Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: Suman Jhajharia

43 Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Trachyspermum Ammi

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Meena, Suman Jhajharia, Goutam Chakraborty

Abstract:

Plasmonic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was synthesized by chemical reduction method using Trachyspermum Ammi (TA, Ajwain) seeds extract in aqueous medium and AgNO3 solution at different time interval. Reaction time, and concentration of AgNO3 and TA could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect AgNPs size and concentration of NPs. Surface plasmon resonance band centered at 420-430 nm (88.78nm) was recognised as first exitonic peak of UV-Vis absorption spectra of AgNPs that used to calculate the particle size (10-30 nm). FTIR results TA supported AgNPs showed decrease in intensity of peaks at 3394, 1716 and 1618 cm-1 with respect to the plain TA indicating the involvement of O-H, carbonyl group and C=C stretching in formation of TA-AgNPs aggregates. The C-O-C and C-N stretching suggested the presence of many phytochemicals on the surface of the NPs. Impedance study reveals that at low concentration of TA the rate of charge transfer is in TA-AgNPs aggregates, found higher than the higher TA concentration condition that confirms the stability of AgNPs in water. Extract reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles (NPs) of size 6-50nm. Pronounce effect of the time on Ag NPs concentration and particle size, was exhibited by the system These biogenic Ag NPs are characterized using UV- Vis spectrophotometry (UV-Visible), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) and XRD. These studies give us inside view of the most probable mechanism of biosynthesis and optoelectronic properties of the as synthesised Ag NPs.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bioreduction, capping agent, silver nanoparticles

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42 Proficient Estimation Procedure for a Rare Sensitive Attribute Using Poisson Distribution

Authors: S. Suman, G. N. Singh

Abstract:

The present manuscript addresses the estimation procedure of population parameter using Poisson probability distribution when characteristic under study possesses a rare sensitive attribute. The generalized form of unrelated randomized response model is suggested in order to acquire the truthful responses from respondents. The resultant estimators have been proposed for two situations when the information on an unrelated rare non-sensitive characteristic is known as well as unknown. The properties of the proposed estimators are derived, and the measure of confidentiality of respondent is also suggested for respondents. Empirical studies are carried out in the support of discussed theory.

Keywords: Poisson distribution, randomized response model, rare sensitive attribute, non-sensitive attribute

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41 Improved Estimation Strategies of Sensitive Characteristics Using Scrambled Response Techniques in Successive Sampling

Authors: S. Suman, G. N. Singh

Abstract:

This research work is an effort to analyse the consequences of scrambled response technique to estimate the current population mean in two-occasion successive sampling when the characteristic of interest is sensitive in nature. The generalized estimation procedures have been proposed using sensitive auxiliary variables under additive and multiplicative scramble models. The properties of resultant estimators have been deeply examined. Simulation, as well as empirical studies, are carried out to evaluate the performances of the proposed estimators with respect to other competent estimators. The results of our studies suggest that the proposed estimation procedures are highly effective under the presence of non-response situation. The result of this study also suggests that additive scrambled response model is a better choice in the perspective of cost of the survey and privacy of the respondents.

Keywords: scrambled response, sensitive characteristic, successive sampling, optimum replacement strategy

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40 Preparation and Evaluation of Multiple Unit Tablets of Aceclofenac

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan

Abstract:

The present research is aimed at fabrication of multiple-unit controlled-release tablet formulation of aceclofenac by employing acrylic polymers as the release controlling excipients for drug multi-particulates to achieve the desired objectives of maintaining the same controlled release characteristics as that prior to their compression into tablet. Various manufacturers are successfully manufacturing and marketing aceclofenac controlled release tablet by applying directly coating materials on the tablet. The basic idea behind development of such formulations was to employ aqueous acrylics polymers dispersion as an alternative to the existing approaches, wherein the forces of compression may cause twist of drug pellets, but do not have adverse effects on the drug release properties. Thus, the study was undertaken to illustrate manufacturing of controlled release aceclofenac multiple-unit tablet formulation.

Keywords: aceclofenac, multiple-unit tablets, acrylic polymers, controlled-release

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39 A Similarity Measure for Classification and Clustering in Image Based Medical and Text Based Banking Applications

Authors: K. P. Sandesh, M. H. Suman

Abstract:

Text processing plays an important role in information retrieval, data-mining, and web search. Measuring the similarity between the documents is an important operation in the text processing field. In this project, a new similarity measure is proposed. To compute the similarity between two documents with respect to a feature the proposed measure takes the following three cases into account: (1) The feature appears in both documents; (2) The feature appears in only one document and; (3) The feature appears in none of the documents. The proposed measure is extended to gauge the similarity between two sets of documents. The effectiveness of our measure is evaluated on several real-world data sets for text classification and clustering problems, especially in banking and health sectors. The results show that the performance obtained by the proposed measure is better than that achieved by the other measures.

Keywords: document classification, document clustering, entropy, accuracy, classifiers, clustering algorithms

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38 Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on the Organisational Performance

Authors: Jagbir Singh Kadyan, C. A. Suman Kadyan

Abstract:

The researchers attempts to establish whether a relationship exists between the social activities undertaken & the funds that has been spent by the selected corporate organisations. Corporate listed on the (NSE) National Stock Exchange of India, under different categories shall be selected as a sample for the purpose of this study. The researches shall also study the dynamics of corporate social responsibility funding, financing & management of corporate social responsibility funds by the above selected organisations in the Indian context. The rationale behind selecting & undertaking specific corporate social responsibility activities shall be analysed & interpreted to discover the real drivers of corporate social responsibility. Besides above, an attempt shall further make an effort to understand & analyse the nature of impact on the selected corporate organisations on its overall performances due to the activities undertaken under their specific corporate social responsibility programs.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, organisational performance, national stock exchange, sustainability, society, health, education, sanitation, environment

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37 Estimating Tree Height and Forest Classification from Multi Temporal Risat-1 HH and HV Polarized Satellite Aperture Radar Interferometric Phase Data

Authors: Saurav Kumar Suman, P. Karthigayani

Abstract:

In this paper the height of the tree is estimated and forest types is classified from the multi temporal RISAT-1 Horizontal-Horizontal (HH) and Horizontal-Vertical (HV) Polarised Satellite Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The novelty of the proposed project is combined use of the Back-scattering Coefficients (Sigma Naught) and the Coherence. It uses Water Cloud Model (WCM). The approaches use two main steps. (a) Extraction of the different forest parameter data from the Product.xml, BAND-META file and from Grid-xxx.txt file come with the HH & HV polarized data from the ISRO (Indian Space Research Centre). These file contains the required parameter during height estimation. (b) Calculation of the Vegetation and Ground Backscattering, Coherence and other Forest Parameters. (c) Classification of Forest Types using the ENVI 5.0 Tool and ROI (Region of Interest) calculation.

Keywords: RISAT-1, classification, forest, SAR data

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36 Polyolefin Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Replacing 20% Cement by Fly Ash

Authors: Suman Kumar Adhikary, Zymantus Rudzionis, Arvind Balakrishnan

Abstract:

This paper deals with the behavior of concrete’s workability in a fresh state and compressive and flexural strength in a hardened state with the addition of polyolefin macro fibers. Four different amounts (3kg/m3, 4.5kg/m3, 6kg/m3 and 9kg/m3) of polyolefin macro fibers mixed in concrete mixture to observe the workability and strength properties difference between the concrete specimens. 20% class C type fly ash added is the concrete as replacement of cement. The water-cement ratio(W/C) of those concrete mix was 0.35. Masterglenium SKY 700 superplasticizer was added to the concrete mixture for better results. Slump test was carried out for determining the flowability. On 7th, 14th and 28th day of curing process compression strength tests were done and on 28th day flexural strength test and CMOD test were carried to differentiate the strength properties and post-cracking behavior of concrete samples.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, polyolefin fibers, fiber reinforced concrete, CMOD test of concrete

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35 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release

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34 Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Functional Polypropylene Films Incorporated with AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ Useful as Returnable Packaging in Seafood Distribution

Authors: Suman Singh, Myungho Lee, Insik Park, Yangjai Shin, Youn Suk Lee

Abstract:

Active antimicrobial films prepared by incorporating AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ at 1%, 3%, 5%, 10% (w/w) into polypropylene (PP) matrix. Complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization were carried out of all formulations and determined the antimicrobial efficiency and returnable antimicrobial efficiency according to the Japanese Industrial Standard method. The morphology of the films showed agglomerates of particles in the composites. The active formulation had decreased elongation compared to the pure PP sample. Thermal analyses indicated that the active formulation compositions had increased thermal stability. The films showed 50% antimicrobial properties after the fifth wash against the tested microorganisms, presenting better activity against Gram negative organisms than Gram positive ones. These findings suggest that PP films with AgSiO2, AgZn, and AgZ particles could provide a significant contribution to the quality and safety of seafood in the distribution chain.

Keywords: antimicrobial film, properties and characterization, returnable packaging, sea food

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33 Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Insilco Docking of Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Potential Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase Inhibitors

Authors: Suman Bala, Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis has been developed to relate antifungal activity of novel substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger using computer assisted multiple regression analysis. The study has shown the better relationship between antifungal activities with respect to various descriptors established by multiple regression analysis. The analysis has shown statistically significant correlation with R2 values 0.932 and 0.782 against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively. These derivatives were further subjected to molecular docking studies to investigate the interactions between the target compounds and amino acid residues present in the active site of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. All the synthesized compounds have better docking score as compared to standard fluconazole. Our results could be used for the further design as well as development of optimal and potential antifungal agents.

Keywords: 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole, QSAR, multiple linear regression, docking, glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

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32 Experimental Investigations on Nanoclay (Cloisite-15A) Modified Bitumen

Authors: Ashish Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar Suman

Abstract:

This study investigated the influence of Cloisite-15A nanoclay on the physical, performance, and mechanical properties of bitumen binder. Cloisite-15A was blended in the bitumen in variegated percentages from 1% to 9% with increment of 2%. The blended bitumen was characterized using penetration, softening point, and dynamic viscosity using rotational viscometer, and compared with unmodified bitumen equally penetration grade 60/70. The rheological parameters were investigated using Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), and mechanical properties were investigated by using Marshall Stability test. The results indicated an increase in softening point, dynamic viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. Rheological properties of bitumen increase complex modulus, decrease phase angle and improve rutting resistances as well. There was significant improvement in Marshall Stability, rather marginal improvement in flow value. The best improvement in the modified binder was obtained with 5% Cloisite-15A nanoclay.

Keywords: Cloisite-15A, complex shear modulus, phase angle, rutting resistance

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31 Formulation and Characterization of Drug Loaded Niosomal Gel for Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini, Suman Bala, Gaurav Sharma

Abstract:

The main aim of the present research was to encapsulate mefenamic acid in niosomes and incorporate the prepared niosomes in the carbopol gel base for sustained therapeutic action. Mefenamic acid loaded niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique and evaluated for entrapment efficiency, vesicular size and zeta potential. The entrapment efficiency of the prepared niosomes was found to increase with decreasing the HLB values of surfactants and vesicle size was found to increase with increasing the cholesterol concentration. Niosomal vesicles with good entrapment efficiencies were incorporated in carbopol gel base to form the niosomal gel. The prepared niosomal gel was evaluated for pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability and skin permeation study across the rat skin.The results of permeation study revealed that the gel formulated with span 60 niosomes sustained the drug release for 12 h. Further the in vivo study showed the good inhibition of inflammation by the gel prepared with span 60 niosomes.

Keywords: mefenamic acid, niosomal gel, nonionic surfactants, sustained release

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30 Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Deformation Behaviour of Single Crystal Copper

Authors: Suman Paik, P. V. Durgaprasad, Bijan K. Dutta

Abstract:

A study combining experimental and numerical investigation on the deformation behaviour of single crystals of copper is presented in this paper. Cylindrical samples were cut in specific orientations from high purity copper single crystal and subjected to uniaxial compression loading at quasi-static strain rate. The stress-strain curves along two different crystallographic orientations were then extracted. In order to study and compare the deformation responses, a single crystal plasticity model incorporating non-Schmid effects was developed assuming cross-slip plays an important role in orientation of the material. By making use of crystal plasticity finite element method, the model was applied to investigate the orientation dependence of the stress-strain behaviour of two crystallographic orientations. Finally, details of slip activities of deformed crystals were investigated by linking the orientation of slip lines with the theoretical traces of possible crystallographic planes. The experimentally determined active slip modes were matched with those determined by simulations.

Keywords: crystal plasticity, modelling, non-Schmid effects, finite elements, finite strain

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29 Image Enhancement of Histological Slides by Using Nonlinear Transfer Function

Authors: D. Suman, B. Nikitha, J. Sarvani, V. Archana

Abstract:

Histological slides provide clinical diagnostic information about the subjects from the ancient times. Even with the advent of high resolution imaging cameras the image tend to have some background noise which makes the analysis complex. A study of the histological slides is done by using a nonlinear transfer function based image enhancement method. The method processes the raw, color images acquired from the biological microscope, which, in general, is associated with background noise. The images usually appearing blurred does not convey the intended information. In this regard, an enhancement method is proposed and implemented on 50 histological slides of human tissue by using nonlinear transfer function method. The histological image is converted into HSV color image. The luminance value of the image is enhanced (V component) because change in the H and S components could change the color balance between HSV components. The HSV image is divided into smaller blocks for carrying out the dynamic range compression by using a linear transformation function. Each pixel in the block is enhanced based on the contrast of the center pixel and its neighborhood. After the processing the V component, the HSV image is transformed into a colour image. The study has shown improvement of the characteristics of the image so that the significant details of the histological images were improved.

Keywords: HSV space, histology, enhancement, image

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28 Influence of Resin Finishes on Properties of Khadi Fabric

Authors: Shivi Rastogi, Suman Pant

Abstract:

Khadi is an Indian fabric and also known by another name “Khaddar”. During pre-independence era, the movement of khadi manufacturing gained momentum. Over the years, khadi fabrics that were generally considered as the “second skin” of the Swadesh revolutionists changed its uniqueness. It underwent a metamorphosis from that of a patriot’s fabric, and a farmer’s apparel, to become a “fashion fabric”. Drape of garment is governed by draping quality of fabric used. Drape is an essential parameter to decide both appearance and handle of fabric. It is also a secondary determinant of fabric mechanical properties as influenced by the low stress properties, like bending length, formability, tensile and shear properties and compressibility of the fabric. In finishing, fabric is treated to add something to coat the fabric or fiber and thereby temporarily or permanently fix. Film forming agents such as thermoplastic and thermosetting resins and other surface deposits alter hand. In this study, resins were used to modify fabric hand. Three types of resins have been applied on the khadi fabric at three concentration. The effect of these finishes on drapeability, crease recovery, stiffness, tearing strength and smoothness of khadi fabrics were assessed. Silicone gave good results in imparting properties specially drape, smoothness and softness and hand of cotton and khadi fabric. KES result also showed that silicone treated samples enhanced THV rating amongst all treated samples when compared to the control fabric.

Keywords: crease recovery, drapeability, KES, silicone, THV

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27 Speed Control of DC Motor Using Optimization Techniques Based PID Controller

Authors: Santosh Kumar Suman, Vinod Kumar Giri

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to outline a speed controller of a DC motor by choice of a PID parameters utilizing genetic algorithms (GAs), the DC motor is extensively utilized as a part of numerous applications such as steel plants, electric trains, cranes and a great deal more. DC motor could be represented by a nonlinear model when nonlinearities such as attractive dissemination are considered. To provide effective control, nonlinearities and uncertainties in the model must be taken into account in the control design. The DC motor is considered as third order system. Objective of this paper three type of tuning techniques for PID parameter. In this paper, an independently energized DC motor utilizing MATLAB displaying, has been outlined whose velocity might be examined utilizing the Proportional, Integral, Derivative (KP, KI , KD) addition of the PID controller. Since, established controllers PID are neglecting to control the drive when weight parameters be likewise changed. The principle point of this paper is to dissect the execution of optimization techniques viz. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) for improve PID controllers parameters for velocity control of DC motor and list their points of interest over the traditional tuning strategies. The outcomes got from GA calculations were contrasted and that got from traditional technique. It was found that the optimization techniques beat customary tuning practices of ordinary PID controllers.

Keywords: DC motor, PID controller, optimization techniques, genetic algorithm (GA), objective function, IAE

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26 Effects of Variable Properties and Double Dispersion on Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Mixed Convection in a Power-Law Fluid Saturated Non-Darcy Porous Medium

Authors: Pranitha Janapatla, Venkata Suman Gontla

Abstract:

The present paper investigates the effects of MHD, double dispersion and variable properties on mixed convection flow from a vertical surface in a power-law fluid saturated non-Darcy porous medium. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations by using a special form of Lie group transformations viz. scaling group of transformations. These ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using Shooting technique. The influence of relevant parameters on the non-dimensional velocity, temperature, concentration for pseudo-plastic fluid, Newtonian and dilatant fluid are discussed and displayed graphically. The behavior of heat and mass transfer coefficients are shown in tabular form. Comparisons with the published works are performed and are found to be in very good agreement. From this analysis, it is observed that an increase in variable viscosity causes to decrease in velocity profile and increase the temperature and concentration distributions. It is also concluded that increase in the solutal dispersion decreases the velocity and concentration but raises the temperature profile.

Keywords: power-law fluid, thermal conductivity, thermal dispersion, solutal dispersion, variable viscosity

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25 Food Effects and Food Choices: Aligning the Two for Better Health

Authors: John Monro, Suman Mishra

Abstract:

Choosing foods for health benefits requires information that accurately represents the relative effectiveness of foods with respect to specific health end points, or with respect to responses leading to health outcomes. At present consumers must rely on nutrient composition data, and on health claims to guide them to healthy food choices. Nutrient information may be of limited usefulness because it does not reflect the effect of food structure and food component interactions – that is, whole food effects. Health claims demand stringent criteria that exclude most foods, even though most foods have properties through which they may contribute to positive health outcomes in a diet. In this presentation, we show how the functional efficacy of foods may be expressed in the same format as nutrients, with weight units, as virtual food components that allow a nutrition information panel to show not only what a food is, but also what it does. In the presentation, two body responses linked to well-being are considered – glycaemic response and colonic bulk – in order to illustrate the concept. We show how the nutrient information on available carbohydrates and dietary fibre values obtained by food analysis methods fail to provide information of the glycaemic potency or the colonic bulking potential of foods, because of failings in the methods and approach taken to food analysis. It is concluded that a category of food values that represent the functional efficacy of foods is required to accurately guide food choices for health.

Keywords: dietary fibre, glycaemic response, food values, food effects, health

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24 Design of RF Generator and Its Testing in Heating of Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles

Authors: D. Suman, M. Venkateshwara Rao

Abstract:

Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body, which is affecting millions of people leading to death. Even though there have been tremendous developments taken place over the last few decades the effective therapy for cancer is still not a reality. The existing techniques of cancer therapy are chemotherapy and radio therapy which are having their limitations in terms of the side effects, patient discomfort, radiation hazards and the localization of treatment. This paper describes a novel method for cancer therapy by using RF-hyperthermia application of nanoparticles. We have synthesized ferromagnetic nanoparticles and characterized by using XRD and TEM. These nanoparticles after the biocompatibility studies will be injected in to the body with a suitable tracer element having affinity to the specific tumor site. When RF energy is applied to the nanoparticles at the tumor site it produces heat of excess room temperature and nearly 41-45°C is sufficient to kill the tumor cells. We have designed a RF source generator provided with a temperature feedback controller to control the radiation induced temperature of the tumor site. The temperature control is achieved through a negative feedback mechanism of the thermocouple and a relay connected to the power source of the RF generator. This method has advantages in terms of its effect like localized therapy, less radiation, and no side effects. It has several challenges in designing the RF source provided with coils suitable for the tumour site, biocompatibility of the nanomaterials, cooling system design for the RF coil. If we can overcome these challenges this method will be a huge benefit for the society.

Keywords: hyperthermia, cancer therapy, RF source generator, nanoparticles

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23 Design and Development of Ssvep-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Limb Disabled Patients

Authors: Zerihun Ketema Tadesse, Dabbu Suman Reddy

Abstract:

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) give the possibility for disabled people to communicate and control devices. This work aims at developing steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI for patients with limb disabilities. In hospitals, devices like nurse emergency call devices, lights, and TV sets are what patients use most frequently, but these devices are operated manually or using the remote control. Thus, disabled patients are not able to operate these devices by themselves. Hence, SSVEP-based BCI system that can allow disabled patients to control nurse calling device and other devices is proposed in this work. Portable LED visual stimulator that flickers at specific frequencies of 7Hz, 8Hz, 9Hz and 10Hz were developed as part of this project. Disabled patients can stare at specific flickering LED of visual stimulator and Emotiv EPOC used to acquire EEG signal in a non-invasive way. The acquired EEG signal can be processed to generate various control signals depending upon the amplitude and duration of signal components. MATLAB software is used for signal processing and analysis and also for command generation. Arduino is used as a hardware interface device to receive and transmit command signals to the experimental setup. Therefore, this study is focused on the design and development of Steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI for limb disabled patients, which helps them to operate and control devices in the hospital room/wards.

Keywords: SSVEP-BCI, Limb Disabled Patients, LED Visual Stimulator, EEG signal, control devices, hospital room/wards

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22 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India

Authors: Bhawana, Roshan Kamal Topno, Maneesh Kumar, Major Madhukar, Krishna Pandey, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Surya Suman, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Rishikesh Kumar, Pradeep Das

Abstract:

Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.

Keywords: HSV, Rubella, seroprevalence, co-infection, ELISA, viral infectivity

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21 Information Literacy among Faculty and Students of Medical Colleges of Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh

Authors: Sanjeev Sharma, Suman Lata

Abstract:

With the availability of diverse printed, electronic literature and web sites on medical and health related information, it is impossible for the medical professional to get the information he seeks in the shortest possible time. For all these problems information literacy is the only solution. Thus, information literacy is recognized as an important aspect of medical education. In the present study, an attempt has been made to know the information literacy skills of the faculty and students at medical colleges of Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. The scope of the study was confined to the 12 selected medical colleges of three States (Haryana, Punjab, and Chandigarh). The findings of the study were based on the data collected through 1018 questionnaires filled by the respondents of the medical colleges. It was found that Online Medical Websites (such as WebMD, eMedicine and Mayo Clinic etc.) were frequently used by 63.43% of the respondents of Chandigarh which is slightly more than Haryana (61%) and Punjab (55.65%). As well, 30.86% of the respondents of Chandigarh, 27.41% of Haryana and 27.05% of Punjab were familiar with the controlled vocabulary tool; 25.14% respondents of Chandigarh, 23.80% of Punjab, 23.17% of Haryana were familiar with the Boolean operators; 33.05% of the respondents of Punjab, 28.19% of Haryana and 25.14% of Chandigarh were familiar with the use and importance of the keywords while searching an electronic database; and 51.43% of the respondents of Chandigarh, 44.52% of Punjab and 36.29% of Haryana were able to make effective use of the retrieved information. For accessing information in electronic format, 47.74% of the respondents rated their skills high, while the majority of respondents (76.13%) were unfamiliar with the basic search technique i.e. Boolean operator used for searching information in an online database. On the basis of the findings, it was suggested that a comprehensive training program based on medical professionals information needs should be organized frequently. Furthermore, it was also suggested that information literacy may be included as a subject in the health science curriculum so as to make the medical professionals information literate and independent lifelong learners.

Keywords: information, information literacy, medical professionals, medical colleges

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20 Socio-Cultural Representations through Lived Religions in Dalrymple’s Nine Lives

Authors: Suman

Abstract:

In the continuous interaction between the past and the present that historiography is, each time when history gets re/written, a new representation emerges. This new representation is a reflection of the earlier archives and their interpretations, fragmented remembrances of the past, as well as the reactions to the present. Memory, or lack thereof, and stereotyping generally play a major role in this representation. William Dalrymple’s Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India (2009) is one such written account that sets out to narrate the representations of religion and culture of India and contemporary reactions to it. Dalrymple’s nine saints belong to different castes, sects, religions, and regions. By dealing with their religions and expressions of those religions, and through the lived mysticism of these nine individuals, the book engages with some important issues like class, caste and gender in the contexts provided by historical as well as present India. The paper studies the development of religion and accompanied feeling of religiosity in modern as well as historical contexts through a study of these elements in the book. Since, the language used in creation of texts and the literary texts thus produced create a new reality that questions the stereotypes of the past, and in turn often end up creating new stereotypes or stereotypical representations at times, the paper seeks to actively engage with the text in order to identify and study such stereotypes, along with their changing representations. Through a detailed examination of the book, the paper seeks to unravel whether some socio-cultural stereotypes existed earlier, and whether there is development of new stereotypes from Dalrymple’s point of view as an outsider writing on issues that are deeply rooted in the cultural milieu of the country. For this analysis, the paper takes help from the psycho-literary theories of stereotyping and representation.

Keywords: stereotyping, representation, William Dalrymple, religion

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19 Is More Inclusive More Effective? The 'New Style' Public Distribution System in India

Authors: Avinash Kishore, Suman Chakrabarti

Abstract:

In September 2013, the parliament of India enacted the National Food Security Act (NFSA) which entitles two-thirds of India’s population to five kilograms of rice, wheat or coarse cereals per person per month at one to three rupees per kilogram. Five states in India—Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha and West Bengal—had already implemented somewhat similar changes in the TPDS a few years earlier using their own budgetary resources. They made rice—coincidentally, all five states are predominantly rice-eating—available in fair price shops to a majority of their population at very low prices (less than Rs.3/kg). This paper tries to account for the changes in household consumption patterns associated with the change in TPDS policy in these states using data from household consumption surveys by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). NSS data show improvement in the coverage of TPDS and average off-take of grains from fair price shops between 2004-05 and 2009-10 across all states of India. However, the increase in coverage and off-take was significantly higher in four out of these five states than in the rest of India. An average household in these states purchased three kilos more rice per month from fair price shops than its counterpart in non-treated states as a result of more generous TPDS policies backed by administrative reforms. The increase in consumption of PDS rice was the highest in Chhattisgarh, the poster state of PDS reforms. Households in Chhattisgarh used money saved on rice to spend more on pulses, edible oil, vegetables and sugar and other non-food items. We also find evidence that making TPDS more inclusive and more generous is not enough unless it is supported by administrative reforms to improve grain delivery and control diversion to open markets.

Keywords: public distribution system, social safety-net, national food security act, diet quality, Chhattisgarh

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18 A Monolithic Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite Element Strategy for Partly Submerged Solid in Incompressible Fluid with Mortar Method for Modeling the Contact Surface

Authors: Suman Dutta, Manish Agrawal, C. S. Jog

Abstract:

Accurate computation of hydrodynamic forces on floating structures and their deformation finds application in the ocean and naval engineering and wave energy harvesting. This manuscript presents a monolithic, finite element strategy for fluid-structure interaction involving hyper-elastic solids partly submerged in an incompressible fluid. A velocity-based Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation has been used for the fluid and a displacement-based Lagrangian approach has been used for the solid. The flexibility of the ALE technique permits us to treat the free surface of the fluid as a Lagrangian entity. At the interface, the continuity of displacement, velocity and traction are enforced using the mortar method. In the mortar method, the constraints are enforced in a weak sense using the Lagrange multiplier method. In the literature, the mortar method has been shown to be robust in solving various contact mechanics problems. The time-stepping strategy used in this work reduces to the generalized trapezoidal rule in the Eulerian setting. In the Lagrangian limit, in the absence of external load, the algorithm conserves the linear and angular momentum and the total energy of the system. The use of monolithic coupling with an energy-conserving time-stepping strategy gives an unconditionally stable algorithm and allows the user to take large time steps. All the governing equations and boundary conditions have been mapped to the reference configuration. The use of the exact tangent stiffness matrix ensures that the algorithm converges quadratically within each time step. The robustness and good performance of the proposed method are demonstrated by solving benchmark problems from the literature.

Keywords: ALE, floating body, fluid-structure interaction, monolithic, mortar method

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17 Failure Analysis of Recoiler Mandrel Shaft Used for Coiling of Rolled Steel Sheet

Authors: Sachin Pawar, Suman Patra, Goutam Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

The primary function of a shaft is to transfer power. The shaft can be cast or forged and then machined to the final shape. Manufacturing of ~5 m length and 0.6 m diameter shaft is very critical. More difficult is to maintain its straightness during heat treatment and machining operations, which involve thermal and mechanical loads, respectively. During the machining operation of a such forged mandrel shaft, a deflection of 3-4mm was observed. To remove this deflection shaft was pressed at both ends which led to the development of cracks in it. To investigate the root cause of the deflection and cracking, the sample was cut from the failed shaft. Possible causes were identified with the help of a cause and effect diagram. Chemical composition analysis, microstructural analysis, and hardness measurement were done to confirm whether the shaft meets the required specifications or not. Chemical composition analysis confirmed that the material grade was 42CrMo4. Microstructural analysis revealed the presence of untempered martensite, indicating improper heat treatment. Due to this, ductility and impact toughness values were considerably lower than the specification of the mentioned grade. Residual stress measurement of one more bent shaft manufactured by a similar route was done by portable X-ray diffraction(XRD) technique. For better understanding, measurements were done at twelve different locations along the length of the shaft. The occurrence of a high amount of undesirable tensile residual stresses close to the Ultimate Tensile Strength(UTS) of the material was observed. Untempered martensitic structure, lower ductility, lower impact strength, and presence of a high amount of residual stresses all confirmed the improper tempering heat treatment of the shaft. Tempering relieves the residual stresses. Based on the findings of this study, stress-relieving heat treatment was done to remove the residual stresses and deflection in the shaft successfully.

Keywords: residual stress, mandrel shaft, untempered martensite, portable XRD

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16 Polymer Impregnated Sulfonated Carbon Composite as a Solid Acid Catalyst for the Dehydration of Xylose to Furfural

Authors: Praveen K. Khatri, Neha Karanwal, Savita Kaul, Suman L. Jain

Abstract:

Conversion of biomass through green chemical routes is of great industrial importance as biomass is considered to be most widely available inexpensive renewable resource that can be used as a raw material for the production of bio fuel and value-added organic products. In this regard, acid catalyzed dehydration of biomass derived pentose sugar (mainly D-xylose) to furfural is a process of tremendous research interest in current scenario due to the wider industrial applications of furfural. Furfural is an excellent organic solvent for refinement of lubricants and separation of butadiene from butene mixture in synthetic rubber fabrication. In addition it also serve as a promising solvent for many organic materials, such as resins, polymers and also used as a building block for synthesis of various valuable chemicals such as furfuryl alcohol, furan, pharmaceutical, agrochemicals and THF. Here in a sulfonated polymer impregnated carbon composite solid acid catalyst (P-C-SO3H) was prepared by the pyrolysis of a polymer matrix impregnated with glucose followed by its sulfonation and used for the dehydration of xylose to furfural. The developed catalyst exhibited excellent activity and provided almost quantitative conversion of xylose with the selective synthesis of furfural. The higher catalytic activity of P-C-SO3H may be due to the more even distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons generated from incomplete carbonization of glucose along the polymer matrix network, leading to more available sites for sulfonation which resulted in greater sulfonic acid density in P-C-SO3H as compared to sulfonated carbon catalyst (C-SO3H). In conclusion, we have demonstrated sulfonated polymer impregnated carbon composite (P-C-SO3H) as an efficient and selective solid acid catalyst for the dehydration of xylose to furfural. After completion of the reaction, the catalyst was easily recovered and reused for several runs without noticeable loss in its activity and selectivity.

Keywords: Solid acid , Biomass conversion, Xylose Dehydration, Heterogeneous catalyst

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15 Biochemical Characterization and Structure Elucidation of a New Cytochrome P450 Decarboxylase

Authors: Leticia Leandro Rade, Amanda Silva de Sousa, Suman Das, Wesley Generoso, Mayara Chagas Ávila, Plinio Salmazo Vieira, Antonio Bonomi, Gabriela Persinoti, Mario Tyago Murakami, Thomas Michael Makris, Leticia Maria Zanphorlin

Abstract:

Alkenes have an economic appeal, especially in the biofuels field, since they are precursors for drop-in biofuels production, which have similar chemical and physical properties to the conventional fossil fuels, with no oxygen in their composition. After the discovery of the first P450 CYP152 OleTJE in 2011, reported with its unique property of decarboxylating fatty acids (FA), by using hydrogen peroxide as a cofactor and producing 1-alkenes as the main product, the scientific and technological interest in this family of enzymes vastly increased. In this context, the present work presents a new decarboxylase (OleTRN) with low similarity with OleTJE (32%), its biochemical characterization, and structure elucidation. As main results, OleTRN presented a high yield of expression and purity, optimum reaction conditions at 35 °C and pH from 6.5 to 8.0, and higher specificity for oleic acid. Besides that, structure-guided mutations were performed and according to the functional characterizations, it was observed that some mutations presented different specificity and chemoselectivity by varying the chain-length of FA substrates from 12 to 20 carbons. These results are extremely interesting from a biotechnological perspective as those characteristics could diversify the applications and contribute to designing better cytochrome P450 decarboxylases. Considering that peroxygenases have the potential activity of decarboxylating and hydroxylating fatty acids and that the elucidation of the intriguing mechanistic involved in the decarboxylation preferential from OleTJE is still a challenge, the elucidation of OleTRN structure and the functional characterizations of OleTRN and its mutants contribute to new information about CYP152. Besides that, the work also contributed to the discovery of a new decarboxylase with a different selectivity profile from OleTJE, which allows a wide range of applications.

Keywords: P450, decarboxylases, alkenes, biofuels

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14 Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation on Sarcopenic Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Deepak Nathiya1, Ramesh Roop Rai, Pratima Singh1, Preeti Raj1, Supriya Suman, Balvir Singh Tomar

Abstract:

Background: Sarcopenia is a catabolic state in liver cirrhosis (LC), accelerated with a breakdown of skeletal muscle to release amino acids which adversely affects survival, health-related quality of life, and response to any underlying disease. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the long-term effect of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementations on parameters associated with improved prognosis in sarcopenic patients with LC, as well as to evaluate its impact on cirrhotic-related events. Methods: We carried out a 24 week, single-center, randomized, open-label, controlled, two cohort parallel-group intervention trial comparing the efficacy of BCAA against lactoalbumin (L-ALB) on 106 sarcopenic liver cirrhotics. The BCAA (intervention) group was treated with 7.2 g BCAA per whereas, the lactoalbumin group was also given 6.3 g of L-Albumin. The primary outcome was to assess the impact of BCAA on parameters of sarcopenia: muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance. The secondary outcomes were to study combined survival and maintenance of liver function changes in laboratory and clinical markers in the duration of six months. Results: Treatment with BCAA leads to significant improvement in sarcopenic parameters: muscle strength, muscle function, and muscle mass. The total cirrhotic-related complications and cumulative event-free survival occurred fewer in the BCAA group than in the L-ALB group. Prognostic markers also improved significantly in the study. Conclusion: The current clinical trial demonstrated that long-term BCAAs supplementation improved sarcopenia and prognostic markers in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis.

Keywords: sarcopenia, liver cirrhosis, BCAA, quality of life

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