Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: New Zealand

50 Auction Theory: Bidder-s Perspective in a Public Out-Cry English Auction

Authors: Jagannath Aryal, Don Kulasiri, Garth A. Carnaby

Abstract:

This paper provides an overview of auction theory literature. We present a general review on literature of various auctions and focus ourselves specifically on an English auction. We are interested in modelling bidder-s behavior in an English auction environment. And hence, we present an overview of the New Zealand wool auction followed by a model that would describe a bidder-s decision making behavior from the New Zealand wool auction. The mathematical assumptions in an English auction environment are demonstrated from the perspective of the New Zealand wool auction.

Keywords: Bidder, English auction, New Zealand, Wool

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49 Auction Theory: Bidder's Perspective in an English Auction Environment

Authors: J. Aryal, D. Kulasiri, G. A. Carnaby

Abstract:

This paper provides an overview of auction theory literature. We present a general review on literature of various auctions and focus ourselves specifically on an English auction. We are interested in modelling bidder's behavior in an English auction environment. And hence, we present an overview of the New Zealand wool auction followed by a model that would describe a bidder's decision making behavior from the New Zealand wool auction. The mathematical assumptions in an English auction environment are demonstrated from the perspective of the New Zealand wool auction.

Keywords: Bidder, English auction, New Zealand, wool.

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48 Riding the Crest of the Wave: Inclusive Education in New Zealand

Authors: Barbara A. Perry

Abstract:

In 1996, the New Zealand government and the Ministry of Education announced that they were setting up a "world class system of inclusive education". As a parent of a son with high and complex needs, a teacher, school Principal and Disability studies Lecturer, this author will track the changes in the journey towards inclusive education over the last 20 years. Strategies for partnering with families to ensure educational success along with insights from one of those on the crest of the wave will be presented. Using a narrative methodology the author will illuminate how far New Zealand has come towards this world class system of inclusion promised and share from personal experience some of the highlights and risks in the system. This author has challenged the old structures and been part of the setting up of new structures particularly for providing parent voice and insight; this paper provides a unique view from an insider’s voice as well as a professional in the system.

Keywords: Disability studies, inclusive education, special education, working with families with children with disability.

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47 Heart Rate-Determined Physical Activity In New Zealand School Children: A Cross- Sectional Study

Authors: Michael J. Hamlin, Mick Grimley, Vicki Cowley, Chris D. Price, Jill M. Hargreaves, Jenny J. Ross

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine current levels of physical activity determined via heart rate monitoring. A total of 176 children (85 boys, 91 girls) aged 5-13 years wore sealed Polar heart rate monitors for at least 10 hours per day on at least 3 days. Mean daily minutes of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity was 65 ± 43 (mean ± SD) for boys and 54 ± 37 for girls. Daily minutes of vigorous-intensity activity was 31 ± 24 and 24 ± 21 for boys and girls respectively. Significant differences in physical activity levels were observed between school day and weekends, boys and girls, and among age and geographical groups. Only 36% of boys and 22% of girls met the New Zealand physical activity guideline. This research indicates that a large proportion of New Zealand children are not meeting physical activity recommendations.

Keywords: activity guidelines, moderate activity, sedentary, vigorous activity

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46 Modelling of Energy Consumption in Wheat Production Using Neural Networks “Case Study in Canterbury Province, New Zealand“

Authors: M. Safa, S. Samarasinghe

Abstract:

An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to model the energy consumption of wheat production. This study was conducted over 35,300 hectares of irrigated and dry land wheat fields in Canterbury in the 2007-2008 harvest year.1 In this study several direct and indirect factors have been used to create an artificial neural networks model to predict energy use in wheat production. The final model can predict energy consumption by using farm condition (size of wheat area and number paddocks), farmers- social properties (education), and energy inputs (N and P use, fungicide consumption, seed consumption, and irrigation frequency), it can also predict energy use in Canterbury wheat farms with error margin of ±7% (± 1600 MJ/ha).

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Canterbury, energy consumption, modelling, New Zealand, wheat.

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45 Design and Māori Values: A Rebrand Project for the Social Enterprise Sector

Authors: M. Kiarna, S. Junjira, S. Casey, M. Nolwazi, M. S. Marcos, A. T. Tatiana, L. Cassandra

Abstract:

This paper details a rebrand design project developed for a non-profitable organization called Te Roopu Waiora (TRW), which is currently located in Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand. This social enterprise is dedicated to supporting the Māori community living with sensorial, physical and intellectual disabilities (whānau hauā). As part of a year three bachelor design brief, the rebrand project enabled students to reflect on Kaupapa Māori principles and appropriately address the values of the organisation. As such, the methodology used a pragmatic paradigm approach and mixed methods design practices involving a human-centred design to problem solving. As result, the student project culminated in the development in a range of cohesive design artefacts, aiming to improve the rentability and perception of the brand with the audience and stakeholders.

Keywords: Design in Aotearoa New Zealand, Kaupapa Māori, branding, design education, human-centered design.

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44 Preparation Influences of Breed, sex and Sodium Butyrate Supplementation on the Performance, Carcass Traits and Mortality of Fattening Rabbits

Authors: U.E.Mahrous, A. Abd El-Aziz, A.I.El-Shiekh, S.Z. EL-kholya

Abstract:

Twenty four New Zealand white rabbits (12 does and 12 bucks) and twenty four Flanders (12 does and 12 bucks) rabbits, allotted into two feeding regime (6 for each breed, 3 males and 3 females) first one fed commercial ration and second one fed commercial diet plus sodium butyrate (300 g/ton). The obtained results showed that at end of 8th week experimental period New Zealand white rabbits were heavier body weight than Flanders rabbits (1934.55+39.05 vs. 1802.5+30.99 g); significantly high body weight gain during experimental period especially during 8th week (136.1+3.5 vs. 126.8+1.8 g/week); better feed conversion ratio during all weeks of experiment from first week (3.07+0.16 vs. 3.12+0.10) till the 8th week of experiment (5.54+0.16 vs. 5.76+0.07) with significantly high dressing percentages (0.54+0.01 vs. 0.52+0.01). Also all carcass cuts were significantly high in New Zealand white rabbits than Flanders. Females rabbits (at the same age) were lower body weight than males from start of experiment (941.1+39.8 vs.972.1+33.5 g) till the end of experiment (1833.64+37.69 vs. 1903.41+36.93 g); gained less during all weeks of experiment except during 8th week (132.1+2.3 vs. 130.9+3.4 g/week), with lower dressing percentage (0.52+0.01 vs. 0.53+0.01) and lighter carcass cuts than males, however, they had better feed conversion ratio during 1st week, 7th week and 8th week of experiment. Addition of 300g sodium butyrate/ton of rabbit increased the body weight of rabbits at the end of experimental period (1882.71+26.45 vs. 1851.5+49.82 g); improve body weight gain at 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th week of experiment and significantly improve feed conversion ratio during all weeks of the experiment from 1st week (2.85+0.07 vs. 3.30+0.15) till the 8th week of the experiment (5.51+0.12 vs. 5.77+0.12). Also the dressing percentage was higher in Sodium butyrate fed groups than control one (0.53+0.01 vs. 0.52+0.01) and the most important results of feeding sodium butyrate is the reducing of the mortality percentage in rabbits during 8 week experiment to zero percentage as compared with 16% in control group.

Keywords: rabbit, productive performance, carcass quality, sodium byturate

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43 The Role of Acoustical Design within Architectural Design in the Early Design Phase

Authors: O. Wright, N. Perkins, M. Donn, M. Halstead

Abstract:

This research responded to anecdotal evidence that suggested inefficiencies within the Architect and Acoustician relationship may lead to ineffective acoustic design decisions.  The acoustician spoken to believed that he was approached too late in the design phase. The approached architect valued acoustical qualities, yet, struggled to interpret common measurement parameters. The preliminary investigation of these opinions indicated a gap in the current New Zealand Architectural discourse and currently informs the creation of a 2016 Master of Architecture (Prof) thesis research. Little meaningful information about acoustic intervention in the early design phase could be found from past literature. In the information that was sourced, authors focus on software as an incorporation tool without investigating why the flaws in the relationship originally exist. To further explore this relationship, a survey was designed. It underwent three phases to ensure its consistency, and was delivered to a group of 51 acousticians from one international Acoustics company. The results were then separated between New Zealand and off-shore to identify trends. The survey results suggest that 75% of acousticians meet the architect less than 5 times per project. Instead of regular contact, a mediated method is adopted though a mix of telecommunication and written reports. Acousticians tend to be introduced later into New Zealand building project than the corresponding off-shore building. This delay corresponds to an increase in remedial action for each of the building types in the survey except Auditoria and Office Buildings. 31 participants have had their specifications challenged by an architect. Furthermore, 71% of the acousticians believe that architects do not have the knowledge to understand why the acoustic specifications are in place. The issues raised in this investigation align to the colloquial evidence expressed by the two consultants. It identifies a larger gap in the industry were acoustics is remedially treated rather than identified as a possible design driver. Further research through design is suggested to understand the role of acoustics within architectural design and potential tools for its inclusion during, not after, the design process.

Keywords: Architectural acoustics, early-design, interdisciplinary communication, remedial response.

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42 Achieving Design-Stage Elemental Cost Planning Accuracy: Case Study of New Zealand

Authors: Johnson Adafin, James O. B. Rotimi, Suzanne Wilkinson, Abimbola O. Windapo

Abstract:

An aspect of client expenditure management that requires attention is the level of accuracy achievable in design-stage elemental cost planning. This has been a major concern for construction clients and practitioners in New Zealand (NZ). Pre-tender estimating inaccuracies are significantly influenced by the level of risk information available to estimators. Proper cost planning activities should ensure the production of a project’s likely construction costs (initial and final), and subsequent cost control activities should prevent unpleasant consequences of cost overruns, disputes and project abandonment. If risks were properly identified and priced at the design stage, observed variance between design-stage elemental cost plans (ECPs) and final tender sums (FTS) (initial contract sums) could be reduced. This study investigates the variations between design-stage ECPs and FTS of construction projects, with a view to identifying risk factors that are responsible for the observed variance. Data were sourced through interviews, and risk factors were identified by using thematic analysis. Access was obtained to project files from the records of study participants (consultant quantity surveyors), and document analysis was employed in complementing the responses from the interviews. Study findings revealed the discrepancies between ECPs and FTS in the region of -14% and +16%. It is opined in this study that the identified risk factors were responsible for the variability observed. The values obtained from the analysis would enable greater accuracy in the forecast of FTS by Quantity Surveyors. Further, whilst inherent risks in construction project developments are observed globally, these findings have important ramifications for construction projects by expanding existing knowledge on what is needed for reasonable budgetary performance and successful delivery of construction projects. The findings contribute significantly to the study by providing quantitative confirmation to justify the theoretical conclusions generated in the literature from around the world. This therefore adds to and consolidates existing knowledge.

Keywords: Accuracy, design-stage, elemental cost plan, final tender sum, New Zealand.

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41 A Game-Theoretic Approach to Hedonic Housing Prices

Authors: Cielito F. Habito, Michael O. Santos, Andres G. Victorio

Abstract:

A property-s selling price is described as the result of sequential bargaining between a buyer and a seller in an environment of asymmetric information. Hedonic housing prices are estimated based upon 17,333 records of New Zealand residential properties sold during the years 2006 and 2007.

Keywords: Housing demand, hedonics and valuation, residentialmarkets.

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40 Thin Bed Reservoir Delineation Using Spectral Decomposition and Instantaneous Seismic Attributes, Pohokura Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

Authors: P. Sophon, M. Kruachanta, S. Chaisri, G. Leaungvongpaisan, P. Wongpornchai

Abstract:

The thick bed hydrocarbon reservoirs are primarily interested because of the more prolific production. When the amount of petroleum in the thick bed starts decreasing, the thin bed reservoirs are the alternative targets to maintain the reserves. The conventional interpretation of seismic data cannot delineate the thin bed having thickness less than the vertical seismic resolution. Therefore, spectral decomposition and instantaneous seismic attributes were used to delineate the thin bed in this study. Short Window Discrete Fourier Transform (SWDFT) spectral decomposition and instantaneous frequency attributes were used to reveal the thin bed reservoir, while Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) spectral decomposition and envelope (instantaneous amplitude) attributes were used to indicate hydrocarbon bearing zone. The study area is located in the Pohokura Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. The thin bed target is the uppermost part of Mangahewa Formation, the most productive in the gas-condensate production in the Pohokura Field. According to the time-frequency analysis, SWDFT spectral decomposition can reveal the thin bed using a 72 Hz SWDFT isofrequency section and map, and that is confirmed by the instantaneous frequency attribute. The envelope attribute showing the high anomaly indicates the hydrocarbon accumulation area at the thin bed target. Moreover, the CWT spectral decomposition shows the low-frequency shadow zone and abnormal seismic attenuation in the higher isofrequencies below the thin bed confirms that the thin bed can be a prospective hydrocarbon zone.

Keywords: Hydrocarbon indication, instantaneous seismic attribute, spectral decomposition, thin bed delineation.

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39 Soil Quality State and Trends in New Zealand’s Largest City after 15 Years

Authors: Fiona Curran-Cournane

Abstract:

Soil quality monitoring is a science-based soil management tool that assesses soil ecosystem health. A soil monitoring program in Auckland, New Zealand’s largest city extends from 1995 to the present. The objective of this study was to firstly determine changes in soil parameters (basic soil properties and heavy metals) that were assessed from rural land in 1995-2000 and repeated in 2008-2012. The second objective was to determine differences in soil parameters across various land uses including native bush, rural (horticulture, pasture and plantation forestry) and urban land uses using soil data collected in more recent years (2009- 2013). Across rural land, mean concentrations of Olsen P had significantly increased in the second sampling period and was identified as the indicator of most concern, followed by soil macroporosity, particularly for horticultural and pastoral land. Mean concentrations of Cd were also greatest for pastoral and horticultural land and a positive correlation existed between these two parameters, which highlights the importance of analysing basic soil parameters in conjunction with heavy metals. In contrast, mean concentrations of As, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn were greatest for urban sites. Native bush sites had the lowest concentrations of heavy metals and were used to calculate a ‘pollution index’ (PI). The mean PI was classified as high (PI > 3) for Cd and Ni and moderate for Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, As and Hg, indicating high levels of heavy metal pollution across both rural and urban soils. From a land use perspective, the mean ‘integrated pollution index’ was highest for urban sites at 2.9 followed by pasture, horticulture and plantation forests at 2.7, 2.6 and 0.9, respectively. It is recommended that soil sampling continues over time because a longer spanning record will allow further identification of where soil problems exist and where resources need to be targeted in the future. Findings from this study will also inform policy and science direction in regional councils.

Keywords: Heavy metals, Pollution Index, Rural and Urban land use.

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38 The Effect of a Free -Trade Agreement upon Agricultural Imports

Authors: Andres G. Victorio, Montita Rungswang

Abstract:

A free-trade agreement is found to increase Thailand-s agricultural imports from New Zealand, despite the short span of time for which the agreement has been operational. The finding is described by autoregressive estimates that correct for possible unit roots in the data. The agreement-s effect upon imports is also estimated while considering an error-correction model of imports against gross domestic product.

Keywords: Agricultural imports, free trade, unit roots, cointegration, error correction.

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37 The Exclusion of Consumer Rights in e-Auctions – Is an e-Auction Really an Auction at all?

Authors: Trish O'Sullivan

Abstract:

This paper considers the exclusion of consumer rights by the New Zealand Consumer Guarantees Act 1993 in eauctions. The paper asserts that the absence of an individual auctioneer conducting each e-auction means that e-auctions may not be auctions at all. The paper also questions the justification for excluding consumer rights in e-auctions because the rationale for excluding consumer rights in traditional auctions does not fit with e-auctions due to the significant differences in the sale processes. The paper recommends reform by way of statutory amendment.

Keywords: auction, auctioneer, consumer rights, e-auction.

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36 Validation of an Acuity Measurement Tool for Maternity Services

Authors: Cherryl Lowe

Abstract:

Background - The TrendCare Patient Dependency System is currently used by a large number of maternity Services across Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. In 2012, 2013 and 2014 validation studies were initiated in all three countries to validate the acuity tools used for women in labour, and postnatal mothers and babies. This paper will present the findings of the validation study. Aim - The aim of this study was to; identify if the care hours provided by the TrendCare acuity system was an accurate reflection of the care required by women and babies; obtain evidence of changes required to acuity indicators and/or category timings to ensure the TrendCare acuity system remains reliable and valid across a range of maternity care models in three countries. Method - A non-experimental action research methodology was used across maternity services in four District Health Boards in New Zealand, a large tertiary and a large secondary maternity service in Singapore and a large public maternity service in Australia. Standardised data collection forms and timing devices were used to collect midwife contact times, with women and babies included in the study. Rejection processes excluded samples when care was not completed/rationed, and contact timing forms were incomplete. The variances between actual timed midwife/mother/baby contact and the TrendCare acuity category times were identified and investigated. Results - Thirty two (88.9%) of the 36 TrendCare acuity category timings, fell within the variance tolerance levels when compared to the actual timings recorded for midwifery care. Four (11.1%) TrendCare categories provided less minutes of care than the actual timings and exceeded the variance tolerance level. These were all night shift category timings. Nine postnatal categories were not able to be compared as the sample size for these categories was statistically insignificant. 100% of labour ward TrendCare categories matched actual timings for midwifery care, all falling within the variance tolerance levels. The actual time provided by core midwifery staff to assist lead maternity carer (LMC) midwives in New Zealand labour wards showed a significant deviation to previous studies. The findings of the study demonstrated the need for additional time allocations in TrendCare to accommodate an increased level of assistance given to LMC midwives. Conclusion - The results demonstrated the importance of regularly validating the TrendCare category timings with actual timings of the care hours provided. It was evident from the findings that variances to models of care and length of stay in maternity units have increased midwifery workloads on the night shift. The level of assistance provided by the core labour ward staff to the LMC midwife has increased substantially. Outcomes - As a consequence of this study, changes were made to the night duty TrendCare maternity categories, additional acuity indicators were developed and times for assisting LMC midwives in labour ward increased. The updated TrendCare version was delivered to maternity services in 2014.

Keywords: Maternity, acuity, midwifery research, midwifery workloads.

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35 Union Membership with Import Liberalization

Authors: Stephen B. Blumenfeld, Aaron Crawford, Andres G. Victorio

Abstract:

New Zealand-s product markets experienced a surge in import competition beginning from the late 1970-s when its government began to promote a policy of more open markets. This study considers how the trade liberalization aspect of the policy may have influenced unionization and union-organizing success. For describing the trade liberalization, a model shows how the removal of import tariffs can lead to countervailing influences upon the union membership of a domestic firm. The evidence supports the prediction that union membership has been decreased rather than increased. In the context of debates concerning globalization, it can be said that the power of unions has been diminished.

Keywords: Imports, tariffs, unions, wages.

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34 Theorizing Women’s Political Leadership: Cross-National Comparison

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

Abstract:

Since women obtained the right to vote in 1893 for the first time in New Zealand, they have tried to participate actively into politics but still the world has a few women in political leadership. The article asks which factors might influence the appearance of women leadership in politics. The article investigates two factors such as political context, personal factors. Countries where economic development is stable and political democracy is consolidated have a tendency of appearance of women political leadership but in less developed and politically unstable countries, women politicians can be in power with their own reasons. For the personal factor, their feminist propensity is studied but there is no relationship between the appearance of women leaders and their feminist propensity.

Keywords: Women political leadership, political context, slow track, transitory countries, feminist propensity.

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33 Collaborative Professional Education for e-Teaching in Networked Schools

Authors: Ken Stevens

Abstract:

Networked schools have become a feature of education systems in countries that seek to provide learning opportunities in schools located beyond major centres of population. The internet and e-learning have facilitated the development of virtual educational structures that complement traditional schools, encouraging collaborative teaching and learning to proceed. In rural New Zealand and in the Atlantic Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, e-learning is able to provide new ways of organizing teaching, learning and the management of educational opportunities. However, the future of e-teaching and e-learning in networked schools depends on the development of professional education programs that prepare teachers for collaborative teaching and learning environments in which both virtual and traditional face to face instruction co-exist.

Keywords: Advanced Placement, Cybercells, Extranet, Intranet.

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32 Robust Human Rights Governance: Developing International Criteria

Authors: Helen P. Greatrex

Abstract:

Many states are now committed to implementing international human rights standards domestically. In terms of practical governance, how might effectiveness be measured? A facevalue answer can be found in domestic laws and institutions relating to human rights. However, this article provides two further tools to help states assess their status on the spectrum of robust to fragile human rights governance. The first recognises that each state has its own 'human rights history' and the ideal end stage is robust human rights governance, and the second is developing criteria to assess robustness. Although a New Zealand case study is used to illustrate these tools, the widespread adoption of human rights standards by many states inevitably means that the issues are relevant to other countries. This is even though there will always be varying degrees of similarity-difference in constitutional background and developed or emerging human rights systems.

Keywords: robust human rights governance, fragile states.

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31 Using Morphological and Microsatellite (SSR) Markers to Assess the Genetic Diversity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

Authors: T. Cholastova, D. Knotova

Abstract:

Utilization of diverse germplasm is needed to enhance the genetic diversity of cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic relationships of 98 alfalfa germplasm accessions using morphological traits and SSR markers. From the 98 tested populations, 81 were locals originating in Europe, 17 were introduced from USA, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Three primers generated 67 polymorphic bands. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was very high (> 0.90) over all three used primer combinations. Cluster analysis using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) and Jaccard´s coefficient grouped the accessions into 2 major clusters with 4 sub-clusters with no correlation between genetic and morphological diversity. The SSR analysis clearly indicated that even with three polymorphic primers, reliable estimation of genetic diversity could be obtained.

Keywords: genetic diversity, Medicago sativa L., morphological traits, SSR markers

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30 The Relevance of Sustainability Skills for International Students

Authors: Mary Panko, Rashika Sharma

Abstract:

Sustainability often appears to be an unfamiliar concept to many international students that enrol in a New Zealand technological degree. Lecturers’ experiences with classroom interactions and evaluation of assessments indicate that studying the concept enlightens and enhances international students understanding of sustainability. However, in most cases, even after studying sustainability in their degree programme, students are not given an opportunity to practice and apply this concept into their professions in their home countries. Therefore, using a qualitative approach, the academics conducted research to determine the change in international students understanding of sustainability before and after their enrolment in an Applied Technology degree. The research also aimed to evaluate if international students viewed sustainability of relevance to their professions and whether the students felt that they will be provided with an opportunity to apply their knowledge about sustainability in the industry. The findings of the research are presented in this paper.

Keywords: Education for sustainability, international students, vocational education.

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29 Impact of Coal Mining on River Sediment Quality in the Sydney Basin, Australia

Authors: A. Ali, V. Strezov, P. Davies, I. Wright, T. Kan

Abstract:

The environmental impacts arising from mining activities affect the air, water, and soil quality. Impacts may result in unexpected and adverse environmental outcomes. This study reports on the impact of coal production on sediment in Sydney region of Australia. The sediment samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from three mines were taken, and 80 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against sediment quality based on presence of metals. The study revealed the increment of metal content in the sediment downstream of the reference locations. In many cases, the sediment was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV). The major outliers to the guidelines were nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn).

Keywords: Coal mine, environmental impact, produced water, sediment quality guidelines value.

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28 The Key Role of the Steroidal Hormones in the Pattern Distribution of the Epiphyseal Structure in Rabbit

Authors: Fatahian Dehkordi R.F, Parchami A.

Abstract:

Steroidal hormones with the efficient changes on the epiphyseal growth plate may influence tissue structure properties. Presents paper to investigate the effects of gonadectomy in the pattern distribution of the epiphyseal structure. Fifteen adult female New Zealand white rabbits were separated into three groups. One group was intact and others groups were selected for surgical operation. From these two groups, one group carried out steroidal administration. The results obtained showed that there is no statistically difference in the mean diameter of the growth plate cells between all three groups. The maximum value of the cartilage cells were allocated to the gonadectomized group and the minimum number were observed in Hormonal induced group significantly. Growth plate height was significantly greater in gonadectomized group than in two other groups.

Keywords: Steroidal hormones, Ovariectomy, Rabbit, Epiphyseal structure

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27 Managing, Sustaining, and Future Proofing the Business of Educational Provision Following Large-Scale Disaster and Disruption

Authors: Judy Yarwood, Lesley Seaton, Philippa Seaton

Abstract:

A catastrophic earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the Christchurch, New Zealand Central Business District on February 22, 2012, abruptly disrupting the business of teaching and learning at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology. This paper presents the findings from a study undertaken about the complexity of delivering an educational programme in the face of this traumatic natural event. Nine interconnected themes emerged from this multiple method study: communication, decision making, leader- and follower-ship, balancing personal and professional responsibilities, taking action, preparedness and thinking ahead, all within a disruptive and uncertain context. Sustainable responses that maximise business continuity, and provide solutions to practical challenges, are among the study-s recommendations.

Keywords: Business continuity, earthquake, education, sustainability

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26 Anticipation of Bending Reinforcement Based on Iranian Concrete Code Using Meta-Heuristic Tools

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Najmeh Bemani

Abstract:

In this paper, different concrete codes including America, New Zealand, Mexico, Italy, India, Canada, Hong Kong, Euro Code and Britain are compared with the Iranian concrete design code. First, by using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), the codes having the most correlation with the Iranian ninth issue of the national regulation are determined. Consequently, two anticipated methods are used for comparing the codes: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multi-variable regression. The results show that ANN performs better. Predicting is done by using only tensile steel ratio and with ignoring the compression steel ratio.

Keywords: Concrete design code, anticipate method, artificial neural network, multi-variable regression, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system.

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25 Critical Issues Affecting the Engagement by Staff in Professional Development for E-Learning: Findings from a Research Project within the Context of a National Tertiary Education Sector

Authors: J. Mansvelt, G. Suddaby, D. O'Hara

Abstract:

This paper focuses on issues of engagement by staff in professional development related to the delivery of e-learning. The paper reports on findings drawn from a New Zealand research project which is producing a sector-wide framework for professional development in tertiary e-learning. The research findings indicate that staff engaged in e-learning in tertiary institutions is not making the most effective use of the professional development opportunities available to them; rather they seem to gain their knowledge and support from a variety of informal means. This is despite an emphasis on the provision of professional development opportunities by both Government Policies and Institutions themselves. The conclusion drawn from the findings is that institutional approaches to professional development for e-learning do not yet fully reflect the demands and constraints that working in a digital context impose.

Keywords: Academic development, e-learning, engagement, professional development, tertiary education.

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24 The Amino-Acid Score and Physical Growth: Implications for the Assessment of Protein Quality

Authors: P. Grasgruber, J. Cacek, S. Hřebíčková

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of various standards that assess the quality of proteins via the “amino-acid score” and serve as a nutritional guideline for both children and adults. The height of young men in 42 European countries, Australia, New Zealand and USA was compared with the average consumption of food (after FAOSTAT, 2009) and a subsequent statistical analysis identified types of food with the most pronounced effect on physical growth. The results show that milk products and pork meat are by far the most significant nutritional factors in this regard. Cereals, vegetables and especially wheat played a strongly negative role. The results generally agreed best with the amino-acid score of proteins according to the standard of FAO 1985. In our opinion, the new standard of FAO 2007 underestimates the importance of tryptophan, which should provoke a debate about new modifications of the FAO guidelines.

Keywords: Protein quality, amino-acid score, physical growth, male height.

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23 Semi Empirical Equations for Peak Shear Strength of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Walls

Authors: Ali Kezmane, Said Boukais, Mohand Hamizi

Abstract:

This paper presents an analytical study on the behavior of reinforced concrete walls with rectangular cross section. Several experiments on such walls have been selected to be studied. Database from various experiments were collected and nominal shear wall strengths have been calculated using formulas, such as those of the ACI (American), NZS (New Zealand), Mexican (NTCC), and Wood and Barda equations. Subsequently, nominal shear wall strengths from the formulas were compared with the ultimate shear wall strengths from the database. These formulas vary substantially in functional form and do not account for all variables that affect the response of walls. There is substantial scatter in the predicted values of ultimate shear strength. Two new semi empirical equations are developed using data from tests of 57 walls for transitions walls and 27 for slender walls with the objective of improving the prediction of peak strength of walls with the most possible accurate.

Keywords: Shear strength, reinforced concrete walls, rectangular walls, shear walls, models.

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22 Dual-Response Approach to Work Stress: An Investigation of Stressors and Wellbeing Outcomes

Authors: J. R. C. Kuntz, Katharina Näswall, Frances Walls

Abstract:

This study sought to uncover the complex role of stress in the workplace by investigating both positive (eustress) and negative (distress) stress responses. In particular, the study tested a mediation model in which organisational stressors (person-job fit and role overload) influence employee affective wellbeing, both directly and indirectly through stress responses. Participants were recruited from retail and finance organisations in Australia and New Zealand, and asked to complete an anonymous online questionnaire. A total of 140 individuals returned completed questionnaires. The results show that person-job fit influenced eustress, which in turn had a positive effect on employee affective wellbeing; and role overload impacted distress, which in turn held a negative influence on affective wellbeing. These findings indicate that different organisational stressors have unique relationships with eustress and distress responses. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.

Keywords: Distress, Eustress, Role Overload, Wellbeing.

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21 Sex Differences in Thyroid Gland Structure of Rabbits

Authors: Parchami A., Fatahian Dehkordi RF.

Abstract:

The aim of the present investigation was to compare sex differences in thyroid gland structure of rabbits. Five adult male and five adult female (3.1-3.5 kg body weight) New Zealand white rabbits were used in the experiment. Results showed that at light microscopic level, there was no sex difference in microscopic appearance of the thyroid glands. At electron microscopic level, however, the mitochondria and the microvilli of the follicular cells are more numerous and the Golgi complex is also more extensive in male rabbits in comparison to females. Results obtained from micrometric measurements showed that the volume density of the follicles is higher in males than in females, but the differences are not statistically significant .The volume density of epithelium and the height of follicular cells are significantly greater in males than in females and reverse is true about the volume density of interstitium (p<0.05). The volume density of colloid is also greater in females (66±6) than in males (60±7) but the differences are not statistically significant .It was concluded that sex has limited effects on histomorphometric properties of thyroid gland in rabbits.

Keywords: Rabbit, Thyroid Gland, Sex difference, Electron microscope

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