aid supply, emergency medical blood transport, search and relief activates to border patrol, surveillance and estimation of forest fire progression. Although classified as a mini UAV according to UVS International, our design is an amalgamation of the features of ‘mini’ and ‘HALE’ categories, combining the light weight of the ‘mini’ and the high altitude ceiling and endurance of the HALE. Designed with the idea of implementation in India, it is in strict compliance with the UAS rules proposed by the office of the Director General of Civil Aviation. The plane can be completely automated or have partial override control and is equipped with an Infra-Red camera and a multi coloured camera with on-board storage or live telemetry, GPS system with Geo Fencing and fail safe measures. An additional of 1.5 kg payload can be attached to three major hard points on the aircraft and can comprise of delicate equipment or releasable payloads. The paper details the design, optimization process and the simulations performed using various software such as Design Foil, XFLR5, Solidworks and Ansys.

Keywords: Endurance, Aircraft, UAV, Unmanned aerial vehicle, HALE, high altitude, long range

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
35 Structural Health Monitoring of the 9-Story Torre Central Building Using Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani

Abstract:

The Torre Central building is a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile, and has been instrumented since 2009. Events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded, and thus the building can serve as a full-scale benchmark to evaluate the structural health monitoring method developed. The first part of this article presents an analysis of inter-story drifts, and of changes in the first system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) as baseline indicators of the occurrence of damage. During 2010 Chile earthquake the system frequencies were detected decreasing approximately 24% in the EW and 27% in NS motions. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% in the EW motion was detected. The structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling time (wave method) within a layered shear beam model of structure is presented in the second part of this article. If structural damage occurs the velocity of wave propagated through the structure changes. The wave method measures the velocities of shear wave propagation from the impulse responses generated by recorded data at various locations inside the building. Our analysis and results show that the detected changes in wave velocities are consistent with the observed damages. On this basis, the wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, earthquake response, Chile earthquake, impulse response, layered shear beam, Torre Central building, wave method, wave travel time

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
34 Co-Pyrolysis of Bituminous Coal with Peat by Thermogravimetric Analysis

Authors: Hale Sütcü, Ceren Efe

Abstract:

In this study, the pyrolysis of bituminous coal, peat and their blends formed by mixing various ratios of them were examined by thermogravimetric analysis method. Thermogravimetric analyses of peat, bituminous coal and their blends in the proportions of 25 %, 50 % and 75 % were performed at heating rate of 10 °C/min and from the room temperature until to 800 °C temperature, in a nitrogen atmosphere of 100 ml/min. Kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis process were calculated using Coats&Redfern kinetic model.

Keywords: pyrolysis, Peat, thermogravimetric analysis, bituminous coal, Coats&Redfern

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
33 Structural Health Monitoring of Buildings–Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani

Abstract:

This article presents the structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling times (wave method) within a layered 1-D shear beam model of structure. The wave method measures the velocity of shear wave propagating in a building from the impulse response functions (IRF) obtained from recorded data at different locations inside the building. If structural damage occurs in a structure, the velocity of wave propagation through it changes. The wave method analysis is performed on the responses of Torre Central building, a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile. Because events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded at this building, therefore it can serve as a full-scale benchmark to validate the structural health monitoring method utilized. The analysis of inter-story drifts and the Fourier spectra for the EW and NS motions during 2010 Chile earthquake are presented. The results for the NS motions suggest the coupling of translation and torsion responses. The system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) were detected initially decreasing approximately 24% in the EW motion. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% was detected. These analysis and results serve as baseline indicators of the occurrence of structural damage. The detected changes in wave velocities of the shear beam model are consistent with the observed damage. However, the 1-D shear beam model is not sufficient to simulate the coupling of translation and torsion responses in the NS motion. The wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems based on carefully assessing the resolution and accuracy of the model for its effectiveness on post-earthquake damage detection in buildings.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, earthquake response, shear wave velocity, Chile earthquake, Torre Central building, wave method, impulse response function, shear beam model

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
32 A Critique of Kenya’s Obsession with Ngugi Winning Literature Nobel Prize

Authors: Alexander Ernesto Khamala Opicho

Abstract:

The month of October in Kenya is full of events and literary speculations. For the past five years it has all been about Ngugi wa Thiong’o a Kenyan novelist winning the Nobel Prize. This goes on with a dint of self senselessness among the people involved. This paper surveys why some Kenyans are keen on Ngugi winning Nobel Prize for literature, and it also shows where and why they are wrong. The paper will end up with a comment on the proper position of African or Kenyan literature in the global literary citizenship.

Keywords: Literature, obsession, onamastics, cultural Darwinism, Nobel Prize, denotation

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
31 Cardiokey: A Binary and Multi-Class Machine Learning Approach to Identify Individuals Using Electrocardiographic Signals on Wearable Devices

Authors: S. Chami, J. Chauvin, T. Demarest, Stan Ng, M. Straus, W. Jahner

Abstract:

Biometrics tools such as fingerprint and iris are widely used in industry to protect critical assets. However, their vulnerability and lack of robustness raise several worries about the protection of highly critical assets. Biometrics based on Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals is a robust identification tool. However, most of the state-of-the-art techniques have worked on clinical signals, which are of high quality and less noisy, extracted from wearable devices like a smartwatch. In this paper, we are presenting a complete machine learning pipeline that identifies people using ECG extracted from an off-person device. An off-person device is a wearable device that is not used in a medical context such as a smartwatch. In addition, one of the main challenges of ECG biometrics is the variability of the ECG of different persons and different situations. To solve this issue, we proposed two different approaches: per person classifier, and one-for-all classifier. The first approach suggests making binary classifier to distinguish one person from others. The second approach suggests a multi-classifier that distinguishes the selected set of individuals from non-selected individuals (others). The preliminary results, the binary classifier obtained a performance 90% in terms of accuracy within a balanced data. The second approach has reported a log loss of 0.05 as a multi-class score.

Keywords: Biometrics, Machine Learning, Signals Processing, electrocardiographic

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
30 Media Planning Decisions and Preferences through a Goal Programming Model: An Application to a Media Campaign for a Mature Product in Italy

Authors: davide la torre, Cinzia Colapinto

Abstract:

Goal Programming (GP) and its variants were applied to marketing and specific marketing issues, such as media scheduling problems in the last decades. The concept of satisfaction functions has been widely utilized in the GP model to explicitly integrate the Decision-Maker’s preferences. These preferences can be guided by the available information regarding the decision-making situation. A GP model with satisfaction functions for media planning decisions is proposed and then illustrated through a case study related to a marketing/media campaign in the Italian market.

Keywords: Tourism Management, Media Planning, Goal Programming, satisfaction functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
29 Innovation Environments: A Comparison between Mexico and BRICS

Authors: Peña Aguilar Juan M., Arriaga Barrera H., Velázquez Alejos Miguel, Genis Ernesto, Valencia Pérez L. R., Bermúdez Peña M. Carmen

Abstract:

To give a general view of the innovation environments is the aim of this paper, we pretend to make an analysis between Mexico and BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa- countries belonging to the group of five major emerging economies). The comparison takes by reference a set of various indicators that directly or indirectly affect innovation in a positive or negative way. Firstly, a research to obtain the values of each of the indicators was conducted, considering the main primary sources, then, within a set of radial charts is presented the resulting values of each nation and a comparison between them. Finally, a description of the gaps between Mexico and the BRICS were established, including the areas of opportunity for Mexico

Keywords: Innovation, comparison, triple helix, Mexico and BRICS

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
28 Evaluating Psychologist Practice Competencies through Multisource Feedback: An International Research Design

Authors: Jac J. W. Andrews, James B. Hale

Abstract:

Effective practicing psychologists require ongoing skill development that is constructivist and recursive in nature, with mentor, colleague, co-worker, and patient feedback critical to successful acquisition and maintenance of professional competencies. This paper will provide an overview of the nature and scope of psychologist skill development through multisource feedback (MSF) or 360 degree evaluation, present a rationale for its use for assessing practicing psychologist performance, and advocate its use in psychology given the demonstrated model utility in other health professions. The paper will conclude that an international research design is needed to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of MSF system ratings intended to solicit feedback from mentors, colleagues, coworkers, and patients about psychologist competencies. If adopted, the MSF model could lead to enhanced skill development that fosters patient satisfaction within and across countries.

Keywords: Professionalism, psychologist, multisource feedback, psychologist competency

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
27 Design of Dendritic Molecules Bearing Donor-Acceptor Groups (Pyrene-Bodipy): Optical and Photophysical Properties

Authors: Mireille Vonlanthen, Ernesto Rivera, Pasquale Porcu, Gerardo Zaragoza-Galán

Abstract:

In this work, we report the synthesis of a novel series of dendritic molecules bearing donor-acceptor groups (pyrene-bodipy) with potential applications in energy transfer. Initially, first and second generation Fréchet type dendrons (Py2-G1OH and Py4-G2OH) were prepared from 1-pyrenylbutanol and 3,5-dihydroxybenzylic alcohol. These compounds were further linked to a bodipy unit via an esterification reaction in order to obtain the desired products (Bodipy-G1Py2) and Bodipy-G2Py4). These compounds were fully characterized by FTIR and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and their molecular weights were determined by MALDITOF. The optical and photophysical properties of these molecules were evaluated by absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to compare their behaviour with other analogue molecules.

Keywords: Optical Properties, bodipy, dendritic molecules, pyrene

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
26 Zoonotic Dirofilaria Repens: Geographic Spread and New Avenues for Control

Authors: Francesco La Torre, Angela Di Cesare, Donato Traversa

Abstract:

The mosquito-transmitted nematode Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of subcutaneous filariosis in dogs, other animals and humans. Adults and circulating microfilariae may cause different forms of skin conditions, and various allergic reactions. The infection is distributed in several countries and spreading in several areas of Europe. The control of D. repens is pivotal to reduce the transmission in dogs and to minimize the risk of infection in humans, but only few information is available for the chemoprevention of subcutaneous filariosis of dogs. A recent clinical field study showed the efficacy and safety of a monthly administration of an oral formulation containing milbemycin oxime (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of D. repens infection in dogs. Most recent and focused insights into epidemiology and control of zoonotic canine subcutaneous filariosis are here discussed.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Control, Zoonosis, Dirofilaria repens

Procedia PDF Downloads 601
25 Analysis of Fertilizer Effect in the Tilapia Growth of Mozambique (Oreochromis mossambicus)

Authors: Andrés Carrión García, Sérgio Afonso Mulema, Vicente Ernesto

Abstract:

This paper analyses the effect of fertilizer (organic and inorganic) in the growth of tilapia. An experiment was implemented in the Aquapesca Company of Mozambique; there were considered four different treatments. Each type of fertilizer was applied in two of these treatments; a feed was supplied to the third treatment, and the fourth was taken as control. The weight and length of the tilapia were used as the growth parameters, and to measure the water quality, the physical-chemical parameters were registered. The results show that the weight and length were different for tilapias cultivated in different treatments. These differences were evidenced mainly by organic and feed treatments, where there was the largest and smallest value of these parameters, respectively. In order to prove that these differences were caused only by applied treatment without interference for the aquatic environment, a Fisher discriminant analysis was applied, which confirmed that the treatments were exposed to the same environment condition.

Keywords: fertilizer, Growth, Statistical Methods, tilapia

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
24 Machine Learning for Aiding Meningitis Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients

Authors: Karina Zaccari, Ernesto Cordeiro Marujo

Abstract:

This paper presents a Machine Learning (ML) approach to support Meningitis diagnosis in patients at a children’s hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The aim is to use ML techniques to reduce the use of invasive procedures, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection, as much as possible. In this study, we focus on predicting the probability of Meningitis given the results of a blood and urine laboratory tests, together with the analysis of pain or other complaints from the patient. We tested a number of different ML algorithms, including: Adaptative Boosting (AdaBoost), Decision Tree, Gradient Boosting, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Logistic Regression, Random Forest and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Decision Tree algorithm performed best, with 94.56% and 96.18% accuracy for training and testing data, respectively. These results represent a significant aid to doctors in diagnosing Meningitis as early as possible and in preventing expensive and painful procedures on some children.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Pediatric Research, Medical Diagnosis, meningitis detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
23 Four Phase Methodology for Developing Secure Software

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez-Flores, Ernesto Liñan-García

Abstract:

A simple and robust approach for developing secure software. A Four Phase methodology consists in developing the non-secure software in phase one, and for the next three phases, one phase for each of the secure developing types (i.e. self-protected software, secure code transformation, and the secure shield). Our methodology requires first the determination and understanding of the type of security level needed for the software. The methodology proposes the use of several teams to accomplish this task. One Software Engineering Developing Team, a Compiler Team, a Specification and Requirements Testing Team, and for each of the secure software developing types: three teams of Secure Software Developing, three teams of Code Breakers, and three teams of Intrusion Analysis. These teams will interact among each other and make decisions to provide a secure software code protected against a required level of intruder.

Keywords: Software Engineering, secure software, four phases methodology, code breakers, intrusion analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
22 Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Based Composites Reinforced by Nanocrystalline Carbon-Coated Intermetallic Particles

Authors: B. Z. Manuel, H. D. Esmeralda, H. S. Felipe, D. R. Héctor, D. de la Torre Sebastián, R. L. Diego

Abstract:

Aluminum Matrix Composites reinforced with nanocrystalline Ni3Al carbon-coated intermetallic particles, were synthesized by powder metallurgy. Powder mixture of aluminum with 0.5-volume fraction of reinforcement particles was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique and the compared with conventional sintering process. The better results for SPS technique were obtained in 520ºC-5kN-3min.The hardness (70.5±8 HV) and the elastic modulus (95 GPa) were evaluated in function of sintering conditions for SPS technique; it was found that the incorporation of these kind of reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix improve its mechanical properties. The densities were about 94% and 97% of the theoretical density. The carbon coating avoided the interfacial reaction between matrix-particle at high temperature (520°C) without show composition change either intermetallic dissolution.

Keywords: Intermetallics, aluminum matrix composites, spark plasma sintering, nanocrystalline

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
21 Nonlinear Analysis with Failure Using the Boundary Element Method

Authors: Ernesto Pineda Leon, Dante Tolentino Lopez, Janis Zapata Lopez

Abstract:

The current paper shows the application of the boundary element method for the analysis of plates under shear stress causing plasticity. In this case, the shear deformation of a plate is considered by means of the Reissner’s theory. The probability of failure of a Reissner’s plate due to a proposed index plastic behavior is calculated taken into account the uncertainty in mechanical and geometrical properties. The problem is developed in two dimensions. The classic plasticity’s theory is applied and a formulation for initial stresses that lead to the boundary integral equations due to plasticity is also used. For the plasticity calculation, the Von Misses criteria is used. To solve the non-linear equations an incremental method is employed. The results show a relatively small failure probability for the ranges of loads between 0.6 and 1.0. However, for values between 1.0 and 2.5, the probability of failure increases significantly. Consequently, for load bigger than 2.5 the plate failure is a safe event. The results are compared to those that were found in the literature and the agreement is good.

Keywords: Probability, Plasticity, Failure, boundary element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
20 Quantitative Changes in Biofilms of a Seawater Tubular Heat Exchanger Subjected to Electromagnetic Fields Treatment

Authors: Sergio Garcia, Alfredo Trueba, Luis M. Vega, Ernesto Madariaga

Abstract:

Biofilms adhesion is one of the more important cost of industries plants on wide world, which use to water for cooling heat exchangers or are in contact with water. This study evaluated the effect of Electromagnetic Fields on biofilms in tubular heat exchangers using seawater cooling. The results showed an up to 40% reduction of the biofilm thickness compared to the untreated control tubes. The presence of organic matter was reduced by 75%, the inorganic mater was reduced by 87%, and 53% of the dissolved solids were eliminated. The biofilm thermal conductivity in the treated tube was reduced by 53% as compared to the control tube. The hardness in the effluent during the experimental period was decreased by 18% in the treated tubes compared with control tubes. Our results show that the electromagnetic fields treatment has a great potential in the process of removing biofilms in heat exchanger.

Keywords: Biofilm, Electromagnetic Fields, Seawater, heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
19 A Software Engineering Methodology for Developing Secure Obfuscated Software

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez, Ernesto Linan

Abstract:

We propose a methodology to conciliate two apparently contradictory processes in the development of secure obfuscated software and good software engineered software. Our methodology consists first in the system designers defining the type of security level required for the software. There are four types of attackers: casual attackers, hackers, institution attack, and government attack. Depending on the level of threat, the methodology we propose uses five or six teams to accomplish this task. One Software Engineer Team and one or two software Obfuscation Teams, and Compiler Team, these four teams will develop and compile the secure obfuscated software, a Code Breakers Team will test the results of the previous teams to see if the software is not broken at the required security level, and an Intrusion Analysis Team will analyze the results of the Code Breakers Team and propose solutions to the development teams to prevent the detected intrusions. We also present an analytical model to prove that our methodology is no only easier to use, but generates an economical way of producing secure obfuscated software.

Keywords: Software Engineering, development methodology, secure software development, obfuscated software

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
18 Wideband Planar Antenna Based on Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission-Line (CRLH-TL) for Operation across UHF/L/S-Bands

Authors: Mohammad Alibakhshikenari, Ernesto Limiti, Bal S. Virdee

Abstract:

The paper presents a miniature wideband antenna using composite right/left-handed transmission-line (CRLH-TL) metamaterial. The proposed planar antenna has a fractional bandwidth of 100% and is designed to operate in several frequency bands from 800MHz to 2.40GHz. The antenna is constructed using just two CRLH-TL unit cells comprising of two T-shaped slots that are inverted. The slots contribute towards generating the series left-handed (LH) capacitance CL. The rectangular patch on which the slots are created is grounded with spiral shaped high impedance stubs that contribute towards LH inductance LL. The antenna has a size of 14×6×1.6mm3 (0.037λ0×0.016λ0× 0.004λ0, where λ0 is free space wavelength at 800MHz). The peak gain and efficiency of the antenna are 1.5 dBi and ~75%, respectively, at 1.6GHz. Proposed antenna is suitable for use in wireless systems working at UHF/L/S-bands, in particular, AMPS, GSM, WCDMA, UMTS, PCS, cellular, DCS, IMT-2000, JCDMA, KPCS, GPS, lower band of WiMAX.

Keywords: Metamaterials, miniature antenna, composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL), wideband antenna, communication transceiver

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
17 Synthesis of Star Compounds Bearing a Porphyrin Core and Cholic Acid Units by Using Click Chemistry: Study of the Optical Properties and Aggregation

Authors: Edgar Aguilar-Ortíz, Nicolas Lévaray, Mireille Vonlanthen, Eric G. Morales-Espinoza, Ernesto Rivera, Xiao Xia Zhu

Abstract:

Four new star compounds bearing a porphyrin core and cholic acid units, (TPPh(Zn) tetra-CA, TPPh(2H) tetra-CA, TPPh(Zn) octa-CA and TPPh(2H) octa-CA), have been synthesized using the Click Chemistry approach, which consist on azide-alkyne couplings. These novel functionalized porphyrins were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and their structure was confirmed by MALDI-TOF. The optical properties of these compounds were studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. On the other hand, order to evaluate the amphiphilic properties of the cholic acid units combined with the optical response of the porphyrin core, we performed absorption and fluorescence studies in function of the polarity of the environment. It was found that as soon as we increase the polarity of the solvent, the Zn-metallated porphyrins, (TPPh(Zn) tetra-CA and TPPh(Zn) octa-CA), are able to form J aggregates, whereas the free-base porphyrins, TPPh(2H) tetra-CA and TPPh(2H) octa-CA, behaved differently.

Keywords: Aggregates, amphiphilic, cholic acid, click-chemistry, porphyrin

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
16 Governing Urban Water Infrasystems: A Case Study of Los Angeles in the Context of Global Frameworks

Authors: Joachim Monkelbaan, Marcia Hale

Abstract:

Now that global frameworks for sustainability governance (e.g. the Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Climate Agreement and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction) are in place, the question is how these aspirations that represent major transitions can be put into practice. Water ‘infrasystems’ can play an especially significant role in strengthening regional sustainability. Infrasystems include both hard and soft infrastructure, such as pipes and technology for delivering water, as well as the institutions and governance models that direct its delivery. As such, an integrated infrasystems view is crucial for Integrative Water Management (IWM). Due to frequently contested ownership of and responsibility for water resources, these infrasystems can also play an important role in facilitating conflict and catalysing community empowerment, especially through participatory approaches to governance. In this paper, we analyze the water infrasystem of the Los Angeles region through the lens of global frameworks for sustainability governance. By complementing a solid overview of governance theories with empirical data from interviews with water actors in the LA metropolitan region (including NGOs, water managers, scientists and elected officials), this paper elucidates ways for this infrasystem to be better aligned with global sustainability frameworks. In addition, it opens up the opportunity to scrutinize the appropriateness of global frameworks when it comes to fostering sustainability action at the local level.

Keywords: Governance, Transitions, global frameworks, infrasystems

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
15 Acoustic and Thermal Isolation Performance Comparison between Recycled and Ceramic Roof Tiles Using Digital Holographic Interferometry

Authors: A. Araceli Sánchez, I. Manuel H. De la Torre, S. Fernando Mendoza, R. Cesar Tavera, R. Manuel de J. Briones

Abstract:

Recycling, as part of any sustainable environment, is continuously evolving and impacting on new materials in manufacturing. One example of this is the recycled solid waste of Tetra Pak ™ packaging, which is a highly pollutant waste as it is not biodegradable since it is manufactured with different materials. The Tetra Pak ™ container consists of thermally joined layers of paper, aluminum and polyethylene. Once disposed, this packaging is recycled by completely separating the paperboard from the rest of the materials. The aluminum and the polyethylene remain together and are used to create the poly-aluminum, which is widely used to manufacture roof tiles. These recycled tiles have different thermal and acoustic properties compared with traditional manufactured ceramic and cement tiles. In this work, we compare a group of tiles using nondestructive optical testing to measure the superficial micro deformations of the tiles under well controlled experiments. The results of the acoustic and thermal tests show remarkable differences between the recycled tile and the traditional ones. These results help to determine which tile could be better suited to the specific environmental conditions in countries where extreme climates, ranging from tropical, desert-like, to very cold are experienced throughout the year.

Keywords: Sustainable, Thermal, acoustic, Isolation, recycled, digital holographic interferometry, roof tiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
14 Multilingual and Ideological Graffiti in Palestine

Authors: Olivia Martina Dalla Torre

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse some urban writings that emerge in politically disputed areas, namely the Occupied Palestinian Territories, and more specifically in Deheishe refugee camp. These graffiti are visible on the walls of houses, all around the camp, and they convey messages of protest but also of hope or claim about the complex political situation in the occupied territories. These graffiti can be then interpreted as political and politicized semiotic resources. In this paper, after having introduced the political situation of the Palestinian Territories in a historical perspective, we will question a specific dimension of these writings, i.e., their multilingual and ideological aspect. To do this, we will focus on ethnographic fieldwork on Deheishe refugee camp and we will draw on the theoretical framework of the critical communication studies which assert that language practices are not neutral and that they need to be understood through the lens of the historical context of production, crossing space and time. By analysing the relationship between the discursive constructions of the messages and the languages used, we will point out some of the possible reasons and functions of the presence of these multilingual discursive productions. We will show that if, on the one hand, these graffiti confirm the huge presence of Western actors in the region, on the other hand, they attest the presence of an international movement against the Israeli occupation and against other struggles as well. Concluding, we will argue that multilingualism certainly represents a diversification of the linguistic landscape and that it gives a transnational and political dimension to the graffiti.

Keywords: Communication, Multilingualism, Transnationalism, Palestine, graffiti

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
13 Hidden Populations and Women: New Political, Methodological and Ethical Challenges

Authors: Renée Fregosi

Abstract:

The contribution presently proposed will report on the beginnings of a Franco-Chilean study to be launched in 2015 by a multidisciplinary team of Renée Fregosi Political Science University Paris 3 / CECIEC, Norma Muñoz Public Policies University of Santiago of Chile, Jean-Daniel Lelievre, Medicine Paris 11 University, Marcelo WOLFF Medicine University of Chile, Cecilia Blatrix Political Science University Paris-Tech, Ernesto OTTONE, Political Science University of Chile, Paul DENY Medicine Paris 13 University, Rafael Bugueno Medicine Hospital Urgencia Pública of Santiago, Eduardo CARRASCO Political Science Paris 3 University. The problem of hidden populations challenges some criteria and concepts to re-examine: in particular the concept of target population, sampling methods to "snowball" and the cost-effectiveness criterion that shows the connection of political and scientific fields. Furthermore, if the pattern of homosexual transmission still makes up the highest percentage of the modes of infection with HIV, there is a continuous increase in the number of people infected through heterosexual sex, including women and persons aged 50 years and older. This group can be described as " unknown risk people." Access to these populations is a major challenge and raises methodological, ethical and political issues of prevention, particularly on the issue of screening. This paper proposes an inventory of these types of problems and their articulation, to define a new phase in the prevention against HIV refocused on women.

Keywords: Women, HIV testing, hidden populations, difficult to reach PLWHA, unknown risk people

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
12 Case Study of the Roma Tomato Distribution Chain: A Dynamic Interface for an Agricultural Enterprise in Mexico

Authors: Ernesto A. Lagarda-Leyva, Manuel A. Valenzuela L., José G. Oshima C., Arnulfo A. Naranjo-Flores

Abstract:

From August to December of 2016, a diagnostic and strategic planning study was carried out on the supply chain of the company Agropecuaria GABO S.A. de C.V. The final product of the study was the development of the strategic plan and a project portfolio to meet the demands of the three links in the supply chain of the Roma tomato exported annually to the United States of America. In this project, the strategic objective of ensuring the proper handling of the product was selected and one of the goals associated with this was the employment of quantitative methods to support decision making. Considering the antecedents, the objective of this case study was to develop a model to analyze the behavioral dynamics in the distribution chain, from the logistics of storage and shipment of Roma tomato in 81-case pallets (11.5 kg per case), to the two pre-cooling rooms and eventual loading onto transports, seeking to reduce the bottleneck and the associated costs by means of a dynamic interface. The methodology used was that of system dynamics, considering four phases that were adapted to the purpose of the study: 1) the conceptualization phase; 2) the formulation phase; 3) the evaluation phase; and 4) the communication phase. The main practical conclusions lead to the possibility of reducing both the bottlenecks in the cooling rooms and the costs by simulating scenarios and modifying certain policies. Furthermore, the creation of the dynamic interface between the model and the stakeholders was achieved by generating interaction with buttons and simple instructions that allow making modifications and observing diverse behaviors.

Keywords: Distribution, System Dynamics, Scenarios, agrilogistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
11 Synthesis, Characterization, Optical and Photophysical Properties of Pyrene-Labeled Ruthenium(Ii) Trisbipyridine Complex Cored Dendrimers

Authors: Mireille Vonlanthen, Ernesto Rivera, Pasquale Porcu

Abstract:

Dendritic macromolecules are presenting unique physical and chemical properties. One of them is the faculty of transferring energy from a donor moiety introduced at the periphery to an acceptor moiety at the core, mimicking the antenna effect of the process of photosynthesis. The mechanism of energy transfer is based on the Förster resonance energy exchange and requires some overlap between the emission spectrum of the donor and the absorption spectrum of the acceptor. Since it requires a coupling of transition dipole but no overlap of the physical wavefunctions, the energy transfer by Förster mechanism can occur over quite long distances from 1 to a maximum of 10 nm. However, the efficiency of the transfer depends strongly on distance. The Förster radius is the distance at which 50% of the donor’s emission is deactivated by FRET. In this work, we synthesized and characterized a novel series of dendrimers bearing pyrene moieties at the periphery and a Ru (II) complex at the core. The optical and photophysical properties of these compounds were studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Pyrene is a well-studied chromophore that has the particularity to present monomer as well as excimer fluorescence emission. The coordination compounds of Ru (II) are red emitters with low quantum yield and long excited lifetime. We observed an efficient singulet to singulet energy transfer in such constructs. Moreover, it is known that the energy of the MLCT emitting state of Ru (II) can be tuned to become almost isoenegetic with respect to the triplet state of pyrene, leading to an extended phosphorescence lifetime. Using dendrimers bearing pyrene moieties as ligands for Ru (II), we could combine the antenna effect of dendrimers as well as its protection effect to the quenching by dioxygen with lifetime increase due to triplet-triplet equilibrium.

Keywords: Energy transfer, dendritic molecules, pyrene, ru-trisbipyridine complex

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
10 Asymmetric Price Transmission in Rice: A Regional Analysis in Peru

Authors: Daniel De La Torre Ugarte, Renzo Munoz-Najar, Cristina Wong

Abstract:

The literature on price transmission usually deals with asymmetries related to different commodities and/or the short and long term. The role of domestic regional differences and the relationship with asymmetries within a country are usually left out. This paper looks at the asymmetry in the transmission of rice prices from the international price to the farm gate prices in four northern regions of Peru for the last period 2001-2016. These regions are San Martín, Piura, Lambayeque and La Libertad. The relevance of the study lies in its ability to assess the need for policies aimed at improving the competitiveness of the market and ensuring the benefit of producers. There are differences in planting and harvesting dates, as well as in geographic location that justify the hypothesis of the existence of differences in the price transition asymmetries between these regions. Those differences are due to at least three factors geography, infrastructure development, and distribution systems. For this, the Threshold Vector Error Correction Model and the Autoregressive Vector Model with Threshold are used. Both models, collect asymmetric effects in the price adjustments. In this way, it is sought to verify that farm prices react more to falls than increases in international prices due to the high bargaining power of intermediaries. The results of the investigation suggest that the transmission of prices is significant only for Lambayeque and La Libertad. Likewise, the asymmetry in the transmission of prices for these regions is checked. However, these results are not met for San Martin and Piura, the main rice producers nationwide. A significant price transmission is verified only in the Lambayeque and La Libertad regions. San Martin and Piura, in spite of being the main rice producing regions of Peru, do not present a significant transmission of international prices; a high degree of self-sufficient supply might be at the center of the logic for this result. An additional finding is the short-term adjustment with respect to international prices, it is higher in La Libertad compared to Lambayeque, which could be explained by the greater bargaining power of intermediaries in the last-mentioned region due to the greater technological development in the mills.

Keywords: regional economics, Price transmission, asymmetric price transmission, rice prices

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
9 PTOP Expression Correlates with Telomerase Activity and Grades of Malignancy in Human Glioma Tissues

Authors: F. Polito, M. Cucinotta, A. Conti, C. Lo Giudice, C. Tomasello, F. Angileri, D. La Torre, M. Aguennouz

Abstract:

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain tumors, with an extremely poor prognosis. Telomeres lenght is associated with tumor progression in several type of human cancers and telomere elongation is a common molecular feature of advanced malignancies. Among the telomeric shelterin proteins PTOP is required for telomeric protein complex assembly, telomerase recruitment and activity, and telomere length regulation through a PTOP-telomerase interaction. Previous studies suggest that PTOP upregulation is involved in radioresistance and telomere lengthening in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, in human osteosarcoma cells PTOP deletion led to telomere shortening, increased apoptosis and radiation sensitivity enhancement. However, to date, little is known about the role of PTOP in progression of glioma cancers. In light of this background aim of the study is to investigate the expression of PTOP in different grades of human glioma and its correlation with the pathological grade of gliomas, grades of malignancy, proliferative activity and apoptosis. Fifteen Low Grade Astrocytomas (LGA), 18 Anaplastic Astrocytomas (AA) and 26 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) samples were analyzed. Three samples of normal brain tissue (NBT) were used as controls. The expression levels of PTOP, h-TERT, BIRC1 and cyclin D1 were determined by real time PCR and/or western blot. Results obtained shows that PTOP expression in glioma tissues is tightly correlated with clinical grade ( p < 0.01 ). No correlation was found between PTOP expression and other clinicopathologic parameters. The expression of PTOP was positively correlated with the expression of hTERT and TERF1. Furthermore PTOP positively correlates with cyclin D1 and negatively correlates with the expression of BIRC1. Our findings indicate that PTOP might play key role in the progression of glioma regulating telomerase activity and likely through regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. In conclusion results obtained prompted us to speculate that PTOP might represents a potential molecular bio marker and a therapeutic target for the treatment of glioblastoma tumors.

Keywords: Brain Tumors, telomere, glioblastoma, PTOP

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
8 Populism and National Unity: A Discourse Analysis of Poverty Eradication Strategies of Three Malaysian Prime Ministers

Authors: Khairil Ahmad, Jenny Gryzelius, Mohd Helmi Mohd Sobri

Abstract:

With the waning support for centrist ‘third-way’ politics across the Western world, there has been an increase in political parties and individual candidates relying on populist political discourse and rhetoric in order to capitalize on the sense of frustration apparent within the electorate. What is of note is the divergence in the discourses employed. On the one hand, there is a polarization between a growing wave of populist right-wing parties and politicians, employing a mixture of economic populism with divisive nationalistic ideals such as restricted immigration, for example, the UK’s UKIP and Donald Trump in the US. On the other hand, there are resurgent, often grassroots-led, left-wing movements and politicians, such as Podemos in Spain and Jeremy Corbyn in the UK, focusing on anti-austerity measures and inclusive policies. In general, the concept of populism is often ascribed in a pejorative way. This is despite the success of populist left-wing governments across Latin America in recent times, especially in terms of reducing poverty. Nonetheless, recently, scholars such as Ernesto Laclau have tried to rethink populism as a social scientific concept which is essential in helping us make sense of contemporary political articulations. Using Laclau’s framework, this paper seeks to analyze poverty reduction policies in different iterations in the context of the tenures of three Prime Ministers of Malaysia. The first is Abdul Razak Hussein’s New Economic Policy, which focused on uplifting the economic position of Malaysia’s majority Malay population. The second is Mahathir Mohamad’s state-led neo-liberalization of the Malaysian economy, which focused on the creation of a core group of crony elites in order to spearhead economic development. The third is current Prime Minister Najib Razak’s targeted poverty eradication strategy through a focused program which directly provides benefits to recipients such as through direct cash transfers. The paper employs a discursive approach to trace elements of populism in these cases and highlight instances of how their strategies are articulated in ways that seek to appeal towards particular visions of national unity.

Keywords: Discourse Analysis, Populism, Malaysia, poverty eradication

Procedia PDF Downloads 190