Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: bioreduction

7 Facile Surfactant-Assisted Green Synthesis of Stable Biogenic Gold Nanoparticles with Potential Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Sneha Singh, Abhimanyu Dev, Vinod Nigam


The major issue which decides the impending use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in nanobiotechnological applications is their particle size and stability. Often the AuNPs obtained biomimetically are considered useless owing to their instability in the aqueous medium and thereby limiting the widespread acceptance of this facile green synthesis procedure. So, the use of nontoxic surfactants is warranted to stabilize the biogenic nanoparticles (NPs). But does the surfactant only play a role in stabilizing by being adsorbed to the NPs surface or can it have any other significant contribution in synthesis process and controlling their size as well as shape? Keeping this idea in mind, AuNPs were synthesized by using surfactant treated (lechate) and untreated (cell lysate supernatant) Bacillus licheniformis cell extract. The cell extracts mediated reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl 4) in the presence of non-ionic surfactant, Tween 20 (TW20), and its effect on the AuNPs stability was studied. Interestingly, the surfactant used in the study served as potential alternative to harvest cellular enzymes involved in bioreduction process in a hassle free condition. The surfactants ability to solubilize/leach membrane proteins and simultaneously stabilizing the AuNPs could have advantage from process point of view as it will reduce the time and economics involve in the nanofabrication of biogenic NPs. The synthesis was substantiated with UV-Vis spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering study, FTIR spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy. The Zeta potential of AuNPs solutions was measured routinely to corroborate the stability observations recorded visually. Highly stable, ultra-small AuNPs of 2.6 nm size were obtained from the study. Further, the biological efficacy of the obtained AuNPs as potential antibacterial agent was evaluated against Bacilllus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli by observing the zone of inhibition. This potential of AuNPs of size < 3 nm as antibacterial agent could pave way for development of new antimicrobials and overcoming the problems of antibiotics resistance

Keywords: antibacterial, bioreduction, nanoparticles, surfactant

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6 The Green Synthesis AgNPs from Basil Leaf Extract

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat


Bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions (Ag+) using water extract of Thai basil leaf was successfully carried out. The basil leaf extract provided a reducing agent and stabilizing agent for a synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles received from cut and uncut basil leaf was compared. The resulting silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The maximum intensities of silver nanoparticle from cut and uncut basil leaf were 410 and 420, respectively. The techniques involved are simple, eco-friendly and rapid.

Keywords: basil leaves, silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, plant extract

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5 Synthesis of Green Silver Nanoparticles with Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Its Characterization

Authors: Mandeep Kataria, Ankita Thakur


Glycyrrhiza glabra grows in the sub- tropical and warm temperate regions of the world, in Mediterranean countries and China, America, Europe, Asia and Australia. It grows in areas with sunny, dry and hot climates. It has numerous medicinal properties like it is used to cure Peptic Ulcers, Canker sores, Eczema, Indigestion and Upper Respiratory Infections. Biosynthetic methods such as plant extract have emerged as a simple and viable alternative to more complex chemical synthetic procedures to obtain nanomaterials. Extract from plant may act both as reducing and capping agents in silver nanoparticles synthesis. In the present work, Green Silver nanoparticles were successfully formulated from bioreduction of silver nitrate solutions using Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract. These Green Silver nanoparticles have been appropriately characterized using Visible spectroscopy, colour change. The Antimicrobial activity was done by Agar disc diffusion assay. AgNPs were developed by using aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which acts as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The green synthetic method is a fast, low cost and eco-friendly process in the field of nanotechnology. The study revealed that the green-synthesized silver nanoparticle provides a promising approach for antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Glycyrrhiza glabra, nanoparticles, antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract

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4 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Leaf Extract of Tithonia diversifolia and Its Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: Babatunde Oluwole Ogunsile, Omosola Monisola Fasoranti


High costs and toxicological hazards associated with the physicochemical methods of producing nanoparticles have limited their widespread use in clinical and biomedical applications. An ethically sound alternative is the utilization of plant bioresources as a low cost and eco–friendly biological approach. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of Tithonia diversifolia plant. The UV-Vis Spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of the AgNPs at different time intervals and different ratios of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Antimicrobial activities of the AgNPs were investigated against ten human pathogens using agar well diffusion method. The AgNPs yields were modeled using a second-order factorial design. The result showed that the rate of formation of the AgNPs increased with respect to time while the optimum ratio of plant extract to the AgNO₃ solution was 1:1. The hydroxyl group was strongly involved in the bioreduction of the silver salt as indicated by the FTIR spectra. The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline in nature, with a uniformly distributed network of the web-like structure. The factorial model predicted the nanoparticles yields with minimal errors. The nanoparticles were active against all the tested pathogens and thus have great potentials as antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: antimicrobial activities, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles, Tithonia diversifolia

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3 Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Trachyspermum Ammi

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Meena, Suman Jhajharia, Goutam Chakraborty


Plasmonic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was synthesized by chemical reduction method using Trachyspermum Ammi (TA, Ajwain) seeds extract in aqueous medium and AgNO3 solution at different time interval. Reaction time, and concentration of AgNO3 and TA could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect AgNPs size and concentration of NPs. Surface plasmon resonance band centered at 420-430 nm (88.78nm) was recognised as first exitonic peak of UV-Vis absorption spectra of AgNPs that used to calculate the particle size (10-30 nm). FTIR results TA supported AgNPs showed decrease in intensity of peaks at 3394, 1716 and 1618 cm-1 with respect to the plain TA indicating the involvement of O-H, carbonyl group and C=C stretching in formation of TA-AgNPs aggregates. The C-O-C and C-N stretching suggested the presence of many phytochemicals on the surface of the NPs. Impedance study reveals that at low concentration of TA the rate of charge transfer is in TA-AgNPs aggregates, found higher than the higher TA concentration condition that confirms the stability of AgNPs in water. Extract reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles (NPs) of size 6-50nm. Pronounce effect of the time on Ag NPs concentration and particle size, was exhibited by the system These biogenic Ag NPs are characterized using UV- Vis spectrophotometry (UV-Visible), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) and XRD. These studies give us inside view of the most probable mechanism of biosynthesis and optoelectronic properties of the as synthesised Ag NPs.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bioreduction, capping agent, silver nanoparticles

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2 In vitro Comparison Study of Biologically Synthesized Cupper-Disulfiram Nanoparticles with Its Free Corresponding Complex as Therapeutic Approach for Breast and Liver Cancer

Authors: Marwa M. Abu-Serie, Marwa M. Eltarahony


The search for reliable, effective, and safe nanoparticles (NPs) as a treatment for cancer is a pressing priority. In this study, Cu-NPs were fabricated by Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus through simultaneous bioreduction strategy of copper nitrate salt. The as-prepared Cu-NPs subjected to structural analysis; energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental mapping, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and ζ-potential. These biological synthesized Cu-NPs were mixed with disulfiram (DS), forming a nanocomplex of Cu-DS with a size of ~135 nm. The prepared nanocomplex (nanoCu-DS) exhibited higher anticancer activity than that of free complex of DS-Cu, Cu-NPs, and DS alone. This was illustrated by the lowest IC50 of nanoCu-DS (< 4 µM) against human breast and liver cancer cell lines comparing with DS-Cu, Cu-NPs, and DS (~8, 22.98-33.51 and 11.95-14.86, respectively). Moreover, flow cytometric analysis confirmed that higher apoptosis percentage range of nanoCu-DS-treated in MDA-MB 231, MCF-7, Huh-7, and HepG-2 cells (51.24-65.28%) than free complex of Cu-DS ( < 4.5%). Regarding inhibition potency of liver and breast cancer cell migration, no significant difference was recorded between free and nanocomplex. Furthermore, nanoCu-DS suppressed gene expression of β-catenine, Akt, and NF-κB and upregulated p53 expression (> 3, >15, > 5 and ≥ 3 folds, respectively) more efficiently than free complex (all ~ 1 fold) in MDA-MB 231 and Huh-7 cells. Our finding proved this prepared nano complex has a powerful anticancer activity relative to free complex, thereby offering a promising cancer treatment.

Keywords: biologically prepared Cu-NPs, breast cancer cell lines, liver cancer cell lines, nanoCu- disulfiram

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1 Assessment of Acute Oral Toxicity Studies and Anti Diabetic Activity of Herbal Mediated Nanomedicine

Authors: Shanker Kalakotla, Krishna Mohan Gottumukkala


Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, carbohydrates, altered lipids and proteins metabolism. In recent research nanotechnology is a blazing field for the researchers; latterly there has been prodigious excitement in the nanomedicine and nano pharmacological area for the study of silver nanoparticles synthesis using natural products. Biological methods have been used to synthesize silver nanoparticles in presence of medicinally active antidiabetic plants, and this intention made us assess the biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles from the seed extract of Psoralea corylfolia using 1 mM silver nitrate solution. The synthesized herbal mediated silver nanoparticles (HMSNP’s) then subjected to various characterization techniques such as XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM, DLS, UV and FT-IR respectively. In current study, the silver nanoparticles tested for in-vitro anti-diabetic activity and possible toxic effects in healthy female albino mice by following OECD guidelines-425. Herbal mediated silver nanoparticles were successfully obtained from bioreduction of silver nitrate using Psoralea corylifolia plant extract. Silver nanoparticles have been appropriately characterized and confirmed using different types of equipment viz., UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, DLS, SEM and EDX analysis. From the behavioral observations of the study, the female albino mice did not show sedation, respiratory arrest, and convulsions. Test compounds did not cause any mortality at the dose level tested (i.e., 2000 mg/kg body weight) doses till the end of 14 days of observation and were considered safe. It may be concluded that LD50 of the HMSNPs was 2000mg/kg body weight. Since LD50 of the HMSNPs was 2000mg/kg body weight, so the preferred dose range for HMSNPs falls between the levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Further In-vivo pharmacological models and biochemical investigations will clearly elucidate the mechanism of action and will be helpful in projecting the currently synthesized silver nanoparticles as a therapeutic target in treating chronic ailments.

Keywords: herbal mediated silver nanoparticles, HMSNPs, toxicity of silver nanoparticles, PTP1B in-vitro anti-diabetic assay female albino mice, 425 OECD guidelines

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