Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 566

Search results for: David Tugushi

566 Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Amphiphilic Polymers and Micelles as Drug Delivery Systems: Synthesis and Study

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Vladimir P. Torchilin, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Nanotherapy is an actual newest mode of treatment numerous diseases using nanoparticles (NPs) loading with different pharmaceuticals. NPs of biodegradable polymeric micelles (PMs) are gaining increased attention for their numerous and attractive abilities to be used in a variety of applications in the various fields of medicine. The present paper deals with the synthesis of a class of biodegradable micelle-forming polymers, namely ABA triblock-copolymer in which A-blocks represent amino-poly(ethylene glycol) (H2N-PEG) and B-block is biodegradable amino acid-based poly(ester amide) constituted of α-amino acid – L-phenylalanine. The obtained copolymer formed micelles of 70±4 nm size at 10 mg/mL concentration.

Keywords: amino acids, biodegradable poly (ester amide), amphiphilic triblock-copolymer, micelles

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565 Nanosilver Containing Biodegradable Bionanocomposites for Antimicrobial Application: Design, Preparation and Study

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, Shorena Tskhadadze, Mzevinar Bedinashvili, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Surgical device-associated infection and biofilm formation are some of the major problems in biomedicine for today. The losing protection ability of conventional antimicrobial-drugs leads to the challenges in the current antibiotic therapy, the most serious of which is antibiotic resistance. Our strategy to overcome the biofilm formation consists in coating devices with polymeric film containing nanosilver(AgNPs) as a bactericidal agent. Such bionanocomposites are also promising as wound dressing materials. For this purpose, we have developed a new generation of AgNPs containing polymeric composites in which amino acid based biodegradable poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) were served as both matrices and AgNPs stabilizers. The AgNPs were formed by photochemical (daylight) reduction of AgNO3 in ethanol solution. The formation of AgNPs was monitored by coloring the solution in brownish-red and appearance of the absorption maximum at 420-430 nm in UV spectrum. Comparative studies of PEAs with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as particle stabilizers were carried out. It was found that PVP is better stabilizer in terms of particles yield and stability. Therefore, in subsequent experiments blends of PEAs and PVP were used as stabilizers for fabricating AgNPs. As expected, PVP increased the stabilizing effect and this apparently observed in the UV spectrum of the samples after 7 h daylight irradiation: for pure PVP λmax = 430 nm, D = 2.03, for pure PEA λmax= 420 nm, D = 0.65, and for the blend of PVP and PEA λmax = 435 nm, D = 1.88. Further study of the obtained nanobiocomposites is in progress now.

Keywords: biodegradation, bionanocompositions, polymer, nanosilver

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564 Drug Delivery Nanoparticles of Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Polymers

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Tengiz Kantaria, Temur Kantaria, David Tugushi, Nina Kulikova, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Nanosized environmentally responsive materials are of special interest for various applications, including targeted drug to a considerable potential for treatment of many human diseases. The important technological advantages of nanoparticles (NPs) usage as drug carriers (nanocontainers) are their high stability, high carrier capacity, feasibility of encapsulation of both hydrophilic or hydrophobic substances, as well as a high variety of possible administration routes, including oral application and inhalation. NPs can also be designed to allow controlled (sustained) drug release from the matrix. These properties of NPs enable improvement of drug bioavailability and might allow drug dosage decrease. The targeted and controlled administration of drugs using NPs might also help to overcome drug resistance, which is one of the major obstacles in the control of epidemics. Various degradable and non-degradable polymers of both natural and synthetic origin have been used for NPs construction. One of the most promising for the design of NPs are amino acid-based biodegradable polymers (AABBPs) which can clear from the body after the fulfillment of their function. The AABBPs are composed of naturally occurring and non-toxic building blocks such as α-amino acids, fatty diols and dicarboxylic acids. The particles designed from these polymers are expected to have an improved bioavailability along with a high biocompatibility. The present work deals with a systematic study of the preparation of NPs by cost-effective polymer deposition/solvent displacement method using AABBPs. The influence of the nature and concentration of surfactants, concentration of organic phase (polymer solution), and the ratio organic phase/inorganic (water) phase, as well as of some other factors on the size of the fabricated NPs have been studied. It was established that depending on the used conditions the NPs size could be tuned within 40-330 nm. As the next step of this research an evaluation of biocompatibility and bioavailability of the synthesized NPs has been performed, using two stable human cell culture lines – HeLa and A549. This part of study is still in progress now.

Keywords: amino acids, biodegradable polymers, nanoparticles (NPs), non-toxic building blocks

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563 Nanoparticles Made of Amino Acid Derived Biodegradable Polymers as Promising Drug Delivery Containers

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Tengiz Kantaria, Temur Kantaria, David Tugushi, Nina Kulikova, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Polymeric disperse systems such as nanoparticles (NPs) are of high interest for numerous applications in contemporary medicine and nanobiotechnology to a considerable potential for treatment of many human diseases. The important technological advantages of NPs usage as drug carriers (nanocontainers) are their high stability, high carrier capacity, feasibility of encapsulation of both hydrophilic or hydrophobic substances, as well as a high variety of possible administration routes, including oral application and inhalation. NPs can also be designed to allow controlled (sustained) drug release from the matrix. These properties of NPs enable improvement of drug bioavailability and might allow drug dosage decrease. The targeted and controlled administration of drugs using NPs might also help to overcome drug resistance, which is one of the major obstacles in the control of epidemics. Various degradable and non-degradable polymers of both natural and synthetic origin have been used for NPs construction. One of the most promising for the design of NPs are amino acid-based biodegradable polymers (AABBPs) which can clear from the body after the fulfillment of their function. The AABBPs are composed of naturally occurring and non-toxic building blocks such as α-amino acids, fatty diols and dicarboxylic acids. The particles designed from these polymers are expected to have an improved bioavailability along with a high biocompatibility. The present work deals with a systematic study of the preparation of NPs by cost-effective polymer deposition/solvent displacement method using AABBPs. The influence of the nature and concentration of surfactants, concentration of organic phase (polymer solution), and the ratio organic phase/inorganic(water) phase, as well as of some other factors on the size of the fabricated NPs have been studied. It was established that depending on the used conditions the NPs size could be tuned within 40-330 nm. At the next step of this research was carried out an evaluation of biocompability and bioavailability of the synthesized NPs using a stable human cell culture line – A549. It was established that the obtained NPs are not only biocompatible but they stimulate the cell growth.

Keywords: amino acids, biodegradable polymers, bioavailability, nanoparticles

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562 Micelles Made of Pseudo-Proteins for Solubilization of Hydrophobic Biologicals

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, David Tugushi, Vladimir P. Torchilin, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Hydrophobic / hydrophilically modified functional polymers are of high interest in modern biomedicine due to their ability to solubilize water-insoluble / poorly soluble (hydrophobic) drugs. Among the many approaches that are being developed in this direction, one of the most effective methods is the use of polymeric micelles (PMs) (micelles formed by amphiphilic block-copolymers) for solubilization of hydrophobic biologicals. For therapeutic purposes, PMs are required to be stable and biodegradable, although quite a few amphiphilic block-copolymers are described capable of forming stable micelles with good solubilization properties. For obtaining micelle-forming block-copolymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives are desirable to use as hydrophilic shell because it represents the most popular biocompatible hydrophilic block and various hydrophobic blocks (polymers) can be attached to it. Although the construction of the hydrophobic core, due to the complex requirements and micelles structure development, is the very actual and the main problem for nanobioengineers. Considering the above, our research goal was obtaining biodegradable micelles for the solubilization of hydrophobic drugs and biologicals. For this purpose, we used biodegradable polymers– pseudo-proteins (PPs)(synthesized with naturally occurring amino acids and other non-toxic building blocks, such as fatty diols and dicarboxylic acids) as hydrophobic core since these polymers showed reasonable biodegradation rates and excellent biocompatibility. In the present study, we used the hydrophobic amino acid – L-phenylalanine (MW 4000-8000Da) instead of L-leucine. Amino-PEG (MW 2000Da) was used as hydrophilic fragments for constructing the suitable micelles. The molecular weight of PP (the hydrophobic core of micelle) was regulated by variation of used monomers ratios. Micelles were obtained by dissolving of synthesized amphiphilic polymer in water. The micelle-forming property was tested using dynamic light scattering (Malvern zetasizer NanoZSZEN3600). The study showed that obtaining amphiphilic block-copolymer form stable neutral micelles 100 ± 7 nm in size at 10mg/mL concentration, which is considered as an optimal range for pharmaceutical micelles. The obtained preliminary data allow us to conclude that the obtained micelles are suitable for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs and biologicals.

Keywords: amino acid – L-phenylalanine, pseudo-proteins, amphiphilic block-copolymers, biodegradable micelles

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561 Assessment of Barriers to the Clinical Adoption of Cell-Based Therapeutics

Authors: David Pettitt, Benjamin Davies, Georg Holländer, David Brindley

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Cellular based therapies, whose origins can be traced from the intertwined concepts of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, have the potential to transform the current medical landscape and offer an approach to managing what were once considered untreatable diseases. However, despite a large increase in basic science activity in the cell therapy arena alongside a growing portfolio of cell therapy trials, the number of industry products available for widespread clinical use correlates poorly with such a magnitude of activity, with the number of cell-based therapeutics in mainstream use remaining comparatively low. This research serves to quantitatively assess the barriers to the clinical adoption of cell-based therapeutics through identification of unique barriers, specific challenges and opportunities facing the development and adoption of such therapies.

Keywords: cell therapy, clinical adoption, commercialization, translation

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560 Bis-Azlactone Based Biodegradable Poly(Ester Amide)s: Design, Synthesis and Study

Authors: Kobauri Sophio, Kantaria Tengiz, Tugushi David, Puiggali Jordi, Katsarava Ramaz

Abstract:

Biodegradable biomaterials (BB) are of high interest for numerous applications in modern medicine as resorbable surgical materials and drug delivery systems. This kind of materials can be cleared from the body after the fulfillment of their function that excludes a surgical intervention for their removal. One of the most promising BBare amino acids based biodegradable poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) which are composed of naturally occurring (α-amino acids) and non-toxic building blocks such as fatty diols and dicarboxylic acids. Key bis-nucleophilic monomers for synthesizing the PEAs are diamine-diesters-di-p-toluenesulfonic acid salts of bis-(α-amino acid)-alkylenediesters (TAADs) which form the PEAs after step-growth polymerization (polycondensation) with bis-electrophilic counter-partners - activated diesters of dicarboxylic acids. The PEAs combine all advantages of the 'parent polymers' – polyesters (PEs) and polyamides (PAs): Ability of biodegradation (PEs), a high affinity with tissues and a wide range of desired mechanical properties (PAs). The scopes of applications of thePEAs can substantially be expanded by their functionalization, e.g. through the incorporation of hydrophobic fragments into the polymeric backbones. Hydrophobically modified PEAs can form non-covalent adducts with various compounds that make them attractive as drug carriers. For hydrophobic modification of the PEAs, we selected so-called 'Azlactone Method' based on the application of p-phenylene-bis-oxazolinons (bis-azlactones, BALs) as active bis-electrophilic monomers in step-growth polymerization with TAADs. Interaction of BALs with TAADs resulted in the PEAs with low MWs (Mw2,800-19,600 Da) and poor material properties. The high-molecular-weight PEAs (Mw up to 100,000) with desirable material properties were synthesized after replacement of a part of BALs with activated diester - di-p-nitrophenylsebacate, or a part of TAAD with alkylenediamine – 1,6-hexamethylenediamine. The new hydrophobically modified PEAs were characterized by FTIR, NMR, GPC, and DSC. It was shown that after the hydrophobic modification the PEAs retain the biodegradability (in vitro study catalyzed by α-chymptrypsin and lipase), and are of interest for constructing resorbable surgical and pharmaceutical devices including drug delivering containers such as microspheres. The new PEAs are insoluble in hydrophobic organic solvents such as chloroform or dichloromethane (swell only) that allowed elaborating a new technology of fabricating microspheres.

Keywords: amino acids, biodegradable polymers, bis-azlactones, microspheres

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559 Feasibility Study of Wireless Communication for the Control and Monitoring of Rotating Electrical Machine

Authors: S. Ben Brahim, T. H. Vuong, J. David, R. Bouallegue, M. Pietrzak-David

Abstract:

Electrical machine monitoring is important to protect motor from unexpected problems. Today, using wireless communication for electrical machines is interesting for both real time monitoring and diagnostic purposes. In this paper, we propose a system based on wireless communication IEEE 802.11 to control electrical machine. IEEE 802.11 standard is recommended for this type of applications because it provides a faster connection, better range from the base station, and better security. Therefore, our contribution is to study a new technique to control and monitor the rotating electrical machines (motors, generators) using wireless communication. The reliability of radio channel inside rotating electrical machine is also discussed. Then, the communication protocol, software and hardware design used for the proposed system are presented in detail and the experimental results of our system are illustrated.

Keywords: control, DFIM machine, electromagnetic field, EMC, IEEE 802.11, monitoring, rotating electrical machines, wireless communication

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558 Drug Delivery Cationic Nano-Containers Based on Pseudo-Proteins

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Temur Kantaria, Nina Kulikova, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

The elaboration of effective drug delivery vehicles is still topical nowadays since targeted drug delivery is one of the most important challenges of the modern nanomedicine. The last decade has witnessed enormous research focused on synthetic cationic polymers (CPs) due to their flexible properties, in particular as non-viral gene delivery systems, facile synthesis, robustness, not oncogenic and proven gene delivery efficiency. However, the toxicity is still an obstacle to the application in pharmacotherapy. For overcoming the problem, creation of new cationic compounds including the polymeric nano-size particles – nano-containers (NCs) loading with different pharmaceuticals and biologicals is still relevant. In this regard, a variety of NCs-based drug delivery systems have been developed. We have found that amino acid-based biodegradable polymers called as pseudo-proteins (PPs), which can be cleared from the body after the fulfillment of their function are highly suitable for designing pharmaceutical NCs. Among them, one of the most promising are NCs made of biodegradable Cationic PPs (CPPs). For preparing new cationic NCs (CNCs), we used CPPs composed of positively charged amino acid L-arginine (R). The CNCs were fabricated by two approaches using: (1) R-based homo-CPPs; (2) Blends of R-based CPPs with regular (neutral) PPs. According to the first approach NCs we prepared from CPPs 8R3 (composed of R, sebacic acid and 1,3-propanediol) and 8R6 (composed of R, sebacic acid and 1,6-hexanediol). The NCs prepared from these CPPs were 72-101 nm in size with zeta potential within +30 ÷ +35 mV at a concentration 6 mg/mL. According to the second approach, CPPs 8R6 was blended in organic phase with neutral PPs 8L6 (composed of leucine, sebacic acid and 1,6-hexanediol). The NCs prepared from the blends were 130-140 nm in size with zeta potential within +20 ÷ +28 mV depending on 8R6/8L6 ratio. The stability studies of fabricated NCs showed that no substantial change of the particle size and distribution and no big particles’ formation is observed after three months storage. In vitro biocompatibility study of the obtained NPs with four different stable cell lines: A549 (human), U-937 (human), RAW264.7 (murine), Hepa 1-6 (murine) showed both type cathionic NCs are biocompatible. The obtained data allow concluding that the obtained CNCs are promising for the application as biodegradable drug delivery vehicles. This work was supported by the joint grant from the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine and Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia #6298 'New biodegradable cationic polymers composed of arginine and spermine-versatile biomaterials for various biomedical applications'.

Keywords: biodegradable polymers, cationic pseudo-proteins, nano-containers, drug delivery vehicles

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557 Expounding the Evolution of the Proto-Femme Fatale and Its Correlation with the New Woman: A Close Study of David Mamet's Oleanna

Authors: Silvia Elias

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The 'Femme Fatale' figure has become synonymous with a mysterious and seductive woman whose charms captivate her lovers into bonds of irresistible desire, often leading them to compromise or downfall. Originally, a Femme Fatale typically uses her beauty to lead men to their destruction but in modern literature, she represents a direct attack on traditional womanhood and the nuclear family as she refuses to abide by the pillars of mainstream society creating an image of a strong independent woman who defies the control of men and rejects the institution of the family. This research aims at discussing the differences and similarities between the femme fatale and the New Woman and how they are perceived by the audience. There is often confusion between the characteristics that define a New Woman and a Femme Fatale since both women desire independence, challenge typical gender role casting, push against the limits of the patriarchal society and take control of their sexuality. The study of the femme fatale remains appealing in modern times because the fear of gender equality gives life to modern femme fatale versions and post-modern literary works introduce their readers to new versions of the deadly seductress. One that does not fully depend on her looks to destroy men. The idea behind writing this paper was born from reading David Mamet's two-character play Oleanna (1992) and tracing the main female protagonist/antagonist's transformation from a helpless inarticulate girl into a powerful controlling negotiator who knows how to lead a bargain and maintain the upper hand.

Keywords: Circe, David, Eve, evolution, feminist, femme fatale, gender, Mamet, new, Odysseus, Oleanna, power, Salome, schema, seduction, temptress, woman

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556 Investigation of the Grain-Boundary Segregation Transition in the Binary Fe-C Alloy

Authors: Végh Ádám, Mekler Csaba, Dezső András, Szabó Dávid, Stomp Dávid, Kaptay György

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Grain boundary segregation transition (GBST) has been calculated by a thermodynamic model in binary alloys. The method is used on cementite (Fe3C) segregation in base-centered cubic (ferrite) iron (Fe) in the Fe-C binary system. The GBST line is shown in the Fe3C lacking part of the phase diagram with high solvent (Fe) concentration. At a lower solute content (C) or at higher temperature the grain boundary is composed mostly of the solvent atoms (Fe). On higher concentration compared to the GBST line or at lower temperature a phase transformation occurs at the grain boundary, the latter mostly composed of the associates (Fe3C). These low-segregation and high-segregation states are first order interfacial phase transitions of the grain boundary and can be transformed into each other reversibly. These occur when the GBST line is crossed by changing the bulk composition or temperature.

Keywords: GBST, cementite, segregation, Fe-C alloy

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555 Understanding the Communication Practices of Special Educators with Parents of High School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Authors: Carolyn B. Mires, David L. Lee, David B. McNaughton

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High school students’ with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are one of the most underserved populations in today's schools. Using a multiple case study methodology, interviews were conducted to examine current practices and perceptions of the communication practices of teachers working with high school students with EBD. These interviews involved questions about general communication instances which occurred each week, communication strategies used each week, and how progress was being made on forming relationships with parents. Results confirm previous researchers’ hypotheses regarding methods, purposes, and regularity of positive communication incidences. Communication that met the positive goals of nurturing and maintaining relationships was open and frequent, reciprocal, and informal. Limitations are discussed as well as issues of trustworthiness. The case study concludes with a discussion and suggestions for high school special educators of students with EBD.

Keywords: emotional behavioral disorders, high school adolescence, home-school communication, relationships between parents and schools

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554 Empirical Heat Transfer Correlations of Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers in Pulsatile Flow

Authors: Jason P. Michaud, Connor P. Speer, David A. Miller, David S. Nobes

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An experimental study on finned-tube radiators has been conducted. Three radiators found in desktop computers sized for 120 mm fans were tested in steady and pulsatile flows of ambient air over a Reynolds number range of  50 < Re < 900. Water at 60 °C was circulated through the radiators to maintain a constant fin temperature during the tests. For steady flow, it was found that the heat transfer rate increased linearly with the mass flow rate of air. The pulsatile flow experiments showed that frequency of pulsation had a negligible effect on the heat transfer rate for the range of frequencies tested (0.5 Hz – 2.5 Hz). For all three radiators, the heat transfer rate was decreased in the case of pulsatile flow. Linear heat transfer correlations for steady and pulsatile flow were calculated in terms of Reynolds number and Nusselt number.

Keywords: finned-tube heat exchangers, heat transfer correlations, pulsatile flow, computer radiators

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553 Antimicrobial Nanocompositions Made of Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Polymers

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, Mzevinar Bedinashvili, Tamar Memanishvili, Manana Gurielidze, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava

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Bacteria easily colonize the surfaces of tissues, surgical devices (implants, orthopedics, catheters, etc.), and instruments causing surgical device related infections. Therefore, the battle against bacteria and the prevention of surgical devices from biofilm formation is one of the main challenges of biomedicine today. Our strategy to the solution of this problem consists in using antimicrobial polymeric coatings as effective “shields” to protect surfaces from bacteria’s colonization and biofilm formation. As one of the most promising approaches look be the use of antimicrobial bioerodible polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We assume that the combination of an erodible polymer with a strong bactericide should put obstacles to bacteria to occupy the surface and to form biofilm. It has to be noted that this kind of nanocomposites are also promising as wound dressing materials to treat infected superficial wounds. Various synthetic and natural polymers were used for creating biocomposites containing AgNPs as both particles' stabilizers and matrices forming elastic films at surfaces. One of the most effective systems to fabricate AgNPs is an ethanol solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) with dissolved AgNO3–ethanol serves as a AgNO3 reductant and PVP as AgNPs stabilizer (through the interaction of nanoparticles with nitrogen atom of the amide group). Though PVP is biocompatible and film-forming polymer, it is not a good candidate to design either "biofilm shield" or wound dressing material because of a high solubility in water – though the solubility of PVP provides the desirable release of AgNPs from the matrix, but the coating is easily washable away from the surfaces. More promising as matrices look water insoluble but bioerodible polymers that can provide the release of AgNPs and form long-lasting coatings at the surfaces. For creating bioerodible water-insoluble antimicrobial coatings containing AgNPs, we selected amino acid based biodegradable polymers(AABBPs)–poly(ester amide)s, poly(ester urea)s, their copolymers containing amide and related groups capable to stabilize AgNPs. Among a huge variety of AABBPs reported we selected the polymers soluble in ethanol. For preparing AgNPs containing nanocompositions AABBPs and AgNO3 were dissolved in ethanol and subjected to photochemical reduction using daylight-irradiation. The formation of AgNPs was observed visually by coloring the solutions in brownish-red. The obtained AgNPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and dynamic light scattering(DLS). According to the UV and TEM data, the photochemical reduction resulted presumably in spherical AgNPs with rather high contribution of the particles below 10 nm that are known as responsible for the antimicrobial activity. DLS study showed that average size of nanoparticles formed after photo-reduction in ethanol solution ranged within 50 nm. The in vitro antimicrobial activity study of the new nanocomposite material is in progress now.

Keywords: nanocomposites, silver nanoparticles, polymer, biodegradable

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552 Data Modeling and Calibration of In-Line Pultrusion and Laser Ablation Machine Processes

Authors: David F. Nettleton, Christian Wasiak, Jonas Dorissen, David Gillen, Alexandr Tretyak, Elodie Bugnicourt, Alejandro Rosales

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In this work, preliminary results are given for the modeling and calibration of two inline processes, pultrusion, and laser ablation, using machine learning techniques. The end product of the processes is the core of a medical guidewire, manufactured to comply with a user specification of diameter and flexibility. An ensemble approach is followed which requires training several models. Two state of the art machine learning algorithms are benchmarked: Kernel Recursive Least Squares (KRLS) and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The final objective is to build a precise digital model of the pultrusion and laser ablation process in order to calibrate the resulting diameter and flexibility of a medical guidewire, which is the end product while taking into account the friction on the forming die. The result is an ensemble of models, whose output is within a strict required tolerance and which covers the required range of diameter and flexibility of the guidewire end product. The modeling and automatic calibration of complex in-line industrial processes is a key aspect of the Industry 4.0 movement for cyber-physical systems.

Keywords: calibration, data modeling, industrial processes, machine learning

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551 The Audiovisual Media as a Metacritical Ludicity Gesture in the Musical-Performatic and Scenic Works of Caetano Veloso and David Bowie

Authors: Paulo Da Silva Quadros

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This work aims to point out comparative parameters between the artistic production of two exponents of the contemporary popular culture scene: Caetano Veloso (Brazil) and David Bowie (England). Both Caetano Veloso and David Bowie were pioneers in establishing an aesthetic game between various artistic expressions at the service of the music-visual scene, that is, the conceptual interconnections between several forms of aesthetic processes, such as fine arts, theatre, cinema, poetry, and literature. There are also correlations in their expressive attitudes of art, especially regarding the dialogue between the fields of art and politics (concern with respect to human rights, human dignity, racial issues, tolerance, gender issues, and sexuality, among others); the constant tension and cunning game between market, free expression and critical sense; the sophisticated, playful mechanisms of metalanguage and aesthetic metacritique. Fact is that both of them almost came to cooperate with each other in the 1970s when Caetano was in exile in England, and when both had at the same time the same music producer, who tried to bring them closer, noticing similar aesthetic qualities in both artistic works, which was later glimpsed by some music critics. Among many of the most influential issues in Caetano's and Bowie's game of artistic-aesthetic expression are, for example, the ideas advocated by the sensation of strangeness (Albert Camus), art as transcendence (Friedrich Nietzsche), the deconstruction and reconstruction of auratic reconfiguration of artistic signs (Walter Benjamin and Andy Warhol). For deepen more theoretical issues, the following authors will be used as supportive interpretative references: Hans-Georg Gadamer, Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Schiller, Johan Huizinga. In addition to the aesthetic meanings of Ars Ludens characteristics of the two artists, the following supporting references will be also added: the question of technique (Martin Heidegger), the logic of sense (Gilles Deleuze), art as an event and the sense of the gesture of art ( Maria Teresa Cruz), the society of spectacle (Guy Debord), Verarbeitung and Durcharbeitung (Sigmund Freud), the poetics of interpretation and the sign of relation (Cremilda Medina). The purpose of such interpretative references is to seek to understand, from a cultural reading perspective (cultural semiology), some significant elements in the dynamics of aesthetic and media interconnections of both artists, which made them as some of the most influential interlocutors in contemporary music aesthetic thought, as a playful vivid experience of life and art.

Keywords: Caetano Veloso, David Bowie, music aesthetics, symbolic playfulness, cultural reading

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550 Nanocarriers Made of Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Polymers: Poly(Ester Amide) and Related Cationic and PEGylating Polymers

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Temur Kantaria, Nina Kulikova, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Polymeric nanoparticles-based drug delivery systems and therapeutics have a great potential in the treatment of a numerous diseases, due to they are characterizing the flexible properties which is giving possibility to modify their structures with a complex definition over their structures, compositions and properties. Important characteristics of the polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) used as drug carriers are high particle’s stability, high carrier capacity, feasibility of encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, and feasibility of variable routes of administration, including oral application and inhalation; NPs are especially effective for intracellular drug delivery since they penetrate into the cells’ interior though endocytosis. A variety of PNPs based drug delivery systems including charged and neutral, degradable and non-degradable polymers of both natural and synthetic origin have been developed. Among these huge varieties the biodegradable PNPs which can be cleared from the body after the fulfillment of their function could be considered as one of the most promising. For intracellular uptake it is highly desirable to have positively charged PNPs since they can penetrate deep into cell membranes. For long-lasting circulation of PNPs in the body it is important they have so called “stealth coatings” to protect them from the attack of immune system of the organism. One of the effective ways to render the PNPs “invisible” for immune system is their PEGylation which represent the process of pretreatment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the surface of PNPs. The present work deals with constructing PNPs from amino acid based biodegradable polymers – regular poly(ester amide) (PEA) composed of sebacic acid, leucine and 1,6-hexandiol (labeled as 8L6), cationic PEA composed of sebacic acid, arginine and 1,6-hexandiol (labeled as 8R6), and comb-like co-PEA composed of sebacic acid, malic acid, leucine and 1,6-hexandiol (labeled as PEG-PEA). The PNPs were fabricated using the polymer deposition/solvent displacement (nanoprecipitation) method. The regular PEA 8L6 form stable negatively charged (zeta-potential within 2-12 mV) PNPs of desired size (within 150-200 nm) in the presence of various surfactants (Tween 20, Tween 80, Brij 010, etc.). Blending the PEAs 8L6 and 8R6 gave the 130-140 nm sized positively charged PNPs having zeta-potential within +20 ÷ +28 mV depending 8L6/8R6 ratio. The PEGylating PEA PEG-PEA was synthesized by interaction of epoxy-co-PEA [8L6]0,5-[tES-L6]0,5 with mPEG-amine-2000 The stable and positively charged PNPs were fabricated using pure PEG-PEA as a surfactant. A firm anchoring of the PEG-PEA with 8L6/8R6 based PNPs (owing to a high afinity of the backbones of all three PEAs) provided good stabilization of the NPs. In vitro biocompatibility study of the new PNPs with four different stable cell lines: A549 (human), U-937 (human), RAW264.7 (murine), Hepa 1-6 (murine) showed they are biocompatible. Considering high stability and cell compatibility of the elaborated PNPs one can conclude that they are promising for subsequent therapeutic applications. This work was supported by the joint grant from the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine and Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia #6298 “New biodegradable cationic polymers composed of arginine and spermine-versatile biomaterials for various biomedical applications”.

Keywords: biodegradable poly(ester amide)s, cationic poly(ester amide), pegylating poly(ester amide), nanoparticles

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549 Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Poly (Ester-Amide)s and Their Potential Biomedical Applications as Drug Delivery Containers and Antibacterial

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, Tamar Memanishvili, Natia Ochkhikidze, David Tugushi, Zaal Kokaia, Ramaz Katsarava

Abstract:

Amino acid-based Biodegradable poly(ester-amide)s (PEAs) have gained considerable interest as a promising materials for numerous biomedical applications. These polymers reveal a high biocompatibility and easily form small particles suitable for delivery various biological, as well as elastic bio-erodible films serving as matrices for constructing antibacterial coatings. In the present work we have demonstrated a potential of the PEAs for two applications: 1. cell therapy for stroke as vehicles for delivery and sustained release of growth factors, 2. bactericidal coating as prevention biofilm and applicable in infected wound management. Stroke remains the main cause of adult disability with limited treatment options. Although stem cell therapy is a promising strategy, it still requires improvement of cell survival, differentiation and tissue modulation. .Recently, microspheres (MPs) made of biodegradable polymers have gained significant attention for providing necessary support of transplanted cells. To investigate this strategy in the cell therapy of stroke, MPs loaded with transcription factors Wnt3A/BMP4 were prepared. These proteins have been shown to mediate the maturation of the cortical neurons. We have suggested that implantation of these materials could create a suitable microenvironment for implanted cells. Particles with spherical shape, porous surface, and 5-40 m in size (monitored by scanning electron microscopy) were made on the basis of the original PEA composed of adipic acid, L-phenylalanine and 1,4-butanediol. After 4 months transplantation of MPs in rodent brain, no inflammation was observed. Additionally, factors were successfully released from MPs and affected neuronal cell differentiation in in vitro. The in vivo study using loaded MPs is in progress. Another severe problem in biomedicine is prevention of surgical devices from biofilm formation. Antimicrobial polymeric coatings are most effective “shields” to protect surfaces/devices from biofilm formation. Among matrices for constructing the coatings preference should be given to bio-erodible polymers. Such types of coatings will play a role of “unstable seating” that will not allow bacteria to occupy the surface. In other words, bio-erodible coatings would be discomfort shelter for bacteria that along with releasing “killers of bacteria” should prevent the formation of biofilm. For this purpose, we selected an original biodegradable PEA composed of L-leucine, 1,6-hexanediol and sebacic acid as a bio-erodible matrix, and nanosilver (AgNPs) as a bactericidal agent (“killer of bacteria”). Such nanocomposite material is also promising in treatment of superficial wound and ulcer. The solubility of the PEA in ethanol allows to reduce AgNO3 to NPs directly in the solution, where the solvent served as a reductive agent, and the PEA served as NPs stabilizer. The photochemical reduction was selected as a basic method to form NPs. The obtained AgNPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). According to the UV-data and TEM data the photochemical reduction resulted in spherical AgNPs with wide particle size distribution with a high contribution of the particles below 10 nm that are known as responsible for bactericidal activity of AgNPs. DLS study showed that average size of nanoparticles formed after photo-reduction in ethanol solution ranged within ca. 50 nm.

Keywords: biodegradable polymers, microparticles, nanocomposites, stem cell therapy, stroke

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548 Boundary Motion by Curvature: Accessible Modeling of Oil Spill Evaporation/Dissipation

Authors: Gary Miller, Andriy Didenko, David Allison

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The boundary of a region in the plane shrinks according to its curvature. A simple algorithm based upon this motion by curvature performed by a spreadsheet simulates the evaporation/dissipation behavior of oil spill boundaries.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, oil, evaporation, dissipation, boundary

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547 Refining Scheme Using Amphibious Epistemologies

Authors: David Blaine, George Raschbaum

Abstract:

The evaluation of DHCP has synthesized SCSI disks, and current trends suggest that the exploration of e-business that would allow for further study into robots will soon emerge. Given the current status of embedded algorithms, hackers worldwide obviously desire the exploration of replication, which embodies the confusing principles of programming languages. In our research we concentrate our efforts on arguing that erasure coding can be made "fuzzy", encrypted, and game-theoretic.

Keywords: SCHI disks, robot, algorithm, hacking, programming language

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546 The Invisible Labour of Informal Care: Parentified Caregiving in David Chariandy's Soucouyant

Authors: Walter Rafael Ramos Villanueva

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The overwhelming majority of scholarship on David Chariandy’s novel Soucouyant focuses on how Adele’s dementia represents the preservation of “cultural memory” and the perniciousness of “historical trauma.” However, by metaphorizing Adele’s mental condition, these critics risk treating her dementia as mostly figurative, and they thus elide a more detailed discussion of the literal ramifications of her dementia diagnosis. To move beyond these readings, then, my paper will approach Adele’s disorder as a literal medical condition and explore how her caregiving needs affect not only her but also those around her. Soucouyant subverts traditional caregiving narratives by depicting the difficult and typically invisible labour of informal caregiving that is undertaken by the families and friends of those who are ill or otherwise disabled. Because Adele’s family is unable to access proper public healthcare resources within the community, the burden of care falls upon the protagonist and his brother, who become “parentified children.” Parentified children, according to Nancy D. Chase, are “parents to their parents, and fulfill this role at the expense of their own developmentally appropriate needs and pursuits.” The novel provides a depiction of informal caregiving that is multi-faceted and asks us to question why is it exactly that we place the burden of care on those who are not equipped to handle such pressures instead of putting the onus on the government and the public healthcare system to take care of its most vulnerable members. Ageing Studies scholar Larry Polvika notes that although policymakers often offer “pious expressions of appreciation” and acknowledge that informal caregiving is “the backbone of our long-term care system,” governmental support for these caregivers remains inadequate. It is my belief that, by showcasing the struggles of informal caregivers, Chariandy’s text combats this dangerous and empty political rhetoric.

Keywords: caregiving, dementia, literature, parentified children

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545 Patient-Specific Design Optimization of Cardiovascular Grafts

Authors: Pegah Ebrahimi, Farshad Oveissi, Iman Manavi-Tehrani, Sina Naficy, David F. Fletcher, Fariba Dehghani, David S. Winlaw

Abstract:

Despite advances in modern surgery, congenital heart disease remains a medical challenge and a major cause of infant mortality. Cardiovascular prostheses are routinely used in surgical procedures to address congenital malformations, for example establishing a pathway from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries in pulmonary valvar atresia. Current off-the-shelf options including human and adult products have limited biocompatibility and durability, and their fixed size necessitates multiple subsequent operations to upsize the conduit to match with patients’ growth over their lifetime. Non-physiological blood flow is another major problem, reducing the longevity of these prostheses. These limitations call for better designs that take into account the hemodynamical and anatomical characteristics of different patients. We have integrated tissue engineering techniques with modern medical imaging and image processing tools along with mathematical modeling to optimize the design of cardiovascular grafts in a patient-specific manner. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is done according to models constructed from each individual patient’s data. This allows for improved geometrical design and achieving better hemodynamic performance. Tissue engineering strives to provide a material that grows with the patient and mimic the durability and elasticity of the native tissue. Simulations also give insight on the performance of the tissues produced in our lab and reduce the need for costly and time-consuming methods of evaluation of the grafts. We are also developing a methodology for the fabrication of the optimized designs.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, cardiovascular grafts, design optimization, tissue engineering

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544 The Effect of Acid Treatment of PEDOT: PSS Anode for Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Ismail Borazan, Ayse Celik Bedeloglu, Ali Demir, David Carroll

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In this project, PEDOT:PSS layer was treated with formic acid, sulphuric acid, and hydrochloric acid, methanol, acetone, and dichlorobenzene:methanol. The resistivity measurements with 2-probes were carried out and the best-chosen method was employed to make an organic solar cell device.

Keywords: organic solar cells, PEDOT:PSS, polymer electrodes, resistivity

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543 Model of Cosserat Continuum Dispersion in a Half-Space with a Scatterer

Authors: Francisco Velez, Juan David Gomez

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Dispersion effects on the Scattering for a semicircular canyon in a micropolar continuum are analyzed, by using a computational finite element scheme. The presence of microrotational waves and the dispersive SV waves affects the propagation of elastic waves. Here, a contrast with the classic model is presented, and the dependence with the micropolar parameters is studied.

Keywords: scattering, semicircular canyon, wave dispersion, micropolar medium, FEM modeling

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542 Antimicrobial Activity of CBD to be Used as a Preservative Against Listeria Monocytogenes in Milk & Dairy Products

Authors: Kazi N. Tahsin, David W. Watson, David E. Heinrichs, Paul A. Charpentier

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Many plants and their extracts have significant antimicrobial activity, as can be found in folk medicine, essential oils, or isolated compounds. One infamous plant known as Cannabis Sativa has been grown specifically for its medical/recreational use. The constituents of C. Sativa consist of the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). CBD has drawn extensive interest because of its antimicrobial attributes on many food pathogens. After legalization, food and beverage industries are developing CBD - infused foods and beverages such as CBD ice-cream and Muuna Cannabis cottage cheese. This research focused on studying the antimicrobial properties of CBD against one of the most common pathogens found in milk and dairy produce, Listeria Monocytogenes. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of CBD were measured against Listeria Monocytogenes (strain EGD) using trypticase soy broth (TSB), incubated at 35 °C/24 h and in skim milk and whole milk incubated at 35 °C/24 h and 7 °C/7 days. The effect of fat content on CBD antibacterial activity was investigated in whole and skim milk cultured at 7°C for 7 days by comparing kill curves. The MIC for L. monocytogenes was found to be 0.5 μg/mL, and the MBC was 5 μg/mL measured dilution series in liquid culture and disk diffusion assays in TSB, respectively. Similarly, the MICs in semi-skim milk and whole milk were studied at 35 °C/24 h, and at 7 °C/7 days, respectively. The effect of incubation temperatures on the MBC and MIC of the CBD in skim milk was also studied. Although CBD showed good antimicrobial activity on skim milk, it showed a lack of activity on whole milk. This lowered antibacterial activity of CBD in skim milk is attributed to the associated fat molecules. CBD being a highly unstable compound and soluble in lipids, causes the compound to breakdown when exposed to milk high in fat content by micellarization. This research shows that cannabis can potentially be used as a preservative for dairy products low in fat content in the years to come, not just used as flavoring.

Keywords: CBD, antimicrobial studies, L. monocytogenes, dairy products

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541 Developments and Implementation of Biomaterials in Textile Coating and Finishing

Authors: David De Smet, Myriam Vanneste

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There is a constant need for the improvement of materials applied in textile industries. Nowadays there is a tendency for “bio, eco, natural and environmental friendly” consciousness of the consumer resulting in various textile labels. Materials, totally based on CO2-neutral renewable resources (biopolymers), respond very well to this tendency. Proteins and PLA were evaluated as binders for textile coatings. Much attention is paid to the functionalization of textiles, therefore bio-additves are examined to introduce abrasion resistance, antimicrobial and flame retardant properties.

Keywords: biomaterial, textile, coating, finishing

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540 The Impact of Legislation on Waste and Losses in the Food Processing Sector in the UK/EU

Authors: David Lloyd, David Owen, Martin Jardine

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Introduction: European weight regulations with respect to food products require a full understanding of regulation guidelines to assure regulatory compliance. It is suggested that the complexity of regulation leads to practices which result to over filling of food packages by food processors. Purpose: To establish current practices by food processors and the financial, sustainable and societal impacts on the food supply chain of ineffective food production practices. Methods: An analysis of food packing controls with 10 companies of varying food categories and quantitative based research of a further 15 food processes on the confidence in weight control analysis of finished food packs within their organisation. Results: A process floor analysis of manufacturing operations focussing on 10 products found over fill of packages ranging from 4.8% to 20.2%. Standard deviation figures for all products showed a potential for reducing average weight of the pack whilst still retain the legal status of the product. In 20% of cases, an automatic weight analysis machine was in situ however weight packs were still significantly overweight. Collateral impacts noted included the effect of overfill on raw material purchase and added food miles often on a global basis with one raw material alone creating 10,000 extra food miles due to the poor weight control of the processing unit. A case study of a meat and bakery product will be discussed with the impact of poor controls resulting from complex legislation. The case studies will highlight extra energy costs in production and the impact of the extra weight on fuel usage. If successful a risk assessment model used primarily on food safety but adapted to identify waste /sustainability risks will be discussed within the presentation.

Keywords: legislation, overfill, profile, waste

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539 Islamic State: Franchising Jihad through the New Caliphate

Authors: Janiel David Melamed Visbal

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The Islamic State has become one of the most remarkable threats for international security through their religious extremism and their establishment of a new caliphate by force. The main objective of this organization is to obtain territorial expansions beyond the Middle East and eventually to consolidate an Islamic global order based on their extremist ideology. This paper will conduct an analysis regarding how, over the past year, many jihadist organizations worldwide have pledged their alliagance to the Islamic State, transforming it into the most important jihadist franchise globally.

Keywords: Islamic state, franchise, jihad, Islamic fundamentalism, caliphate

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
538 Internet of Things Applications on Supply Chain Management

Authors: Beatriz Cortés, Andrés Boza, David Pérez, Llanos Cuenca

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The Internet of Things (IoT) field is been applied in industries with different purposes. Sensing Enterprise (SE) is an attribute of an enterprise or a network that allows it to react to business stimuli originating on the internet. These fields have come into focus recently on the enterprises and there is some evidence of the use and implications in supply chain management while finding it as an interesting aspect to work on. This paper presents a revision and proposals of IoT applications in supply chain management.

Keywords: industrial, internet of things, production systems, sensing enterprises, sensor, supply chain management

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
537 Simulating the Interaction of Strategy Development and Project Delivery

Authors: Nipun Agarwal, David Paul, Fareed Un Din

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Every organization develops a strategy that needs to be implemented and is undertaken through project delivery. In essence, project requirements should exactly replicate an organization’s strategy. In reality this does not happen, and behavioral factors deviate the project delivery from the strategic objectives. This occurs as project stakeholders can have competing objectives. Resultantly, requirements that are implemented through projects are less aligned to the strategy. This paper develops a game theoretic model to simulate why such deviations occur. That explains the difference between strategy development and implementation.

Keywords: strategy, simulation, project management, game theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 19