Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 111

Search results for: burn

111 Air Conditioner Refrigerant and Burn: A Case Report

Authors: Okan Cakir, Ibrahim Arziman, Derya Can, Mete Erkencigil, Murat Durusu, S. Mehmet Yasar

Abstract:

Introduction: Burn injuries from different types and ways commonly seen in emergency departments, approach and treatment varies from outpatient treatment to critical care unit. We wanted to mention a rare burn injury cause of air conditioner refrigerant. Case report: A 22-year-old case admitted to emergency department with a complaint of left hand burn injury and pain. In his history, he said that an accident was occurred before 30 minutes from admission while he had been trying to repair the air conditioner. Air conditioner refrigerant suddenly had erupted from its tank and burned his hand. In physical examination of extremities, second-degree burn bullae on the left hand on second and third proximal phalanx, between first and second phalanx palmar side and on hypothenar region and on third and fourth proximal phalanx and also hyperemia from hand to wrist were seen. There was no motor and sensorial deficiency. As a treatment, local silver sulfadiazine applied to the burn area and analgesic prescribed. The case called for the clinical follow-up to the plastic surgery department. Conclusion: The clinician should take a comprehensive and careful anamnesis for suitable and right management and treatment as in this case in which as well as rare and occurs different way.

Keywords: air conditioner refrigerant, burn, emergency department, rare

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
110 Formulation and in Vitro Characterization of Bioactives Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticle Incorporated into Multiphase Hydrogel System for the Treatment of Infected Burn Wound

Authors: Rajni Kant Panik, Deependra Singh, Manju Singh

Abstract:

Despite significant advances in the treatment of severe burn injury, infection and sepsis persist as frequent causes of morbidity and mortality for burn victims due to extensive compromise of the skin and contiguous tissue that serve as a protective barrier against microbial invasion. In the setting of a burn wound infection, Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated pathogens from bloodstream infections in burn care hospitals. We aimed to develop a biocompatible system of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate hydrogel carrying multiple drugs- catalase and mupirocin in controlled manner for effective and complete burn wound healing. PLGA nanoparticles of Catalase and mupirocin were prepared by homogenization method and optimized system was incorporated in PVA-sodium alginate slurry. PVA-sodium alginate hydrogels were prepared by freeze thaw method. The prepared dispersion was casted into films to prepare multiphase hydrogel system and characterized by in vitro and in vivo studies. The study clearly showed the beneficial effect of antioxidant enzyme and antibiotic in the treatment of infected burn wound, as evidenced by the reduced incidence of wound infection and the shortening of healing time.

Keywords: burn wound, catalase, mupirocin, wound healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
109 Characteristics and Challenges of Post-Burn Contractures in Adults and Children: A Descriptive Study

Authors: Hardisiswo Soedjana, Inne Caroline

Abstract:

Deep dermal or full thickness burns are inevitably lead to post-burn contractures. These contractures remain to be one of the most concerning late complications of burn injuries. Surgical management includes releasing the contracture followed by resurfacing the defect accompanied by post-operative rehabilitation. Optimal treatment of post-burn contractures depends on the characteristics of the contractures. This study is aimed to describe clinical characteristics, problems, and management of post-burn contractures in adults and children. A retrospective analysis was conducted from medical records of patients suffered from contractures after burn injuries admitted to Hasan Sadikin general hospital between January 2016 and January 2018. A total of 50 patients with post burn contractures were included in the study. There were 17 adults and 33 children. Most patients were male, whose age range within 15-59 years old and 5-9 years old. Educational background was mostly senior high school among adults, while there was only one third of children who have entered school. Etiology of burns was predominantly flame in adults (82.3%); whereas flame and scald were the leading cause of burn injury in children (11%). Based on anatomical regions, hands were the most common affected both in adults (35.2%) and children (48.5%). Contractures were identified in 6-12 months since the initial burns. Most post-burn hand contractures were resurfaced with full-thickness skin graft (FTSG) both in adults and children. There were 11 patients who presented with recurrent contracture after previous history of contracture release. Post-operative rehabilitation was conducted for all patients; however, it is important to highlight that it is still challenging to control splinting and exercise when patients are discharged and especially the compliance in children. In order to improve quality of life in patients with history of deep burn injuries, prevention of contractures should begin right after acute care has been established. Education for the importance of splinting and exercise should be administered as comprehensible as possible for adult patients and parents of pediatric patients.

Keywords: burn, contracture, education, exercise, splinting

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
108 Effective Infection Control Measures to Prevent Transmission of Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms from Burn Transfer Cases in a Regional Burn Centre

Authors: Si Jack Chong, Chew Theng Yap, Wan Loong James Mok

Abstract:

Introduction: Regional burn centres face the spectra of introduced multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) from transfer patients resident in MDRO endemic countries. MDRO can cause severe nosocomial infection, which in massive burn patients, will lead to greater morbidity and mortality and strain the institution financially. We aim to highlight 4 key measures that have effectively prevented transmission of imported MDRO. Methods: A case of Candida auris (C. auris) from a massive burn patient transferred from an MDRO endemic country is used to illustrate the measures. C. auris is a globally emerging multi-drug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. Results: Infection control measures used to mitigate the risk of outbreak from transfer cases are: (1) Multidisciplinary team approach involving Infection Control and Infectious Disease specialists early to ensure appropriate antibiotics use and implementation of barrier measures, (2) aseptic procedures for dressing change with strict isolation and donning of personal protective equipment in the ward, (3) early screening of massive burn patient from MDRO endemic region, (4) hydrogen peroxide vaporization terminal cleaning for operating theatres and rooms. Conclusion: The prevalence of air travel and international transfer to regional burn centres will need effective infection control measures to reduce the risk of transmission from imported massive burn patients. In our centre, we have effectively implemented 4 measures which have reduced the risks of local contamination. We share a recent case report to illustrate successful management of a potential MDRO outbreak resulting from transfer of massive burn patient resident in an MDRO endemic area.

Keywords: burns, burn unit, cross infection, infection control

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
107 The Relationship between Quality of Life and Sexual Satisfaction in Women with Severe Burns

Authors: Jafar Kazemzadeh, Soheila Rabiepoor, Saeedeh Alizadeh

Abstract:

Introduction: Burn, especially in women, can affect the quality of life and their quality of life due to a change in appearance. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between quality of life and sexual satisfaction in women with burn. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study conducted on 101 women with severe burns referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Urmia in 2016. The data gathering scales were demographic questionnaire, burn specific health scale-brief (BSHS-B) and index of sexual satisfaction (ISS). The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Results: Mean score of quality of life was 102.94 ± 20.88 and sexual satisfaction was 57.03 ± 25.91. Also, there was a significant relationship between quality of life and its subscales with sexual satisfaction and some demographic variables (p < 0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it should be noted that interventional efforts for improving sexual satisfaction and thus improving the quality of life in these patients are important. The findings of this study appear to be effective in planning for women with a history of burns.

Keywords: burn, quality of life, sexual satisfaction, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
106 Evaluation of Phonophoresis with Dexamethasone in Treatment of Hypertrophic Burn Scar

Authors: Alireza Pishgahi, Mohammad Rahbar, Javad Shokri, Shahla Dareshiri, Yaghoub Salekzamani, Fariba Eslamian

Abstract:

Background and Objectives: Hypertrophic scars are one of the complications following a burn injury. Intralesional corticosteroid injection is an invasive method for treatment of this complication. We had design a single blinded randomized control trial to deliver dexamethasone by phonophoresis and evaluate its efficacy on hypertrophic burn scars characteristics. Material and Methods: 56 cases of hypertrophic burn scar due to burn injury allocated randomly to dexamethasone and control group. Individuals in case group received 10 sessions of dexamethasone 0.4% phonophoresis. Patients in control group had placebo phonophoresis (ultrasound with normal routine aquatic gel without any dexamethasone) with the same protocol. At the beginning of study and one week after last session, hypertrophic scar characteristics and pruritus were measured by ‘Vancouver Scar Scale’, and ‘5-D Pruritus Scale’ respectively in both groups. Results: Despite mild improvement in Vancouver Scar Scale score one week after intervention in dexamethasone phonophoresis group in comparison to control subjects, but this difference was not significant (p=0.08). Pruritus score perceived subjectively were significantly lower one week after intervention in dexamethasone groups in comparison to control subjects (p=0.00). Conclusion: Dexamethasone phonophoresis is a safe and effective treatment method for burn hypertrophic scar pruritus, but its efficacy for scar characteristics improvement needs to be evaluated by larger studies with long-term follow-up period.

Keywords: dexamethasone, hypertrophic scar, phonophoresis, pruritus

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
105 Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Post Burn Scars

Authors: Mahmoud S. Zaghloul, Mohammed M. Khalaf, Wael N. Thabet, Haidy N. Asham

Abstract:

Background. Hypertrophic scarring is a difficult problem for burn patients, and scar management is an essential aspect of outpatient burn therapy. Post-burn pathologic scars involve functional and aesthetic limitations that have a dramatic influence on the patient’s quality of life. The aim was to investigate the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), which targets the fibroblasts in scar tissue, as an effective modality for scar treatment in burn patients. Subjects and methods: forty patients with post-burn scars were assigned randomly into two equal groups; their ages ranged from 20-45 years. The study group received ESWT and traditional physical therapy program (deep friction massage, stretching exercises). The control group received traditional physical therapy program (deep friction massage, stretching exercises). All groups received two sessions per week for six successful weeks. The data were collected before and after the same period of treatment for both groups. Evaluation procedures were carried out to measure scar thickness using ultrasonography and Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) was completed before and after treatment. Results: Post-treatment results showed that there was a significant improvement difference in scar thickness in both groups in favor of the study group. Percentage of improvement in scar thickness in the study group was 42.55%, while it was 12.15% in the control group. There was also a significant improvement difference between results obtained using VSS in both groups in favor of the study group. Conclusion: ESWT is effective in management of pathologic post burn scars.

Keywords: extracorporeal shock wave therapy, post-burn scars, ultrasonography, Vancouver scar scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
104 Association between Copper Uptake and Decrease of Copper (hypocupremia) in Burn Patients-Infected Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Khaled Khleifat, Muayyad Abboud, Amjad Khleifat, Humodi Saeed

Abstract:

In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from infected burn patients and characterized by standard biochemical tests. The in vitro copper uptake was compared between this isolated pathogenic strain and two non-pathogenic control strains of Gram positive bacteria Bacillusthuringiensis strain Israelisas well as Gram negative bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. Maximum copper uptake of 470 ppm/g biomass was obtained by P. aeruginosa strain, while the control strains B. thuringiensis andEnterobacter aerogenes had copper uptake of 350 and 383 ppm/g biomass, respectively. However, the lowest copper uptake (60 ppm/g biomass) was observed with another control the saprophytic strain Pseudomonas (Shewanella) putrefaciens. A further investigation regarding the effect of copper toxicity on bacterial growth, gave an MIC score of 600 ppm for P. aeruginosa strain compared to 460 and 300 ppm for the two Gram positive and Gram negative control strains, respectively. In tandem with these in vitro findings, blood analysis on burn patients infected with P. aeruginosa has indicated a selective decrease of copper (hypocupremia) and ceruloplasmin plasma levels. The iron metabolism was also affected by this copper deprivation leading to a similar decrease in plasma levels of PCV, iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin. All these hematological changes were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the matched group of non-infected burn patients. The observed hypocupremia in infected burn patients was attributed to demanding scavenger ability by P. aeruginosa strain for the copper of plasma.

Keywords: pseudomonas, Cu uptake, burn patients, biosorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
103 The Use of Rice Husk Ash as a Stabilizing Agent in Lateritic Clay Soil

Authors: J. O. Akinyele, R. W. Salim, K. O. Oikelome, O. T. Olateju

Abstract:

Rice Husk (RH) is the major byproduct in the processing of paddy rice. The management of this waste has become a big challenge to some of the rice producers, some of these wastes are left in open dumps while some are burn in the open space, and these two actions have been contributing to environmental pollution. This study evaluates an alternative waste management of this agricultural product for use as a civil engineering material. The RH was burn in a controlled environment to form Rice Husk Ash (RHA). The RHA was mix with lateritic clay at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% proportion by weight. Chemical test was conducted on the open burn and controlled burn RHA with the lateritic clay. Physical test such as particle size distribution, Atterberg limits test, and density test were carried out on the mix material. The chemical composition obtained for the RHA showed that the total percentage compositions of Fe2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 were found to be above 70% (class “F” pozzolan) which qualifies it as a very good pozzolan. The coefficient of uniformity (Cu) was 8 and coefficient of curvature (Cc) was 2 for the soil sample. The Plasticity Index (PI) for the 0, 2, 4, 6, 8. 10% was 21.0, 18.8, 16.7, 14.4, 12.4 and 10.7 respectively. The work concluded that RHA can be effectively used in hydraulic barriers and as a stabilizing agent in soil stabilization.

Keywords: rice husk ash, pozzolans, paddy rice, lateritic clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
102 Predicting Mortality among Acute Burn Patients Using BOBI Score vs. FLAMES Score

Authors: S. Moustafa El Shanawany, I. Labib Salem, F. Mohamed Magdy Badr El Dine, H. Tag El Deen Abd Allah

Abstract:

Thermal injuries remain a global health problem and a common issue encountered in forensic pathology. They are a devastating cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults especially in developing countries, causing permanent disfigurement, scarring and grievous hurt. Burns have always been a matter of legal concern in cases of suicidal burns, self-inflicted burns for false accusation and homicidal attempts. Assessment of burn injuries as well as rating permanent disabilities and disfigurement following thermal injuries for the benefit of compensation claims represents a challenging problem. This necessitates the development of reliable scoring systems to yield an expected likelihood of permanent disability or fatal outcome following burn injuries. The study was designed to identify the risk factors of mortality in acute burn patients and to evaluate the applicability of FLAMES (Fatality by Longevity, APACHE II score, Measured Extent of burn, and Sex) and BOBI (Belgian Outcome in Burn Injury) model scores in predicting the outcome. The study was conducted on 100 adult patients with acute burn injuries admitted to the Burn Unit of Alexandria Main University Hospital, Egypt from October 2014 to October 2015. Victims were examined after obtaining informed consent and the data were collected in specially designed sheets including demographic data, burn details and any associated inhalation injury. Each burn patient was assessed using both BOBI and FLAMES scoring systems. The results of the study show the mean age of patients was 35.54±12.32 years. Males outnumbered females (55% and 45%, respectively). Most patients were accidently burnt (95%), whereas suicidal burns accounted for the remaining 5%. Flame burn was recorded in 82% of cases. As well, 8% of patients sustained more than 60% of total burn surface area (TBSA) burns, 19% of patients needed mechanical ventilation, and 19% of burnt patients died either from wound sepsis, multi-organ failure or pulmonary embolism. The mean length of hospital stay was 24.91±25.08 days. The mean BOBI score was 1.07±1.27 and that of the FLAMES score was -4.76±2.92. The FLAMES score demonstrated an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.95 which was significantly higher than that of the BOBI score (0.883). A statistically significant association was revealed between both predictive models and the outcome. The study concluded that both scoring systems were beneficial in predicting mortality in acutely burnt patients. However, the FLAMES score could be applied with a higher level of accuracy.

Keywords: BOBI, burns, FLAMES, scoring systems, outcome

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
101 Correlation between Copper Uptake and Decrease of Copper (Hypocupremia) in Burn Patients-Infected Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Khaled M. Khleifat

Abstract:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from infected burn patients and characterized by standard biochemical tests. The in vitro copper uptake was compared between this isolated pathogenic strain and two non-pathogenic control strains of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillusthuringiensis strain Israelisas well as Gram-negative bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. Maximum copper uptake of 470 ppm/g biomass was obtained by P. aeruginosa strain, while the control strains B. thuringiensis and Enterobacter aerogenes had copper uptake of 350 and 383 ppm/g biomass, respectively. However, the lowest copper uptake (60 ppm/g biomass) was observed with another control the saprophytic strain Pseudomonas (Shewanella) putrefaciens. A further investigation regarding the effect of copper toxicity on bacterial growth, gave an MIC score of 600 ppm for P. aeruginosa strain compared to 460 and 300 ppm for the two Gram positive and Gram negative control strains, respectively. In tandem with these in vitro findings, blood analysis on burn patients infected with P. aeruginosa has indicated a selective decrease of copper (hypocupremia) and ceruloplasmin plasma levels. The iron metabolism was also affected by this copper deprivation leading to a similar decrease in plasma levels of PCV, iron, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin. All these hematological changes were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the matched group of non-infected burn patients. The observed hypocupremia in infected burn patients was attributed to demanding scavenger ability by P. aeruginosa strain for the copper of plasma.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, hypocupremia, correlation, PCV

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
100 Degradation of Irradiated UO2 Fuel Thermal Conductivity Calculated by FRAPCON Model Due to Porosity Evolution at High Burn-Up

Authors: B. Roostaii, H. Kazeminejad, S. Khakshournia

Abstract:

The evolution of volume porosity previously obtained by using the existing low temperature high burn-up gaseous swelling model with progressive recrystallization for UO2 fuel is utilized to study the degradation of irradiated UO2 thermal conductivity calculated by the FRAPCON model of thermal conductivity. A porosity correction factor is developed based on the assumption that the fuel morphology is a three-phase type, consisting of the as-fabricated pores and pores due to intergranular bubbles whitin UO2 matrix and solid fission products. The predicted thermal conductivity demonstrates an additional degradation of 27% due to porosity formation at burn-up levels around 120 MWd/kgU which would cause an increase in the fuel temperature accordingly. Results of the calculations are compared with available data.

Keywords: irradiation-induced recrystallization, matrix swelling, porosity evolution, UO₂ thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
99 Non-Burn Treatment of Health Care Risk Waste

Authors: Jefrey Pilusa, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

This research discusses a South African case study for the potential of utilizing refuse-derived fuel (RDF) obtained from non-burn treatment of health care risk waste (HCRW) as potential feedstock for green energy production. This specific waste stream can be destroyed via non-burn treatment technology involving high-speed mechanical shredding followed by steam or chemical injection to disinfect the final product. The RDF obtained from this process is characterised by a low moisture, low ash, and high calorific value which means it can be potentially used as high-value solid fuel. Due to the raw feed of this RDF being classified as hazardous, the final RDF has been reported to be non-infectious and can blend with other combustible wastes such as rubber and plastic for waste to energy applications. This study evaluated non-burn treatment technology as a possible solution for on-site destruction of HCRW in South African private and public health care centres. Waste generation quantities were estimated based on the number of registered patient beds, theoretical bed occupancy. Time and motion study was conducted to evaluate the logistics viability of on-site treatment. Non-burn treatment technology for HCRW is a promising option for South Africa, and successful implementation of this method depends upon the initial capital investment, operational cost and environmental permitting of such technology; there are other influencing factors such as the size of the waste stream, product off-take price as well as product demand.

Keywords: autoclave, disposal, fuel, incineration, medical waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
98 Pain Management in Burn Wounds with Dual Drug Loaded Double Layered Nano-Fiber Based Dressing

Authors: Sharjeel Abid, Tanveer Hussain, Ahsan Nazir, Abdul Zahir, Nabyl Khenoussi

Abstract:

Localized application of drug has various advantages and fewer side effects as compared with other methods. Burn patients suffer from swear pain and the major aspects that are considered for burn victims include pain and infection management. Nano-fibers (NFs) loaded with drug, applied on local wound area, can solve these problems. Therefore, this study dealt with the fabrication of drug loaded NFs for better pain management. Two layers of NFs were fabricated with different drugs. Contact layer was loaded with Gabapentin (a nerve painkiller) and the second layer with acetaminophen. The fabricated dressing was characterized using scanning electron microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The double layered based NFs dressing was designed to have both initial burst release followed by slow release to cope with pain for two days. The fabricated nanofibers showed diameter < 300 nm. The liquid absorption capacity of the NFs was also checked to deal with the exudate. The fabricated double layered dressing with dual drug loading and release showed promising results that could be used for dealing pain in burn victims. It was observed that by the addition of drug, the size of nanofibers was reduced, on the other hand, the crystallinity %age was increased, and liquid absorption decreased. The combination of fast nerve pain killer release followed by slow release of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug could be a good tool to reduce pain in a more secure manner with fewer side effects.

Keywords: pain management, burn wounds, nano-fibers, controlled drug release

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
97 Relationship between Causes of Carcass Condemnation and Other Welfare Indicators Collected in Three Poultry Slaughterhouses

Authors: Sara Santos, Cristina Saraiva, Sónia Saraiva

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the welfare of reared broilers using scoring systems at the slaughterhouse. The welfare of broilers from 70 different flocks was assessed in three different slaughterhouses, regarding 373043 animals, although not in equal proportions in each slaughterhouse due to the difference in the amount of flocks slaughtered per day because of different company size. Twenty-one flocks were evaluated in slaughterhouse A (30%), thirty in slaughterhouse B (42,9%) and nineteen in slaughterhouse C (27,1%). The parameters evaluated were feather cleanness, foot pad dermatitis, hock burn, breast burn and causes of carcass condemnation. Feather cleanness was scored into three classes: 0=clean; 1=moderately dirty and 2=dirty feathers. Foot pad dermatitis, hock burn and breast ulcer were graded in three classes: 0=no lesions, 1=moderate lesions and 2=severe lesions. Causes of carcass condemnation were divided into emaciation, ascites, colour alteration and febrile state, arthritis, aerosaculitis, dermatitis, peritonitis, myositis, cellulitis, extensive trauma and technopathies as mechanical trauma, insufficient bleeding and deficient plucking. Broilers evaluated had a body weight ranging between 0,909kg and 2,588kg (median 1,522kg) and age between 25 days and 45 days (median 33 days). Rejection rate of flocks ranged between 0,1% and 10,48% (median 1,4029%) and footpad dermatitis total score between 2 and 197, resulting in 20 flocks presenting moderate lesions and 15 flocks with severe lesions. Moderate hock burn was associated with severe foot pad dermatitis and with breast burn. The associations between these lesions suggest that the development of contact dermatitis is caused by a common cause, the prolonged contact with litter of poor quality. In conclusion, contact dermatitis lesions, mostly foot pad dermatitis, feather hygiene conditions and rejection rate were the main restrictions of good welfare and considered important indicators for the follow-up on the farm conditions.

Keywords: broiler, dermatitis, welfare, slaughterhouse

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
96 Influence of Valve Lift Timing on Producer Gas Combustion and Its Modeling Using Two-Stage Wiebe Function

Authors: M. Sreedhar Babu, Vishal Garg, S. B. Akella, Shibu Clement, N. K. S Rajan

Abstract:

Producer gas is a biomass derived gaseous fuel which is extensively used in internal combustion engines for power generation application. Unlike the conventional hydrocarbon fuels (Gasoline and Natural gas), the combustion properties of producer gas fuel are much different. Therefore, setting of optimal spark time for efficient engine operation is required. Owing to the fluctuating tendency of producer gas composition during gasification process, the heat release patterns (dictating the power output and emissions) obtained are quite different from conventional fuels. It was found that, valve lift timing is yet another factor which influences the burn rate of producer gas fuel, and thus, the heat release rate of the engine. Therefore, the present study was motivated to estimate the influence of valve lift timing analytically (Wiebe model) on the burn rate of producer gas through curve fitting against experimentally obtained mass fraction burn curves of several producer gas compositions. Furthermore, Wiebe models are widely used in zero-dimensional codes for engine parametric studies and are quite popular. This study also addresses the influence of hydrogen and methane concentration of producer gas on combustion trends, which are known to cause dynamics in engine combustion.

Keywords: combustion duration (CD), crank angle (CA), mass fraction burnt (MFB), producer sas (PG), Wiebe Combustion Model (WCM), wide open throttle (WOT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
95 A Study on Measuring Emotional Labor and Burnout Levels of Shopping Mall Employess: The Case of the Province of Konya

Authors: Ilknur Çevik Tekin, Serdar Öge

Abstract:

As a result of globalization and changing consumer preferences, the number of shopping malls has increased significantly in recent years. Consumers prefer shopping malls to both do comfortable shopping in a short time and benefit from the social facilities there. Employees, who are obliged to behave to the consumers in the way the company wants them to do, often spend intensive emotional effort because companies buy the emotions the employees must display to customers in order to ensure customer satisfaction. The emotions the employees constantly try to contain may lead to the phenomenon of burn-out in time. This study was conducted to reveal the relationship between the emotional labor and burn-out levels of shopping mall employees, who work in shopping malls and are supposed to reflect the corporate culture.

Keywords: emotional labor, burnout, shopping mall employees

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
94 Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Aluminium Nanoparticles on Characteristic Velocity of Kerosene-Oxygen Combustion

Authors: Al Ameen H., Rakesh P.

Abstract:

To improve the combustion efficiency of fuels and to reduce the emissions of pollutants as well as to improve heat transfer characteristics of fuels, both non-metallic and metallic nanoparticles can be added into it. By varying the concentration and size of nano particles added into the fuels, behaviour of droplet combustion and hence heat generated can be altered. In case of solid or liquid fuels, surface area of the fuel in contact with oxidizer(gaseous) is small because of higher density compared to gases. If the surface area of fuel exposed to the oxidizer is very small, then the combustion will not occur, because the combustion rate is proportional to the surface area of fuel droplet. To avoid such instance there is a way to increase the exposed surface area. To increase the specific surface area available for reaction, the particle size can be reduced. If the additives are solid then by reducing the particles size the specific surface area of liquid fuel can be increased. For the liquid fuels the exposed surface area available for combustion can be increased by suspending nanoparticles. Addition of non-metallic and metallic nanoparticles in fuels improves its combustion efficiency by enhancing the thermo-physical properties. The burn rate constants and temperatures of Kerosene-Oxygen combustion for fuel droplet sizes of 50μm, 75μm, 100μm and 125μm under varying concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% are studied numerically and its characteristic velocities are determined. Later the burn rate constants of fuel with concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% by weight of aluminium nanoparticles are added. The spray combustion characteristics of such nano-fuel has improved the combustion temperature by the addition of aluminium nanoparticles. Thus, aluminium nanoparticles have improved burn rate and characteristic velocity of Kerosene-Oxygen combustion. An increase of 40% in characteristic velocity is observed.

Keywords: burn rate, characteristic velocity, combustion, thermo-physical properties

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93 Collagen Scaffold Incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum Plant Extracts as a–Burn/Wound Dressing Material, in Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation

Authors: Thangavelu Muthukumar, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara Sastry

Abstract:

Collagen is the most abundantly available connective tissue protein, which is being used as a biomaterial for various biomedical applications. Presently, fish wastes are disposed improperly which is causing serious environmental pollution resulting in offensive odour. Fish scales are promising source of Type I collagen. Medicinal plants have been used since time immemorial for treatment of various ailments of skin and dermatological disorders especially cuts, wounds, and burns. Developing biomaterials from the natural sources which are having wound healing properties within the search of a common man is the need of hour, particularly in developing and third world countries. With these objectives in view we have developed a wound dressing material containing fish scale collagen (FSC) incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum plant extract (PE). The wound dressing composite was characterized for its physiochemical properties using conventional methods. SEM image revealed that the composite has fibrous and porous surface which helps in transportation of oxygen as well as absorbing wound fluids. The biomaterial has shown 95% biocompatibility with required mechanical strength and has exhibited antimicrobial properties. This biomaterial has been used as a wound dressing material in experimental wounds of rats. The healing pattern was evaluated by macroscopic observations, panimetric studies, biochemical, histopathological observations. The results showed faster healing pattern in the wounds treated with CSPE compared to the other composites used in this study and untreated control. These experiments clearly suggest that CSPE can be used as wound/burn dressing materials.

Keywords: collagen, wound dressing, Macrotyloma uniflorum, burn dressing

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
92 Optical Ignition of Nanoenergetic Materials with Tunable Explosion Reactivity

Authors: Ji Hoon Kim, Jong Man Kim, Hyung Woo Lee, Soo Hyung Kim

Abstract:

The applications of nanoenergetic materials (nEMs) could be extended by developing more convenient and reliable ignition methods. However, the underwater ignition of nEMs is a significant challenge because water perturbs the reactants prior to ignition and also quenches the subsequent combustion reaction of nEMs upon ignition. In this study, we developed flash and laser-ignitable nEMs for underwater explosion. This was achieved by adding various carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the optical igniter into an nEM matrix, composed of Al/CuO nanoparticles. The CNTs absorb the irradiated optical energy and rapidly convert it into thermal energy, and then the thermal energy is concentrated to ignite the core catalysts and neighboring nEMs. The maximum burn rate was achieved by adding 1 wt% CNTs into the nEM matrix. The burn rate significantly decreased with increasing amount of CNTs (≥ 2 wt%), indicating that the optical ignition and controlled-explosion reactivity of nEMs are possible by incorporating an appropriate amount of CNTs.

Keywords: nanoenergetic materials, carbon nanotubes, optical ignition, tunable explosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
91 A One-Dimensional Model for Contraction in Burn Wounds: A Sensitivity Analysis and a Feasibility Study

Authors: Ginger Egberts, Fred Vermolen, Paul van Zuijlen

Abstract:

One of the common complications in post-burn scars is contractions. Depending on the extent of contraction and the wound dimensions, the contracture can cause a limited range-of-motion of joints. A one-dimensional morphoelastic continuum hypothesis-based model describing post-burn scar contractions is considered. The beauty of the one-dimensional model is the speed; hence it quickly yields new results and, therefore, insight. This model describes the movement of the skin and the development of the strain present. Besides these mechanical components, the model also contains chemical components that play a major role in the wound healing process. These components are fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, the so-called signaling molecules, and collagen. The dermal layer is modeled as an isotropic morphoelastic solid, and pulling forces are generated by myofibroblasts. The solution to the model equations is approximated by the finite-element method using linear basis functions. One of the major challenges in biomechanical modeling is the estimation of parameter values. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive description of skin mechanical parameter values and a sensitivity analysis. Further, since skin mechanical properties change with aging, it is important that the model is feasible for predicting the development of contraction in burn patients of different ages, and hence this study provides a feasibility study. The variability in the solutions is caused by varying the values for some parameters simultaneously over the domain of computation, for which the results of the sensitivity analysis are used. The sensitivity analysis shows that the most sensitive parameters are the equilibrium concentration of collagen, the apoptosis rate of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and the secretion rate of signaling molecules. This suggests that most of the variability in the evolution of contraction in burns in patients of different ages might be caused mostly by the decreasing equilibrium of collagen concentration. As expected, the feasibility study shows this model can be used to show distinct extents of contractions in burns in patients of different ages. Nevertheless, contraction formation in children differs from contraction formation in adults because of the growth. This factor has not been incorporated in the model yet, and therefore the feasibility results for children differ from what is seen in the clinic.

Keywords: biomechanics, burns, feasibility, fibroblasts, morphoelasticity, sensitivity analysis, skin mechanics, wound contraction

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90 Livelihood and Willingness to Accept Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation by Local People in the Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo John Julius, Emmanuel Imoagene

Abstract:

Mitigating global warming through reducing emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD) has been given increasing attentions in government-to-government negotiations while discussions among decision-makers have been going on, it is important to learn about the perception of local people in relation to REDD because the implementation will affect their lives. A survey was conducted using questionnaires to examine the livelihood and forest dependency of the local people in the vicinity of Onigambari and Ido area. Respondents’ income from forest activities and forest resources are collected. Participation in tourism related activities among the household members was also investigated to measure the potential of this “eco-friendly” income generation activity in the local communities. There was a general indication of reducing slash-and-burn activities with distance from the park and involvement in tourism-related job. Most of the local people were willing to accept compensation as alternative for slash-and-burn activities. The compensation preferred is in various form of development and different level of forest and environmental activities

Keywords: livelihood, emission, deforestation, degradation, local people, southwest Nigeria

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89 Design and Development of Ceramics Kiln by Application Burners Use from High Pressure of Household Gas Stove

Authors: Somboon Sarasit

Abstract:

This research aims to develop a model small ceramic kiln using burner from a high-pressure household gas stove. The efficiency of the kiln and community technology transfer. The study of history shows that this area used to be a source of pottery on the old capital of Ayutthaya. There is evidence from pottery kilns unearthed many types of wood kiln since 2535 and was assumed that the production will end when the war with Burma in the Ayutthaya period. The result of the research design and performance testing of ceramic kiln using burners by gas cooker and outside from 200-liter steel drums inside with ceramic fiber. It was found that the Graze Firing of the products to be at a temperature of 1230°C. The duration of the burn approximately 5-6 hours and uses only 3-4 kg of LPG products, a coffee can burn up to 40-50 pieces. It is an energy-efficient Kiln. Use safe and appropriate opportunities for entrepreneurs, small ceramic and entrepreneurs with new investments or those who want to produce ceramic products as a hobby. The community interest in the pottery to create a new one to continue the product development and manufacturing in the harshest existence forever.

Keywords: ceramics kiln design and development, ceramic gas kiln, burners application, high-pressure of household gas stove

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88 Comparative Study of Dermal Regeneration Template Made by Bovine Collagen with and without Silicone Layer in the Treatment of Post-Burn Contracture

Authors: Elia Caldini, Cláudia N. Battlehner, Marcelo A. Ferreira, Rolf Gemperli, Nivaldo Alonso, Luiz P. Vana

Abstract:

The advent of dermal regenerate templates has fostered major advances in the treatment of acute burns and their sequelae, in the last two decades. Both data on morphological aspects of the newly-formed tissue, and clinical trials comparing different templates, are still lacking. The goal of this study was to prospectively analyze the outcome of patients treated with two of the existing templates, followed by thin skin autograft. They are both made of bovine collagen, one includes a superficial silicone layer. Surgery was performed on patients with impaired mobility resulting from burn sequelae (n = 12 per template). Negative pressure therapy was applied post-surgically; patients were monitored for 12 months. Data on scar skin quality (Vancouver and POSAS evaluation scales), rate of joint mobility recovery, and graft contraction were recorded. Improvement in mobility and skin quality were demonstrated along with graft contraction, in all patients. The silicone-coupled template showed the best performance in all aspects.

Keywords: dermal regeneration template, artificial skin, skin quality, scar contracture

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87 The Effect of Elapsed Time on the Cardiac Troponin-T Degradation and Its Utility as a Time Since Death Marker in Cases of Death Due to Burn

Authors: Sachil Kumar, Anoop K.Verma, Uma Shankar Singh

Abstract:

It’s extremely important to study postmortem interval in different causes of death since it assists in a great way in making an opinion on the exact cause of death following such incident often times. With diligent knowledge of the interval one could really say as an expert that the cause of death is not feigned hence there is a great need in evaluating such death to have been at the CRIME SCENE before performing an autopsy on such body. The approach described here is based on analyzing the degradation or proteolysis of a cardiac protein in cases of deaths due to burn as a marker of time since death. Cardiac tissue samples were collected from (n=6) medico-legal autopsies, (Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology), King George’s Medical University, Lucknow India, after informed consent from the relatives and studied post-mortem degradation by incubation of the cardiac tissue at room temperature (20±2 OC) for different time periods (~7.30, 18.20, 30.30, 41.20, 41.40, 54.30, 65.20, and 88.40 Hours). The cases included were the subjects of burn without any prior history of disease who died in the hospital and their exact time of death was known. The analysis involved extraction of the protein, separation by denaturing gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and visualization by Western blot using cTnT specific monoclonal antibodies. The area of the bands within a lane was quantified by scanning and digitizing the image using Gel Doc. As time postmortem progresses the intact cTnT band degrades to fragments that are easily detected by the monoclonal antibodies. A decreasing trend in the level of cTnT (% of intact) was found as the PM hours increased. A significant difference was observed between <15 h and other PM hours (p<0.01). Significant difference in cTnT level (% of intact) was also observed between 16-25 h and 56-65 h & >75 h (p<0.01). Western blot data clearly showed the intact protein at 42 kDa, three major (28 kDa, 30kDa, 10kDa) fragments, three additional minor fragments (12 kDa, 14kDa, and 15 kDa) and formation of low molecular weight fragments. Overall, both PMI and cardiac tissue of burned corpse had a statistically significant effect where the greatest amount of protein breakdown was observed within the first 41.40 Hrs and after it intact protein slowly disappears. If the percent intact cTnT is calculated from the total area integrated within a Western blot lane, then the percent intact cTnT shows a pseudo-first order relationship when plotted against the time postmortem. A strong significant positive correlation was found between cTnT and PM hours (r=0.87, p=0.0001). The regression analysis showed a good variability explained (R2=0.768) The post-mortem Troponin-T fragmentation observed in this study reveals a sequential, time-dependent process with the potential for use as a predictor of PMI in cases of burning.

Keywords: burn, degradation, postmortem interval, troponin-T

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86 The Aesthetic Reconstruction of Post-Burn Eyebrow Alopecia with Bilateral Superficial Temporal Artery Island Scalp Flap

Authors: Kumar Y., Suman D., Sumathi

Abstract:

Introduction: Burns to the face account for between one-fourth and one-third of all burns. The loss of an eyebrow due to a burn or infection can have negative physical and psychological consequences for patients because eyebrows have a critical functional and aesthetic role on the face. Plastic surgeons face unique challenges in reconstructing eyebrows due to their complex anatomy and variations within genders. As a general rule, there are three techniques for reconstructing the eyebrow: superficial temporal artery island flap, a composite graft from the scalp, and mini or micro follicular grafts from the scalp. In situations where a sufficient amount of subcutaneous tissue is not available and the defect is big such as the case of burns, flaps like the superficial temporal artery scalp flap remain reliable options. In 2018, a 17-year-old female patient presented to the department of Burns Plastic and reconstructive Surgery of Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, India. A scald-burn injury to the face occurred two years before admission, resulting in bilateral eyebrow loss. We reconstructed the bilateral eyebrows using bilateral scalp island flaps based on the posterior branch of the superficial temporal artery. The reconstructed eyebrows successfully assumed a desirable shape and exhibited a natural appearance, which was consistent with preoperative expectations and the patient stated that she was more comfortable with her social relationships. Among the current treatment procedures, the superficial temporal artery island flap continues to be a versatile option for reconstructing the eyebrows after alopecia, especially in cases of burns. Results: During the 30 days follow-up period, the scalp island flap remained vascularised with normal hair growth, without complications. The reconstructed eyebrows successfully assumed a desirable shape and exhibited a natural appearance; the patient stated that she was more comfortable with her social relationships. Conclusion: In this case report, we demonstrated how scalp island flaps pedicled by the superficial temporal artery could be performed very safely and reliably to create new eyebrows.

Keywords: alopecia, burns, eyebrow, flap, superficial temporal artery

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85 NOx Prediction by Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model of Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Engine

Authors: Anas Rao, Hao Duan, Fanhua Ma

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The dependency on the fossil fuels can be minimized by using the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) in the transportation vehicles. However, the NOx emissions of HCNG engines are significantly higher, and this turned to be its major drawback. Therefore, the study of NOx emission of HCNG engines is a very important area of research. In this context, the experiments have been performed at the different hydrogen percentage, ignition timing, air-fuel ratio, manifold-absolute pressure, load and engine speed. Afterwards, the simulation has been accomplished by the quasi-dimensional combustion model of HCNG engine. In order to investigate the NOx emission, the NO mechanism has been coupled to the quasi-dimensional combustion model of HCNG engine. The three NOx mechanism: the thermal NOx, prompt NOx and N2O mechanism have been used to predict NOx emission. For the validation purpose, NO curve has been transformed into NO packets based on the temperature difference of 100 K for the lean-burn and 60 K for stoichiometric condition. While, the width of the packet has been taken as the ratio of crank duration of the packet to the total burnt duration. The combustion chamber of the engine has been divided into three zones, with the zone equal to the product of summation of NO packets and space. In order to check the accuracy of the model, the percentage error of NOx emission has been evaluated, and it lies in the range of ±6% and ±10% for the lean-burn and stoichiometric conditions respectively. Finally, the percentage contribution of each NO formation has been evaluated.

Keywords: quasi-dimensional combustion , thermal NO, prompt NO, NO packet

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84 Study of the Genes Involved in the Resistance of Nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Fluoroquinolone

Authors: Rosetta Moshirian Farahi, Ahya Abdi Ali, Sara Gharavi

Abstract:

The major mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to fluoroquinolones is the alteration of target enzymes, type II and IV topoisomerases due to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the gyrA and parC genes coding A subunits of these enzymes. 37 isolates from patients with burn wounds and 20 isolates from blood, urine and sputum specimen were selected to evaluate mutations involved in antibiotic resistance and were subsequently verified for their resistance to ciprofloxacin. QRDRs regions of gyrA and parC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were subsequently sequenced. 90% of isolates with MIC≥8 µg/ml to ciprofloxacin had a mutation in gyrA gene in which threonine at position 83 changed to isoleucine. 87.5% of isolates had mutation in parC, Serine 87 changed. 75% had Ser87Leu and 12.5% possessed Serin87Trp. Various silent mutations were also detected such as Val103Val, Ala118Ala, Ala136Ala, His132His in gyrA and Ala115Ala in parC. The data indicates that the common mutation in gyrA is Thr83Ile and in parC is Ser87Leu/Trp. No individual parC mutation was observed while mutations in gyrA and parC occurred simultaneously and appears to be the main reason of high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in patients with burn wounds and urine infection. The vast majority of P.aeruginosa isolates had mutation in parC which can play a crucial role in increased resistance of these isolates. This is a report of parC mutations from resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from Iran, Tehran.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, fluoroquinolones, gyrA, parC, antibiotic resistance

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83 Surgical Prep-Related Burns in Laterally Positioned Hip Procedures

Authors: B. Kenny, M. Dixon, A. Boshell

Abstract:

The use of alcoholic surgical prep was recently introduced into the Royal Newcastle Center for elective procedures. In the past 3 months there have been a significant number of burns believed to be related to ‘pooling’ of this surgical prep in patients undergoing procedures where they are placed in the lateral position with hip bolsters. The aim of the audit was to determine the reason for the burns, analyze what pre-existing factors may contribute to the development of the burns and what can be changed to prevent further burns occurring. All patients undergoing a procedure performed on the hip who were placed in the lateral position with sacral and anterior, superior iliac spine (ASIS) support with ‘bolsters’ were included in the audit. Patients who developed a ‘burn’ were recorded, details of the surgery, demographics, surgical prep used and length of surgery were obtained as well as photographs taken to document the burn. Measures were then taken to prevent further burns and the efficacy was documented. Overall 14 patients developed burns over the ipsilateral ASIS. Of these, 13 were Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and 1 was a removal of femoral nail. All patients had Chlorhexidine 0.5% in Alcohol 70% Tinted Red surgical preparation or Betadine Alcoholic Skin Prep (70% etoh). Patients were set up in the standard lateral decubitus position with sacral and bilateral ASIS bolsters with a valband covering. 86% of patients were found to have pre-existing hypersensitivities to various substances. There is very little literature besides a few case reports on surgical prep-related burns. The case reports that do exist are related to the use of tourniquet-related burns and there is no mention in the literature examining ‘bolster’ related burns. The burns are hypothesized to be caused by pooling of the alcoholic solution which is amplified by the use of Valband.

Keywords: arthroplasty, chemical burns, wounds, rehabilitation

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82 Ulnar Parametacarpal Flap for Coverage of Fifth Finger Defects: Propeller Flap Concept

Authors: Ahmed M. Gad, Ahmed S. Hweidi

Abstract:

Background: Defects of the little finger and adjacent areas are not uncommon. It could be a traumatic, post-burn, or after contracture release. Different options could be used for resurfacing these defect, including skin grafts, local or regional flaps. Ulnar para-metacarpal flap described by Bakhach in 1995 based on the distal division of the dorsal branch of the ulnar artery considered a good option for that. In this work, we applied the concept of propeller flap for better mobilization and in-setting of the ulnar para-metacarpal flap. Methods: The study included 15 cases with 4 females and 11 male patients. 10 of the patients had severe post-burn contractures of little finger, and 5 had post-traumatic little finger defects. Contractures were released and resulting soft tissue defects were reconstructed with propeller ulnar para-metacarpal artery flap. The flap based on two main perforators communicating with the palmar system, it was raised based on one of them depending on the extent of the defect and rotated 180 degrees after judicious dissection of the perforator. Results: 13 flaps survived completely, one of the cases developed partial skin loss, which healed by dressing, another flap was completely lost and covered later by a full-thickness skin graft. Conclusion: Ulnar para-metacarpal flap is a reliable option to resurface the little finger as well as adjacent areas. The application of the propeller flap concept based on whether the proximal or distal communicating branch makes the rotation and in-setting of the flap easier.

Keywords: little finger defects, propeller flap, regional hand defects, ulnar parametacarpal flap

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