Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: submerged.

50 Production of Cellulases by Aspergillus Heteromorphus from Wheat Straw under Submerged Fermentation

Authors: Anita Singh, Namita Singh, Narsi R. Bishnoi

Abstract:

To investigate the production of cellulases from Aspergillus heteromorphus, submerged fermentation was performed using wheat straw as substrate. Optimization of saccharification conditions like pH, temperature and time were studied. Highest reducing sugar was released on 5th day at 5 pH, 30° C temperature. When A. heteromorphous was grown on wheat straw in submerged fermentation after 5 days incubation at 30 ° C, 3.2 IU/ml and 83 IU/ml, filter paper activity and CMCase activity respectively.

Keywords: Aspergillus heteromorphus, Wheat Straw, Submerged Fermentation, Production of Cellulases

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49 Study of the Effect of Inclusion of TiO2 in Active Flux on Submerged Arc Welding of Low Carbon Mild Steel Plate and Parametric Optimization of the Process by Using DEA Based Bat Algorithm

Authors: Sheetal Kumar Parwar, J. Deb Barma, A. Majumder

Abstract:

Submerged arc welding is a very complex process. It is a very efficient and high performance welding process. In this present study an attempt have been done to reduce the welding distortion by increased amount of oxide flux through TiO2 in submerged arc welding process. Care has been taken to avoid the excessiveness of the adding agent for attainment of significant results. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based BAT algorithm is used for the parametric optimization purpose in which DEA is used to convert multi response parameters into a single response parameter. The present study also helps to know the effectiveness of the addition of TiO2 in active flux during submerged arc welding process.

Keywords: BAT algorithm, design of experiment, optimization, submerged arc welding.

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48 Identifying Karst Pattern to Prevent Bell Spring from Being Submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir

Authors: H. Shafaattalab Dehghani, H. R. Zarei

Abstract:

The large karstic Bell spring with a discharge ranging between 250 and 5300 lit/ sec is one of the most important springs of Kermanshah Province. This spring supplies drinking water of Nodsheh City and its surrounding villages. The spring is located in the reservoir of Daryan Dam and its mouth would be submerged after impounding under a water column of about 110 m height. This paper has aimed to render an account of the karstification pattern around the spring under consideration with the intention of preventing Bell Spring from being submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir. The studies comprise engineering geology and hydrogeology investigations. Some geotechnical activities included in these studies include geophysical studies, drilling, excavation of exploratory gallery and shaft and diving. The results depict that Bell is a single-conduit siphon spring with 4 m diameter and 85 m height that 32 m of the conduit is located below the spring outlet. To survive the spring, it was decided to plug the outlet and convey the water to upper elevations under the natural pressure of the aquifer. After plugging, water was successfully conveyed to elevation 837 meter above sea level (about 120 m from the outlet) under the natural pressure of the aquifer. This signifies the accuracy of the studies done and proper recognition of the karstification pattern of Bell Spring. This is a unique experience in karst problems in Iran.

Keywords: Bell spring, karst, Daryan Dam, submerged.

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47 Open Channel Flow Measurement of Water by Using Width Contraction

Authors: Arun Goel, D. V. S. Verma, Sanjeev Sangwan

Abstract:

Present study was aimed to develop a discharge measuring device for irrigation and laboratory channels. Experiments were conducted on sharp edged constricted flow meters having four types of width constrictions namely 2:1, 1.5:1, 1:1 and 90o in the direction of flow. These devices were made of MS sheets and installed separately in a rectangular flume. All these four devices were tested under free and submerged flow conditions. Eight different discharges varying from 2 lit/sec to 30 lit/sec were passed through each device. In total around 500 observations of upstream and downstream depths were taken in the present work. For each discharge, free submerged and critical submergence under different flow conditions were noted and plotted. Once the upstream and downstream depths of flow over any of the device are known, the discharge can be easily calculated with the help of the curves developed for free and submerged flow conditions. The device having contraction 2:1 is the most efficient one as it allows maximum critical submergence.

Keywords: Flowrate, flowmeter, open channels, submergence.

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46 The Effects of Biomass Parameters on the Dissolved Organic Carbon Removal in a Sponge Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: M. F. R. Zuthi, H. H. Ngo, W. S. Guo, T. T. Nguyen

Abstract:

A novel sponge submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) was developed to effectively remove organics and nutrients from wastewater. Sponge is introduced within the SSMBR as a medium for the attached growth of biomass. This paper evaluates the effects of new and acclimatized sponges for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal from wastewater at different mixed liquor suspended solids- (MLSS) concentration of the sludge. It was observed in a series of experimental studies that the acclimatized sponge performed better than the new sponge whilst the optimum DOC removal could be achieved at 10g/L of MLSS with the acclimatized sponge. Moreover, the paper analyses the relationships between the MLSSsponge/MLSSsludge and the DOC removal efficiency of SSMBR. The results showed a non-linear relationship between the biomass parameters of the sponge and the sludge, and the DOC removal efficiency of SSMBR. A second-order polynomial function could reasonably represent these relationships.

Keywords: Acclimatization, Dissolved organic carbon, Mathematical model, Sponge submerged membrane bioreactor.

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45 Biomass and Pigment Production by Monascus during Miniaturized Submerged Culture on Adlay

Authors: Supavej Maniyom, Gerard H. Markx

Abstract:

Three reactor types were explored and successfully used for pigment production by Monascus: shake flasks, and shaken and stirred miniaturized reactors. Also, the use of dielectric spectroscopy for the on-line measurement of biomass levels was explored. Shake flasks gave good pigment yields, but scale up is difficult, and they cannot be automated. Shaken bioreactors were less successful with pigment production than stirred reactors. Experiments with different impeller speeds in different volumes of liquid in the reactor confirmed that this is most likely due oxygen availability. The availability of oxygen appeared to affect biomass levels less than pigment production; red pigment production in particular needed very high oxygen levels. Dielectric spectroscopy was effectively used to continuously measure biomass levels during the submerged fungal fermentation in the shaken and stirred miniaturized bioreactors, despite the presence of the solid substrate particles. Also, the capacitance signal gave useful information about the viability of the cells in the culture.

Keywords: Chinese pearl barley, miniature submerged culture, Monascus pigment, biomass, capacitance.

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44 Influence of Fermentation Conditions on Humic Acids Production by Trichoderma viride Using an Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch as the Substrate

Authors: F. L. Motta, M. H. A. Santana

Abstract:

Humic acids (HA) were produced by a Trichoderma viride strain under submerged fermentation in a medium based on the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and the main variables of the process were optimized by using response surface methodology. A temperature of 40°C and concentrations of 50g/L EFB, 5.7g/L potato peptone and 0.11g/L (NH4)2SO4 were the optimum levels of the variables that maximize the HA production, within the physicochemical and biological limits of the process. The optimized conditions led to an experimental HA concentration of 428.4±17.5 mg/L, which validated the prediction from the statistical model of 412.0mg/L. This optimization increased about 7–fold the HA production previously reported in the literature. Additionally, the time profiles of HA production and fungal growth confirmed our previous findings that HA production preferably occurs during fungal sporulation. The present study demonstrated that T. viride successfully produced HA via the submerged fermentation of EFB and the process parameters were successfully optimized using a statistics-based response surface model. To the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first report on the optimization of HA production from EFB by a biotechnological process, whose feasibility was only pointed out in previous works.

Keywords: Empty fruit bunch, humic acids, submerged fermentation, Trichoderma viride.

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43 Flow Field Analysis of Submerged Horizontal Plate Type Breakwater

Authors: Ke Wang, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Z. Chen

Abstract:

A submerged horizontal plate type breakwater is pointed out as an efficient wave protection device for cage culture in marine fishery. In order to reveal the wave elimination principle of this type breakwater, boundary element method is utilized to investigate this problem. The flow field and the trajectory of water particles are studied carefully. The flow field analysis shows that: the interaction of incident wave and adverse current above the plate disturbs the water domain drastically. This can slow down the horizontal velocity and vertical velocity of the water particles.

Keywords: boundary element method, plate type breakwater, flow field analysis

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42 Mean Velocity Modeling of Open-Channel Flow with Submerged Rigid Vegetation

Authors: M. Morri, A. Soualmia, P. Belleudy

Abstract:

Vegetation affects the mean and turbulent flow structure. It may increase flood risks and sediment transport. Therefore, it is important to develop analytical approaches for the bed shear stress on vegetated bed, to predict resistance caused by vegetation. In the recent years, experimental and numerical models have both been developed to model the effects of submerged vegetation on open-channel flow. In this paper, different analytic models are compared and tested using the criteria of deviation, to explore their capacity for predicting the mean velocity and select the suitable one that will be applied in real case of rivers. The comparison between the measured data in vegetated flume and simulated mean velocities indicated, a good performance, in the case of rigid vegetation, whereas, Huthoff model shows the best agreement with a high coefficient of determination (R2=80%) and the smallest error in the prediction of the average velocities.

Keywords: Analytic Models, Comparison, Mean Velocity, Vegetation.

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41 Effect of Filler Metal Diameter on Weld Joint of Carbon Steel SA516 Gr 70 and Filler Metal SFA 5.17 in Submerged Arc Welding SAW

Authors: A. Nait Salah, M. Kaddami

Abstract:

This work describes an investigation on the effect of filler metals diameter to weld joint, and low alloy carbon steel A516 Grade 70 is the base metal. Commercially SA516 Grade70 is frequently used for the manufacturing of pressure vessels, boilers and storage tank, etc. In fabrication industry, the hardness of the weld joint is between the important parameters to check, after heat treatment of the weld. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is used with two filler metal diameters, and this solid wire electrode is used for SAW non-alloy and for fine grain steels (SFA 5.17). The different diameters were selected (Ø = 2.4 mm and Ø = 4 mm) to weld two specimens. Both specimens were subjected to the same preparation conditions, heat treatment, macrograph, metallurgy micrograph, and micro-hardness test. Samples show almost similar structure with highest hardness. It is important to indicate that the thickness used in the base metal is 22 mm, and all specifications, preparation and controls were according to the ASME section IX. It was observed that two different filler metal diameters performed on two similar specimens demonstrated that the mechanical property (hardness) increases with decreasing diameter. It means that even the heat treatment has the same effect with the same conditions, the filler metal diameter insures a depth weld penetration and better homogenization. Hence, the SAW welding technique mentioned in the present study is favorable to implicate for the industry using the small filler metal diameter.

Keywords: ASME, base metal, filler metal, micro-hardness test, submerged arc welding.

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40 Isolation and Screening of Laccase Producing Basidiomycetes via Submerged Fermentations

Authors: Mun Yee Chan, Sin Ming Goh, Lisa Gaik Ai Ong

Abstract:

Approximately 10,000 different types of dyes and pigments are being used in various industrial applications yearly, which include the textile and printing industries. However, these dyes are difficult to degrade naturally once they enter the aquatic system. Their high persistency in natural environment poses a potential health hazard to all form of life. Hence, there is a need for alternative dye removal strategy in the environment via bioremediation. In this study, fungi laccase is investigated via commercial agar dyes plates and submerged fermentation to explore the application of fungi laccase in textile dye wastewater treatment. Two locally isolated basidiomycetes were screened for laccase activity using media added with commercial dyes such as 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), guaiacol and Remazol Brillant Blue R (RBBR). Isolate TBB3 (1.70±0.06) and EL2 (1.78±0.08) gave the highest results for ABTS plates with the appearance of greenish halo on around the isolates. Submerged fermentation performed on Isolate TBB3 with the productivity 3.9067 U/ml/day, whereas the laccase activity for Isolate EL2 was much lower (0.2097 U/ml/day). As isolate TBB3 showed higher laccase production, it was subjected to molecular characterization by DNA isolation, PCR amplification and sequencing of ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. After being compared with other sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database), isolate TBB3 is probably from species Trametes hirsutei. Further research work can be performed on this isolate by upscale the production of laccase in order to meet the demands of the requirement for higher enzyme titer for the bioremediation of textile dyes.

Keywords: Bioremediation, dyes, fermentation, laccase.

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39 Effect of Welding Parameters on Penetration and Bead Width for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: Harish K. Arya, Kulwant Singh, R. K. Saxena

Abstract:

The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on penetration and bead width. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction for same heat input, while bead width increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: Submerged arc welding, plate thickness, bead geometry, cooling rate.

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38 The Effects of Methionine and Acetate Concentrations on Mycophenolic Acid Production by Penicillium bervicompactum MUCL 19011 in Submerged Culture

Authors: F. Ardestani, S.A. Fatemi, B. Yakhchali, M. Hosseyni, G. Najafpour

Abstract:

Mycophenolic acid “MPA" is a secondary metabolite of Penicillium bervicompactum with antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. In this study, fermentation process was established for production of mycophenolic acid by Penicillium bervicompactum MUCL 19011 in shake flask. The maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity were 1.379 g/L, 18.6 mg/g glucose and 4.9 mg/L.h respectively. Glucose consumption, biomass and MPA production profiles were investigated during fermentation time. It was found that MPA production starts approximately after 180 hours and reaches to a maximum at 280 h. In the next step, the effects of methionine and acetate concentrations on MPA production were evaluated. Maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity (1.763 g/L, 23.8 mg/g glucose and 6.30 mg/L. h respectively) were obtained with using 2.5 g/L methionine in culture medium. Further addition of methionine had not more positive effect on MPA production. Finally, results showed that the addition of acetate to the culture medium had not any observable effect on MPA production.

Keywords: Penicillium bervicompactum, Methionine, Mycophenolic acid, Submerged culture

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37 Screening of Process Variables for the Production of Extracellular Lipase from Palm Oil by Trichoderma Viride using Plackett-Burman Design

Authors: R. Rajendiran, S. Gayathri devi, B.T. SureshKumar, V. Arul Priya

Abstract:

Plackett-Burman statistical screening of media constituents and operational conditions for extracellular lipase production from isolate Trichoderma viride has been carried out in submerged fermentation. This statistical design is used in the early stages of experimentation to screen out unimportant factors from a large number of possible factors. This design involves screening of up to 'n-1' variables in just 'n' number of experiments. Regression coefficients and t-values were calculated by subjecting the experimental data to statistical analysis using Minitab version 15. The effects of nine process variables were studied in twelve experimental trials. Maximum lipase activity of 7.83 μmol /ml /min was obtained in the 6th trail. Pareto chart illustrates the order of significance of the variables affecting the lipase production. The present study concludes that the most significant variables affecting lipase production were found to be palm oil, yeast extract, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and CaCl2.

Keywords: lipase, submerged fermentation, statistical optimization, Trichoderma viride

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36 NaCl Erosion-Corrosion of Mild Steel under Submerged Impingement Jet

Authors: M. Sadique, S. Ainane, Y. F. Yap, P. Rostron, E. Al Hajri

Abstract:

The presence of sand in production lines in the oil and gas industries causes material degradation due to erosion-corrosion. The material degradation caused by erosion-corrosion in pipelines can result in a high cost of monitoring and maintenance and in major accidents. The process of erosion-corrosion consists of erosion, corrosion, and their interactions. Investigating and understanding how the erosion-corrosion process affects the degradation process in certain materials will allow for a reduction in economic loss and help prevent accidents. In this study, material loss due to erosion-corrosion of mild steel under impingement of sand-laden water at 90˚ impingement angle is investigated using a submerged impingement jet (SIJ) test. In particular, effects of jet velocity and sand loading on TWL due to erosion-corrosion, weight loss due to pure erosion and erosion-corrosion interactions, at a temperature of 29-33 °C in sea water environment (3.5% NaCl), are analyzed. The results show that the velocity and sand loading have a great influence on the removal of materials, and erosion is more dominant under all conditions studied. Changes in the surface characteristics of the specimen after impingement test are also discussed.

Keywords: Erosion-corrosion, flow velocity, jet impingement, sand loading.

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35 The Effect of Methionine and Acetate Concentrations on Mycophenolic Acid Production by Penicillium bervicompactum MUCL 19011 in Submerged Culture

Authors: Fatemeh Ardestani, Seyed Safa-ali Fatemi, Bagher Yakhchali, Seyed Morteza Hosseyni, Ghasem Najafpour

Abstract:

Mycophenolic acid “MPA" is a secondary metabolite of Penicillium bervicompactum with antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. In this study, fermentation process was established for production of mycophenolic acid by Penicillium bervicompactum MUCL 19011 in shake flask. The maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity were 1.379 g/L, 18.6 mg/g glucose and 4.9 mg/L.h respectively. Glucose consumption, biomass and MPA production profiles were investigated during fermentation time. It was found that MPA production starts approximately after 180 hours and reaches to a maximum at 280 h. In the next step, the effects of methionine and acetate concentrations on MPA production were evaluated. Maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity (1.763 g/L, 23.8 mg/g glucose and 6.30 mg/L. h respectively) were obtained with using 2.5 g/L methionine in culture medium. Further addition of methionine had not more positive effect on MPA production. Finally, results showed that the addition of acetate to the culture medium had not any observable effect on MPA production

Keywords: Penicillium bervicompactum, Methionine, Mycophenolic acid, Submerged culture.

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34 An Assessment of the Effects of Microbial Products on the Specific Oxygen Uptake in Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: M. F. R. Zuthi, H. H. Ngo, W. S. Guo, S. S. Chen, N. C. Nguyen, L. J. Deng, T. D. C. Tran

Abstract:

Sustaining a desired rate of oxygen transfer for microbial activity is a matter of major concern for biological wastewater treatment (MBR). The study reported in the paper was aimed at assessing the effects of microbial products on the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) in a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) and that in a sponge submerged MBR (SSMBR). The production and progressive accumulation of soluble microbial products (SMP) and bound-extracellular polymeric substances (bEPS) were affecting the SOUR of the microorganisms which varied at different stages of operation of the MBR systems depending on the variable concentrations of the SMP/bEPS. The effect of bEPS on the SOUR was stronger in the SSMBR compared to that of the SMP, while relative high concentrations of SMP had adverse effects on the SOUR of the CMBR system. Of the different mathematical correlations analyzed in the study, logarithmic mathematical correlations could be established between SOUR and bEPS in SSMBR, and similar correlations could also be found between SOUR and SMP concentrations in the CMBR.

Keywords: Microbial products, Microbial activity, Specific oxygen uptake rate, Membrane bioreactor.

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33 Optimization of Conditions for Xanthan Gum Production from Waste Date in Submerged Fermantation

Authors: S. Moshaf, Z. Hamidi-Esfahani, M. H. Azizi

Abstract:

Xanthan gum is one of the major commercial biopolymers. Due to its excellent rheological properties xanthan gum is used in many applications, mainly in food industry. Commercial production of xanthan gum uses glucose as the carbon substrate; consequently the price of xanthan production is high. One of the ways to decrease xanthan price, is using cheaper substrate like agricultural wastes. Iran is one of the biggest date producer countries. However approximately 50% of date production is wasted annually. The goal of this study is to produce xanthan gum from waste date using Xanthomonas campestris PTCC1473 by submerged fermentation. In this study the effect of three variables including phosphor and nitrogen amount and agitation rate in three levels using response surface methodology (RSM) has been studied. Results achieved from statistical analysis Design Expert 7.0.0 software showed that xanthan increased with increasing level of phosphor. Low level of nitrogen leaded to higher xanthan production. Xanthan amount, increasing agitation had positive influence. The statistical model identified the optimum conditions nitrogen amount=3.15g/l, phosphor amount=5.03 g/l and agitation=394.8 rpm for xanthan. To model validation, experiments in optimum conditions for xanthan gum were carried out. The mean of result for xanthan was 6.72±0.26. The result was closed to the predicted value by using RSM.

Keywords: Optimization, RSM, Waste date, Xanthan gum, Xanthomonas Campestris

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32 Application of Statistical Approach for Optimizing CMCase Production by Bacillus tequilensis S28 Strain via Submerged Fermentation Using Wheat Bran as Carbon Source

Authors: A. Sharma, R. Tewari, S. K. Soni

Abstract:

Biofuels production has come forth as a future technology to combat the problem of depleting fossil fuels. Bio-based ethanol production from enzymatic lignocellulosic biomass degradation serves an efficient method and catching the eye of scientific community. High cost of the enzyme is the major obstacle in preventing the commercialization of this process. Thus main objective of the present study was to optimize composition of medium components for enhancing cellulase production by newly isolated strain of Bacillus tequilensis. Nineteen factors were taken into account using statistical Plackett-Burman Design. The significant variables influencing the cellulose production were further employed in statistical Response Surface Methodology using Central Composite Design for maximizing cellulase production. The optimum medium composition for cellulase production was: peptone (4.94 g/L), ammonium chloride (4.99 g/L), yeast extract (2.00 g/L), Tween-20 (0.53 g/L), calcium chloride (0.20 g/L) and cobalt chloride (0.60 g/L) with pH 7, agitation speed 150 rpm and 72 h incubation at 37oC. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.99. Maximum cellulase productivity of 11.5 IU/ml was observed against the model predicted value of 13 IU/ml. This was found to be optimally active at 60oC and pH 5.5.

Keywords: Bacillus tequilensis, CMCase, Submerged Fermentation, Optimization, Plackett-Burman Design, Response Surface Methodology.

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31 Estimation of the Minimum Floor Length Downstream Regulators under Different Flow Scenarios

Authors: Bakhiet, Shenouda, Gamal Abouzeid Abdel-Rahim, Norihiro Izumi

Abstract:

The correct design of the regulators structure requires complete prediction of the ultimate dimensions of the scour hole profile formed downstream the solid apron. The study of scour downstream regulator is studied either on solid aprons by means of velocity distribution or on movable bed by studying the topography of the scour hole formed in the downstream. In this paper, a new technique was developed to study the scour hole downstream regulators on movable beds. The study was divided into two categories; the first is to find out the sum of the lengths of rigid apron behind the gates in addition to the length of scour hole formed downstream, while the second is to find the minimum length of rigid apron behind the gates to prevent erosion downstream it. The study covers free and submerged hydraulic jump conditions in both symmetrical and asymmetrical under-gated regulations. From the comparison between the studied categories, we found that the minimum length of rigid apron to prevent scour (Ls) is greater than the sum of the lengths of rigid apron and that of scour hole formed behind it (L+Xs). On the other hand, the scour hole dimensions in case of submerged hydraulic jump is always greater than free one, also the scour hole dimensions in asymmetrical operation is greater than symmetrical one.

Keywords: Movable bed, Regulators, Scour, Symmetrical and asymmetrical operation

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30 Consideration Factors of Moving to a New Destination for Coastland Residents Under Global Warming

Authors: Ya-Fen Lee, Yun-Yao Chi, Cing-Hong Hung

Abstract:

Because of the global warming and the rising sea level, residents living in southwestern coastland, Taiwan are faced with the submerged land and may move to higher elevation area. It is desirable to discuss the key consideration factor for selecting the migration location under five dimensions of ಯ security”, “health”, “convenience”, “comfort” and “socio-economic” based on the document reviews. This paper uses the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and the questionnaire survey. The analysis results show that the convenience is the most key factor for residents in Taiwan. 

Keywords: Global warming, migration, structural equation modelling, questionnaire survey.

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29 Prediction of Scour Profile Caused by Submerged Three-Dimensional Wall Jets

Authors: Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar

Abstract:

Series of laboratory tests were carried out to study the extent of scour caused by a three-dimensional wall jets exiting from a square cross-section nozzle and into a non-cohesive sand beds. Previous observations have indicated that the effect of the tail water depth was significant for densimetric Froude number greater than ten. However, the present results indicate that the cut off value could be lower depending on the value of grain size-to-nozzle width ratio. Numbers of equations are drawn out for a better scaling of numerous scour parameters. Also suggested the empirical prediction of scour to predict the scour centre line profile and plan view of scour profile at any particular time.

Keywords: Densimetric Froude Number, Jets, Nozzle, Sand, Scour, Tailwater, Time.

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28 Synthesis of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid Method

Authors: Zhypargul Abdullaeva, Emil Omurzak, Tsutomu Mashimo

Abstract:

Copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS) were successfully synthesized by the pulsed plasma in liquid method, using two copper rod electrodes submerged in molten sulfur. Low electrical energy and no high temperature were applied for synthesis. Obtained CuS nanoparticles were then analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction, Low and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron, Raman Spectroscopies and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. XRD analysis revealed peaks for CuS with hexagonal phase composition. TEM and HRTEM studies showed that sizes of CuS nanoparticles ranged between 10-60 nm, with the average size of about 20 nm. Copper sulfide nanoparticles have short nanorod-like structure. Raman spectroscopy found peak for CuS at 474.2cm-1of Raman region.

Keywords: Copper sulfide, Nanoparticles, Pulsed plasma, Synthesis.

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27 Optimization of Lipase Production Using Bacillus subtilis by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: A. Shyamala Devi, K. Chitra Devi, R. Rajendiran

Abstract:

A total of 6 isolates of Bacillus subtilis were isolated from oil mill waste collected in Namakkal district, Tamilnadu, India. The isolated bacteria were screened using lipase screening medium containing Tween 80. BS-3 isolate exhibited a greater clear zone than the others, indicating higher lipase activity. Therefore, this isolate was selected for media optimization studies. Ten process variables were screened using Plackett–Burman design and were further optimized by central composite design of response surface methodology for lipase production in submerged fermentation. Maximum lipase production of 16.627 U/min/ml were predicted in medium containing yeast extract (9.3636g), CaCl2 (0.8986g) and incubation periods (1.813 days). A mean value of 16.98 ± 0.2286 U/min/ml of lipase was acquired from real experiments.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, extracellular lipase, Plackett–Burman design, response surface methodology.

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26 CFD Simulations of Flow in Capillary Flow Liquid Acquisition Device Channel

Authors: John B. McQuillen, David F. Chao, Nancy R. Hall, Brian J. Motil, Nengli Zhang

Abstract:

Future space vehicles will require the use of non-toxic, cryogenic propellants, because of the performance advantages over the toxic hypergolic propellants and also because of the environmental and handling concerns. A prototypical capillary flow liquid acquisition device (LAD) for cryogenic propellants was fabricated with a mesh screen, covering a rectangular flow channel with a cylindrical outlet tube, and was tested with liquid oxygen (LOX). In order to better understand the performance in various gravity environments and orientations with different submersion depths of the LAD, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of LOX flow through the LAD screen channel, including horizontally and vertically submersions of the LAD channel assembly at normal gravity environment was conducted. Gravity effects on the flow field in LAD channel are inspected and analyzed through comparing the simulations.

Keywords: Liquid acquisition device, cryogenic propellants, CFD simulation, vertically submerged screen channel, gravity effects.

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25 Identification Characterization and Production of Phytase from Endophytic Fungi

Authors: Yetti Marlida , Rina Delfita , Neni Gusmanizar, Gita Ciptaan

Abstract:

Phytases are acid phosphatase enzymes, which efficiently cleave phosphate moieties from phytic acid, thereby generating myo-inositol and inorganic phosphate. Thirty four isolates of endophytic fungi to produce of phytases were isolated from leaf, stem and root fragments of soybean. Screening of 34 isolates of endophytic fungi identified the phytases produced by Rhizoctonia sp. and Fusarium verticillioides . The phytase production were the best induced by phytic acid and rice bran compared the others inducer in submerged fermentation medium used. The phytase produced by both Rhizoctonia sp. and F. verticillioides have pH optimum at 4.0 and 5.0 respectively. The characterization of phytase from Fusarium verticillioides showed that temperature optimum was 500C and stability until 600C, the pH optimum 5.0 and pH stability was 2.5 – 6.0, and substrate specificity were rice bran>soybean meal>corn> coconut cake, respectively.

Keywords: endophytic fungus, phytase, soybean, Rhizoctoniasp., Fusarium verticillioides,

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24 Durability of Lime Treated Soil Reinforced by Natural Fiber under Bending Force

Authors: Vivi Anggraini, Afshin Asadi, Bujang B. K. Huat

Abstract:

Earth structures constructed of marine clay soils have tendency to crack. In order to improve the flexural strength and brittleness, a technique of mixing short fibers is introduced to the soil lime mixture. Coir fiber was used in this study as reinforcing elements. An experimental investigation consisting primarily of flexural tensile tests was conducted to examine the influence of coir fibers on the flexural behaviour of the reinforced soils. The test results that the coir fibers were effective in improving the flexural strength and Young’s modulus of all soils examined and ductility after peak strength for reinforced marine clay soil treated by lime. 5% lime treated soil and 1% coir fiber reinforced soil specimens’ demonstrated good strength and durability when submerged in water and retained 45% of their air-cured strengths.

Keywords: Flexural strength, Durabilty, Lime, Coir Fibers, Bending force, Ductility.

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23 Contribution to the Analytical Study of Barrier Surface Waves: Decomposition of the Solution

Authors: T. Zitoun, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

When a partially or completely immersed solid moves in a liquid such as water, it undergoes a force called hydrodynamic drag. Reducing this force has always been the objective of hydrodynamic engineers to make water slide better on submerged bodies. This paper deals with the examination of the different terms composing the analytical solution of the flow over an obstacle embedded at the bottom of a hydraulic channel. We have chosen to use a linear method to study a two-dimensional flow over an obstacle, in order to understand the evolution of the drag. We set the following assumptions: incompressible inviscid fluid, irrotational flow, low obstacle height compared to the water height. Those assumptions allow overcoming the difficulties associated with modelling these waves. We will mathematically formulate the equations that allow the determination of the stream function, and then the free surface equation. A similar method is used to determine the exact analytical solution for an obstacle in the shape of a sinusoidal arch.

Keywords: Free-surface wave, inviscid fluid, analytical solution, hydraulic channel.

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22 Enhanced Mycophenolic Acid Production by Penicillium brevicompactum with Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Casein

Authors: F. Ardestani, S. S. A. Fatemi, B. Yakhchali

Abstract:

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a secondary metabolite produced by Penicillium brevicompactum, which has antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. In this study, the first, mycophenolic acid was produced in a fermentation process by Penicillium brevicompactum MUCL 19011 in shake flask using a base medium. The maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity of process were 1.379 g/L, 18.6 mg/g glucose and 4.9 mg/L. h, respectively. Also the glucose consumption, biomass and MPA production profiles were investigated during batch cultivation. Obtained results showed that MPA production starts approximately after 180 hours and reaches to a maximum at 280 h. In the next step, the effects of some various concentrations of enzymatically hydrolyzed casein on MPA production were evaluated. Maximum MPA production, product yield and productivity as 3.63 g/L, 49 mg/g glucose and 12.96 mg/L.h, respectively were obtained with using 30 g/L enzymatically hydrolyzed casein in culture medium. These values show an enhanced MPA production, product yield and process productivity pr as 116.8%, 132.8% and 163.2%, respectively.

Keywords: Penicillium brevicompactum, Enzymatically hydrolyzed casein, Mycophenolic acid, Submerged culture

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21 Hysteresis Behaviour of Mass Concrete Mixed with Plastic Fibre under Compression

Authors: A. A. Okeola, T. I. Sijuade

Abstract:

Unreinforced concrete is a comparatively brittle substance when exposed to tensile stresses, the required tensile strength is provided by the introduction of steel which is used as reinforcement. The strength of concrete may be improved tremendously by the addition of fibre. This study focused on investigating the compressive strength of mass concrete mixed with different percentage of plastic fibre. Twelve samples of concrete cubes with varied percentage of plastic fibre at 7, 14 and 28 days of water submerged curing were tested under compression loading. The result shows that the compressive strength of plastic fibre reinforced concrete increased with rise in curing age. The strength increases for all percentage dosage of fibre used for the concrete. The density of the Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) also increases with curing age, which implies that during curing, concrete absorbs water which aids its hydration. The least compressive strength obtained with the introduction of plastic fibre is more than the targeted 20 N/mm2 recommended for construction work showing that PFRC can be used where significant loading is expected.

Keywords: Compressive strength, plastic fibre, concrete, curing, density.

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