Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 93

Search results for: Freund's Adjuvant

93 Comparative Study of Amyloidogenic Potential of AgNO3 and Freund's Adjuvant (AF) with That of Vitamin Free Casein, on Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Experimental Amyloidosis in Mice

Authors: Alireza Javed, Keivan Jamshidi

Abstract:

Reactive amyloidosis is a condition that complicates a long list of chronic inflammation, chronic infectious, malignant, and hereditary disorders. In the present study the potential effects of two amyloidogenic substances: ie. AgNO3 and Freund's Adjuvant (AF) with that of vitamin free casein, on spatio-temporal pattern of experimental amyloidosis in mice, were compared. For this purpose, a total of 40 male Swees mice, obtained from Pasteur Institute Tehran, after being weighted were randomly divided into 4 groups including 2 treatments, 1 control (vitamin free casein) and 1 positive control (normal saline). At the end of 3rd, 5th and 7th weeks of experiment 3 mice were randomly selected and euthnised. Spleen sample of each animal obtained and preserved in 10% neutral buffer formalin. Sample were then processed through different stages of dehydration, clearing and impregnation and finally embedded in paraffin blocks. Sections of 5µm thickness then cut and stained by alkaline Congo red techniques. Spleen weights and the data obtained from the microscopic quantitative analysis did show no significant differences between groups A and B, A and C, and B and C. However, significant differences were observed between groups A and D, B and D, and C and D respectively. It is concluded that two compounds ie; AgNO3 and Freund's Adjuvant have the same potential, as does vitamin free casein have, in spatio – temporal pattern of experimental amyloidosis in mice.

Keywords: amyloidosis, mice, AgNO3, Freund's Adjuvant

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92 Evaluation of Anti-Arthritic Activity of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb in Freund's Complete Adjuvant Induced Arthritic Rat Model

Authors: Akshada Amit Koparde, Candrakant S. Magdum

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate the anti-arthritic activity of chloroform extract and Isolate 1 of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and dichloromethane extract and Isolate 2 of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb in adjuvant arthritic (AA) rat model induced by Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA). Methods: Forty two healthy albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups. Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA) was used to induce arthritis and then treated with chloroform extract, isolate 1 and dichloromethane extract, isolate 2 for 28 days. The various parameters like paw volume, haematological parameters (RBC, WBC, Hb and ESR), were studied. Structural elucidation of active constituents isolate 1 and isolate 2 from Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb will be done using GCMS and H1NMR. Results: In FCA induced arthritic rats, there was significant increase in rat paw volume whereas chloroform extract and Isolate 1 of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and dichloromethane extract and Isolate 2 of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb treated groups showed strong significant reduction in paw volume. The altered haematological parameters in the arthritic rats were significantly recovered to near normal by the treatment with extracts at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Further histopathological studies revealed the anti-arthritic activity of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb by preventing cartilage and bone destruction of the arthritic joints of AA rats. Conclusion: Extracts and isolates of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb have shown anti-arthritic activity. Decrease in paw volume and normalization of haematological abnormalities in adjuvant induced arthritic rats is significantly seen in the experiment. Further histopathological studies confirmed the anti-arthritic activity of Eulophia ochreata Lindl and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.

Keywords: arthritis, Eulophia ochreata Lindl, Freund's complete adjuvant, paw volume, Zingiber cassumunar Roxb

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91 Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Arthritic Effects of Mirtazapine, Venalfaxine and Escitalopram in Rats

Authors: Sally A. El Awdan

Abstract:

Objective and Design: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti inflammatory, anti-arthritic and analgesic effects of antidepressants. Methods: Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4th hour post challenge. Anti-nociceptive effect was evaluated by hot plate method. Chronic inflammation was developed using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). The animals were injected with Freund’s adjuvant in sub-plantar tissue of the right posterior paw. Paw volume, ankle flexion scores, adjuvant-induced hyperalgesia and serum cytokine levels were assessed. Results: Results obtained demonstrate that mirtazapine, venalfaxine and escitalopram significantly and dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. Mirtazapine, venalfaxine and escitalopram increased the reaction time of rats in hot plate test. We observed an increase in paw volume, ankle flexion scores, thermal hyperalgesia, serum levels of interleukin-1β, PGE2 and TNF-α, induced by intraplantar CFA injection. Regular treatment up to 28 days of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats with mirtazapine, venalfaxine and escitalopram showed anti anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by suppressing the paw volume, recovering the paw withdrawal latency, and by inhibiting the ankle flexion scores in CFA-induced rats. In addition significant reduction in serum levels of interleukin-1β, PGE2 and TNF-α level in arthritic rats was reduced by treatment with drugs. Conclusion: These results suggest that antidepressants have significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects in acute and chronic models in rats, which may be associated with the reduction of interleukin-1β, PGE2 and TNF-α levels.

Keywords: antidepressants, carrageenan, anti-nociceptive, Complete Freund's Adjuvant

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90 Remote Electroacupuncture Analgesia at Contralateral LI4 Acupoint in Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Induced Inflammatory Hindpaw Pain

Authors: Tong-Chien Wu, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

Abstract:

There are accumulating evidences surrounding the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture (EA). Local EA can reliably attenuate inflammatory pain in mouse with unclear mechanisms. However, the effect of EA on distal and contralateral acupoint for pain control has been rarely studied and the result was controversial. Here in our study, we found that inflammatory hindpaw pain in mouth, which was induced by injecting the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) 2 days ago can be alleviated immediately after 2Hz 15mins EA treatment at contralateral forefoot acupoint LI4 through both mechanic and thermal behavior test, while sham acupoint group is not. The efficacy was observed to be more obvious after the second round of EA treatment on the following day. This analgesic effect is produced by applying EA to a site remote from the painful area. The present study provides a powerful experimental animal model that can be used for investigating the unique physiological mechanisms involved in acupuncture analgesia.

Keywords: remote electroacupuncture, distal EA, pain control, anti-inflammation

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89 Inhibitory Effect of Coumaroyl Lupendioic Acid on Inflammation Mediator Generation in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis

Authors: Rayhana Begum, Manju Sharma

Abstract:

Careya arborea Roxb. belongs to the Lecythidaceae family, is traditionally used in tumors, anthelmintic, bronchitis, epileptic fits, astringents, inflammation, an antidote to snake-venom, skin disease, diarrhea, dysentery with bloody stools, dyspepsia, ulcer, toothache, and ear pain. The present study was focused on investigating the anti-arthritic effect of coumaroyl lupendioic acid, a new lupane-type triterpene from Careya arborea stem bark in the chronic inflammatory model and further assessing its possible mechanism on the modulation of inflammatory biomarkers. Arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (5 mg/ml of heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis) into the subplantar region of the left hind paw. Treatment with coumaroyl lupendioic acid (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) and reference drugs (indomethacin and dexamethasone at the dose of 5 mg/kg, p.o.) were started on the day of induction and continued up to 28 days. The progression of arthritis was evaluated by measuring paw volume, tibio tarsal joint diameters, and arthritic index. The effect of coumaroyl lupendioic acid (CLA) on the production PGE₂, NO, MPO, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 on serum level as well as inflamed paw tissue were also assessed. In addition, ankle joints and spleen were collected and prepared for histological examination. CLA in inflamed rats resulted in significant amelioration of paw edema, tibio-tarsal joint swelling and arthritic score as compared to CFA control group. The results indicated that CLA treated groups markedly decreased the levels of inflammatory mediators (PGE₂, NO, MPO and NF-κB levels) and down-regulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in paw tissue homogenates as well as in serum. However, the more pronounced effect was observed in the inflamed paw tissue homogenates. CLA also revealed a protective effect to the tibio-tarsal joint cartilage and spleen. These results suggest that coumaroyl lupendioic acid inhibits inflammation may be through the suppression of the cascade of proinflammatory mediators via the down-regulation of NF-ҡB.

Keywords: complete Freund’s adjuvant , Coumaroyl lupendioic acid, pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2

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88 Role of Inflammatory Markers in Arthritic Rats Treated with Ethanolic Bark Extract of Albizia procera

Authors: M. Sangeetha, D. Chamundeeswari, C. Saravanababu, C. Rose, V. Gopal

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, progressive, systemic inflammatory disorder affecting the synovial joints and typically producing symmetrical arthritis that leads to joint destruction, which is responsible for the deformity and disability. Despite improvements in the treatment of RA over the past decade, there still is a need for new therapeutic agents that are efficacious, less expensive, and free of severe adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate role of inflammatory markers in arthritic rats treated with ethanolic bark extract of Albizia procera. The protective effect of ethanolic bark extract of Albizia procera against complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. Arthritis was induced by an intradermal injection of 0.1 ml FCA in the foot pad of left hind limb of rats. ETBE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt./p.o) and the reference drug diclofenac (25 mg/kg b.wt./p.o) were administered to arthritic rats. Paw volume was measured for all the animals before inducing arthritis and thereafter once in seven days by using plethysmometer for 42 days. Gene expression of inflammatory markers such as IL-1β and IL-10 were investigated in paw tissues. Up regulation of IL-1β and Down regulation IL-10 were observed in CFA injected rats when compared to normal rats. ETBE attenuated these alterations dose dependently when compared to the vehicle treated rats. These results provide insights into the mechanism of anti-arthritic activity, and unravel potential therapeutic use of Albizia procera in arthritis.

Keywords: CFA-Complete Freund’s adjuvant, ETBE – ethanolic bark extract, IL- interleukins, RA-rheumatoid arthritis

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87 Development of Biosurfactant-Based Adjuvant for Enhancing Biocontrol Efficiency

Authors: Kanyarat Sikhao, Nichakorn Khondee

Abstract:

Adjuvant is commonly mixed with agricultural spray solution during foliar application to improve the performance of microbial-based biological control, including better spreading, absorption, and penetration on a plant leaf. This research aims to replace chemical surfactants in adjuvant by biosurfactants for reducing a negative impact on antagonistic microorganisms and crops. Biosurfactant was produced from Brevibacterium casei NK8 and used as a cell-free broth solution containing a biosurfactant concentration of 3.7 g/L. The studies of microemulsion formation and phase behavior were applied to obtain the suitable composition of biosurfactant-based adjuvant, consisting of cell-free broth (70-80%), coconut oil-based fatty alcohol C12-14 (3) ethoxylate (1-7%), and sodium chloride (8-30%). The suitable formula, achieving Winsor Type III microemulsion (bicontinuous), was 80% of cell-free broth, 7% of fatty alcohol C12-14 (3) ethoxylate, and 8% sodium chloride. This formula reduced the contact angle of water on parafilm from 70 to 31 degrees. The non-phytotoxicity against plant seed of Oryza sativa and Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis were obtained from biosurfactant-based adjuvant (germination index equal and above 80%), while sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween80 showed phytotoxic effects to these plant seeds. The survival of Bacillus subtilis in biosurfactant-based adjuvant was higher than sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween80. The mixing of biosurfactant and plant-based surfactant could be considered as a viable, safer, and acceptable alternative to chemical adjuvant for sustainable organic farming.

Keywords: biosurfactant, microemulsion, bio-adjuvant, antagonistic microorganisms

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86 Improvement of Spray Retention on Barley

Authors: Hassina Hafida Boukhalfa, Mohamed Belhamra

Abstract:

Adjuvants contribute to change the types of impact and thus the amount of spray retained by the leaves of the treated plant. We have performed tests of retention on barley plants on BBCH 12 stage and small pieces of barley leaves at the same stage of growth. Spraying was done in three ways: water without adjuvant, water with Break-Thru® S240 and water with Li700®. The three slurries of fluorescein contained in an amount of 0.2 g/l. Fluorescein retained by the leaves in both cases is then measured by a spectrofluoremeter. The retention tests on whole plants show that it is tripled by the first adjuvant and doubled by the second. By cons on small pieces of barley leaves, the amount was increased by the use of surfactants but not to the same scale. This study concluded that the use of adjuvants in spray pesticides may increase the amount of retention as a function of leaf area and the type of adjuvant.

Keywords: Barley, adjuvant, spray retention, fluorometry

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85 Monitoring of Humoral Immune Response of Monovalent and Combined PPR and FMD Serotype 'O' Virus Vaccines in Goats

Authors: Mudassar Hameed, Khushi Muhammad, Aamir Ghafoor, Masood Rabbani, Momena Habib, Jawad Nazir

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Comparative efficacy of three formulations (non-adjuvant, gel, and oil adjuvant) of monovalent and combined PPR and FMD virus vaccines was evaluated in goats. All kinds of monovalent PPRV vaccines elicited protective antibody titers at one-month post vaccination (PV) that remained so till six months PV. Monovalent non-adjuvant (NA) FMDV vaccine provoked non-protective antibody titers that declined to undetectable levels after three months. In case of combined vaccines, all of the formulations elicited protective antibody titers against PPRV in vaccinated animals which remained above that limit for six months. However, an exceptional immune response against FMDV was observed in combined NA vaccine group where antibody titers were extremely high and remained above protective level till 4 months PV in animals who received a single vaccine shot and till six months PV in booster group. Although, adjuvant or NA combined vaccines can induce protective antibody titers against both of the viruses within one month PV, but a booster vaccine shot is needed to retain protective antibody level for 6 months duration. Immune response elicited by combined vaccines is comparable or superior to the monovalent vaccines. Hence combined vaccine can be effectively used for the control and prevention of both of the diseases.

Keywords: antibody titer, protective, combined vaccine, non adjuvant

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84 Investigating the Dose Effect of Electroacupuncture on Mice Inflammatory Pain Model

Authors: Wan-Ting Shen, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

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Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported effective for many kinds of pain and is a common treatment for acute or chronic pain. However, to date, there are limited studies examining the effect of acupuncture dosage. In our experiment, after injecting mice with Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) to induce inflammatory pain, two groups of mice were administered two different 15 min EA treatments at 2Hz. The first group received EA at a single acupuncture point (ST36, Zusanli) in both legs (two points), whereas the second group received two acupuncture points in both legs (four points) and the analgesic effect was compared. It was found that double points (ST36, Zusanli and SP6, Sanyinjiao) were significantly superior to single points (ST36, Zusanli) when evaluated using the electronic von Frey Test (mechanic) and Hargreaves’ Test (thermal). Through this study, it is expected more novel physiological mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia will be discovered.

Keywords: anti-inflammation, dose effect, electroacupuncture, pain control

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83 Elaboration and Characterization of Self-Compacting Mortar Based Biopolymer

Authors: I. Djefour, M. Saidi, I. Tlemsani, S. Toubal

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Lignin is a molecule derived from wood and also generated as waste from the paper industry. With a view to its valorization and protection of the environment, we are interested in its use as a superplasticizer-type adjuvant in mortars and concretes to improve their mechanical strengths. The additives of the concrete have a very strong influence on the properties of the fresh and / or hardened concrete. This study examines the development and use of industrial waste and lignin extracted from a renewable natural source (wood) in cementitious materials. The use of these resources is known at present as a definite resurgence of interest in the development of building materials. Physicomechanical characteristics of mortars are determined by optimization quantity of the natural superplasticizer. The results show that the mechanical strengths of mortars based on natural adjuvant have improved by 20% (64 MPa) for a W/C ratio = 0.4, and the amount of natural adjuvant of dry extract needed is 40 times smaller than commercial adjuvant. This study has a scientific impact (improving the performance of the mortar with an increase in compactness and reduction of the quantity of water), ecological use of the lignin waste generated by the paper industry) and economic reduction of the cost price necessary to elaboration of self-compacting mortars and concretes).

Keywords: biopolymer (lignin), industrial waste, mechanical resistances, self compacting mortars (SCM)

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82 Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits

Authors: Hamza I. Isa, Gezina C. H. Ferreira, Jan E. Crafford, Christoffel J. Botha

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Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.

Keywords: antibodies , bufadienolides, cross-reactivity, epoxyscillirosidine, Moraea pallida, poisoning

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81 Adjuvant Effect and Mineral Addition in Aggressive Environments on the Sustainability of Using Local Materials Concretes

Authors: M. Belouadah, S. Rahmouni, N. Teballe

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The durability of concrete is not one of its features, but its response to service loads and environmental conditions. Thus, the durability of concrete depends on a variety of material characteristics, but also the aggressiveness of the environment. Much durability problems encountered in tropical regions (region M'sila) due to the presence of chlorides and sulfates (in the ground or in the aggregate) with the additional aggravation of the effect of hot weather and arid. This lack of sustainability has a direct influence on the structure of the building and can lead to the complete deterioration of many buildings. The characteristics of the nature of fillers are evaluated based on the degree of aggressiveness of the environment considering as a means of characterization: mechanical strength, porosity. Specimens will be exposed to different storage media chemically aggressive drinking water, salts and sulfates (sodium chloride, MgSO4), solutions are not renewed or PH control solutions. The parameters taken into account are: age, the nature and degree of aggressiveness of the environment conservation, the incorporation of adjuvant type superplasticizer dosage and mineral additives.

Keywords: ordinary concretes, marble powder fillers, adjuvant, strength

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80 Paeonol Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Xuan Li, Xiaobing Cui, Nan Meng, Shuangshuang Guo, Lingling Wang

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Objective: To investigate the influence of Paeonol on diabetic nephropathy progression in streptozocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Method Male Wistar rats were injected STZ 30mg.kg-1 combined with Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) 0.1mL/rat once a week for three weeks. The diabetic rats were treated with Paenol for 13 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized. Serum and the kidney were collected. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and total cholesterol (Chol) level were detected; kidney paraffin sections were prepared and HE and PAS staining sections were used to evaluate the pathology changes of the kidney. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to observe the expression of VEGF and fibernectin expression in the kidney. Result The blood glucose level remained over 16mmol. L-1 for 13 weeks and the ECM accumulated in the diabetic kidney apparently. Paeonol treatment increased serum SOD activity, however, MDA, BUN, Cr, and Chol level was decreased by paeonol treatment. VEGF and fibernectin expression were increased significantly in the DN rats and paeonol treatment ameliorated the overexpression. Conclusion: paeonol prevented the progression of DN.

Keywords: paeonol, STZ, diabetic nephropathy, fibernectin expression, kidney paraffin sections

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79 Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Electroacupuncture Analgesia on Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice

Authors: Jun Yang, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

Abstract:

Chronic inflammatory pain results from peripheral tissue injury or local inflammation to increase the release of protons, histamines, adenosine triphosphate, and several proinflammatory cytokines. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in fibromyalgia, neuropathic, and inflammatory pain; however, its exact mechanisms in chronic inflammatory pain are still unclear. We investigate the analgesic effect of EA by injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in the hind paw of mice to induce chronic inflammatory pain ( > 14 d). Our results showed that EA significantly reduced chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic inflammatory pain model. Chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was also abolished in TRPV1−/− mice. TRPV1 increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) at 2 weeks after CFA injection. The expression levels of downstream molecules such as pPKA, pPI3K, and pPKC increased, as did those of pERK, pp38, and pJNK. Transcription factors (pCREB and pNFκB) and nociceptive ion channels (Nav1.7 and Nav1.8) were involved in this process. Inflammatory mediators such as GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein), S100B, and RAGE (Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) were also involved. The expression levels of these molecules were reduced in EA (electroacupuncture) and TRPV1−/−mice but not in the sham EA group. The present study demonstrated that EA or TRPV1 gene deletion reduced chronic inflammatory pain through TRPV1 and related molecules. In addition, our data provided evidence to support the clinical use of EA for treating chronic inflammatory pain.

Keywords: auricular electric-stimulation, epileptic seizures, anti-inflammation, electroacupuncture

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78 Treatment Outcome Of Corneal Ulcers Using Levofloxacin Hydrate 1.5% Ophthalmic Solution And Adjuvant Oral Ciprofloxacin, A Treatment Strategy Applicable To Primary Healthcare

Authors: Celine Shi Ying Lee, Jong Jian Lee

Abstract:

Background: Infectious keratitis is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Prompt treatment with effective medication will control the infection early, preventing corneal scarring and visual loss. fluoroquinolones ophthalmic medication is used because of its broad-spectrum properties, potency, good intraocular penetration, and low toxicity. The study aims to evaluate the treatment outcome of corneal ulcers using Levofloxacin 1.5% ophthalmic solution (LVFX) with adjuvant oral ciprofloxacin when indicated and apply this treatment strategy in primary health care as first-line treatment. Methods: Patients with infective corneal ulcer treated in an eye center were recruited. Inclusion criteria includes Corneal infection consistent with bacterial keratitis, single or multiple small corneal ulcers. Treatment regime: LVFX hourly for the first 2 days, 2 hourly from the 3rd day, and 3 hourly on the 5th day of review. Adjuvant oral ciprofloxacin 500mg BD was administered for 5 days if there were multiple corneal ulcers or when the location of the cornea ulcer was central or paracentral. Results: 47 subjects were recruited. There were 16 (34%) males and 31 (66%) females. 40 subjects (85%) were contact lens (CL) related to corneal ulcer, and 7 subjects (15%) were non-contact lens related. 42 subjects (89%) presented with one ulcer, of which 20 of them (48%) needed adjuvant therapy. 5 subjects presented with 2 or 3 ulcers, of which 3 needed adjuvant therapy. A total of 23 subjects (49%) was given adjuvant therapy (oral ciprofloxacin 500mg BD for 5 days).21 of them (91%) were CL related. All subjects recovered fully, and the average duration of treatment was 3.7 days, with 49% of the subjects resolved on the 3rd day, 38% on the 5thday of and 13% on the 7thday. All subjects showed symptoms of relief of pain, light-sensitivity, and redness on the 3rd day with full visual recovery post-treatment. No adverse drug reactions were recorded. Conclusion: Our treatment regime demonstrated good clinical outcome as first-line treatment for corneal ulcers. A corneal ulcer is a common eye condition in Singapore, mainly due to CL wear. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent and potentially sight-threatening pathogen involved in CL related corneal ulcer. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus Pneumoniae were seen in non-CL users. All these bacteria exhibit good sensitivity rates to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. It is therefore logical in our study to use LVFX Eyedrops and adjuvant ciprofloxacin oral antibiotics when indicated as first line treatment for most corneal ulcers. Our study of patients, both CL related and non-CL related, have shown good clinical response and full recovery using the above treatment strategy. There was also a full restoration of visual acuity in all the patients. Eye-trained primary Healthcare practitioners can consider adopting this treatment strategy as first line treatment in patients with corneal ulcers. This is relevant during the COVID pandemic, where hospitals are overwhelmed with patients and in regions with limited access to specialist eye care. This strategy would enable early treatment with better clinical outcome.

Keywords: corneal ulcer, levofloxacin hydrate, treatment strategy, ciprofloxacin

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77 Neo-Adjuvant B-CAT Chemotherapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Muneeb Nasir, Misbah Masood, Farrukh Rashid, Abubabakar Shahid

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Introduction: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is a potent option for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) as these tumours lack a clearly defined therapeutic target. Several recent studies lend support that pathological complete remission (pCR) is associated with improved disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and could be used as surrogate marker for DFS and OS in breast cancer patients. Methods: We have used a four-drug protocol in T3 and T4 TNBC patients either N+ or N- in the neo-adjuvant setting. The 15 patients enrolled in this study had a median age of 45 years. 12 patients went on to complete four planned cycles of B-CAT protocol. The chemotherapy regimen included inj. Bevacizumab 5mg/kg D1, inj. Adriamycin 50mg/m2 D1 and Docetaxel 65mg/m2 on D1. Inj. Cisplatin 60mg/m2 on D2. All patients received GCF support from D4 to D9 of each cycle. Results: Radiological assessment using ultrasound and PET-CT revealed a high percentage of responses. Radiological CR was documented in half of the patients (6/12) after four cycles. Remaining patients went on to receive 2 more cycles before undergoing radical surgery. pCR was documented in 7/12 patients and 3 more had a good partial response. The regimen was toxic and grade ¾ neutropenia was seen in 58% of patients. Four episodes of febrile neutropenia were reported and managed. Non-hematatological toxicities were common with mucositis, diarrhea, asthenia and neuropathy topping the list. Conclusion: B-CAT is a very active combination with very high pCR rates in TNBC. Toxicities though frequent, were manageable on outpatient basis. This protocol warrants further investigation.

Keywords: B-CAT:bevacizumab, cisplatin, adriamycin, taxotere, CR: complete response, pCR: pathological complete response, TNBC: triple negative breast cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
76 Acupoint Injection of High Concentration of Glucose Attenuates Mice Chronic Pain and Depression Comorbidity

Authors: Chanya Inprasit, Yi-Wen Lin

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Inflammation causes changes of peripheral and central nervous system properties, affecting both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, resulting in inflammatory pain. Acupoint injection (AI) was developed in the 1950s and has been widely used for relieving pain. It is an acupoint-stimulating technique that utilizes anatomically based meridians derived from Chinese medicine theory. AI has been accepted as an effective treatment and is thought to display superior results when compared to traditional acupuncture methods. However, the mechanism of AI needs to be ratified by more scientific evidence in order to support the theory and its therapeutic development. In this study, we explored the effect of AI on the comorbidity of chronic pain and depression. Mice hindpaw was injected by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) to induce the condition of chronic pain. Measurements of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and depression-like behavior were analyzed. The results indicated a positive tendency to AI treatment. The comorbidity of chronic pain and depression was investigated with relation to transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) mechanism through the use of TRPV1 gene deletion. The expression of nociceptors such as voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) or TRPV1, was significantly down-regulated by AI. The expression of inflammation-activated molecules: astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the microglial marker Iba-1, S100B, and related kinases, were reversed by AI in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Taken together, these data provided a detailed molecular mechanism of AI-induced analgesia and anti-inflammatory properties. This finding may be utilized for clinical practice to treat chronic pain and depression comorbidity.

Keywords: inflammatory pain, acupoint injection, TRPV1, GFAP, S100B

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75 A Literature Review: The Anti-Obesity Effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extraction as a Potential Adjuvant Therapy for Management Obesity

Authors: Nunuy Nuraeni, Vera Amalia Lestari, Atri Laranova, Viena Nissa Mien Fadhillah, Mutia, Muhammad Ikhlas Abdian Putra

Abstract:

Introduction: Obesity is a common disease with high prevalence especially in developing countries including Indonesia. The obesitygenic lifestyle such as excessive intake of food, sedentary lifestyle is the major environmental etiologies of obesity. Obesity is also as one of burden disease with high morbidity due to its complication, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The objective of this literature review is to know how the Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis effect as anti-obesity agent and reduce the complication of obesity. Material and Methods: This study based on the secondary data analysis complemented by primary data collection from several journal and textbook. We identified the effect of Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate of Green tea or Camellia sinensis as adjuvant therapy for management obesity and to prevent the complications of obesity. Results: Based on the result, Green tea or Camellia sinensis contain Epigallocathecin-3-Gallate (EGCG) that has anti-obesity effect such as induce apoptosis, inhibit adipogenesis, increasing lipolytic activity, increasing fat oxidation and thermogenesis. Discussion: EGCG are naturally distributed in green tea, that contains a biological activity that has a potential effect to treat obesity. Conclusion: EGCG are capable to treat obesity. By consuming EGCG can prevent obesity in normal health person and prevent complication in patient with obesity.

Keywords: adjuvant therapy, anti-obesity effect, complication, epigallocathecin-3-gallate, obesity

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74 Reduction of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 for Chronic Pain and Depression Co-Morbidity through Electroacupuncture and Gene Deletion in Mice Brain

Authors: Bernice Lottering, Yi-Wen Lin

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Chronic pain and depression have an estimated 80% rate of comorbidity with unsatisfactory treatment interventions signifying the importance of developing effective therapeutic interventions for a serious chronic condition affecting a large majority of the global population. Chronic pain is defined as persistent pain presenting for over 3 months. This disease state increases the risk of developing depression in comparison to healthy individuals. In the current study, complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) was used to induce cell-mediated chronic inflammatory pain in a murine model. Significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was induced, alongside observable depression-like behaviors. These conditions were attenuated through the use of electroacupuncture (EA). Similarly, these effects were also investigated with respect to the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), by analyzing the effects of TRPV1 gene deletion on the comorbidity of chronic pain and depression. The expression of the TRPV1 inflammatory response, and related downstream molecules, including protein kinases (PKs), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and transcriptional factors, were significantly reduced in the thalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of CFA-treated mice. In addition, phosphorylated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 1 was also found to be reduced in the aforementioned areas, suggesting potential application and validity in a clinical setting. Our study determined the prospective therapeutic effects of EA in the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain and depression comorbidity and provides a novel and detailed mechanism underlying EA-mediated analgesia. These findings may be relevant in the utilization of clinical intervention approaches related to chronic pain and depression comorbidity.

Keywords: chronic pain, depression, NMDA, prefrontal cortex, TRPV1

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73 Antioxidant Potential of Pomegranate Rind Extract Attenuates Pain, Inflammation and Bone Damage in Experimental Rats

Authors: Ritu Karwasra, Surender Singh

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Inflammation is an important physiological response of the body’s self-defense system that helps in eliminating and protecting organism from harmful stimuli and in tissue repair. It is a highly regulated protective response which helps in eliminating the initial cause of cell injury, and initiates the process of repair. The present study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of pomegranate rind extract on pain and inflammation. Hydroalcoholic standardized rind extract of pomegranate at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and indomethacin (3 mg/kg) was tested against eddy’s hot plate induced thermal algesia, carrageenan (acute inflammation) and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (chronic inflammation) induced models in Wistar rats. Parameters analyzed were inhibition of paw edema, measurement of joint diameter, levels of GSH, TBARS, SOD, TNF-α, radiographic imaging, tissue histology and synovial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine receptor (TNF-R1). Radiological and light microscopical analysis were carried out to find out the bone damage in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory model. Findings of the present study revealed that pomegranate rind extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in paw swelling in both the inflammatory models. Nociceptive threshold was also significantly (p<0.05) improved. Immunohistochemical analysis of TNF-R1 in CFA-induced group showed elevated level, whereas reduction in level of TNF-R1 was observed in pomegranate (200 mg/kg). Henceforth, we might say that pomegranate produced a dose-dependent reduction in inflammation and pain along with the reduction in levels of oxidative stress markers and tissue histology, and the effect was found to be comparable to that of indomethacin. Thus, it can be concluded that pomegranate is a potential therapeutic target in the pathogenesis of inflammation and pain, and punicalagin is the major constituents found in rind extract might be responsible for the activity.

Keywords: carrageenan, inflammation, nociceptive-threshold, pomegranate, histopathology

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72 Efficacy of Celecoxib Adjunct Treatment on Bipolar Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Daniela V. Bavaresco, Tamy Colonetti, Antonio Jose Grande, Francesc Colom, Joao Quevedo, Samira S. Valvassori, Maria Ines da Rosa

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Objective: Performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluated the potential effect of the cyclo-oxygenases (Cox)-2 inhibitor Celecoxib adjunct treatment in Bipolar Disorder (BD), through of randomized controlled trials. Method: A search of the electronic databases was proceeded, on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Biomed Central, Web of Science, IBECS, LILACS, PsycINFO (American Psychological Association), Congress Abstracts, and Grey literature (Google Scholar and the British Library) for studies published from January 1990 to February 2018. A search strategy was developed using the terms: 'Bipolar disorder' or 'Bipolar mania' or 'Bipolar depression' or 'Bipolar mixed' or 'Bipolar euthymic' and 'Celecoxib' or 'Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors' or 'Cox-2 inhibitors' as text words and Medical Subject Headings (i.e., MeSH and EMTREE) and searched. The therapeutic effects of adjunctive treatment with Celecoxib were analyzed, it was possible to carry out a meta-analysis of three studies included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis was performed including the final results of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at the end of randomized controlled trials (RCT). Results: Three primary studies were included in the systematic review, with a total of 121 patients. The meta-analysis had significant effect in the YMRS scores from patients with BD who used Celecoxib adjuvant treatment in comparison to placebo. The weighted mean difference was 5.54 (95%CI=3.26-7.82); p < 0.001; I2 =0%). Conclusion: The systematic review suggests that adjuvant treatment with Celecoxib improves the response of major treatments in patients with BD when compared with adjuvant placebo treatment.

Keywords: bipolar disorder, Cox-2 inhibitors, Celecoxib, systematic review, meta-analysis

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71 The Effects of Orally Administered Bacillus Coagulans and Inulin on Prevention and Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats

Authors: Khadijeh Abhari, Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush, Saeid Hosseinzadeh

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Probiotics have been considered as an approach to treat and prevent a wide range of inflammatory diseases. The spore forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in both animals and humans. The prebiotic, inulin, also potentially affects the immune system as a result of the change in the composition or fermentation profile of the gastrointestinal microbiota. An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotic B. coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on down regulate immune responses and progression of rheumatoid arthritis using induced arthritis rat model. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups and fed as follow: 1) control: Normal healthy rats fed by standard diet, 2) Disease control (RA): Arthritic induced (RA) rats fed by standard diet, 3) Prebiotic (PRE): RA+ 5% w/w long chain inulin, 4) Probiotic (PRO): RA+ 109 spores/day B. coagulans by orogastric gavage, 5) Synbiotic (SYN): RA+ 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day B. coagulans and 6) Treatment control: (INDO): RA+ 3 mg/kg/day indomethacin by orogastric gavage. Feeding with mentioned diets started on day 0 and continued to the end of study. On day 14, rats were injected with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) to induce arthritis. Arthritis activity was evaluated by biochemical parameters and paw thickness. Biochemical assay for Fibrinogen (Fn), Serum Amyloid A (SAA), TNF-α and Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp) was performed on day 21, 28 and 35 (1, 2 and 3 weeks post RA induction). Pretreatment with PRE, PRO and SYN diets significantly inhibit SAA and Fn production in arthritic rats (P < 0.001). A significant decrease in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, was seen in PRE, PRO and SYN groups (P < 0.001) which was similar to the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug Indomethacin. Further, there were no significant anti-inflammatory effects observed following different treatments using α1AGp as a RA indicator. Pretreatment with all supplied diets significantly inhibited the development of paw swelling induced by CFA (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Results of this study support that oral intake of probiotic B. coagulans and inulin are able to improve biochemical and clinical parameters of induced RA in rat.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, bacillus coagulans, inulin, animal model

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70 Effect of Four Medicinal Plant Extracts on Chickpea Leaf Miner Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani)

Authors: Sabraoui Abdelhadi, El Bouhssini Mustapha, Lhaloui Saadia, El Fakhouri Karim, Bouchelta Aziz

Abstract:

The surveys carried out in 2014, 2015 in the regions of Abda- Doukala, Chaouia- Ouardigha, Zemour- Zair and Fes- Sais have confirmed that the leaf miner was the main insect pest attacking chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Morocco. The grain yield losses caused by this pest could be more than 20% for winter planting and more than 42% for spring-sown crop. To reduce the chickpea leaf miner infestations, four essential oils, as biopesticide alternatives, were tested for their insecticidal effect on L. ciccerina, adults and larvae under laboratory conditions. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of these essential oils with and without adjuvant against this pest in comparison to three insecticides under field conditions. Mentha pulegium, with a dose of 33 µl/l of air caused 100% mortality on adults and larvae, after three hours and six hours of exposure, respectively. Eucalyptus showed 100% mortality on adults and larvae, with doses of 33 and 83 µl/l, after six and three hours of exposure, respectively. In the field conditions M. pulegium and E. globulus with adjuvant showed promising results compared with Abamectin, Azadirachtin and Spinetoram respectively. Essential oils could be used as one of the IPM components for the control of chickpea leaf miner.

Keywords: Liriomyza cicerina, chickpea, essential oils, insecticidal activity, Morocco

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69 Pre-Malignant Breast Lesions, Methods of Treatment and Outcome

Authors: Ahmed Mostafa, Mohamed Mahmoud, Nesreen H. Hafez, Mohamed Fahim

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This retrospective study includes 60 patients with pre-invasive breast cancer. Aim of the study: Evaluation of premalignant lesions of the breast (DCIS), different treatment methods and outcome. Patients and methods: 60 patients with DCIS were studied from the period between 2005 to 2012, for 38 patients the primary surgical method was wide local resection (WLE) (63.3%) and the other cases (22 patients, 36.7%) had mastectomy, fourteen cases from those who underwent local excision received radiotherapy, while no adjuvant radiotherapy was given for those who underwent mastectomy. In case of hormonal receptor positive DCIS lesions hormonal treatment (Tamoxifen) was given after local control. Results: No difference in overall survival between mastectomy & breast conserving therapy (wide local excision and adjuvant radiotherapy), however local recurrence rate is higher in case of breast conserving therapy, also no role of Axillary evacuation in case of DCIS. The use of hormonal therapy decreases the incidence of local recurrence by about 98%. Conclusion: The main management of DCIS is local treatment (wide local excision and radiotherapy) with hormonal treatment in case of hormone receptor positive lesions.

Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ, surgical treatment, radiotherapy, breast conserving therapy, hormonal treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
68 Evaluation of Immunostimulant Potential of Proteoliposomes Derived from Vibrio anguillarum Administered by Immersion in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Authors: M. Caruffo, P. Navarrete, C. G. Feijoo, L. Sáenz

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Disease prevention through the use of vaccines has been crucial to achieve the current level of production in the salmon industry. However, vaccines have been developed based largely on inactivated bacterial formulations, using the whole pathogen. These formulations have demonstrated excellent efficacy against extracellular bacterial pathogens. However diseases with the greatest economic impacts correspond to intracellular bacterial and viral pathogens, vaccines based on these types of agents have shown a discrete effectiveness. It is for these reasons that the development of subunit vaccines based on defined antigens offers a promising solution. The main problem is that subunit vaccines offer a low immunogenicity, since they lack immunostimulatory elements, so that the development of new adjuvants platforms becomes an important challenge for this type of formulations. We evaluate the effect of a formulation based on proteoliposomes of Vibrio anguillarum administered by immersion as a new adjuvant strategy, allowing efficient stimulation of the innate immune system. Proteoliposomes physicochemical properties were evaluated in its ability to produce an inflammatory process. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae as a model species and the transgenic line (Tg(mpx: GFP)i114) allowed us to track the neutrophil migration in real time. Additionally we evaluated the gene expression of some molecular markers involved in the development of the innate immune response characterizing the adjuvant capacity of the formulation.

Keywords: adjuvants, vaccine development, zebrafish, innate immunity

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67 Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Sung Yong Kim, Byung Joo Song

Abstract:

Background: Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels has been considered to be inversely related to breast cancer development, recurrence risk, and mortality. Mean vitamin D levels in Korean population is lower than western countries due to higher incidence of lactose intolerance and lower exposure to sunlight. The purpose of this study was to assess incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency at diagnosis and after adjuvant chemotherapy and to investigate the correlation serum 25(OH)D levels with clinicopathologic features. Methods: From December 2011 to October 2012, 280 breast cancer patients seen at a single tertiary cancer center were enrolled. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at the time of surgery and after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analyses used chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and ANOVA. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D was 18.5 ng/ml. The 25(OH)D levels were deficient (<20 ng/ml) in 190 patients (67.9%), insufficient (20-29 ng/ml) in 51 patients(18.2%), and sufficient (30-150 ng/ml) in 39 patients(13.9%). A notable decrease in 25(OH)D concentration was observed(p<0.001) after chemotherapy but was not related to chemotherapy regimens. It was found significant lower 25(OH)D levels at winter season(from October to March, p=0.030). Subjects with invasive carcinoma (IDC or ILC) had significantly lower circulating levels of 25(OH)D than those with ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) (p=0.010). Patients with larger tumor size tends to have lower serum 25(OH)D but there were no statistical significance. Conclusions: Most of the breast cancer patients showed deficient or insufficient serum 25(OH)D concentration. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency was higher in invasive carcinoma than DCIS. Serum 25(OH)D levels were decreased after chemotherapy. Consideration should be given to the supplement of vitamin D to those patients.

Keywords: breast neoplasms, vitamin D, Korean population, breast cancer

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66 Direct Assessment of Cellular Immune Responses to Ovalbumin with a Secreted Luciferase Transgenic Reporter Mouse Strain IFNγ-Lucia

Authors: Martyna Chotomska, Aleksandra Studzinska, Marta Lisowska, Justyna Szubert, Aleksandra Tabis, Jacek Bania, Arkadiusz Miazek

Abstract:

Objectives: Assessing antigen-specific T cell responses is of utmost importance for the pre-clinical testing of prototype vaccines against intracellular pathogens and tumor antigens. Mainly two types of in vitro assays are used for this purpose 1) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) and 2) intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). Both are time-consuming, relatively expensive, and require manual dexterity. Here, we assess if a straightforward detection of luciferase activity in blood samples of transgenic reporter mice expressing a secreted Lucia luciferase under the transcriptional control of IFN-γ promoter parallels the sensitivity of IFNγ ELISpot assay. Methods: IFN-γ-LUCIA mouse strain carrying multiple copies of Lucia luciferase transgene under the transcriptional control of IFNγ minimal promoter were generated by pronuclear injection of linear DNA. The specificity of transgene expression and mobilization was assessed in vitro using transgenic splenocytes exposed to various mitogens. The IFN-γ-LUCIA mice were immunized with 50mg of ovalbumin (OVA) emulsified in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant three times every two weeks by subcutaneous injections. Blood samples were collected before and five days after each immunization. Luciferase activity was assessed in blood serum. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated and assessed for frequencies of OVA-specific IFNγ-secreting T cells. Results: We show that in vitro cultured splenocytes of IFN-γ-LUCIA mice respond by 2 and 3 fold increase in secreted luciferase activity to T cell mitogens concanavalin A and phorbol myristate acetate, respectively but fail to respond to B cell-stimulating E.coli lipopolysaccharide. Immunization of IFN-γ-LUCIA mice with OVA leads to over 4 fold increase in luciferase activity in blood serum five days post-immunization with a barely detectable increase in OVA-specific, IFNγ-secreting T cells by ELISpot. Second and third immunizations, further increase the luciferase activity and coincidently also increase the frequencies of OVA-specific T cells by ELISpot. Conclusions: We conclude that minimally invasive monitoring of luciferase secretions in blood serum of IFN-γ-LUCIA mice constitutes a sensitive method for evaluating primary and memory Th1 responses to protein antigens. As such, this method may complement existing methods for rapid immunogenicity assessment of prototype vaccines.

Keywords: ELISpot, immunogenicity, interferon-gamma, reporter mice, vaccines

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65 Hemodynamic Effects of Magnesium Sulphate Therapy in Critically Ill Infants and Children with Wheezy Chest

Authors: Yasmin Sayed, Hala Hamdy, Hafez Bazaraa, Hanaa Rady, Sherif Elanwary

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Intravenous and inhaled magnesium sulfate (MgSO₄) had been recently used as an adjuvant therapy in cases suffering from the wheezy chest. Objective: We aimed to determine the possible change in the hemodynamic state in cases received intravenous or inhaled MgSO₄ in comparison to cases received standard treatment in critically ill infants and children with the wheezy chest. Methods: A randomized controlled trial comprised 81 patients suffering from wheezy chest divided into 3 groups. In addition to bronchodilators and systemic steroids, MgSO₄ was given by inhalation in group A, intravenously in group B, and group C didn't receive MgSO₄. The hemodynamic state was determined by assessment of blood pressure, heart rate, capillary refill time and the need for shock therapy or inotropic support just before and 24 hours after receiving treatment in 3 groups. Results: There was no significant difference in the hemodynamic state of the studied groups before and after treatment. Means of blood pressure were 102.2/63.2, 105.1/64.8 before and after inhaled MgSO₄; respectively. Means of blood pressure were 105.5/64.2, 104.1/64.9 before and after intravenous MgSO₄; respectively. Means of blood pressure were 107.4/62.8, 104.4/62.1 before and after standard treatment, respectively. There was a statistically insignificant reduction of the means of the heart rate in group A and group B after treatment rather than group C. There was no associated prolongation in capillary refill time and/or the need for inotropic support or shock therapy after treatment in the studied groups. Conclusion: MgSO₄ is a safe adjuvant therapy and not associated with significant alteration in the hemodynamic state in critically ill infants and children with the wheezy chest.

Keywords: critically ill infants and children, inhaled MgSO₄, intravenous MgSO₄, wheezy chest

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64 Environmental and Toxicological Impacts of Glyphosate with Its Formulating Adjuvant

Authors: I. Székács, Á. Fejes, S. Klátyik, E. Takács, D. Patkó, J. Pomóthy, M. Mörtl, R. Horváth, E. Madarász, B. Darvas, A. Székács

Abstract:

Environmental and toxicological characteristics of formulated pesticides may substantially differ from those of their active ingredients or other components alone. This phenomenon is demonstrated in the case of the herbicide active ingredient glyphosate. Due to its extensive application, this active ingredient was found in surface and ground water samples collected in Békés County, Hungary, in the concentration range of 0.54–0.98 ng/ml. The occurrence of glyphosate appeared to be somewhat higher at areas under intensive agriculture, industrial activities and public road services, but the compound was detected at areas under organic (ecological) farming or natural grasslands, indicating environmental mobility. Increased toxicity of the formulated herbicide product Roundup, compared to that of glyphosate was observed on the indicator aquatic organism Daphnia magna Straus. Acute LC50 values of Roundup and its formulating adjuvant Polyethoxylated Tallowamine (POEA) exceeded 20 and 3.1 mg/ml, respectively, while that of glyphosate (as isopropyl salt) was found to be substantially lower (690-900 mg/ml) showing good agreement with literature data. Cytotoxicity of Roundup, POEA and glyphosate has been determined on the neuroectodermal cell line, NE-4C measured both by cell viability test and holographic microscopy. Acute toxicity (LC50) of Roundup, POEA and glyphosate on NE-4C cells was found to be 0.013±0.002%, 0.017±0.009% and 6.46±2.25%, respectively (in equivalents of diluted Roundup solution), corresponding to 0.022±0.003 and 53.1±18.5 mg/ml for POEA and glyphosate, respectively, indicating no statistical difference between Roundup and POEA and 2.5 orders of magnitude difference between these and glyphosate. The same order of cellular toxicity seen in average cell area has been indicated under quantitative cell visualization. The results indicate that toxicity of the formulated herbicide is caused by the formulating agent, but in some parameters toxicological synergy occurs between POEA and glyphosate.

Keywords: glyphosate, polyethoxylated tallowamine, Roundup, combined aquatic and cellular toxicity, synergy

Procedia PDF Downloads 232