**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**1605

# Search results for: scaling factor

##### 1605 Floating-Point Scaling for BSS Gain Control

**Authors:**
Abdelmalek Fermas,
Adel Belouchrani,
Otmane Ait Mohamed

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Automatic Gain Control,
Blind Source Separation,
Floating-Point Representation,
FPGA Implementation.

##### 1604 Prediction of the Torsional Vibration Characteristics of a Rotor-Shaft System Using Its Scale Model and Scaling Laws

**Authors:**
Jia-Jang Wu

**Abstract:**

This paper presents the scaling laws that provide the criteria of geometry and dynamic similitude between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, and can be used to predict the torsional vibration characteristics of the full-size rotor-shaft system by manipulating the corresponding data of its scale model. The scaling factors, which play fundamental roles in predicting the geometry and dynamic relationships between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, for torsional free vibration problems between scale and full-size rotor-shaft systems are firstly obtained from the equation of motion of torsional free vibration. Then, the scaling factor of external force (i.e., torque) required for the torsional forced vibration problems is determined based on the Newton’s second law. Numerical results show that the torsional free and forced vibration characteristics of a full-size rotor-shaft system can be accurately predicted from those of its scale models by using the foregoing scaling factors. For this reason, it is believed that the presented approach will be significant for investigating the relevant phenomenon in the scale model tests.

**Keywords:**
Torsional vibration,
full-size model,
scale model,
scaling laws.

##### 1603 Modified Scaling-Free CORDIC Based Pipelined Parallel MDC FFT and IFFT Architecture for Radix 2^2 Algorithm

**Authors:**
C. Paramasivam,
K. B. Jayanthi

**Abstract:**

^{2}FFT algorithm is presented. Multipliers and adders are the most important data paths in FFT and IFFT architectures. Multipliers occupy high area and consume more power. In order to optimize the area and power overhead, modified scaling-free CORDIC based complex multiplier is utilized in the proposed design. In general twiddle factor values are stored in RAM block. In the proposed work, modified scaling-free CORDIC based twiddle factor generator unit is used to generate the twiddle factor and efficient switching units are used. In addition to this, four point FFT operations are performed without complex multiplication which helps to reduce area and power in the last two stages of the pipelined architectures. The design proposed in this paper is based on multipath delay commutator method. The proposed design can be extended to any radix 2

^{n}based FFT/IFFT algorithm to improve the throughput. The work is synthesized using Synopsys design Compiler using TSMC 90-nm library. The proposed method proves to be better compared to the reference design in terms of area, throughput and power consumption. The comparative analysis of the proposed design with Xilinx FPGA platform is also discussed in the paper.

**Keywords:**
Coordinate Rotational Digital Computer(CORDIC),
Complex multiplier,
Fast Fourier transform (FFT),
Inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT),
Multipath delay Commutator (MDC),
modified scaling free CORDIC,
complex multiplier,
pipelining,
parallel processing,
radix-2^2.

##### 1602 An Improved Performance of the SRM Drives Using Z-Source Inverter with the Simplified Fuzzy Logic Rule Base

**Authors:**
M. Hari Prabhu

**Abstract:**

This paper is based on the performance of the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) drives using Z-Source Inverter with the simplified rule base of Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) with the output scaling factor (SF) self-tuning mechanism are proposed. The aim of this paper is to simplify the program complexity of the controller by reducing the number of fuzzy sets of the membership functions (MFs) without losing the system performance and stability via the adjustable controller gain. ZSI exhibits both voltage-buck and voltage-boost capability. It reduces line harmonics, improves reliability, and extends output voltage range. The output SF of the controller can be tuned continuously by a gain updating factor, whose value is derived from fuzzy logic, with the plant error and error change ratio as input variables. Then the results, carried out on a four-phase 6/8 pole SRM based on the dSPACEDS1104 platform, to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the devised methods and also performance of the proposed controllers will be compared with conventional counterpart.

**Keywords:**
Fuzzy logic controller,
scaling factor (SF),
switched reluctance motor (SRM),
variable-speed drives.

##### 1601 Long-Term Durability of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement

**Authors:**
Jun Hee Lee,
Young Kyu Kim,
Seong Jae Hong,
Chamroeun Chhorn,
Seung Woo Lee

**Abstract:**

Roller-compacted concrete pavement (RCCP), an environmental friendly pavement of which load carry capacity benefitted from both hydration and aggregate interlock from roller compacting, demonstrated a superb structural performance for a relatively small amount of water and cement content. Even though an excellent structural performance can be secured, it is required to investigate roller-compacted concrete (RCC) under environmental loading and its long-term durability under critical conditions. In order to secure long-term durability, an appropriate internal air-void structure is required for this concrete. In this study, a method for improving the long-term durability of RCCP is suggested by analyzing the internal air-void structure and corresponding durability of RCC. The method of improving the long-term durability involves measurements of air content, air voids, and air-spacing factors in RCC that experiences changes in terms of type of air-entraining agent and its usage amount. This test is conducted according to the testing criteria in ASTM C 457, 672, and KS F 2456. It was found that the freezing-thawing and scaling resistances of RCC without any chemical admixture was quite low. Interestingly, an improvement of freezing-thawing and scaling resistances was observed for RCC with appropriate the air entraining (AE) agent content; Relative dynamic elastic modulus was found to be more than 80% for those mixtures. In RCC with AE agent mixtures, large amount of air was distributed within a range of 2% to 3%, and an air void spacing factor ranging between 200 and 300 μm (close to 250 μm, recommended by PCA) was secured. The long-term durability of RCC has a direct relationship with air-void spacing factor, and thus it can only be secured by ensuring the air void spacing factor through the inclusion of the AE in the mixture.

**Keywords:**
RCCP,
durability,
air spacing factor,
surface scaling resistance test,
freezing and thawing resistance test.

##### 1600 Fractal Shapes Description with Parametric L-systems and Turtle Algebra

**Authors:**
Ikbal Zammouri,
Béchir Ayeb

**Abstract:**

In this paper, we propose a new method to describe fractal shapes using parametric l-systems. First we introduce scaling factors in the production rules of the parametric l-systems grammars. Then we decorticate these grammars with scaling factors using turtle algebra to show the mathematical relation between l-systems and iterated function systems (IFS). We demonstrate that with specific values of the scaling factors, we find the exact relationship established by Prusinkiewicz and Hammel between l-systems and IFS.

**Keywords:**
Fractal shapes,
IFS,
parametric l-systems,
turtlealgebra.

##### 1599 Numerical Solution for Integro-Differential Equations by Using Quartic B-Spline Wavelet and Operational Matrices

**Authors:**
Khosrow Maleknejad,
Yaser Rostami

**Abstract:**

In this paper, Semi-orthogonal B-spline scaling functions and wavelets and their dual functions are presented to approximate the solutions of integro-differential equations.The B-spline scaling functions and wavelets, their properties and the operational matrices of derivative for this function are presented to reduce the solution of integro-differential equations to the solution of algebraic equations. Here we compute B-spline scaling functions of degree 4 and their dual, then we will show that by using them we have better approximation results for the solution of integro-differential equations in comparison with less degrees of scaling functions

**Keywords:**
Integro-differential equations,
Quartic B-spline
wavelet,
Operational matrices.

##### 1598 Complex Energy Signal Model for Digital Human Fingerprint Matching

**Authors:**
Jason Zalev,
Reza Sedaghat

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Affine Invariant,
Fingerprint Recognition,
Matching,
Minutiae.

##### 1597 Comparison of Developed Statokinesigram and Marker Data Signals by Model Approach

**Authors:**
Boris Barbolyas,
Kristina Buckova,
Tomas Volensky,
Cyril Belavy,
Ladislav Dedik

**Abstract:**

*λ*) between DST and DMT by linear regression analysis were evaluated, too. Results: Scaling coefficients for marker trajectories were identified for all body segments. Head markers trajectories reached maximal value and ankle markers trajectories had a minimal value of scaling coefficient. Hips, knees and ankles markers were approximately symmetrical in the meaning of scaling coefficient. Notable differences of scaling coefficient were detected in head and shoulders markers trajectories which were not symmetrical. The model of postural system behavior was identified by MDST. Conclusion: Value of scaling factor identifies which body segment is predisposed to postural instability. Hypothetically, if statokinesigram represents overall human postural system response to vibration stimuli, then markers data represented particular postural responses. It can be assumed that cumulative sum of particular marker postural responses is equal to statokinesigram.

**Keywords:**
Center of pressure (CoP),
a method of developed statokinesigram trajectory (MDST),
a model of postural system behavior,
retroreflective marker data.

##### 1596 A Sufficient Condition for Graphs to Have Hamiltonian [a, b]-Factors

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou

**Abstract:**

Let a and b be nonnegative integers with 2 ≤ a < b, and let G be a Hamiltonian graph of order n with n ≥ (a+b−4)(a+b−2) b−2 . An [a, b]-factor F of G is called a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if F contains a Hamiltonian cycle. In this paper, it is proved that G has a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if |NG(X)| > (a−1)n+|X|−1 a+b−3 for every nonempty independent subset X of V (G) and δ(G) > (a−1)n+a+b−4 a+b−3 .

**Keywords:**
graph,
minimum degree,
neighborhood,
[a,
b]-factor,
Hamiltonian [a,
b]-factor.

##### 1595 Hamiltonian Factors in Hamiltonian Graphs

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou,
Bingyuan Pu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
graph,
neighborhood,
factor,
Hamiltonian factor.

##### 1594 Dynamic Slope Scaling Procedure for Stochastic Integer Programming Problem

**Authors:**
Takayuki Shiina

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
stochastic programming problem with recourse,
simple
integer recourse,
dynamic slope scaling procedure

##### 1593 Abrupt Scene Change Detection

**Authors:**
Priyadarshinee Adhikari,
Neeta Gargote,
Jyothi Digge,
B.G. Hogade

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Abrupt change,
color histogram,
ground-truthing,
precision,
recall,
scaling,
threshold.

##### 1592 Scaling Strategy of a New Experimental Rig for Wheel-Rail Contact

**Authors:**
Meysam Naeimi,
Zili Li,
Rolf Dollevoet

**Abstract:**

A new small–scale test rig developed for rolling contact fatigue (RCF) investigations in wheel–rail material. This paper presents the scaling strategy of the rig based on dimensional analysis and mechanical modelling. The new experimental rig is indeed a spinning frame structure with multiple wheel components over a fixed rail-track ring, capable of simulating continuous wheelrail contact in a laboratory scale. This paper describes the dimensional design of the rig, to derive its overall scaling strategy and to determine the key elements’ specifications. Finite element (FE) modelling is used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the rig with two sample scale factors of 1/5 and 1/7. The results of FE models are compared with the actual railway system to observe the effectiveness of the chosen scales. The mechanical properties of the components and variables of the system are finally determined through the design process.

**Keywords:**
New test rig,
rolling contact fatigue,
rail,
small scale.

##### 1591 An Additive Watermarking Technique in Gray Scale Images Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation and Its Analysis on Watermark Strength

**Authors:**
Kamaldeep Joshi,
Rajkumar Yadav,
Ashok Kumar Yadav

**Abstract:**

Digital Watermarking is a procedure to prevent the unauthorized access and modification of personal data*.* It assures that the communication between two parties remains secure and their communication should be undetected. This paper investigates the consequence of the watermark strength of the grayscale image using a Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) additive technique. In this method, the gray scale host image is divided into four sub bands: LL (Low-Low), HL (High-Low), LH (Low-High), HH (High-High) and the watermark is inserted in an LL sub band using DWT technique. As the image is divided into four sub bands, a watermark of equal size of the LL sub band has been inserted and the results are discussed. LL represents the average component of the host image which contains the maximum information of the image. Two kinds of experiments are performed. In the first, the same watermark is embedded in different images and in the later on the strength of the watermark varies by a factor of s i.e. (s=10, 20, 30, 40, 50) and it is inserted in the same image.

**Keywords:**
Watermarking,
discrete wavelet transform,
scaling factor,
steganography.

##### 1590 Constructing an Attitude Scale: Attitudes toward Violence on Televisions

**Authors:**
Göksu Gözen Citak

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Attitudes toward violence,
confirmatory factor analysis,
constructing attitude scale,
exploratory factor analysis,
violence on televisions.

##### 1589 Contrast Enhancement in Digital Images Using an Adaptive Unsharp Masking Method

**Authors:**
Z. Mortezaie,
H. Hassanpour,
S. Asadi Amiri

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Unsharp masking,
blur image,
sub-region gradient,
image enhancement.

##### 1588 Study of Pipes Scaling of Purified Wastewater Intended for the Irrigation of Agadir Golf Grass

**Authors:**
A. Driouiche,
S. Mohareb,
A. Hadfi

**Abstract:**

In Morocco’s Agadir region, the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation of green spaces has faced the problem of scaling of the pipes of these waters. This research paper aims at studying the phenomenon of scaling caused by the treated wastewater from the Mzar sewage treatment plant. These waters are used in the irrigation of golf turf for the Ocean Golf Resort. Ocean Golf, located about 10 km from the center of the city of Agadir, is one of the most important recreation centers in Morocco. The course is a Belt Collins design with 27 holes, and is quite open with deep challenging bunkers. The formation of solid deposits in the irrigation systems has led to a decrease in their lifetime and, consequently, a loss of load and performance. Thus, the sprinklers used in golf turf irrigation are plugged in the first weeks of operation. To study this phenomenon, the wastewater used for the irrigation of the golf turf was taken and analyzed at various points, and also samples of scale formed in the circuits of the passage of these waters were characterized. This characterization of the scale was performed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the physicochemical analysis of the waters show that they are full of bicarbonates (653 mg/L), chloride (478 mg/L), nitrate (412 mg/L), sodium (425 mg/L) and calcium (199mg/L). Their pH is slightly alkaline. The analysis of the scale reveals that it is rich in calcium and phosphorus. It is formed of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃), silica (SiO₂), calcium silicate (Ca₂SiO₄), hydroxylapatite (Ca₁₀P₆O₂₆), calcium carbonate and phosphate (Ca₁₀(PO₄) 6CO₃) and silicate calcium and magnesium (Ca₅MgSi₃O₁₂).

**Keywords:**
Agadir,
irrigation,
scaling water,
wastewater.

##### 1587 Analysis and Measuring Surface Roughness of Nonwovens Using Machine Vision Method

**Authors:**
Dariush Semnani,
Javad Yekrang,
Hossein Ghayoor

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Surface roughness,
Nonwoven,
Machine vision,
Image processing.

##### 1586 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Shallow Foundations with Different Shapes

**Authors:**
S. Taghvamanesh,
R. Ziaie Moayed

**Abstract:**

There are several methods for calculating the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Nγ (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Nγ depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. It is apparent that the value of Nγ increases irregularly with the friction angle of the subsoil, which leads to an excessive increment in Nγ of foundations with larger width. Also, the bearing capacity factor Nγ will significantly decrease with an increase in foundation`s width. It also should be highlighted that the effect of shape and dimension will be less noticeable with a decrease in the relative density of the soil. Hence, the bearing capacity factor Nγ relatively depends on foundation`s width, surcharge and roughness ratio. This paper presents the results of various studies conducted on the bearing capacity factor Nγ of: different types of shallow foundation and foundations with irregular geometry (ring footing, triangular footing, shell foundations and etc.) Further studies on the effect of bearing capacity factor Nγ on mat foundations and the characteristics of this factor with or without consideration for the presence of friction between soil and foundation are recommended.

**Keywords:**
Bearing capacity,
Bearing capacity factor,
irregular foundation,
shallow foundation.

##### 1585 A Case Study of Limited Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling in Low-Power Processors

**Authors:**
Hwan Su Jung,
Ahn Jun Gil,
Jong Tae Kim

**Abstract:**

Power management techniques are necessary to save power in the microprocessor. By changing the frequency and/or operating voltage of processor, DVFS can control power consumption. In this paper, we perform a case study to find optimal power state transition for DVFS. We propose the equation to find the optimal ratio between executions of states while taking into account the deadline of processing time and the power state transition delay overhead. The experiment is performed on the Cortex-M4 processor, and average 6.5% power saving is observed when DVFS is applied under the deadline condition.

**Keywords:**
Deadline,
Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling,
Power State Transition.

##### 1584 Energy Efficiency Testing of Fluorescent and WOLED (White Organic LED)

**Authors:**
Hari Maghfiroh,
Harry Prabowo

**Abstract:**

WOLED is widely used as lighting for high efficacy and little power consumption. In this research, power factor testing between WOLED and fluorescent lamp to see which one is more efficient in consuming energy. Since both lamps use semiconductor components, so calculation of the power factor need to consider the effects of harmonics. Harmonic make bigger losses. The study is conducted by comparing the value of the power factor regardless of harmonics (DPF) and also by included the harmonics (TPF). The average value of DPF of fluorescent is 0.953 while WOLED is 0.972. The average value of TPF of fluorescent is 0.717 whereas WOLED is 0.933. So from the review of power factor WOLED is more energy efficient than fluorescent lamp.

**Keywords:**
Fluorescent,
harmonic,
power factor,
WOLED.

##### 1583 The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) with Turkish Sample: Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis

**Authors:**
Oznur Korukcu,
Kamile Kukulu,
Mehmet Z. Firat

**Abstract:**

The propose of this study is to investigate the factor structures of the W-DEQ, originally developed on UK and Swedish women, were confirmed in Turkish samples, and to obtain a new modified factor structure appropriate to Turkish culture. Statistical analyses of the data obtained were performed using SPSS© for Windows version 13.0 and the SAS statistical software Version 9.1. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of W-DEQ were performed in the study. Factor analysis yielded four factors related to hope, fear, lack of positive anticipation and riskiness. The alpha estimates of the total W-DEQ score were somewhat higher, being 0.92 for the parous and 0.90 for the nulliparous sample. These are well above the accepted limit of 0.70 and indicate excellent levels of internal reliability, thus showing that the questions were appropriate to the Turkish culture and useful scale for the evaluation of fear of childbirth in Turkish pregnants.

**Keywords:**
Confirmatory factor analysis,
cross-cultural research,
exploratory factor analysis,
fear of childbirth.

##### 1582 Evaluation of Behavior Factor for Steel Moment-Resisting Frames

**Authors:**
Taïeb Branci,
Djamal Yahmi,
Abdelhamid Bouchair,
Eric Fourneley

**Abstract:**

According to current seismic codes the structures are calculated using the capacity design procedure based on the concept of shear at the base depending on several parameters including behavior factor which is considered to be the most important parameter. The behavior factor allows designing the structure when it is at its ultimate limit state taking into account its energy dissipation through its plastic deformation. The aim of the present study is to assess the basic parameters on which is composed the behavior factor among them the reduction factor due to ductility, and those due to redundancy and the overstrength for steel moment-resisting frames of different heights and regular configuration. Analyses are conducted on these frames using the nonlinear static method where the effect of some parameters on the behavior factor, such as the number of stories and the number of spans, are taken into account. The results show that the behavior factor is rather sensitive to the variation of the number of stories and bays.

**Keywords:**
Behavior,
code,
frame,
ductility,
overstrength,
redundancy,
plastic.

##### 1581 A Neighborhood Condition for Fractional k-deleted Graphs

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou,
Hongxia Liu

**Abstract:**

Abstract–Let k ≥ 3 be an integer, and let G be a graph of order n with n ≥ 9k +3- 42(k - 1)2 + 2. Then a spanning subgraph F of G is called a k-factor if dF (x) = k for each x ∈ V (G). A fractional k-factor is a way of assigning weights to the edges of a graph G (with all weights between 0 and 1) such that for each vertex the sum of the weights of the edges incident with that vertex is k. A graph G is a fractional k-deleted graph if there exists a fractional k-factor after deleting any edge of G. In this paper, it is proved that G is a fractional k-deleted graph if G satisfies δ(G) ≥ k + 1 and |NG(x) ∪ NG(y)| ≥ 1 2 (n + k - 2) for each pair of nonadjacent vertices x, y of G.

**Keywords:**
Graph,
minimum degree,
neighborhood union,
fractional k-factor,
fractional k-deleted graph.

##### 1580 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A Comprehension Augmented Complexity Metric

**Authors:**
T. Francis Thamburaj,
A. Aloysius

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cognitive complexity metric,
cognitive weighted
polymorphism factor,
object-oriented metrics,
polymorphism factor,
software metrics.

##### 1579 A High Quality Factor Filter Based on Quasi-Periodic Photonic Structure

**Authors:**
Hamed Alipour-Banaei,
Farhad Mehdizadeh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Thue-Morse,
filter,
quality factor.

##### 1578 Affine Projection Algorithm with Variable Data-Reuse Factor

**Authors:**
ChangWoo Lee,
Young Kow Lee,
Sung Jun Ban,
SungHoo Choi,
Sang Woo Kim

**Abstract:**

This paper suggests a new Affine Projection (AP) algorithm with variable data-reuse factor using the condition number as a decision factor. To reduce computational burden, we adopt a recently reported technique which estimates the condition number of an input data matrix. Several simulations show that the new algorithm has better performance than that of the conventional AP algorithm.

**Keywords:**
Affine projection algorithm,
variable data-reuse factor,
condition number,
convergence rate,
misalignment.

##### 1577 Establishing a New Simple Formula for Buckling Length Factor (K) of Rigid Frames Columns

**Authors:**
Ehab Hasan Ahmed Hasan Ali

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Buckling length,
New formula,
Curve fitting,
Simplification,
Steel column design.

##### 1576 Electron Filling Factor and Sunlight Concentration Effects on the Efficiency of Intermediate Band Solar Cell

**Authors:**
Nima Es'haghi Gorji,
Hossein Movla,
Foozieh Sohrabi,
Alireza Mottaghizadeh,
Mohammad Houshmand,
Hassan Babaei,
Arash Nikniazi

**Abstract:**

For a determined intermediate band position, the effects of electron filling factor and sunlight concentration on the active region thickness and efficiency of the quantum-dot intermediate band solar cell are calculated. For each value of electron filling factor, the maximum point of efficiency obtained and resulted in the optimum thickness of the cell under three different sunlight concentrations. We show the importance of filling factor as a parameter to be more considered. The photon recycling effect eliminated in all calculations.

**Keywords:**
Intermediate band,
Sunlight concentration,
Efficiency limits,
Electron filling factor