Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: montmorillonite

52 Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Acid-Activated Montmorillonite for Nitrophenol Reduction

Authors: Fatima Ammari, Meriem Chenouf


Synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted much attention since the pioneering discovery of the high catalytic activity of supported gold nanoparticles in the reaction of CO oxidation at low temperature. In this research field, we used montmorillonite pre-acidified under gentle conditions for AuNPs stabilization; using different loading percentage 1, 2 and 5%. The gold nanoparticles were obtained using chemical reduction method using NaBH4 as reductant agent. The obtained gold nanoparticles stabilized in acid-activated montmorillonite were used as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to aminophenol with sodium borohydride at room temperature The UV-Vis results confirm directly the gold nanaoparticles formation. The XRD N2 adsorption and MET results showed the formation of gold nanoparticles in the pores of preacidified montmorillonite with an average size of 5.7nm. The reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 catalyzed by Au°-montmorillonite catalyst exhibits remarkably a high activity; the reaction was completed within 4.5min.

Keywords: gold, acid-activated montmorillonite, nanoparticles, 4-nitrophenol

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51 Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue by Montmorillonite/CuxCd1-xs Nanomaterials

Authors: Horiya Boukhatem, Lila Djouadi, Hussein Khalaf, Rufino Manuel Navarro Yerga, Fernando Vaquero Gonzalez


Heterogeneous photo catalysis is an alternative method for the removal of organic pollutants in water. The photo excitation of a semi-conductor under ultra violet (UV) irradiation entails the production of hydroxyl radicals, one of the most oxidative chemical species. The objective of this study is the synthesis of nano materials based on montmorillonite and CuxCd1-xS with different Cu concentration (0.3 < x < 0.7) and their application in photocatalysis of a cationic dye: methylene blue. The synthesized nano materials and montmorillonite were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Test results of photo catalysis of methylene blue under UV-Visible irradiation show that the photoactivity of nano materials montmorillonite/ CuxCd1-xS increase with the increasing of Cu concentration and it is significantly higher compared to that of sodium montmorillonite alone. The application of the kinetic model of Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) to the photocatalytic test results showed that the reaction rate obeys to the first-order kinetic model.

Keywords: heterogeneous photo catalysis, methylene blue, montmorillonite, nano material

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50 Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Na-Montmorillonite for Nitrophenol Reduction

Authors: Fatima Ammari, Meriem Chenouf


Synthesis of gold nano particles has attracted much attention since the pioneering discovery of the high catalytic activity of supported gold nano particles in the reaction of CO oxidation at low temperature. In this research field, we used Na-montmorillonite for gold nanoparticles stabilization; different loading percentage 1, 2 and 5%. The gold nano particles were obtained using chemical reduction method using NaBH4 as reductant agent. The obtained gold nano particles Au-mont stabilized in Na-montmorillonite were used as catalysts for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to aminophenol with sodium borohydride at room temperature. The UV-Vis results confirm directly the gold nano particles formation. The XRD and N2 adsorption results showed the formation of gold nano particles in the pores of montmorillonite with an average size of 5 nm obtained on samples with 2%Au-mont. The gold particles size increased with the increase of gold loading percentage. The reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol with NaBH4 catalyzed by Au-Na-montmorillonite catalyst exhibits remarkably a high activity; the reaction was completed within 9 min for 1Au-mont and within 3 min for 2Au-mont.

Keywords: chemical reduction, gold, montmorillonite, nano particles, 4-nitrophenol

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49 Use of Nanoclay in Various Modified Polyolefins

Authors: Michael Tupý, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Dagmar Měřínská, Vít Petránek


Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (vinyl acetate) (EVA) and Surlyn (modif-PE) nano composite samples were prepared with montmorillonite fillers Cloisite 93A and Dellite 67G. The amount of modified Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) was fixed to 5 % (w/w). For the compounding of polymer matrix and chosen nano fillers twin-screw kneader was used. The level of MMT intercalation or exfoliation in the nano composite systems was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The properties of samples were evaluated by dynamical mechanical analysis (E* modulus at 30 °C) and by the measurement of tensile properties (stress and strain at break).

Keywords: polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene(vinyl acetate), clay, nanocomposite, montmorillonite

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48 A Comparison of the Adsorption Mechanism of Arsenic on Iron-Modified Nanoclays

Authors: Michael Leo L. Dela Cruz, Khryslyn G. Arano, Eden May B. Dela Pena, Leslie Joy Diaz


Arsenic adsorbents were continuously being researched to ease the detrimental impact of arsenic to human health. A comparative study on the adsorption mechanism of arsenic on iron modified nanoclays was undertaken. Iron intercalated montmorillonite (Fe-MMT) and montmorillonite supported zero-valent iron (ZVI-MMT) were the adsorbents investigated in this study. Fe-MMT was produced through ion-exchange by replacing the sodium intercalated ions in montmorillonite with iron (III) ions. The iron (III) in Fe-MMT was later reduced to zero valent iron producing ZVI-MMT. Adsorption study was performed by batch technique. Obtained data were fitted to intra-particle diffusion, pseudo-first order, and pseudo-second-order models and the Elovich equation to determine the kinetics of adsorption. The adsorption of arsenic on Fe-MMT followed the intra-particle diffusion model with intra-particle rate constant of 0.27 mg/g-min0.5. Arsenic was found to be chemically bound on ZVI-MMT as suggested by the pseudo-second order and Elovich equation. The derived pseudo-second order rate constant was 0.0027 g/mg-min with initial adsorption rate computed from the Elovich equation was 113 mg/g-min.

Keywords: adsorption mechanism, arsenic, montmorillonite, zero valent iron

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47 Development of Carrageenan-Psyllium/Montmorillonite Clay Hybrid Hydrogels for Agriculture Purpose

Authors: D. Aydinoglu, N. Karaca, O. Ceylan


Limited water resources on the earth come first among the most alarming issues. In this respect, several solutions from treatment of waste water to water management have been proposed. Recently, use of hydrogels as soil additive, which is one of the water management ways in agriculture, has gained increasing interest. In traditional agriculture applications, water used with irrigation aim, rapidly flows down between the pore structures in soil, without enough useful for soil. To overcome this fact and increase the abovementioned limit values, recently, several natural based hydrogels have been suggested and tested to find out their efficiency in soil. However, most of these researches have dealt with grafting of synthetic acrylate based monomers on natural gelling agents, most probably due to reinforced of the natural gels. These results motivated us to search a natural based hydrogel formulations, not including any synthetic component, and strengthened with montmorillonite clay instead of any grafting polymerization with synthetic monomer and examine their potential in this field, as well as characterize of them. With this purpose, carrageenan-psyllium/ montmorillonite hybrid hydrogels have been successively prepared. Their swelling capacities were determined both in deionized and tap water and were found to be dependent on the carrageenan, psyllium and montmorillonite ratios, as well as the water type. On the other hand, mechanical tests revealed that especially carrageenan and montmorillonite contents have a great effect on gel strength, which is one of the essential features, preventing the gels from cracking resulted in readily outflow of all the water in the gel without beneficial for soil. They found to reach 0.23 MPa. The experiments carried out with soil indicated that hydrogels significantly improved the water uptake capacities and water retention degrees of the soil from 49 g to 85 g per g of soil and from 32 to 67%, respectively, depending on the ingredient ratios. Also, biodegradation tests demonstrated that all the hydrogels undergo biodegradation, as expected from their natural origin. The overall results suggested that these hybrid hydrogels have a potential for use as soil additive and can be safely used owing to their totally natural structure.

Keywords: carrageenan, hydrogel, montmorillonite, psyllium

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46 Adsorptive Performance of Surface Modified Montmorillonite in Vanadium Removal from Real Mine Water

Authors: Opeyemi Atiba-Oyewo, Taile Y. Leswfi, Maurice S. Onyango, Christian Wolkersdorfer


This paper describes the preparation of surface modified montmorillonite using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) for the removal of vanadium from mine water. The adsorbent before and after adsorption was characterised by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the amount of vanadium adsorbed was determined by ICP-OES. The batch adsorption method was employed using vanadium concentrations in solution ranging from 50 to 320 mg/L and vanadium tailings seepage water from a South African mine. Also, solution pH, temperature and sorbent mass were varied. Results show that the adsorption capacity was affected by solution pH, temperature, sorbent mass and the initial concentration. Electrical conductivity of the mine water before and after adsorption was measured to estimate the total dissolved solids in the mine water. Equilibrium isotherm results revealed that vanadium sorption follows the Freundlich isotherm, indicating that the surface of the sorbent was heterogeneous. The pseudo-second order kinetic model gave the best fit to the kinetic experimental data compared to the first order and Elovich models. The results of this study may be used to predict the uptake efficiency of South Africa montmorillonite in view of its application for the removal of vanadium from mine water. However, the choice of this adsorbent for the uptake of vanadium or other contaminants will depend on the composition of the effluent to be treated.

Keywords: adsorption, vanadium, modified montmorillonite, equilibrium, kinetics, mine water

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45 Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Using Water Extract of Satureja hortensis L. and Evaluation of the Antibacterial Capacities

Authors: Sajjad Sedaghat


In this work, facile and green biosynthesis and characterization of silver–montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposite is reported at room temperature. Silver nanoparticles (Ag–NPs) were synthesized into the interlamellar space of (MMT) by using water extract of Satureja hortensis L as reducing agent. The MMT was suspended in the aqueous AgNO₃ solution, and after the absorption of silver ions, Ag⁺ was reduced using water extract of Satureja hortensis L to Ag°. Evaluation of the antibacterial properties are also reported. The nanocomposite was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM study showed the formation of nanocomposite using water extract of Satureja hortensis L in the 4.88 – 26.70 nm range and average particles size were 15.79 nm also the XRD study showed that the particles have a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. The nanocomposite showed the antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Keywords: antibacterial effects, montmorillonite, Satureja hortensis l, transmission electron microscopy, nanocomposite

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44 Advanced Materials Based on Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Terpolymers and Organically Modified Montmorillonite

Authors: M. D. Stelescu, E. Manaila, G. Pelin, M. Georgescu, M. Sonmez


This paper presents studies on the development and characterization of nanocomposites based on ethylene-propylene terpolymer rubber (EPDM), chlorobutyl rubber (IIR-Cl) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). Mixtures were made containing 0, 3 and 6 phr (parts per 100 parts rubber) OMMT, respectively. They were obtained by melt intercalation in an internal mixer - Plasti-Corder Brabender, in suitable blending parameters, at high temperature for 11 minutes. Curing agents were embedded on a laboratory roller at 70-100 ºC, friction 1:1.1, processing time 5 minutes. Rubber specimens were obtained by compression, using a hydraulic press at 165 ºC and a pressing force of 300 kN. Curing time, determined using the Monsanto rheometer, decreases with the increased amount of OMMT in the mixtures. At the same time, it was noticed that mixtures containing OMMT show improvement in physical-mechanical properties. These types of nanocomposites may be used to obtain rubber seals for the space application or for other areas of application.

Keywords: chlorobutyl rubber, ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymers, montmorillonite, rubber seals, space application

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43 Insight into Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Clay Minerals

Authors: Mardin Abdalqadir, Paul Adzakro, Tannaz Pak, Sina Rezaei Gomari


Climate change and global warming recently became significant concerns due to the massive emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, predominantly CO2 gases. Therefore, it is necessary to find sustainable and inexpensive methods to capture the greenhouse gasses and protect the environment for live species. The application of naturally available and cheap adsorbents of carbon such as clay minerals became a great interest. However, the minerals prone to low storage capacity despite their high affinity to adsorb carbon. This paper aims to explore ways to improve the pore volume and surface area of two selected clay minerals, ‘montmorillonite and kaolinite’ by acid treatment to overcome their low storage capacity. Montmorillonite and kaolinite samples were treated with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.5, 1.2 and 2.5 M) at 40 °C for 8 hours to achieve the above aim. The grain size distribution and morphology of clay minerals before and after acid treatment were explored with Scanning Electron Microscope to evaluate surface area improvement. The ImageJ software was used to find the porosity and pore volume of treated and untreated clay samples. The structure of the clay minerals was also analyzed using an X-ray Diffraction machine. The results showed that the pore volume and surface area were increased substantially through acid treatment, which speeded up the rate of carbon dioxide adsorption. XRD pattern of kaolinite did not change after sulfuric acid treatment, which indicates that acid treatment would not affect the structure of kaolinite. It was also discovered that kaolinite had a higher pore volume and porosity than montmorillonite before and after acid treatment. For example, the pore volume of untreated kaolinite was equal to 30.498 um3 with a porosity of 23.49%. Raising the concentration of acid from 0.5 M to 2.5 M in 8 hours’ time reaction led to increased pore volume from 30.498 um3 to 34.73 um3. The pore volume of raw montmorillonite was equal to 15.610 um3 with a porosity of 12.7%. When the acid concentration was raised from 0.5 M to 2.5 M for the same reaction time, pore volume also increased from 15.610 um3 to 20.538 um3. However, montmorillonite had a higher specific surface area than kaolinite. This study concludes that clay minerals are inexpensive and available material sources to model the realistic conditions and apply the results of carbon capture to prevent global warming, which is one of the most critical and urgent problems in the world.

Keywords: acid treatment, kaolinite, montmorillonite, pore volume, porosity, surface area

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42 Synthesis of Montmorillonite/CuxCd1-xS Nanocomposites and Their Application to the Photodegradation of Methylene Blue

Authors: H. Boukhatem, L. Djouadi, H. Khalaf, R. M. Navarro, F. V. Ganzalez


Synthetic organic dyes are used in various industries, such as textile industry, leather tanning industry, paper production, hair dye production, etc. Wastewaters containing these dyes may be harmful to the environment and living organisms. Therefore, it is very important to remove or degrade these dyes before discharging them into the environment. In addition to standard technologies for the degradation and/or removal of dyes, several new specific technologies, the so-called advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have been developed to eliminate dangerous compounds from polluted waters. AOPs are all characterized by the same chemical feature: production of radicals (•OH) through a multistep process, although different reaction systems are used. These radicals show little selectivity of attack and are able to oxidize various organic pollutants due to their high oxidative capacity (reduction potential of HO• Eo = 2.8 V). Heterogeneous photocatalysis, as one of the AOPs, could be effective in the oxidation/degradation of organic dyes. A major advantage of using heterogeneous photocatalysis for this purpose is the total mineralization of organic dyes, which results in CO2, H2O and corresponding mineral acids. In this study, nanomaterials based on montmorillonite and CuxCd1-xS with different Cu concentration (0.3 < x < 0.7) were utilized for the degradation of the commercial cationic textile dye Methylene blue (MB), used as a model pollutant. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA). Test results of photocatalysis of methylene blue under UV-Visible irradiation show that the photoactivity of nanomaterials montmorillonite/ CuxCd1-xS increases with the increasing of Cu concentration. The kinetics of the degradation of the MB dye was described with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L–H) kinetic model.

Keywords: heterogeneous photocatalysis, methylene blue, montmorillonite, nanomaterial

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41 Synthesis of Iron-Modified Montmorillonite as Filler for Electrospun Nanocomposite Fibers

Authors: Khryslyn Araño, Dela Cruz, Michael Leo, Dela Pena, Eden May, Leslie Joy Diaz


Montmorillonite (MMT) is a very abundant clay mineral and is versatile such that it can be chemically or physically altered by changing the ions between the sheets of its layered structure. This clay mineral can be prepared into functional nanoparticles that can be used as fillers in other nanomaterials such as nanofibers to achieve special properties. In this study, two types of iron-modified MMT, Iron-MMT (FeMMT) and Zero Valent Iron-MMT (ZVIMMT) were synthesized via ion exchange technique. The modified clay was incorporated in polymer nanofibers which were produced using a process called electrospinning. ICP analysis confirmed that clay modification was successful where there is an observed decrease in the concentration of Na and an increase in the concentration of Fe after ion exchange. XRD analysis also confirmed that modification took place because of the changes in the d-spacing of Na-MMT from 11.5 Å to 13.6 Å and 12.6 Å after synthesis of FeMMT and ZVIMMT, respectively. SEM images of the electrospun nanofibers revealed that the ZVIMMT-filled fibers have a smaller average diameter than the FeMMT-filled fibers because of the lower resistance of the suspensions of the former to the elongation force from the applied electric field. The resistance to the electric field was measured by getting the bulk voltage of the suspensions.

Keywords: electrospinning, nanofibers, montmorillonite, materials science

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40 Arsenic (III) Removal by Zerovalent Iron Nanoparticles Synthesized with the Help of Tea Liquor

Authors: Tulika Malviya, Ritesh Chandra Shukla, Praveen Kumar Tandon


Traditional methods of synthesis are hazardous for the environment and need nature friendly processes for the treatment of industrial effluents and contaminated water. Use of plant parts for the synthesis provides an efficient alternative method. In this paper, we report an ecofriendly and nonhazardous biobased method to prepare zerovalent iron nanoparticles (ZVINPs) using the liquor of commercially available tea. Tea liquor as the reducing agent has many advantages over other polymers. Unlike other polymers, the polyphenols present in tea extract are nontoxic and water soluble at room temperature. In addition, polyphenols can form complexes with metal ions and thereafter reduce the metals. Third, tea extract contains molecules bearing alcoholic functional groups that can be exploited for reduction as well as stabilization of the nanoparticles. Briefly, iron nanoparticles were prepared by adding 2.0 g of montmorillonite K10 (MMT K10) to 5.0 mL of 0.10 M solution of Fe(NO3)3 to which an equal volume of tea liquor was then added drop wise over 20 min with constant stirring. The color of the mixture changed from whitish yellow to black, indicating the formation of iron nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were adsorbed on montmorillonite K10, which is safe and aids in the separation of hazardous arsenic species simply by filtration. Particle sizes ranging from 59.08±7.81 nm were obtained which is confirmed by using different instrumental analyses like IR, XRD, SEM, and surface area studies. Removal of arsenic was done via batch adsorption method. Solutions of As(III) of different concentrations were prepared by diluting the stock solution of NaAsO2 with doubly distilled water. The required amount of in situ prepared ZVINPs supported on MMT K10 was added to a solution of desired strength of As (III). After the solution had been stirred for the preselected time, the solid mass was filtered. The amount of arsenic [in the form of As (V)] remaining in the filtrate was measured using ion chromatograph. Stirring of contaminated water with zerovalent iron nanoparticles supported on montmorillonite K10 for 30 min resulted in up to 99% removal of arsenic as As (III) from its solution at both high and low pH (2.75 and 11.1). It was also observed that, under similar conditions, montmorillonite K10 alone provided only <10% removal of As(III) from water. Adsorption at low pH with precipitation at higher pH has been proposed for As(III) removal.

Keywords: arsenic removal, montmorillonite K10, tea liquor, zerovalent iron nanoparticles

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39 Enhanced Thermal, Mechanical and Morphological Properties of CNT/HDPE Nanocomposite Using MMT as Secondary Filler

Authors: M. E. Ali Mohsin, Agus Arsad, Othman Y. Alothman


This study explains the influence of secondary filler on the dispersion of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) nanocomposites (CNT/HDPE). In order to understand the mixed-fillers system, Montmorillonite (MMT) was added to CNT/HDPE nanocomposites. It was followed by investigating their effect on the thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of the aforesaid nanocomposite. Incorporation of 3 wt% each of MMT into CNT/HDPE nanocomposite resulted to the increased values for the tensile and flexural strength, as compared to the pure HDPE matrix. The thermal analysis result showed improved thermal stability of the formulated nanocomposites. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that larger aggregates of CNTs were disappeared upon addition of these two components leading to the enhancement of thermo-mechanical properties for such composites.

Keywords: secondary filler, montmorillonite, carbon nanotube, nanocomposite

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38 Development of Partial Sulphonated Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride - Hexafluoro Propylene)–Montmorillonite Nano-Composites as Proton Exchange Membranes

Authors: K. Selvakumar, J. Kalaiselvimary, B. Jansirani, M. Ramesh Prabhu


Proton conducting sulphonated poly (vinylidene fluoride- hexafluoro propylene) PVdF-HFP membranes were modified with nano – sized montmorillonite (MMT) through homogeneous dispersive mixing and solution casting technique for fuel cell applications. The prepared composite membranes were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 1HNMR technique. The suitability of the composite membranes for fuel cell application was evaluated in terms of water uptake, swelling behavior, and proton conductivity. These composites showed good conductivities and durability and expected to be used in the development of proton exchange membrane for fuel cells.

Keywords: composite, proton conduction, sulphonation, water uptake

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37 On the Fatigue Behavior of a Triphasic Composite

Authors: G. Minak, D. Ghelli, A. Zucchelli


This paper presents the results of an experimental characterization of a glass fibre-epoxy composite. The behavior of the traditional two-phase composite has been compared with the one of a new three-phase composite where the epoxy matrix was modified by addition of a 3% weight fraction of montmorillonite nano-particles. Two different types of nano-clays, Cloisite® 30B and RXG7000, produced by Southern Clay Products Inc., have been considered. Three-point bending tests, both monotonic and cyclic, were carried out. A strong reduction of the ultimate flexural strength upon nano-modification has been observed in quasi-static tests. Fatigue tests yielded a smaller strength loss. In both quasi-static and fatigue tests a more pronounced tendency to delamination has been noticed in three-phase composites, especially in the case of 30B nano-clay, with respect to the standard two-phase glass fiber composite.

Keywords: bending fatigue, epoxy resin, glass fiber, montmorillonite

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36 In situ Polymerization and Properties of Biobased Polyurethane/Epoxy Interpenetrating Network Nanocomposites

Authors: Aiswarea Mathew, Smita Mohanty, Jr., S. K. Nayak


Polyurethane networks based on castor oil (CO) as a renewable resource polyol were synthesized. Polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating network nanocomposites containing modified montmorillonite organoclay (C30B-PU/EP nanocomposites) were prepared by an in situ intercalation method. The conventional spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized samples using FT-IR confirms the existence of the proposed castor oil based PU structure and also showed that strong interactions existed between C30B and EP/PU matrix. The dispersion degree of C30B in EP/PU matrix was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) method. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis showed that the interpenetrating process of PU and EP increases the exfoliation degree of C30B, and it improves the compatibility and the phase structure of polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating polymer networks (PU/EP IPNs). The thermal stability improves compared to the polyurethane when the PU/EP IPN is formed. Mechanical properties including the Young’s modulus and tensile strength reflected marked improvement with addition of C30B.

Keywords: castor oil, epoxy, montmorillonite, polyurethane

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35 Influence of Organic Modifier Loading on Particle Dispersion of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Authors: O. I. H. Dimitry, N. A. Mansour, A. L. G. Saad


Natural sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT), Cloisite Na+ and two organophilic montmorillonites (OMMTs), Cloisites 20A and 15A were used. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/MMT composites containing 1, 3, 5, and 10 wt% of Cloisite Na+ and PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 and 10 wt% of Cloisites 20A and 15A were prepared via solution intercalation technique to study the influence of organic modifier loading on particle dispersion of PCL/ NaMMT composites. Thermal stabilities of the obtained composites were characterized by thermal analysis using the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) which showed that in the presence of nitrogen flow the incorporation of 5 and 10 wt% of filler brings some decrease in PCL thermal stability in the sequence: Cloisite Na+>Cloisite 15A > Cloisite 20A, while in the presence of air flow these fillers scarcely influenced the thermoxidative stability of PCL by slightly accelerating the process. The interaction between PCL and silicate layers was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which confirmed moderate interactions between nanometric silicate layers and PCL segments. The electrical conductivity (σ) which describes the ionic mobility of the systems was studied as a function of temperature and showed that σ of PCL was enhanced on increasing the modifier loading at filler content of 5 wt%, especially at higher temperatures in the sequence: Cloisite Na+<Cloisite 20A<Cloisite 15A, and was then decreased to some extent with a further increase to 10 wt%. The activation energy Eσ obtained from the dependency of σ on temperature using Arrhenius equation was found to be lowest for the nanocomposite containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 15A. The dispersed behavior of clay in PCL matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses which revealed partial intercalated structures in PCL/NaMMT composites and semi-intercalated/semi-exfoliated structures in PCL/OMMT nanocomposites containing 5 wt% of Cloisite 20A or Cloisite 15A.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, montmorillonite, nanocomposite, organoclay, polycaprolactone

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34 Rheological Study of Chitosan/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites: The Effect of Chemical Crosslinking

Authors: K. Khouzami, J. Brassinne, C. Branca, E. Van Ruymbeke, B. Nysten, G. D’Angelo


The development of hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites has recently attracted great interest. Typically, polymer silicates represent an emerging class of polymeric nanocomposites that offer superior material properties compared to each compound alone. Among these materials, complexes based on silicate clay and polysaccharides are one of the most promising nanocomposites. The strong electrostatic interaction between chitosan and montmorillonite can induce what is called physical hydrogel, where the coordination bonds or physical crosslinks may associate and dissociate reversibly and in a short time. These mechanisms could be the main origin of the uniqueness of their rheological behavior. However, owing to their structure intrinsically heterogeneous and/or the lack of dissipated energy, they are usually brittle, possess a poor toughness and may not have sufficient mechanical strength. Consequently, the properties of these nanocomposites cannot respond to some requirements of many applications in several fields. To address the issue of weak mechanical properties, covalent chemical crosslink bonds can be introduced to the physical hydrogel. In this way, quite homogeneous dually crosslinked microstructures with high dissipated energy and enhanced mechanical strength can be engineered. In this work, we have prepared a series of chitosan-montmorillonite nanocomposites chemically crosslinked by addition of poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of dually crosslinked chitosan-based nanocomposites by relating it to their microstructures. In these systems, the variety of microstructures is obtained by modifying the number of cross-links. Subsequently, a superior uniqueness of the rheological properties of chemically crosslinked chitosan-montmorillonite nanocomposites is achieved, especially at the highest percentage of clay. Their rheological behaviors depend on the clay/chitosan ratio and the crosslinking. All specimens exhibit a viscous rheological behavior over the frequency range investigated. The flow curves of the nanocomposites show a Newtonian plateau at very low shear rates accompanied by a quite complicated nonlinear decrease with increasing the shear rate. Crosslinking induces a shear thinning behavior revealing the formation of network-like structures. Fitting shear viscosity curves via Ostward-De Waele equation disclosed that crosslinking and clay addition strongly affect the pseudoplasticity of the nanocomposites for shear rates γ ̇>20.

Keywords: chitosan, crossliking, nanocomposites, rheological properties

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33 Study of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)-Clay Nanocomposites Prepareted by Extrusion Reactive Method

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachour


A method for the exfoliation of polyethylene terephtalate (PET) - clay nanocomposites has been reported in this study. Montmorillonite clay based polyethylene terephtalate nanocomposites were prepared by reactive melt-mixing. To achieve this, untreated clay was first functionalized with the crosslinking agent compound based mainly on peroxide/sulphur and TMTD as accelerator or activator for sulphur. Furthermore, the different blends composition of PET/clay were directly mixed in melt state in closed chamber of plastograph at given working conditions for short time and in one step process. To investigate the microstructure modification and thermal, mechanical and rheological properties the DSC, WAXS, microhardness, FTIR and tensile properties were performed. The resulting structure of the modified samples shows that total exfoliation appears at 4% w/w of clay to PET matrices. The crystallinity and tensile modulus were correlated by the H microhardness and the DSC shows no significant effect on the cristallinity degree. The mechanical properties were improved significantly. The viscosity decreases for 4% clay and the activation energy is the minimum. The WAXS measurement shows a partial exfoliation without any intercalation which is the most relevant point. The grafting of organic to inorganic nanolayers was observed by Si—O—C and Si—C bonds by FTIR.

Keywords: PET, montmorillonite, nanocomposites, exfoliation, reactive melt-mixing

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32 Preparation and Characterization of Iron/Titanium-Pillared Clays

Authors: Rezala Houria, Valverde Jose Luis, Romero Amaya, Molinari Alessandra, Maldotti Andrea


The escalation of oil prices in 1973 confronted the oil industry with the problem of how to maximize the processing of crude oil, especially the heavy fractions, to give gasoline components. Strong impetus was thus given to the development of catalysts with relatively large pore sizes, which were able to deal with larger molecules than the existing molecular sieves, and with good thermal and hydrothermal stability. The oil embargo in 1973 therefore acted as a stimulus for the investigation and development of pillared clays. Iron doped titania-pillared montmorillonite clays was prepared using bentonite from deposits of Maghnia in western-Algeria. The preparation method consists of differents steps (purification of the raw bentonite, preparation of a pillaring agent solution and exchange of the cations located between the clay layers with the previously formed iron/titanium solution). The characterization of this material was carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, textural measures by BET method, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV visible spectroscopy, temperature- programmed desorption of ammonia and atomic absorption.This new material was investigated as photocatalyst for selective oxygenation of the liquid alkylaromatics such as: toluene, paraxylene and orthoxylene and the photocatalytic properties of it were compared with those of the titanium-pillared clays.

Keywords: iron doping, montmorillonite clays, pillared clays, oil industry

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31 Photocatalysis with Fe/Ti-Pillared Clays for the Oxofunctionalization of Alkylaromatics by O2

Authors: Houria Rezala, Jose Luis Valverde, Amaya Romero, Alessandra Molinari, Andrea Maldotti


A pillared montmorillonite containing iron doped titania (Fe/Ti-PILC) has been prepared from a natural clay. This material has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption, and diffuse reflectance UV-VIS spectroscopy. The layer structure of Fe/Ti-PILC resulted to be ordered with an insertion of pillars, which caused a slight increase in the basal spacing of the clay. Its specific surface area was about three times larger than that of the parent Na-montmorillonite due principally to the creation of a remarkable microporous network. The doped material was a robust photocatalyst able to oxidize liquid alkyl aromatics to the corresponding carbonylic derivatives, using O2 as the oxidizing species, at mild pressure and temperature conditions. Accumulation of valuable carbonylic derivatives was possible since their over-oxidation to carbon dioxide was negligible. Fe/Ti-PILC was able to discriminate between toluene and cyclohexane in favor of the aromatic compound with an efficiency that is about three times higher than that of titanium pillared clays (Ti-PILC). It is likely that the addition of iron favored the formation of new acid sites able to interact with the aromatic substrate. Iron doping caused a significant TiO2 visible light-induced activity (wavelength > 400 nm) with only minor negative effects on its performance under UV-light irradiation (wavelength > 290 nm).

Keywords: alkyl aromatics oxidation, heterogeneous photocatalysis, iron doping, pillared clays

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30 Biodegradable Polymeric Composites of Polylactide and Epoxidized Natural Rubber

Authors: Masek A., Diakowska K., Zaborski M.


Polymeric materials have found their use almost in every branch of industry worldwide. Most of them constitute so-called “petropolymers" obtained from crude oil. However literature information sounds a warning that its global sources are running out. Thus, it seems that one should search for polymeric materials from renewable raw materials belonging to the group of green polymers. Therefore on account of environmental protection and the issue of sustainable technologies, nowadays greater and greater achievements have been observed in the field of green technology using engineering sciences to develop composite materials. The main aim of this study was to research what is the influence of biofillers on the properties. We used biofillers like : cellulose with different length of fiber, cellulose UFC100, silica and montmorillonite. In our research, we reported on biodegradable composites exhibitingspecificity properties by melt blending of polylactide (PLA), one of the commercially available biodegradable material, and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) containing 50 mol.%epoxy group. Blending hydrophilic natural polymers and aliphatic polyesters is of significant interest, since it could lead to the development of a new range of biodegradable polymeric materials. We research the degradation of composites on the basis epoxidized natural rubber and poly(lactide). The addition of biofillers caused far-reaching degradation processes. The greatest resistance to biodegradation showed a montmorillonite-based mixtures, the smallest inflated cellulose fibers of varying length.The final aim in the present study is to use ENR and poly(lactide) to design composite from renewable resources with controlled degradation.

Keywords: renewable resources, biopolymer, degradation, polylactide

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29 Role of Matric Suction in Mechanics behind Swelling Characteristics of Expansive Soils

Authors: Saloni Pandya, Nikhil Sharma, Ajanta Sachan


Expansive soils in the unsaturated state are part of vadose zone and encountered in several arid and semi-arid parts of the world. Influence of high temperature, low precipitation and alternate cycles of wetting and drying are responsible for the chemical weathering of rocks, which results in the formation of expansive soils. Shrinkage-swelling (expansive) soils cover a substantial portion of area in India. Damages caused by expansive soils to various geotechnical structures are alarming. Matric suction develops in unsaturated soil due to capillarity and surface tension phenomena. Matric suction influences the geometric arrangement of soil skeleton, which induces the volume change behaviour of expansive soil. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the role of matric suction in the mechanism behind swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Four different soils have been collected from different parts of India for the current research. Soil sample S1, S2, S3 and S4 were collected from Nagpur, Bharuch, Bharuch-Dahej highway and Ahmedabad respectively. DFSI (Differential Free Swell Index) of these soils samples; S1, S2, S3, and S4; were determined to be 134%, 104%, 70% and 30% respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis of samples exhibited that percentage of Montmorillonite mineral present in the soils reduced with the decrease in DFSI. A series of constant volume swell pressure tests and in-contact filter paper tests were performed to evaluate swelling pressure and matric suction of all four soils at 30% saturation and 1.46 g/cc dry density. Results indicated that soils possessing higher DFSI exhibited higher matric suction as compared to lower DFSI expansive soils. Significant influence of matric suction on swelling pressure of expansive soils was observed with varying DFSI values. Higher matric suction of soil might govern the water uptake in the interlayer spaces of Montmorillonite mineral present in expansive soil leading to crystalline swelling.

Keywords: differential free swell index, expansive soils, matric suction, swelling pressure

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28 Study of the Montmorillonite Effect on PET/Clay and PEN/Clay Nanocomposites

Authors: F. Zouai, F. Z. Benabid, S. Bouhelal, D. Benachour


Nanocomposite polymer / clay are relatively important area of research. These reinforced plastics have attracted considerable attention in scientific and industrial fields because a very small amount of clay can significantly improve the properties of the polymer. The polymeric matrices used in this work are two saturated polyesters ie polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN).The success of processing compatible blends, based on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/ poly(ethylene naphthalene) (PEN)/clay nanocomposites in one step by reactive melt extrusion is described. Untreated clay was first purified and functionalized ‘in situ’ with a compound based on an organic peroxide/ sulfur mixture and (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) as the activator for sulfur. The PET and PEN materials were first separately mixed in the molten state with functionalized clay. The PET/4 wt% clay and PEN/7.5 wt% clay compositions showed total exfoliation. These compositions, denoted nPET and nPEN, respectively, were used to prepare new n(PET/PEN) nanoblends in the same mixing batch. The n(PET/PEN) nanoblends were compared to neat PET/PEN blends. The blends and nanocomposites were characterized using various techniques. Microstructural and nanostructural properties were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the exfoliation of tetrahedral clay nanolayers is complete and the octahedral structure totally disappears. It was shown that total exfoliation, confirmed by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements, contributes to the enhancement of impact strength and tensile modulus. In addition, WAXS results indicated that all samples are amorphous. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study indicated the occurrence of one glass transition temperature Tg, one crystallization temperature Tc and one melting temperature Tm for every composition. This was evidence that both PET/PEN and nPET/nPEN blends are compatible in the entire range of compositions. In addition, the nPET/nPEN blends showed lower Tc and higher Tm values than the corresponding neat PET/PEN blends. In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that n(PET/PEN) blends are different from the pure ones in nanostructure and physical behavior.

Keywords: blends, exfoliation, DRX, DSC, montmorillonite, nanocomposites, PEN, PET, plastograph, reactive melt-mixing

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27 Studying the Effect of Nanoclays on the Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene/Polyamide Nanocomposites

Authors: Benalia Kouini, Aicha Serier


Nanocomposites based on polypropylene/polyamide 66 (PP/PA66) nanoblends containing organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH) were prepared by melt compounding method followed by injection molding. Two different types of nanoclays were used in this work. DELLITE LVF is the untreated nanoclay and DELLITE 67G is the treated one. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied using the XR diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the incorporation of treated nanoclay has a significant effect on the impact strength of PP/PA66 nanocomposites. Furthermore, it was found that XRD results revealed the intercalation, exfoliation of nanaclays of nanocomposites.

Keywords: nNanoclay, Nanocomposites, Polypropylene, Polyamide, melt processing, mechanical properties.

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26 Microstructural Characterization of Bitumen/Montmorillonite/Isocyanate Composites by Atomic Force Microscopy

Authors: Francisco J. Ortega, Claudia Roman, Moisés García-Morales, Francisco J. Navarro


Asphaltic bitumen has been largely used in both industrial and civil engineering, mostly in pavement construction and roofing membrane manufacture. However, bitumen as such is greatly susceptible to temperature variations, and dramatically changes its in-service behavior from a viscoelastic liquid, at medium-high temperatures, to a brittle solid at low temperatures. Bitumen modification prevents these problems and imparts improved performance. Isocyanates like polymeric MDI (mixture of 4,4′-diphenylmethane di-isocyanate, 2,4’ and 2,2’ isomers, and higher homologues) have shown to remarkably enhance bitumen properties at the highest in-service temperatures expected. This comes from the reaction between the –NCO pendant groups of the oligomer and the most polar groups of asphaltenes and resins in bitumen. In addition, oxygen diffusion and/or UV radiation may provoke bitumen hardening and ageing. With the purpose of minimizing these effects, nano-layered-silicates (nanoclays) are increasingly being added to bitumen formulations. Montmorillonites, a type of naturally occurring mineral, may produce a nanometer scale dispersion which improves bitumen thermal, mechanical and barrier properties. In order to increase their lipophilicity, these nanoclays are normally treated so that organic cations substitute the inorganic cations located in their intergallery spacing. In the present work, the combined effect of polymeric MDI and the commercial montmorillonite Cloisite® 20A was evaluated. A selected bitumen with penetration within the range 160/220 was modified with 10 wt.% Cloisite® 20A and 2 wt.% polymeric MDI, and the resulting ternary composites were characterized by linear rheology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The rheological tests evidenced a notable solid-like behavior at the highest temperatures studied when bitumen was just loaded with 10 wt.% Cloisite® 20A and high-shear blended for 20 minutes. However, if polymeric MDI was involved, the sequence of addition exerted a decisive control on the linear rheology of the final ternary composites. Hence, in bitumen/Cloisite® 20A/polymeric MDI formulations, the previous solid-like behavior disappeared. By contrast, an inversion in the order of addition (bitumen/polymeric MDI/ Cloisite® 20A) enhanced further the solid-like behavior imparted by the nanoclay. In order to gain a better understanding of the factors that govern the linear rheology of these ternary composites, a morphological and microstructural characterization based on XRD and AFM was conducted. XRD demonstrated the existence of clay stacks intercalated by bitumen molecules to some degree. However, the XRD technique cannot provide detailed information on the extent of nanoclay delamination, unless the entire fraction has effectively been fully delaminated (situation in which no peak is observed). Furthermore, XRD was unable to provide precise knowledge neither about the spatial distribution of the intercalated/exfoliated platelets nor about the presence of other structures at larger length scales. In contrast, AFM proved its power at providing conclusive information on the morphology of the composites at the nanometer scale and at revealing the structural modification that yielded the rheological properties observed. It was concluded that high-shear blending brought about a nanoclay-reinforced network. As for the bitumen/Cloisite® 20A/polymeric MDI formulations, the solid-like behavior was destroyed as a result of the agglomeration of the nanoclay platelets promoted by chemical reactions.

Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy, bitumen, composite, isocyanate, montmorillonite.

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25 Comparative Studies of Modified Clay/Polyaniline Nanocomposites

Authors: Fatima Zohra Zeggai, Benjamin Carbonnier, Aïcha Hachemaoui, Ahmed Yahiaoui, Samia Mahouche-Chergui, Zakaria Salmi


A series of polyaniline (PANI)/modified Montmorillonite (MMT) Clay nanocomposite materials have been successfully prepared by In-Situ polymerization in the presence of modified MMT-Clay or Diazonium-MMT-Clay. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized and compared by various physicochemical techniques. The presence of physicochemical interaction, probably hydrogen bonding, between clay and polyaniline, which was confirmed by FTIR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of neat PANI and a series of the obtained nanocomposites were also studied by cyclic voltammograms.

Keywords: polyaniline, clay, nanocomposites, in-situ polymerization, polymers conductors, diazonium salt

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24 Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Shewasoor Area: Northeastern Kirkuk City, Iraq

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Diana A. Bayiz


14 mudstone samples were collected within the sedimentary succession of Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) from Shewasoor area at Northeastern Iraq. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including mineralogical analysis (using X-ray Diffraction technique) in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate (calcite and dolomite) minerals. The clay minerals are: montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, chlorite, and illite by the major basal reflections of each mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.

Keywords: Mukdadiya Formation, mudstone, clay minerals, XRD, Shewasoor

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23 Biodegradability and Thermal Properties of Polycaprolactone/Starch Nanocomposite as a Biopolymer

Authors: Emad A. Jaffar Al-Mulla


In this study, a biopolymer-based nanocomposite was successfully prepared through melt blending technique. Two biodegradable polymers, polycaprolactone and starch, environmental friendly and obtained from renewable, easily available raw materials, have been chosen. Fatty hydrazide, synthesized from palm oil, has been used as a surfactant to modify montmorillonite (natural clay) for preparation of polycaprolactone/starch nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize nanocomposite formation. Compatibility of the blend was improved by adding 3% weight modified clay. Higher biodegradability and thermal stability of nanocomopeite were also observed compared to those of the polycaprolactone/starch blend. This product will solve the problem of plastic waste, especially disposable packaging, and reduce the dependence on petroleum-based polymers and surfactants.

Keywords: polycaprolactone, starch, biodegradable, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 232