Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32020
Experimental Investigation on the Shear Strength Parameters of Sand-Slag Mixtures

Authors: Ayad Salih Sabbar, Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz


Utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has a positive influence on the environment by reducing carbon dioxide emissions and issues associated with waste disposal. Granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is a by-product of the iron and steel industry, with millions of tons of slag being annually produced worldwide. Slag has been widely used in structural engineering and for stabilizing clay soils; however, studies on the effect of slag on sandy soils are scarce. This article investigates the effect of slag content on shear strength parameters through direct shear tests and unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests on mixtures of Perth sand and slag. For this purpose, sand-slag mixtures, with slag contents of 2%, 4%, and 6% by weight of samples, were tested with direct shear tests under three normal stress values, namely 100 kPa, 150 kPa, and 200 kPa. Unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests were performed under a single confining pressure of 100 kPa and relative density of 80%. The internal friction angles and shear stresses of the mixtures were determined via the direct shear tests, demonstrating that shear stresses increased with increasing normal stress and the internal friction angles and cohesion increased with increasing slag. There were no significant differences in shear stresses parameters when slag content rose from 4% to 6%. The unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests demonstrated that shear strength increased with increasing slag content.

Keywords: Direct shear, shear strength, slag, UU test.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1520


[1] Budihardjo, M.A., A. Chegenizadeh, and H. Nikraz, Application of Wood to Sand-slag and its Effect on Soil Strength. Procedia Engineering, 2015. 102: p. 640-646.
[2] Mamo, B., K. Banoth, and A. Dey, Effect of Strain Rate on Shear Strength Parameter of Sand. In Proceedings of the 50th Indian Geotechnical conference Pune, Maharashtra, India. 2015.
[3] Shooshpasha, I. and R.A. Shirvani, Effect of cement stabilization on geotechnical properties of sandy soils. Geomechanics and Engineering, 2015. 8(1): p. 17-31.
[4] Manjunath, K., L. Govindaraju, and P. Sivapullaiah. Blast Furnace Slag for Bulk GeoTechnical Applications. In Proceedings of the Indian GeoTechnical Conference Kochi, India. 2011.
[5] Veith, G., Essay competition: Green, ground and great: soil stabilization with slag. Building Research & Information, 2000. 28(1): p. 70-72.
[6] Yi, Y., M. Liska, and A. Al-Tabbaa, Properties of two model soils stabilized with different blends and contents of GGBS, MgO, lime, and PC. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2013. 26(2): p. 267-274.
[7] Allan, M. and L. Kukacka, Blast furnace slag-modified grouts for in situ stabilization of chromium-contaminated soil. Waste management, 1995. 15(3): p. 193-202.
[8] Australian Slag Association, Blast furnace slag aggregate and cementitious products. Reference data sheet 1, 2011.
[9] Ouf, M.E.-S.A.R., Stabilisation of clay subgrade soils using ground granulated blast furnace slag. 2001, University of Leeds.
[10] Matsuda, H., et al. Application of granulated blast furnace slag to the earthquake resistant earth structure as a geo-material. in Proceedings of the 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Beijing, China. 2008.
[11] Park, S.-S., S.-G. Choi, and I.-H. Nam, A Study on Cementation of Sand Using Blast Furnace Slag and Extreme Microorganism. Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society, 2014. 30(1): p. 93-101.
[12] Rabbani, P., et al., The potential of lime and grand granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) mixture for stabilisation of desert silty sands. Journal of Civil Engineering Research, 2012. 2(6): p. 108-119.
[13] Sabbar, A. and Chegenizadeh, A. and Nikraz, H. A Review of the experimental studies of the cyclic behaviour of granular materials: Geotechnical and pavement engineering. Australian Geomechanics Journal, 2016. 51 (2): pp. 89-103.
[14] Sabbar, A., Chegenizadeh, A. and Nikraz, H. Static liquefaction of very loose Sand - Slag - Bentonite Mixtures. Soils and Foundations Journal, 2017. (accepted)