Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: SERS

37 Silver Grating for Strong and Reproducible SERS Response

Authors: Y. Kalachyova, O. Lyutakov, V. Svorcik


One of the most significant obstacles for the application of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is the poor reproducibility of SERS active substrates: SERS intensity can be varied from one substrate to another and moreover along the one substrate surface. High enhancement of the near-field intensity is the key factor for ultrasensitive SERS realization. SERS substrate can be prepared through introduction of highly ordered metal array, where light focusing is achieved through excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs). In this work, we report the preparation of silver nanostructures with plasmon absorption peaks tuned by the metal arrangement. Excimer laser modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) followed by silver evaporation is proposed as an effective way for the creation of reproducible and effective surface plasmon-polaritons (SPP)-based SERS substrate. Theoretical and experimental studies were performed to optimize structure parameter for effective SPP excitation. It was found that the narrow range of grating periodicity and metal thickness exist, where SPPs can be most efficiently excited. In spite of the fact, that SERS response was almost always achieved, the enhancement factor was found to vary more with the effectivity of SPP excitation. When the real structure parameters were set to optimal for SPP excitation, a SERS enhancement factor was achieved up to four times. Theoretical and experimental investigation of SPP excitation on the two-dimensional periodical silver array was performed with the aim to make SERS response as high as possible.

Keywords: grating, nanostructures, plasmon-polaritons, SERS

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36 Detection of Telomerase Activity as Cancer Biomarker Using Nanogap-Rich Au Nanowire SERS Sensor

Authors: G. Eom, H. Kim, A. Hwang, T. Kang, B. Kim


Telomerase activity is overexpressed in over 85% of human cancers while suppressed in normal somatic cells. Telomerase has been attracted as a universal cancer biomarker. Therefore, the development of effective telomerase activity detection methods is urgently demanded in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Herein, we report a nanogap-rich Au nanowire (NW) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor for detection of human telomerase activity. The nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensors were prepared simply by uniformly depositing nanoparticles (NPs) on single-crystalline Au NWs. We measured SERS spectra of methylene blue (MB) from 60 different nanogap-rich Au NWs and obtained the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.80%, confirming the superb reproducibility of nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensors. The nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensors enable us to detect telomerase activity in 0.2 cancer cells/mL. Furthermore, telomerase activity is detectable in 7 different cancer cell lines whereas undetectable in normal cell lines, which suggest the potential applicability of nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensor in cancer diagnosis. We expect that the present nanogap-rich Au NW SERS sensor can be useful in biomedical applications including a diverse biomarker sensing.

Keywords: cancer biomarker, nanowires, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, telomerase

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35 Influence of Laser Excitation on SERS of Silicon Nanocrystals

Authors: Khamael M. Abualnaja, Lidija Šiller, Ben R. Horrocks


Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of Silicon nano crystals (SiNCs) were obtained using two different laser excitations: 488 nm and 514.5 nm. Silver nano particles were used as plasmonics metal nano particles due to a robust SERS effect that observed when they mixed with SiNCs. SiNCs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the SiNCs are crystalline with an average diameter of 65 nm and FCC lattice. Silver nano particles (AgNPs) of two different sizes were synthesized using photo chemical reduction of AgNO3 with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The synthesized AgNPs have a polycrystalline structure with an average particle diameter of 100 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A significant enhancement in the SERS intensity was observed for AgNPs100/SiNCs and AgNPs30/SiNCs mixtures increasing up to 9 and 3 times respectively using 488 nm intensity; whereas the intensity of the SERS signal increased up to 7 and 2 times respectively, using 514.5 nm excitation source. The enhancement in SERS intensities occurs as a result of the coupling between the excitation laser light and the plasmon bands of AgNPs; thus this intense field at AgNPs surface couples strongly to SiNCs. The results provide good consensus between the wavelength of the laser excitation source and surface plasmon resonance absorption band of silver nano particles consider to be an important requirement in SERS experiments.

Keywords: silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS)

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34 Preparation of Silver and Silver-Gold, Universal and Repeatable, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Platforms from SERSitive

Authors: Pawel Albrycht, Monika Ksiezopolska-Gocalska, Robert Holyst


Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a technique of growing importance not only in purely scientific research related to analytical chemistry. It finds more and more applications in broadly understood testing - medical, forensic, pharmaceutical, food - and everywhere works perfectly, on one condition that SERS substrates used for testing give adequate enhancement, repeatability, and homogeneity of SERS signal. This is a problem that has existed since the invention of this technique. Some laboratories use as SERS amplifiers colloids with silver or gold nanoparticles, others form rough silver or gold surfaces, but results are generally either weak or unrepeatable. Furthermore, these structures are very often highly specific - they amplify the signal only of a small group of compounds. It means that they work with some kinds of analytes but only with those which were used at a developer’s laboratory. When it comes to research on different compounds, completely new SERS 'substrates' are required. That underlay our decision to develop universal substrates for the SERS spectroscopy. Generally, each compound has different affinity for both silver and gold, which have the best SERS properties, and that's what depends on what signal we get in the SERS spectrum. Our task was to create the platform that gives a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the largest number of compounds with very high repeatability - even at the expense of the intensity of the enhancement factor (EF) (possibility to repeat research results is of the uttermost importance). As specified above SERS substrates are offered by SERSitive company. Applied method is based on cyclic potentiodynamic electrodeposition of silver or silver-gold nanoparticles on the conductive surface of ITO-coated glass at controlled temperature of the reaction solution. Silver nanoparticles are supplied in the form of silver nitrate (AgNO₃, 10 mM), gold nanoparticles are derived from tetrachloroauric acid (10 mM) while sodium sulfite (Na₂O₃, 5 mM) is used as a reductor. To limit and standardize the size of the SERS surface on which nanoparticles are deposited, photolithography is used. We secure the desired ITO-coated glass surface, and then etch the unprotected ITO layer which prevents nanoparticles from settling at these sites. On the prepared surface, we carry out the process described above, obtaining SERS surface with nanoparticles of sizes 50-400 nm. The SERSitive platforms present highly sensitivity (EF = 10⁵-10⁶), homogeneity and repeatability (70-80%).

Keywords: electrodeposition, nanoparticles, Raman spectroscopy, SERS, SERSitive, SERS platforms, SERS substrates

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33 Development of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy-Active Gelatin Based Hydrogels for Label Free Detection of Bio-Analytes

Authors: Zahra Khan


Hydrogels are a macromolecular network of hydrophilic copolymers with physical or chemical cross-linking structures with significant water uptake capabilities. They are a promising substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as they are both flexible and biocompatible materials. Conventional SERS-active substrates suffer from limitations such as instability and inflexibility, which restricts their use in broader applications. Gelatin-based hydrogels have been synthesised in a facile and relatively quick method without the use of any toxic cross-linking agents. Composite gel material was formed by combining the gelatin with simple polymers to enhance the functional properties of the gel. Gold nanoparticles prepared by a reproducible seed-mediated growth method were combined into the bulk material during gel synthesis. After gel formation, the gel was submerged in the analyte solution overnight. SERS spectra were then collected from the gel using a standard Raman spectrometer. A wide range of analytes was successfully detected on these hydrogels showing potential for further optimization and use as SERS substrates for biomedical applications.

Keywords: gelatin, hydrogels, flexible materials, SERS

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32 Enhancement of Raman Scattering using Photonic Nanojet and Whispering Gallery Mode of a Dielectric Microstructure

Authors: A. Arya, R. Laha, V. R. Dantham


We report the enhancement of Raman scattering signal by one order of magnitude using photonic nanojet (PNJ) of a lollipop shaped dielectric microstructure (LSDM) fabricated by a pulsed CO₂ laser. Here, the PNJ is generated by illuminating sphere portion of the LSDM with non-resonant laser. Unlike the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, this technique is simple, and the obtained results are highly reproducible. In addition, an efficient technique is proposed to enhance the SERS signal with the help of high quality factor optical resonance (whispering gallery mode) of a LSDM. From the theoretical simulations, it has been found that at least an order of magnitude enhancement in the SERS signal could be achieved easily using the proposed technique. We strongly believe that this report will enable the research community for improving the Raman scattering signals.

Keywords: localized surface plasmons, photonic nanojet, SERS, whispering gallery mode

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31 Label Free Detection of Small Molecules Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized with Various Capping Agents

Authors: Zahra Khan


Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) has received increased attention in recent years, focusing on biological and medical applications due to its great sensitivity as well as molecular specificity. In the context of biological samples, there are generally two methodologies for SERS based applications: label-free detection and the use of SERS tags. The necessity of tagging can make the process slower and limits the use for real life. Label-free detection offers the advantage that it reports direct spectroscopic evidence associated with the target molecule rather than the label. Reproducible, highly monodisperse gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were synthesized using a relatively facile seed-mediated growth method. Different capping agents (TRIS, citrate, and CTAB) were used during synthesis, and characterization was performed. They were then mixed with different analyte solutions before drop-casting onto a glass slide prior to Raman measurements to see which NPs displayed the highest SERS activity as well as their stability. A host of different analytes were tested, both non-biomolecules and biomolecules, which were all successfully detected using this method at concentrations as low as 10-3M with salicylic acid reaching a detection limit in the nanomolar range. SERS was also performed on samples with a mixture of analytes present, whereby peaks from both target molecules were distinctly observed. This is a fast and effective rapid way of testing samples and offers potential applications in the biomedical field as a tool for diagnostic and treatment purposes.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, label free, seed-mediated growth, SERS

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30 Nanoarchitectures Cu2S Functions as Effective Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates for Molecular Detection Application

Authors: Yu-Kuei Hsu, Ying-Chu Chen, Yan-Gu Lin


The hierarchical Cu2S nano structural film is successfully fabricated via an electroplated ZnO nanorod array as a template and subsequently chemical solution process for the growth of Cu2S in the application of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. The as-grown Cu2S nano structures were thermally treated at temperature of 150-300 oC under nitrogen atmosphere to improve the crystal quality and unexpectedly induce the Cu nano particles on surface of Cu2S. The structure and composition of thermally treated Cu2S nano structures were carefully analyzed by SEM, XRD, XPS, and XAS. Using 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) as probing molecules, the SERS experiments showed that the thermally treated Cu2S nano structures exhibit excellent detecting performance, which could be used as active and cost-effective SERS substrate for ultra sensitive detecting. Additionally, this novel hierarchical SERS substrates show good reproducibility and a linear dependence between analyte concentrations and intensities, revealing the advantage of this method for easily scale-up production.

Keywords: cuprous sulfide, copper, nanostructures, surface-enhanced raman scattering

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29 Repeatable Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Substrates from SERSitive for Wide Range of Chemical and Biological Substances

Authors: Monika Ksiezopolska-Gocalska, Pawel Albrycht, Robert Holyst


Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a technique used to analyze very low concentrations of substances in solutions, even in aqueous solutions - which is its advantage over IR. This technique can be used in the pharmacy (to check the purity of products); forensics (whether at a crime scene there were any illegal substances); or medicine (serving as a medical test) and lots more. Due to the high potential of this technique, its increasing popularity in analytical laboratories, and simultaneously - the absence of appropriate platforms enhancing the SERS signal (crucial to observe the Raman effect at low analyte concentration in solutions (1 ppm)), we decided to invent our own SERS platforms. As an enhancing layer, we have chosen gold and silver nanoparticles, because these two have the best SERS properties, and each has an affinity for the other kind of particles, which increases the range of research capabilities. The next step was to commercialize them, which resulted in the creation of the company ‘’ focusing on production of highly sensitive (Ef = 10⁵ – 10⁶), homogeneous and reproducible (70 - 80%) substrates. SERStive SERS substrates are made using the electrodeposition of silver or silver-gold nanoparticles technique. Thanks to a very detailed analysis of data based on studies optimizing such parameters as deposition time, temperature of the reaction solution, applied potential, used reducer, or reagent concentrations using a standardized compound - p-mercaptobenzoic acid (PMBA) at a concentration of 10⁻⁶ M, we have developed a high-performance process for depositing precious metal nanoparticles on the surface of ITO glass. In order to check a quality of the SERSitive platforms, we examined the wide range of the chemical compounds and the biological substances. Apart from analytes that have great affinity to the metal surfaces (e.g. PMBA) we obtained very good results for those fitting less the SERS measurements. Successfully we received intensive, and what’s more important - very repetitive spectra for; amino acids (phenyloalanine, 10⁻³ M), drugs (amphetamine, 10⁻⁴ M), designer drugs (cathinone derivatives, 10⁻³ M), medicines and ending with bacteria (Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli) and fungi.

Keywords: nanoparticles, Raman spectroscopy, SERS, SERS applications, SERS substrates, SERSitive

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28 Determination of Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Based on Combination of Nanocomposite [email protected]@JB303 and Magnetically Assisted Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (MA-SERS)

Authors: Zuzana Chaloupková, Zdeňka Marková, Václav Ranc, Radek Zbořil


Prostate cancer is now one of the most serious oncological diseases in men with an incidence higher than that of all other solid tumors combined. Diagnosis of prostate cancer usually involves detection of related genes or detection of marker proteins, such as PSA. One of the new potential markers is PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen). PSMA is a unique membrane bound glycoprotein, which is considerably overexpressed on prostate cancer as well as neovasculature of most of the solid tumors. Commonly applied methods for a detection of proteins include techniques based on immunochemical approaches, including ELISA and RIA. Magnetically assisted surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MA-SERS) can be considered as an interesting alternative to generally accepted approaches. This work describes a utilization of MA-SERS in a detection of PSMA in human blood. This analytical platform is based on magnetic nanocomposites [email protected], functionalized by a low-molecular selector labeled as JB303. The system allows isolating the marker from the complex sample using application of magnetic force. Detection of PSMA is than performed by SERS effect given by a presence of silver nanoparticles. This system allowed us to analyze PSMA in clinical samples with limits of detection lower than 1 ng/mL.

Keywords: diagnosis, cancer, PSMA, MA-SERS, Ag nanoparticles

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27 Electrohydrodynamic Patterning for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering for Point-of-Care Diagnostics

Authors: J. J. Rickard, A. Belli, P. Goldberg Oppenheimer


Medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, homeland security and forensics increasingly demand specific and field-deployable analytical technologies for quick point-of-care diagnostics. Although technological advancements have made optical methods well-suited for miniaturization, a highly-sensitive detection technique for minute sample volumes is required. Raman spectroscopy is a well-known analytical tool, but has very weak signals and hence is unsuitable for trace level analysis. Enhancement via localized optical fields (surface plasmons resonances) on nanoscale metallic materials generates huge signals in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), enabling single molecule detection. This enhancement can be tuned by manipulation of the surface roughness and architecture at the sub-micron level. Nevertheless, the development and application of SERS has been inhibited by the irreproducibility and complexity of fabrication routes. The ability to generate straightforward, cost-effective, multiplex-able and addressable SERS substrates with high enhancements is of profound interest for SERS-based sensing devices. While most SERS substrates are manufactured by conventional lithographic methods, the development of a cost-effective approach to create nanostructured surfaces is a much sought-after goal in the SERS community. Here, a method is established to create controlled, self-organized, hierarchical nanostructures using electrohydrodynamic (HEHD) instabilities. The created structures are readily fine-tuned, which is an important requirement for optimizing SERS to obtain the highest enhancements. HEHD pattern formation enables the fabrication of multiscale 3D structured arrays as SERS-active platforms. Importantly, each of the HEHD-patterned individual structural units yield a considerable SERS enhancement. This enables each single unit to function as an isolated sensor. Each of the formed structures can be effectively tuned and tailored to provide high SERS enhancement, while arising from different HEHD morphologies. The HEHD fabrication of sub-micrometer architectures is straightforward and robust, providing an elegant route for high-throughput biological and chemical sensing. The superior detection properties and the ability to fabricate SERS substrates on the miniaturized scale, will facilitate the development of advanced and novel opto-fluidic devices, such as portable detection systems, and will offer numerous applications in biomedical diagnostics, forensics, ecological warfare and homeland security.

Keywords: hierarchical electrohydrodynamic patterning, medical diagnostics, point-of care devices, SERS

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26 Surface Enhanced Raman Substrate Detection on the Structure of γ-Aminobutyric Acid(GABA) Connected with Modified Gold-Chitosan Nanoparticles by Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA)

Authors: Bingjie Wang, Su-Yeon Kwon, Ik-Joong Kang


A Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as the principle for enhancing Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures is used to detect the concentration change of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). As for the gold-chitosan nanoshell, it is made by using chitosan nanoparticles crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) for the first step to form the chitosan nanoparticles, which would be covered with the gold sequentially. The size of the fabricated product was around 100nm. Based on the method that the sulfur end of the MPA linked to gold can form the very strong S–Au bond, and the carboxyl group, the other end of the MPA, can easily absorb the GABA. GABA is the mainly inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system in the human body. It plays such significant role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. When the system formed, it generated SERS, which made a clear difference in the intensity of Raman scattering within the range of GABA concentration. So it is obtained from the experiment that the calibration curve according to the GABA concentration relevant with the SERS scattering. In this study, DLS, SEM, FT-IR, UV, SERS were used to analyze the products to obtain the conclusion.

Keywords: chitosan-gold nanoshell, mercaptopropionic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, surface-enhanced Raman scattering

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25 Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA) Modifying Chitosan-Gold Nano Composite for γ-Aminobutyric Acid Analysis Using Raman Scattering

Authors: Bingjie Wang, Su-Yeon Kwon, Ik-Joong Kang


The goal of this experiment is to develop a sensor that can quickly check the concentration by using the nanoparticles made by chitosan and gold. Using chitosan nanoparticles crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) is the first step to form the chitosan nanoparticles, which would be covered with the gold sequentially. The size of the fabricated product was around 100nm. Based on the method that the sulfur end of the MPA linked to gold can form the very strong S–Au bond, and the carboxyl group, the other end of the MPA, can easily absorb the GABA. As for the GABA, what is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system in the human body. It plays such significant role in reducing neuronal excitability pass through the nervous system. A Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as the principle for enhancing Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures is used to detect the concentration change of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). When the system is formed, it generated SERS, which made a clear difference in the intensity of Raman scattering within the range of GABA concentration. So it is obtained from the experiment that the calibration curve according to the GABA concentration relevant with the SERS scattering. In this study, DLS, SEM, FT-IR, UV, SERS were used to analyze the products to obtain the conclusion.

Keywords: mercaptopropionic acid, chitosan-gold nanoshell, γ-aminobutyric acid, surface-enhanced raman scattering

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24 Preliminary Study of Gold Nanostars/Enhanced Filter for Keratitis Microorganism Raman Fingerprint Analysis

Authors: Chi-Chang Lin, Jian-Rong Wu, Jiun-Yan Chiu


Myopia, ubiquitous symptom that is necessary to correct the eyesight by optical lens struggles many people for their daily life. Recent years, younger people raise interesting on using contact lens because of its convenience and aesthetics. In clinical, the risk of eye infections increases owing to the behavior of incorrectly using contact lens unsupervised cleaning which raising the infection risk of cornea, named ocular keratitis. In order to overcome the identification needs, new detection or analysis method with rapid and more accurate identification for clinical microorganism is importantly needed. In our study, we take advantage of Raman spectroscopy having unique fingerprint for different functional groups as the distinct and fast examination tool on microorganism. As we know, Raman scatting signals are normally too weak for the detection, especially in biological field. Here, we applied special SERS enhancement substrates to generate higher Raman signals. SERS filter we designed in this article that prepared by deposition of silver nanoparticles directly onto cellulose filter surface and suspension nanoparticles - gold nanostars (AuNSs) also be introduced together to achieve better enhancement for lower concentration analyte (i.e., various bacteria). Research targets also focusing on studying the shape effect of synthetic AuNSs, needle-like surface morphology may possible creates more hot-spot for getting higher SERS enhance ability. We utilized new designed SERS technology to distinguish the bacteria from ocular keratitis under strain level, and specific Raman and SERS fingerprint were grouped under pattern recognition process. We reported a new method combined different SERS substrates can be applied for clinical microorganism detection under strain level with simple, rapid preparation and low cost. Our presenting SERS technology not only shows the great potential for clinical bacteria detection but also can be used for environmental pollution and food safety analysis.

Keywords: bacteria, gold nanostars, Raman spectroscopy surface-enhanced Raman scattering filter

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23 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) as Multiplex Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensing Platforms

Authors: Pola Goldberg Oppenheimer, Stephan Hofmann, Sumeet Mahajan


Owing to its fingerprint molecular specificity and high sensitivity, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an established analytical tool for chemical and biological sensing capable of single-molecule detection. A strong Raman signal can be generated from SERS-active platforms given the analyte is within the enhanced plasmon field generated near a noble-metal nanostructured substrate. The key requirement for generating strong plasmon resonances to provide this electromagnetic enhancement is an appropriate metal surface roughness. Controlling nanoscale features for generating these regions of high electromagnetic enhancement, the so-called SERS ‘hot-spots’, is still a challenge. Significant advances have been made in SERS research, with wide-ranging techniques to generate substrates with tunable size and shape of the nanoscale roughness features. Nevertheless, the development and application of SERS has been inhibited by the irreproducibility and complexity of fabrication routes. The ability to generate straightforward, cost-effective, multiplex-able and addressable SERS substrates with high enhancements is of profound interest for miniaturised sensing devices. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been concurrently, a topic of extensive research however, their applications for plasmonics has been only recently beginning to gain interest. CNTs can provide low-cost, large-active-area patternable substrates which, coupled with appropriate functionalization capable to provide advanced SERS-platforms. Herein, advanced methods to generate CNT-based SERS active detection platforms will be discussed. First, a novel electrohydrodynamic (EHD) lithographic technique will be introduced for patterning CNT-polymer composites, providing a straightforward, single-step approach for generating high-fidelity sub-micron-sized nanocomposite structures within which anisotropic CNTs are vertically aligned. The created structures are readily fine-tuned, which is an important requirement for optimizing SERS to obtain the highest enhancements with each of the EHD-CNTs individual structural units functioning as an isolated sensor. Further, gold-functionalized VACNTFs are fabricated as SERS micro-platforms. The dependence on the VACNTs’ diameters and density play an important role in the Raman signal strength, thus highlighting the importance of structural parameters, previously overlooked in designing and fabricating optimized CNTs-based SERS nanoprobes. VACNTs forests patterned into predesigned pillar structures are further utilized for multiplex detection of bio-analytes. Since CNTs exhibit electrical conductivity and unique adsorption properties, these are further harnessed in the development of novel chemical and bio-sensing platforms.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), EHD patterning, SERS, vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests (VACNTF)

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22 Nanoimprinted-Block Copolymer-Based Porous Nanocone Substrate for SERS Enhancement

Authors: Yunha Ryu, Kyoungsik Kim


Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful techniques for chemical detection, but the low sensitivity originated from the extremely small cross-section of the Raman scattering limits the practical use of Raman spectroscopy. To overcome this problem, Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been intensively studied for several decades. Because the SERS effect is mainly induced from strong electromagnetic near-field enhancement as a result of localized surface plasmon resonance of metallic nanostructures, it is important to design the plasmonic structures with high density of electromagnetic hot spots for SERS substrate. One of the useful fabrication methods is using porous nanomaterial as a template for metallic structure. Internal pores on a scale of tens of nanometers can be strong EM hotspots by confining the incident light. Also, porous structures can capture more target molecules than non-porous structures in a same detection spot thanks to the large surface area. Herein we report the facile fabrication method of porous SERS substrate by integrating solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography and selective etching of block copolymer. We obtained nanostructures with high porosity via simple selective etching of the one microdomain of the diblock copolymer. Furthermore, we imprinted of the nanocone patterns into the spin-coated flat block copolymer film to make three-dimensional SERS substrate for the high density of SERS hot spots as well as large surface area. We used solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (SAIL) to reduce the fabrication time and cost for patterning BCP film by taking advantage of a solvent which dissolves both polystyrenre and poly(methyl methacrylate) domain of the block copolymer, and thus block copolymer film was molded under the low temperature and atmospheric pressure in a short time. After Ag deposition, we measured Raman intensity of dye molecules adsorbed on the fabricated structure. Compared to the Raman signals of Ag coated solid nanocone, porous nanocone showed 10 times higher Raman intensity at 1510 cm(-1) band. In conclusion, we fabricated porous metallic nanocone arrays with high density electromagnetic hotspots by templating nanoimprinted diblock copolymer with selective etching and demonstrated its capability as an effective SERS substrate.

Keywords: block copolymer, porous nanostructure, solvent-assisted nanoimprint, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

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21 Electronic Raman Scattering Calibration for Quantitative Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Improved Biostatistical Analysis

Authors: Wonil Nam, Xiang Ren, Inyoung Kim, Masoud Agah, Wei Zhou


Despite its ultrasensitive detection capability, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) faces challenges as a quantitative biochemical analysis tool due to the significant dependence of local field intensity in hotspots on nanoscale geometric variations of plasmonic nanostructures. Therefore, despite enormous progress in plasmonic nanoengineering of high-performance SERS devices, it is still challenging to quantitatively correlate the measured SERS signals with the actual molecule concentrations at hotspots. A significant effort has been devoted to developing SERS calibration methods by introducing internal standards. It has been achieved by placing Raman tags at plasmonic hotspots. Raman tags undergo similar SERS enhancement at the same hotspots, and ratiometric SERS signals for analytes of interest can be generated with reduced dependence on geometrical variations. However, using Raman tags still faces challenges for real-world applications, including spatial competition between the analyte and tags in hotspots, spectral interference, laser-induced degradation/desorption due to plasmon-enhanced photochemical/photothermal effects. We show that electronic Raman scattering (ERS) signals from metallic nanostructures at hotspots can serve as the internal calibration standard to enable quantitative SERS analysis and improve biostatistical analysis. We perform SERS with Au-SiO₂ multilayered metal-insulator-metal nano laminated plasmonic nanostructures. Since the ERS signal is proportional to the volume density of electron-hole occupation in hotspots, the ERS signals exponentially increase when the wavenumber is approaching the zero value. By a long-pass filter, generally used in backscattered SERS configurations, to chop the ERS background continuum, we can observe an ERS pseudo-peak, IERS. Both ERS and SERS processes experience the |E|⁴ local enhancements during the excitation and inelastic scattering transitions. We calibrated IMRS of 10 μM Rhodamine 6G in solution by IERS. The results show that ERS calibration generates a new analytical value, ISERS/IERS, insensitive to variations from different hotspots and thus can quantitatively reflect the molecular concentration information. Given the calibration capability of ERS signals, we performed label-free SERS analysis of living biological systems using four different breast normal and cancer cell lines cultured on nano-laminated SERS devices. 2D Raman mapping over 100 μm × 100 μm, containing several cells, was conducted. The SERS spectra were subsequently analyzed by multivariate analysis using partial least square discriminant analysis. Remarkably, after ERS calibration, MCF-10A and MCF-7 cells are further separated while the two triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1806) are more overlapped, in good agreement with the well-known cancer categorization regarding the degree of malignancy. To assess the strength of ERS calibration, we further carried out a drug efficacy study using MDA-MB-231 and different concentrations of anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX). After ERS calibration, we can more clearly segregate the control/low-dosage groups (0 and 1.5 nM), the middle-dosage group (5 nM), and the group treated with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50, 15 nM). Therefore, we envision that ERS calibrated SERS can find crucial opportunities in label-free molecular profiling of complicated biological systems.

Keywords: cancer cell drug efficacy, plasmonics, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), SERS calibration

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20 Multifunctional Plasmonic Ag-TiO2 Nano-biocompoistes: Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering and Anti-microbial Properties

Authors: Jai Prakash, Promod Kumar, Chantel Swart, J. H. Neethling, A. Janse van Vuuren, H. C. Swart


Ag nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as functional nanomaterials due to their optical and antibacterial properties. Similarly, TiO2 photocatalysts have also been used as suitable nanomaterials for killing cancer cells, viruses and bacteria. Here, we report on multifunctional plasmonic Ag-TiO2 nano-biocomposite synthesized by the sol-gel technique and their optical, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and antibacterial activities. The as-prepared composites of Ag–TiO2 with different silver content and TiO2 nanopowder were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersed X-ray analysis (EDX), UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy. The Ag NPs were found to be uniformly distributed and strongly attached to the TiO2 matrix. The novel optical response of the Ag-TiO2 nanocomposites is due to the strong electric field from the surface plasmon excitation of the Ag NPs. The Raman spectrum of Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite was found to be enhanced as compared to TiO2. The enhancement of the low frequency band is evident. This indicates the SERS effect of the TiO2 NPs in close vicinity of Ag NPs. In addition, nanocomposites showed enhancement in the SERS signals of methyl orange (MO) dye molecules with increasing Ag content. The localized electromagnetic field from the surface plasmon excitation of the Ag NPs was responsible for the SERS signals of the TiO2 NPs and MO molecules. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag–TiO2 nanocomposites with different silver content and TiO2 nanopowder were carried out against the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The Ag–TiO2 composites showed antibacterial activity towards S. aureus with increasing Ag content as compared to the TiO2 nanopowder. These results foresee promising applications of the functional plasmonic metal−semiconductor based nanobiocomposites for both chemical and biological samples.

Keywords: metal-Semiconductor, nano-Biocomposites, anti-microbial activity, surface enhanced Raman scattering

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19 Detection of Alzheimer's Protein on Nano Designed Polymer Surfaces in Water and Artificial Saliva

Authors: Sevde Altuntas, Fatih Buyukserin


Alzheimer’s disease is responsible for irreversible neural damage of brain parts. One of the disease markers is Amyloid-β 1-42 protein that accumulates in the brain in the form plaques. The basic problem for detection of the protein is the low amount of protein that cannot be detected properly in body liquids such as blood, saliva or urine. To solve this problem, tests like ELISA or PCR are proposed which are expensive, require specialized personnel and can contain complex protocols. Therefore, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) a good candidate for detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. Because the spectroscopic technique can potentially allow even single molecule detection from liquid and solid surfaces. Besides SERS signal can be improved by using nanopattern surface and also is specific to molecules. In this context, our study proposes to fabricate diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin - T to detect low concentrations of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein in water and artificial saliva medium by the enhancement of protein SERS signal. The nanopatterned PC surface that was used to enhance SERS signal was fabricated by using Anodic Alumina Membranes (AAM) as a template. It is possible to produce AAMs with different column structures and varying thicknesses depending on voltage and anodization time. After fabrication process, the pore diameter of AAMs can be arranged with dilute acid solution treatment. In this study, two different columns structures were prepared. After a surface modification to decrease their surface energy, AAMs were treated with PC solution. Following the solvent evaporation, nanopatterned PC films with tunable pillared structures were peeled off from the membrane surface. The PC film was then modified with Au and Thioflavin-T for the detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. The protein detection studies were conducted first in water via this biosensor platform. Same measurements were conducted in artificial saliva to detect the presence of Amyloid Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. SEM, SERS and contact angle measurements were carried out for the characterization of different surfaces and further demonstration of the protein attachment. SERS enhancement factor calculations were also completed via experimental results. As a result, our research group fabricated diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin-T to detect low concentrations of Alzheimer’s Amiloid – β protein in water and artificial saliva medium. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Grant No: 214Z167.

Keywords: alzheimer, anodic aluminum oxide, nanotopography, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

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18 Infra Red Laser Induced Ablation of Graphene Based Polymer Nanocomposites

Authors: Jadranka Blazhevska Gilev


IR laser-induced ablation of poly(butylacrylate-methylmethacrylate/hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate)/reduced graphene oxide (p(BA/MMA/HEMA)/rGO) was examined with 0.5, 0.75 and 1 wt% reduced graphene oxide content in relation to polymer. The irradiation was performed with TEA (transversely excited atmosphere) CO₂ laser using incident fluence of 15-20 J/cm², repetition frequency of 1 Hz, in an evacuated (10-3 Pa) Pyrex spherical vessel. Thin deposited nanocomposites films with large specific area were obtained using different substrates. The properties of the films deposited on these substrates were evaluated by TGA, FTIR, (Thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier Transformation Infrared) Raman spectroscopy and SEM microscopy. Homogeneous distribution of graphene sheets was observed from the SEM images, making polymer/rGO deposit an ideal candidate for SERS application. SERS measurements were performed using Rhodamine 6G as probe molecule on the substrate Ag/p(BA/MMA/HEMA)/rGO.

Keywords: laser ablation, reduced graphene oxide, polymer/rGO nanocomposites, thin deposited film

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17 Flexible Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Nanofibers Decorated with Ag Nanoparticles as Effective 3D Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates

Authors: Yi Li, Rui Lu, Lianjun Wang


With the rapid development of chemical industry, the consumption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has increased extensively. In the process of VOCs production and application, plenty of them have been transferred to environment. As a result, it has led to pollution problems not only in soil and ground water but also to human beings. Thus, it is important to develop a sensitive and cost-effective analytical method for trace VOCs detection in environment. Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), as one of the most sensitive optical analytical technique with rapid response, pinpoint accuracy and noninvasive detection, has been widely used for ultratrace analysis. Based on the plasmon resonance on the nanoscale metallic surface, SERS technology can even detect single molecule due to abundant nanogaps (i.e. 'hot spots') on the nanosubstrate. In this work, a self-supported flexible silver nitrate (AgNO3)/ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPM) hybrid nanofibers was fabricated by electrospinning. After an in-situ chemical reduction using ice-cold sodium borohydride as reduction agent, numerous silver nanoparticles were formed on the nanofiber surface. By adjusting the reduction time and AgNO3 content, the morphology and dimension of silver nanoparticles could be controlled. According to the principles of solid-phase extraction, the hydrophobic substance is more likely to partition into the hydrophobic EPM membrane in an aqueous environment while water and other polar components are excluded from the analytes. By the enrichment of EPM fibers, the number of hydrophobic molecules located on the 'hot spots' generated from criss-crossed nanofibers is greatly increased, which further enhances SERS signal intensity. The as-prepared Ag/EPM hybrid nanofibers were first employed to detect common SERS probe molecule (p-aminothiophenol) with the detection limit down to 10-12 M, which demonstrated an excellent SERS performance. To further study the application of the fabricated substrate for monitoring hydrophobic substance in water, several typical VOCs, such as benzene, toluene and p-xylene, were selected as model compounds. The results showed that the characteristic peaks of these target analytes in the mixed aqueous solution could be distinguished even at a concentration of 10-6 M after multi-peaks gaussian fitting process, including C-H bending (850 cm-1), C-C ring stretching (1581 cm-1, 1600 cm-1) of benzene, C-H bending (844 cm-1 ,1151 cm-1), C-C ring stretching (1001 cm-1), CH3 bending vibration (1377 cm-1) of toluene, C-H bending (829 cm-1), C-C stretching (1614 cm-1) of p-xylene. The SERS substrate has remarkable advantages which combine the enrichment capacity from EPM and the Raman enhancement of Ag nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the huge specific surface area resulted from electrospinning is benificial to increase the number of adsoption sites and promotes 'hot spots' formation. In summary, this work provides powerful potential in rapid, on-site and accurate detection of trace VOCs using a portable Raman.

Keywords: electrospinning, ethylene-propylene copolymer, silver nanoparticles, SERS, VOCs

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16 White Wine Discrimination Based on Deconvoluted Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Signals

Authors: Dana Alina Magdas, Nicoleta Simona Vedeanu, Ioana Feher, Rares Stiufiuc


Food and beverages authentication using rapid and non-expensive analytical tools represents nowadays an important challenge. In this regard, the potential of vibrational techniques in food authentication has gained an increased attention during the last years. For wines discrimination, Raman spectroscopy appears more feasible to be used as compared with IR (infrared) spectroscopy, because of the relatively weak water bending mode in the vibrational spectroscopy fingerprint range. Despite this, the use of Raman technique in wine discrimination is in an early stage. Taking this into consideration, the wine discrimination potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique is reported in the present work. The novelty of this study, compared with the previously reported studies, concerning the application of vibrational techniques in wine discrimination consists in the fact that the present work presents the wines differentiation based on the individual signals obtained from deconvoluted spectra. In order to achieve wines classification with respect to variety, geographical origin and vintage, the peaks intensities obtained after spectra deconvolution were compared using supervised chemometric methods like Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). For this purpose, a set of 20 white Romanian wines from different viticultural Romanian regions four varieties, was considered. Chemometric methods applied directly to row SERS experimental spectra proved their efficiency, but discrimination markers identification found to be very difficult due to the overlapped signals as well as for the band shifts. By using this approach, a better general view related to the differences that appear among the wines in terms of compositional differentiation could be reached.

Keywords: chemometry, SERS, variety, wines discrimination

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15 Fabrication of Modified Chitosan-Gold Nanoshell with Mercaptopropionic Acid(MPA) for γ-Aminobutyric Acid Detection as a Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate

Authors: Bi Wa, Su-Yeon Kwon, Ik-Joong Kang


Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as the principle for enhancing Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures is used to detect the concentration change of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). GABA is the mainly inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system in the human body. It plays such significant role in reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In this case, the Mercaptopropionic Acid (MPA) is used to modified chitosan –gold nanoshell, which enhances the absorption between GABA and Chitosan-gold nanoshell. The sulfur end of the MPA is linked to gold which is the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles via the very strong S–Au bond, while a functional group (carboxyl group) attached to GABA. The controlling of particles’ size and the surface morphology are also the important factors during the whole experiment. The particle around 100nm is using to link to MPA, and the range of GABA from 1mM to 30mM was detected by the Raman Scattering to obtain the calibrate curve. In this study, DLS, SEM, FT-IR, UV, SERS were used to analyze the products to obtain the conclusion.

Keywords: chitosan-gold nanoshell, mercaptopropionic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, surface-enhanced raman scattering

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14 Synthesis of Flower-Like Silver Nanoarchitectures in Special Shapes and Their Applications in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

Authors: Radka Králová, Libor Kvítek, Václav Ranc, Aleš Panáček, Radek Zbořil


Surface–Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) is an optical spectroscopic technique with very good potential for sensitive detection of substances. In this research, active substrates with high enhancement were provided. Novel silver particles (nanostructures) with high roughened, flower–like morphology were prepared by reduction of cation complex [Ag(NH3)2]+ in presence of sodium borohydride as reducing agent and stabilized polyacrylic acid. The products were characterized by UV/VIS absorption spectrophotometry. Special shapes of silver particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). Dispersions of this particle were put on fixed substrate to producing suitable layer for SERS. Adenine was applied as basic substance whose effect of enhancement on the layer of silver nanostructures was studied. By comparison with our work, the important influence of stabilizers, polyacrylic acid with various molecular weight and concentration, on the transfer of particles and formation of new structure was confirmed.

Keywords: metals, nanostructures, chemical reduction, Raman spectroscopy, optical properties

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13 The Solid-Phase Sensor Systems for Fluorescent and SERS-Recognition of Neurotransmitters for Their Visualization and Determination in Biomaterials

Authors: Irina Veselova, Maria Makedonskaya, Olga Eremina, Alexandr Sidorov, Eugene Goodilin, Tatyana Shekhovtsova


Such catecholamines as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are the principal neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system. Catecholamines and their metabolites are considered to be important markers of socially significant diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, coronary heart disease, carcinogenesis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Currently, neurotransmitters can be studied via electrochemical and chromatographic techniques that allow their characterizing and quantification, although these techniques can only provide crude spatial information. Besides, the difficulty of catecholamine determination in biological materials is associated with their low normal concentrations (~ 1 nM) in biomaterials, which may become even one more order lower because of some disorders. In addition, in blood they are rapidly oxidized by monoaminooxidases from thrombocytes and, for this reason, the determination of neurotransmitter metabolism indicators in an organism should be very rapid (15—30 min), especially in critical states. Unfortunately, modern instrumental analysis does not offer a complex solution of this problem: despite its high sensitivity and selectivity, HPLC-MS cannot provide sufficiently rapid analysis, while enzymatic biosensors and immunoassays for the determination of the considered analytes lack sufficient sensitivity and reproducibility. Fluorescent and SERS-sensors remain a compelling technology for approaching the general problem of selective neurotransmitter detection. In recent years, a number of catecholamine sensors have been reported including RNA aptamers, fluorescent ribonucleopeptide (RNP) complexes, and boronic acid based synthetic receptors and the sensor operated in a turn-off mode. In this work we present the fluorescent and SERS turn-on sensor systems based on the bio- or chemorecognizing nanostructured films {chitosan/collagen-Tb/Eu/Cu-nanoparticles-indicator reagents} that provide the selective recognition, visualization, and sensing of the above mentioned catecholamines on the level of nanomolar concentrations in biomaterials (cell cultures, tissue etc.). We have (1) developed optically transparent porous films and gels of chitosan/collagen; (2) ensured functionalization of the surface by molecules-'recognizers' (by impregnation and immobilization of components of the indicator systems: biorecognizing and auxiliary reagents); (3) performed computer simulation for theoretical prediction and interpretation of some properties of the developed materials and obtained analytical signals in biomaterials. We are grateful for the financial support of this research from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants no. 15-03-05064 a, and 15-29-01330 ofi_m).

Keywords: biomaterials, fluorescent and SERS-recognition, neurotransmitters, solid-phase turn-on sensor system

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12 Nano-Plasmonic Diagnostic Sensor Using Ultraflat Single-Crystalline Au Nanoplate and Cysteine-Tagged Protein G

Authors: Hwang Ahreum, Kang Taejoon, Kim Bongsoo


Nanosensors for high sensitive detection of diseases have been widely studied to improve the quality of life. Here, we suggest robust nano-plasmonic diagnostic sensor using cysteine tagged protein G (Cys3-protein G) and ultraflat, ultraclean and single-crystalline Au nanoplates. Protein G formed on an ultraflat Au surface provides ideal background for dense and uniform immobilization of antibodies. The Au is highly stable in diverse biochemical environment and can immobilize antibodies easily through Au-S bonding, having been widely used for various biosensing applications. Especially, atomically smooth single-crystalline Au nanomaterials synthesized using chemical vapor transport (CVT) method are very suitable to fabricate reproducible sensitive sensors. As the C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific biomarker of inflammation and infection, it can be used as a predictive or prognostic marker for various cardiovascular diseases. Cys3-protein G immobilized uniformly on the Au nanoplate enable CRP antibody (anti-CRP) to be ordered in a correct orientation, making their binding capacity be maximized for CRP detection. Immobilization condition for the Cys3-protein G and anti-CRP on the Au nanoplate is optimized visually by AFM analysis. Au nanoparticle - Au nanoplate (NPs-on-Au nanoplate) assembly fabricated from sandwich immunoassay for CRP can reduce zero-signal extremely caused by nonspecific bindings, providing a distinct surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement still in 10-18 M of CRP concentration. Moreover, the NP-on-Au nanoplate sensor shows an excellent selectivity against non-target proteins with high concentration. In addition, comparing with control experiments employing a Au film fabricated by e-beam assisted deposition and linker molecule, we validate clearly contribution of the Au nanoplate for the attomolar sensitive detection of CRP. We expect that the devised platform employing the complex of single-crystalline Au nanoplates and Cys3-protein G can be applied for detection of many other cancer biomarkers.

Keywords: Au nanoplate, biomarker, diagnostic sensor, protein G, SERS

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11 Surface-Enhanced Raman Detection in Chip-Based Chromatography via a Droplet Interface

Authors: Renata Gerhardt, Detlev Belder


Raman spectroscopy has attracted much attention as a structurally descriptive and label-free detection method. It is particularly suited for chemical analysis given as it is non-destructive and molecules can be identified via the fingerprint region of the spectra. In this work possibilities are investigated how to integrate Raman spectroscopy as a detection method for chip-based chromatography, making use of a droplet interface. A demanding task in lab-on-a-chip applications is the specific and sensitive detection of low concentrated analytes in small volumes. Fluorescence detection is frequently utilized but restricted to fluorescent molecules. Furthermore, no structural information is provided. Another often applied technique is mass spectrometry which enables the identification of molecules based on their mass to charge ratio. Additionally, the obtained fragmentation pattern gives insight into the chemical structure. However, it is only applicable as an end-of-the-line detection because analytes are destroyed during measurements. In contrast to mass spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy can be applied on-chip and substances can be processed further downstream after detection. A major drawback of Raman spectroscopy is the inherent weakness of the Raman signal, which is due to the small cross-sections associated with the scattering process. Enhancement techniques, such as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), are employed to overcome the poor sensitivity even allowing detection on a single molecule level. In SERS measurements, Raman signal intensity is improved by several orders of magnitude if the analyte is in close proximity to nanostructured metal surfaces or nanoparticles. The main gain of lab-on-a-chip technology is the building block-like ability to seamlessly integrate different functionalities, such as synthesis, separation, derivatization and detection on a single device. We intend to utilize this powerful toolbox to realize Raman detection in chip-based chromatography. By interfacing on-chip separations with a droplet generator, the separated analytes are encapsulated into numerous discrete containers. These droplets can then be injected with a silver nanoparticle solution and investigated via Raman spectroscopy. Droplet microfluidics is a sub-discipline of microfluidics which instead of a continuous flow operates with the segmented flow. Segmented flow is created by merging two immiscible phases (usually an aqueous phase and oil) thus forming small discrete volumes of one phase in the carrier phase. The study surveys different chip designs to realize coupling of chip-based chromatography with droplet microfluidics. With regards to maintaining a sufficient flow rate for chromatographic separation and ensuring stable eluent flow over the column different flow rates of eluent and oil phase are tested. Furthermore, the detection of analytes in droplets with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy is examined. The compartmentalization of separated compounds preserves the analytical resolution since the continuous phase restricts dispersion between the droplets. The droplets are ideal vessels for the insertion of silver colloids thus making use of the surface enhancement effect and improving the sensitivity of the detection. The long-term goal of this work is the first realization of coupling chip based chromatography with droplets microfluidics to employ surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy as means of detection.

Keywords: chip-based separation, chip LC, droplets, Raman spectroscopy, SERS

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10 Courts, Powers And Social Change: A Case Study On The Impacts Of Litigation Of Socioeconomic Rights In Brazil Beyond The Courtroom

Authors: Rafael Bezerra de Souza, José Ribas Vieira


The judicial litigation on socio-economic rights (SERs), in a context of increasing centrality of the judiciary as an area of political debate for civil society actors, has assumed greater importance in the last two decades. This tendency to seek social change through the courts generated a long tradition of research on the role of legal institutions and of legal mobilization in the US and some European countries. However, little is known about these processes in Latin America, Asia and Africa. A significant portion of the Brazilian constitutional doctrine did not bother to investigate the phenomenon of constitutional judicial litigation of socio-economic rights, in a practical and empirical look, from the functioning of democratic institutions. The central issue of this study draws attention to the theoretical and analytic deficit of Brazilian constitutional doctrine: the lack of a holistic understanding of the effects and impact of judicial decisions. Consequently, for a proper understanding was analyzed if the trend of judicial litigation in Brazil - to ensure the fulfillment of its institutional mission to protect and ensure the effectiveness of socio-economic rights - has been accompanied by the establishment of institutional mechanisms that enable decision making and the implementation of SERs in complex cases involving structural and public policy. The lack of empirical studies in Law in order to verify this hypothesis justified the adoption of the case study method as an interdisciplinary methodological strategy between Law and Political Science, aiming to construct an explanation of the Raposa Serra do Sol Case and, in a complementary way, the process-tracing technique. Drawings of small-n type or case studies, when guided by theory, are more suitable to problems it is supposed to increase the potential of intensive analysis of causal processes. As a preliminary result, the Brazilian Supreme Court was not a sufficient agent to implement a relevant social change and to assure the protection of the social rights, because there were few measures that directly impacted the behavior of other institutional political actors and should, therefore, be considered another actor within a complex institutional arrangement.

Keywords: courts, case study, judicial litigation, social change

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9 Light Sensitive Plasmonic Nanostructures for Photonic Applications

Authors: Istvan Csarnovics, Attila Bonyar, Miklos Veres, Laszlo Himics, Attila Csik, Judit Kaman, Julia Burunkova, Geza Szanto, Laszlo Balazs, Sandor Kokenyesi


In this work, the performance of gold nanoparticles were investigated for stimulation of photosensitive materials for photonic applications. It was widely used for surface plasmon resonance experiments, not in the last place because of the manifestation of optical resonances in the visible spectral region. The localized surface plasmon resonance is rather easily observed in nanometer-sized metallic structures and widely used for measurements, sensing, in semiconductor devices and even in optical data storage. Firstly, gold nanoparticles on silica glass substrate satisfy the conditions for surface plasmon resonance in the green-red spectral range, where the chalcogenide glasses have the highest sensitivity. The gold nanostructures influence and enhance the optical, structural and volume changes and promote the exciton generation in gold nanoparticles/chalcogenide layer structure. The experimental results support the importance of localized electric fields in the photo-induced transformation of chalcogenide glasses as well as suggest new approaches to improve the performance of these optical recording media. Results may be utilized for direct, micrometre- or submicron size geometrical and optical pattern formation and used also for further development of the explanations of these effects in chalcogenide glasses. Besides of that, gold nanoparticles could be added to the organic light-sensitive material. The acrylate-based materials are frequently used for optical, holographic recording of optoelectronic elements due to photo-stimulated structural transformations. The holographic recording process and photo-polymerization effect could be enhanced by the localized plasmon field of the created gold nanostructures. Finally, gold nanoparticles widely used for electrochemical and optical sensor applications. Although these NPs can be synthesized in several ways, perhaps one of the simplest methods is the thermal annealing of pre-deposited thin films on glass or silicon surfaces. With this method, the parameters of the annealing process (time, temperature) and the pre-deposited thin film thickness influence and define the resulting size and distribution of the NPs on the surface. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is a very sensitive optical phenomenon and can be utilized for a large variety of sensing purposes (chemical sensors, gas sensors, biosensors, etc.). Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an analytical method which can significantly increase the yield of Raman scattering of target molecules adsorbed on the surface of metallic nanoparticles. The sensitivity of LSPR and SERS based devices is strongly depending on the used material and also on the size and geometry of the metallic nanoparticles. By controlling these parameters the plasmon absorption band can be tuned and the sensitivity can be optimized. The technological parameters of the generated gold nanoparticles were investigated and influence on the SERS and on the LSPR sensitivity was established. The LSPR sensitivity were simulated for gold nanocubes and nanospheres with MNPBEM Matlab toolbox. It was found that the enhancement factor (which characterize the increase in the peak shift for multi-particle arrangements compared to single-particle models) depends on the size of the nanoparticles and on the distance between the particles. This work was supported by GINOP- 2.3.2-15-2016-00041 project, which is co-financed by the European Union and European Social Fund. Istvan Csarnovics is grateful for the support through the New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities, supported by the ÚNKP-17-4 Attila Bonyár and Miklós Veres are grateful for the support of the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Keywords: light sensitive nanocomposites, metallic nanoparticles, photonic application, plasmonic nanostructures

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8 End-to-End Performance of MPPM in Multihop MIMO-FSO System Over Dependent GG Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi


The performance of decode and forward (DF) multihop free space optical (FSO) scheme deploying multiple input multiple output (MIMO) configuration under gamma-gamma (GG) statistical distribution, that adopts M-ary pulse position modulation (MPPM) coding, is investigated. We have extracted exact and estimated values of symbol-error rates (SERs) respectively. The probability density function (PDF)’s closed-form formula is expressed for our designed system. Thanks to the use of DF multihop MIMO FSO configuration and MPPM signaling, atmospheric turbulence is combatted; hence the transmitted signal quality is improved.

Keywords: free space optical, gamma gamma channel, radio frequency, decode and forward, multiple-input multiple-output, M-ary pulse position modulation, symbol error rate

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