Search results for: Coverage
173 Harmony Search-based K-Coverage Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Shaimaa M. Mohamed, Haitham S. Hamza, Imane A. Saroit
Many wireless sensor network applications require K-coverage of the monitored area. In this paper, we propose a scalable harmony search based algorithm in terms of execution time, K-Coverage Enhancement Algorithm (KCEA), it attempts to enhance initial coverage, and achieve the required K-coverage degree for a specific application efficiently. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves coverage improvement of 5.34% compared to K-Coverage Rate Deployment (K-CRD), which achieves 1.31% when deploying one additional sensor. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is more time efficient.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Harmony Search Algorithms, K-Coverage, Mobile WSN.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2042
172 Coverage Availability for the IEEE 802.16 System over the SUI Channels with Rayleigh Fading
Authors: Shiann-Shiun Jeng, Chen-Wan Tsung, Hong-You Liou, Chun-Chieh Chang, Jia-Ming Chen
Abstract:The coverage probability and range of IEEE 802.16 systems depend on different wireless scenarios. Evaluating the performance of IEEE 802.16 systems over Stanford University Interim (SUI) channels is suggested by IEEE 802.16 specifications. In order to derive an effective method for forecasting the coverage probability and range, this study uses the SUI channel model to analyze the coverage probability with Rayleigh fading for an IEEE 802.16 system. The BER of the IEEE 802.16 system is shown in the simulation results. Then, the maximum allowed path loss can be calculated and substituted into the coverage analysis. Therefore, simulation results show the coverage range with and without Rayleigh fading.
Keywords: OFDM, coverage, SUI channel, IEEE 802.16Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1324
171 Towards for Admission Control in WIMAX Relay Station Mesh Network for Mobile Stations out of Coverage Using Ad-Hoc
Authors: Anas Majeed, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, Laiha Mat Kiah
WIMAX relay station mesh network has been approved by IEEE 802.16j as a standard to provide a highly data rate transmission, the RS was implemented to extend the coverage zone of the BS, for instance the MSs previously were out of the coverage of the BS they become in the coverage of the RS, therefore these MSs can have Admission control from the BS through the RS. This paper describe a problem in the mesh network Relay station, for instance the problem of how to serve the mobile stations (MSs) which are out of the Relay station coverage. This paper also proposed a solution for mobile stations out of the coverage of the WIMAX Relay stations mesh Network. Therefore Ad-hoc network defined as a solution by using its admission control schema and apply it on the mobiles inside and outside the Relay station coverage.
Keywords: WIMAX, relay station, mesh network, ad-hoc, WiFi, generic algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1567
170 Coverage Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Nor Azlina Ab. Aziz, Kamarulzaman Ab. Aziz, Wan Zakiah Wan Ismail
Coverage is one of the main research interests in wireless sensor networks (WSN), it is used to determine the quality of service (QoS) of the networks. Therefore this paper aims to review the common strategies use in solving coverage problem in WSN. The strategies studied are used during deployment phase where the coverage is calculated based on the placement of the sensors on the region of interest (ROI). The strategies reviewed are categorized into three groups based on the approaches used, namely; force based, grid based or computational geometry based approach.
Keywords: Computational geometry, coverage, Delaunay triangulation, force, grid, Voronoi diagram, wireless sensor networks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3174
169 Coverage and Capacity Performance Degradation on a Co-Located Network Involving CDMA2000 and WCDMA @1.9GH
Authors: O. C. Nosiri, V. E. Idigo, C. O. Ohaneme, K. A. Akpado
Coverage and capacity performance in a cellular network determines the system potentials. If the coverage radius is limited, end users suffer poor service quality, if the system capacity reduces, fewer subscribers will be accommodated. This paper investigated the performance effects of the noise rise caused by the spurious emission from a co-located jammer involving downlink frequency of CDMA2000 and uplink frequency of WCDMA operating at 1.9GHz. Measurements were carried out to evaluate the impact on the coverage radius and the system capacity.
Keywords: Capacity, Co-location, Coverage, Noise rise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1859
168 Coverage and Connectivity Problem in Sensor Networks
Authors: Meenakshi Bansal, Iqbal Singh, Parvinder S. Sandhu
Abstract:In over deployed sensor networks, one approach to Conserve energy is to keep only a small subset of sensors active at Any instant. For the coverage problems, the monitoring area in a set of points that require sensing, called demand points, and consider that the node coverage area is a circle of range R, where R is the sensing range, If the Distance between a demand point and a sensor node is less than R, the node is able to cover this point. We consider a wireless sensor network consisting of a set of sensors deployed randomly. A point in the monitored area is covered if it is within the sensing range of a sensor. In some applications, when the network is sufficiently dense, area coverage can be approximated by guaranteeing point coverage. In this case, all the points of wireless devices could be used to represent the whole area, and the working sensors are supposed to cover all the sensors. We also introduce Hybrid Algorithm and challenges related to coverage in sensor networks.
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, network coverage, Energy conservation, Hybrid Algorithms.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1614
167 Cluster Based Energy Efficient and Fault Tolerant n-Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network
Authors: D. Satish Kumar, N. Nagarajan
Coverage conservation and extend the network lifetime are the primary issues in wireless sensor networks. Due to the large variety of applications, coverage is focus to a wide range of interpretations. The applications necessitate that each point in the area is observed by only one sensor while other applications may require that each point is enclosed by at least sensors (n>1) to achieve fault tolerance. Sensor scheduling activities in existing Transparent and non- Transparent relay modes (T-NT) Mobile Multi-Hop relay networks fails to guarantee area coverage with minimal energy consumption and fault tolerance. To overcome these issues, Cluster based Energy Competent n- coverage scheme called (CEC n-coverage scheme) to ensure the full coverage of a monitored area while saving energy. CEC n-coverage scheme uses a novel sensor scheduling scheme based on the n-density and the remaining energy of each sensor to determine the state of all the deployed sensors to be either active or sleep as well as the state durations. Hence, it is attractive to trigger a minimum number of sensors that are able to ensure coverage area and turn off some redundant sensors to save energy and therefore extend network lifetime. In addition, decisive a smallest amount of active sensors based on the degree coverage required and its level. A variety of numerical parameters are computed using ns2 simulator on existing (T-NT) Mobile Multi-Hop relay networks and CEC n-coverage scheme. Simulation results showed that CEC n-coverage scheme in wireless sensor network provides better performance in terms of the energy efficiency, 6.61% reduced fault tolerant in terms of seconds and the percentage of active sensors to guarantee the area coverage compared to exiting algorithm.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor network, Mobile Multi-Hop relay networks, n-coverage, Cluster based Energy Competent, Transparent and non- Transparent relay modes, Fault Tolerant, sensor scheduling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2043
166 Performance of a Connected Random Covered Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network
Authors: M. Mahdavi, M. Ismail, K. Jumari, Z. M. Hanapi
For the sensor network to operate successfully, the active nodes should maintain both sensing coverage and network connectivity. Furthermore, scheduling sleep intervals plays critical role for energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks. Traditional methods for sensor scheduling use either sensing coverage or network connectivity, but rarely both. In this paper, we use random scheduling for sensing coverage and then turn on extra sensor nodes, if necessary, for network connectivity. Simulation results have demonstrated that the number of extra nodes that is on with upper bound of around 9%, is small compared to the total number of deployed sensor nodes. Thus energy consumption for switching on extra sensor node is small.
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, energy efficient network, performance analysis, network coverage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1182
165 A Review of Coverage and Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Hamid Barati, Ali Movaghar, Ali Barati, Arash Azizi Mazreah
Abstract:The special constraints of sensor networks impose a number of technical challenges for employing them. In this review, we study the issues and existing protocols in three areas: coverage and routing. We present two types of coverage problems: to determine the minimum number of sensor nodes that need to perform active sensing in order to monitor a certain area; and to decide the quality of service that can be provided by a given sensor network. While most routing protocols in sensor networks are data-centric, there are other types of routing protocols as well, such as hierarchical, location-based, and QoS-aware. We describe and compare several protocols in each group. We present several multipath routing protocols and single-path with local repair routing protocols, which are proposed for recovering from sensor node crashes. We also discuss some transport layer schemes for reliable data transmission in lossy wireless channels.
Keywords: Sensor networks, Coverage, Routing, Robustness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1556
164 An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications
Authors: Hyun-Jun Shin, Jae-Jeong Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song
In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive signals from both broadcasting station and cellular station. The proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.
Keywords: Cooperative communication, diversity, STBC, CDD, channel condition, broadcasting system, cellular system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1605
163 A Strategy for Scaling-Up Vitamin A Supplementation in a Remote Rural Setting
Authors: Wisdom G. Dube, Talent Makoni, Tasiana K. Nyadzayo, Namukolo M. Covic
Abstract:Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in Zimbabwe. Addressing vitamin A deficiency has the potential of enhancing resistance to disease and reducing mortality especially in children less than 5 years. We implemented and adapted vitamin A outreach supplementation strategy within the National Immunization Days and Extended Programme of Immunization in a rural district in Zimbabwe. Despite usual operational challenges faced this approach enabled the district to increase delivery of supplementation coverage. This paper describes the outreach strategy that was implemented in the remote rural district. The strategy covered 63 outreach sites with 2 sites being covered per day and visited once per month for the whole year. Coverage reached 71% in an area of previous coverage rates of around less than 50%. We recommend further exploration of this strategy by others working in similar circumstances. This strategy can be a potential way for use by Scaling-Up-Nutrition member states.
Keywords: Coverage, Strategy, Supplementation, Vitamin A.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1533
162 Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean and Variance with Restricted Parameter Space
Authors: Sa-aat Niwitpong
Recent articles have addressed the problem to construct the confidence intervals for the mean of a normal distribution where the parameter space is restricted, see for example Wang [Confidence intervals for the mean of a normal distribution with restricted parameter space. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, Vol. 78, No. 9, 2008, 829–841.], we derived, in this paper, analytic expressions of the coverage probability and the expected length of confidence interval for the normal mean when the whole parameter space is bounded. We also construct the confidence interval for the normal variance with restricted parameter for the first time and its coverage probability and expected length are also mathematically derived. As a result, one can use these criteria to assess the confidence interval for the normal mean and variance when the parameter space is restricted without the back up from simulation experiments.
Keywords: Confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, restricted parameter space.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1459
161 Coverage Probability Analysis of WiMAX Network under Additive White Gaussian Noise and Predicted Empirical Path Loss Model
Authors: Chaudhuri Manoj Kumar Swain, Susmita Das
This paper explores a detailed procedure of predicting a path loss (PL) model and its application in estimating the coverage probability in a WiMAX network. For this a hybrid approach is followed in predicting an empirical PL model of a 2.65 GHz WiMAX network deployed in a suburban environment. Data collection, statistical analysis, and regression analysis are the phases of operations incorporated in this approach and the importance of each of these phases has been discussed properly. The procedure of collecting data such as received signal strength indicator (RSSI) through experimental set up is demonstrated. From the collected data set, empirical PL and RSSI models are predicted with regression technique. Furthermore, with the aid of the predicted PL model, essential parameters such as PL exponent as well as the coverage probability of the network are evaluated. This research work may assist in the process of deployment and optimisation of any cellular network significantly.
Keywords: WiMAX, RSSI, path loss, coverage probability, regression analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 564
160 Performance Analysis of Cluster Based Dual Tired Network Model with INTK Security Scheme in a Wireless Sensor Network
Authors: D. Satish Kumar, S. Karthik
A dual tiered network model is designed to overcome the problem of energy alert and fault tolerance. This model minimizes the delay time and overcome failure of links. Performance analysis of the dual tiered network model is studied in this paper where the CA and LS schemes are compared with DEO optimal. We then evaluate the Integrated Network Topological Control and Key Management (INTK) Schemes, which was proposed to add security features of the wireless sensor networks. Clustering efficiency, level of protections, the time complexity is some of the parameters of INTK scheme that were analyzed. We then evaluate the Cluster based Energy Competent n-coverage scheme (CEC n-coverage scheme) to ensure area coverage for wireless sensor networks.
Keywords: CEC n-coverage scheme, Clustering efficiency, Dual tired network, Wireless sensor networks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1575
159 The Dependence of the Liquid Application on the Coverage of the Sprayed Objects in Terms of the Characteristics of the Sprayed Object during Spraying
Authors: Beata Cieniawska, Deta Łuczycka, Katarzyna Dereń
When assessing the quality of the spraying procedure, three indicators are used: uneven distribution of precipitation of liquid sprayed, degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces, and deposition of liquid spraying However, there is a lack of information on the relationship between the quality parameters of the procedure. Therefore, the research was carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Engineering of Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces and the deposition of liquid in the aspect of the parametric characteristics of the protected plant using selected single and double stream nozzles. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. The carrier of nozzles acted as an independent self-propelled sprayer used for spraying, whereas the parametric characteristics of plants were determined using artificial plants as the ratio of the vertical projection surface and the horizontal projection surface. The results and their analysis showed a strong and very strong correlation between the analyzed parameters in terms of the characteristics of the sprayed object.
Keywords: Degree of coverage, deposition of liquid, nozzle, spraying.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 640
158 Reliable Capacitated Facility Location Problem Considering Maximal Covering
Authors: Mehdi Seifbarghy, Sajjad Jalali, Seyed Habib A. Rahmati
Abstract:This paper provides a framework in order to incorporate reliability issue as a sign of disruption in distribution systems and partial covering theory as a response to limitation in coverage radios and economical preferences, simultaneously into the traditional literatures of capacitated facility location problems. As a result we develop a bi-objective model based on the discrete scenarios for expected cost minimization and demands coverage maximization through a three echelon supply chain network by facilitating multi-capacity levels for provider side layers and imposing gradual coverage function for distribution centers (DCs). Additionally, in spite of objectives aggregation for solving the model through LINGO software, a branch of LP-Metric method called Min- Max approach is proposed and different aspects of corresponds model will be explored.
Keywords: Reliability Cost, Partial Covering, LP-MetricProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1783
157 Distributed Coverage Control by Robot Networks in Unknown Environments Using a Modified EM Algorithm
Authors: Mohammadhosein Hasanbeig, Lacra Pavel
Abstract:In this paper, we study a distributed control algorithm for the problem of unknown area coverage by a network of robots. The coverage objective is to locate a set of targets in the area and to minimize the robots’ energy consumption. The robots have no prior knowledge about the location and also about the number of the targets in the area. One efficient approach that can be used to relax the robots’ lack of knowledge is to incorporate an auxiliary learning algorithm into the control scheme. A learning algorithm actually allows the robots to explore and study the unknown environment and to eventually overcome their lack of knowledge. The control algorithm itself is modeled based on game theory where the network of the robots use their collective information to play a non-cooperative potential game. The algorithm is tested via simulations to verify its performance and adaptability.
Keywords: Distributed control, game theory, multi-agent learning, reinforcement learning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 846
156 Methods for Case Maintenance in Case-Based Reasoning
Authors: A. Lawanna, J. Daengdej
Abstract:Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is one of machine learning algorithms for problem solving and learning that caught a lot of attention over the last few years. In general, CBR is composed of four main phases: retrieve the most similar case or cases, reuse the case to solve the problem, revise or adapt the proposed solution, and retain the learned cases before returning them to the case base for learning purpose. Unfortunately, in many cases, this retain process causes the uncontrolled case base growth. The problem affects competence and performance of CBR systems. This paper proposes competence-based maintenance method based on deletion policy strategy for CBR. There are three main steps in this method. Step 1, formulate problems. Step 2, determine coverage and reachability set based on coverage value. Step 3, reduce case base size. The results obtained show that this proposed method performs better than the existing methods currently discussed in literature.
Keywords: Case-Based Reasoning, Case Base Maintenance, Coverage, Reachability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1522
155 Quantifying and Adjusting the Effects of Publication Bias in Continuous Meta-Analysis
Authors: N.R.N. Idris
This study uses simulated meta-analysis to assess the effects of publication bias on meta-analysis estimates and to evaluate the efficacy of the trim and fill method in adjusting for these biases. The estimated effect sizes and the standard error were evaluated in terms of the statistical bias and the coverage probability. The results demonstrate that if publication bias is not adjusted it could lead to up to 40% bias in the treatment effect estimates. Utilization of the trim and fill method could reduce the bias in the overall estimate by more than half. The method is optimum in presence of moderate underlying bias but has minimal effects in presence of low and severe publication bias. Additionally, the trim and fill method improves the coverage probability by more than half when subjected to the same level of publication bias as those of the unadjusted data. The method however tends to produce false positive results and will incorrectly adjust the data for publication bias up to 45 % of the time. Nonetheless, the bias introduced into the estimates due to this adjustment is minimal
Keywords: Publication bias, Trim and Fill method, percentage relative bias, coverage probabilityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1443
154 A Fast Sensor Relocation Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Yu-Chen Kuo, Shih-Chieh Lin
Abstract:Sensor relocation is to repair coverage holes caused by node failures. One way to repair coverage holes is to find redundant nodes to replace faulty nodes. Most researches took a long time to find redundant nodes since they randomly scattered redundant nodes around the sensing field. To record the precise position of sensor nodes, most researches assumed that GPS was installed in sensor nodes. However, high costs and power-consumptions of GPS are heavy burdens for sensor nodes. Thus, we propose a fast sensor relocation algorithm to arrange redundant nodes to form redundant walls without GPS. Redundant walls are constructed in the position where the average distance to each sensor node is the shortest. Redundant walls can guide sensor nodes to find redundant nodes in the minimum time. Simulation results show that our algorithm can find the proper redundant node in the minimum time and reduce the relocation time with low message complexity.
Keywords: Coverage, distributed algorithm, sensor relocation, wireless sensor networks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1438
153 A Model for Optimal Design of Mixed Renewable Warranty Policy for Non-Repairable Weibull Life Products under Conflict between Customer and Manufacturer Interests
Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan
Abstract:A model is presented to find the optimal design of the mixed renewable warranty policy for non-repairable Weibull life products. The optimal design considers the conflict of interests between the customer and the manufacturer: the customer interests are longer full rebate coverage period and longer total warranty coverage period, the manufacturer interests are lower warranty cost and lower risk. The design factors are full rebate and total warranty coverage periods. Results showed that mixed policy is better than full rebate policy in terms of risk and total warranty coverage period in all of the three bathtub regions. In addition, results showed that linear policy is better than mixed policy in infant mortality and constant failure regions while the mixed policy is better than linear policy in ageing region of the model. Furthermore, the results showed that using burn-in period for infant mortality products reduces warranty cost and risk.
Keywords: Reliability, Mixed warranty policy, Optimization, Weibull Distribution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1328
152 High Perfomance Communication Protocol for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks
Authors: Toshihiko Sasama, Takahide Yanaka, Kazunori Sugahara, Hiroshi Masuyama
Abstract:In order to monitor for traffic traversal, sensors can be deployed to perform collaborative target detection. Such a sensor network achieves a certain level of detection performance with the associated costs of deployment and routing protocol. This paper addresses these two points of sensor deployment and routing algorithm in the situation where the absolute quantity of sensors or total energy becomes insufficient. This discussion on the best deployment system concluded that two kinds of deployments; Normal and Power law distributions, show 6 and 3 times longer than Random distribution in the duration of coverage, respectively. The other discussion on routing algorithm to achieve good performance in each deployment system was also addressed. This discussion concluded that, in place of the traditional algorithm, a new algorithm can extend the time of coverage duration by 4 times in a Normal distribution, and in the circumstance where every deployed sensor operates as a binary model.
Keywords: binary sensor, coverage rate, power energy consumption, routing algorithm, sensor deploymentProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1216
151 Ultra-High Frequency Passive Radar Coverage for Cars Detection in Semi-Urban Scenarios
Authors: Pedro Gómez-del-Hoyo, Jose-Luis Bárcena-Humanes, Nerea del-Rey-Maestre, María-Pilar Jarabo-Amores, David Mata-Moya
A study of achievable coverages using passive radar systems in terrestrial traffic monitoring applications is presented. The study includes the estimation of the bistatic radar cross section of different commercial vehicle models that provide challenging low values which make detection really difficult. A semi-urban scenario is selected to evaluate the impact of excess propagation losses generated by an irregular relief. A bistatic passive radar exploiting UHF frequencies radiated by digital video broadcasting transmitters is assumed. A general method of coverage estimation using electromagnetic simulators in combination with estimated car average bistatic radar cross section is applied. In order to reduce the computational cost, hybrid solution is implemented, assuming free space for the target-receiver path but estimating the excess propagation losses for the transmitter-target one.
Keywords: Bistatic radar cross section, passive radar, propagation losses, radar coverage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1178
150 Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation
Authors: Suparat Niwitpong
In this paper we proposed two new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. This situation occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments where the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. We propose two new confidence intervals for this problem based on the recent work of Searls  and the new method proposed in this paper for the first time. We derive analytic expressions for the coverage probability and the expected length of each confidence interval. Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their expected lengths.
Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1527
149 Government of Ghana’s Budget: Its Functions, Coverage, Classification, and Integration with Chart of Accounts
Authors: Mohammed Sani Abdulai
Government budgets are the primary instruments for formulating and implementing a country’s fiscal policy objectives, development priorities, and the overall socio-economic aspirations of its people. Thus, in this paper, the author examined the Government of Ghana’s budgets with respect to their functions, coverage, classifications, and integration with the country’s chart of accounts. The author did so by amalgamating the research findings of extant literature with (a) the operational and procedural guidelines underpinning the formulation and execution of the government’s budgets; (b) the recommendations made by various development partners and thinktanks on reforming the country’s budgeting processes and procedures; and (c) the lessons Ghana could learn from the budget reform efforts of other countries. By way of research findings, the paper showed that the Government of Ghana’s budgets in terms of function are both eclectic and multidimensional. On coverage, the paper showed that the country’s budgets duly cover the revenues and expenditures of the general government (i.e., both the central and sub-national governments). Finally, on classifications, the paper noted with delight the Government of Ghana’s effort in providing classificatory codes to both its national development agenda and such international development goals as the AU’s Agenda 2063 and the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. However, the paper found some significant lapses that require a complete overhaul and structuring on the integrations of its budget classifications with its chart of accounts. Thus, the paper concluded with a detailed examination of the challenges confronting the country’s current chart of accounts and recommendations for addressing them.
Keywords: Budget, budgetary transactions, budgetary governance, Chart of Accounts, classification, composition, coverage, Public Financial Management.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 207
148 Long Term Evolution Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Network in Unmanned Air Vehicles Platform
Authors: Ashagrie Getnet Flattie
Abstract:Line-of-sight (LOS) information, data rates, good quality, and flexible network service are limited by the fact that, for the duration of any given connection, they experience severe variation in signal strength due to fading and path loss. Wireless system faces major challenges in achieving wide coverage and capacity without affecting the system performance and to access data everywhere, all the time. In this paper, the cell coverage and edge rate of different Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) schemes in 20 MHz Long Term Evolution (LTE) system under Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) platform are investigated. After some background on the enormous potential of UAV, MIMO, and LTE in wireless links, the paper highlights the presented system model which attempts to realize the various benefits of MIMO being incorporated into UAV platform. The performances of the three MIMO LTE schemes are compared with the performance of 4x4 MIMO LTE in UAV scheme carried out to evaluate the improvement in cell radius, BER, and data throughput of the system in different morphology. The results show that significant performance gains such as bit error rate (BER), data rate, and coverage can be achieved by using the presented scenario.
Keywords: BER, LTE, MIMO, path loss, UAV.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1264
147 Heuristic Search Algorithm (HSA) for Enhancing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: Tripatjot S. Panag, J. S. Dhillon
Abstract:The lifetime of a wireless sensor network can be effectively increased by using scheduling operations. Once the sensors are randomly deployed, the task at hand is to find the largest number of disjoint sets of sensors such that every sensor set provides complete coverage of the target area. At any instant, only one of these disjoint sets is switched on, while all other are switched off. This paper proposes a heuristic search method to find the maximum number of disjoint sets that completely cover the region. A population of randomly initialized members is made to explore the solution space. A set of heuristics has been applied to guide the members to a possible solution in their neighborhood. The heuristics escalate the convergence of the algorithm. The best solution explored by the population is recorded and is continuously updated. The proposed algorithm has been tested for applications which require sensing of multiple target points, referred to as point coverage applications. Results show that the proposed algorithm outclasses the existing algorithms. It always finds the optimum solution, and that too by making fewer number of fitness function evaluations than the existing approaches.
Keywords: Coverage, disjoint sets, heuristic, lifetime, scheduling, wireless sensor networks, WSN.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1734
146 Approximate Confidence Interval for Effect Size Base on Bootstrap Resampling Method
Authors: S. Phanyaem
Abstract:This paper presents the confidence intervals for the effect size base on bootstrap resampling method. The meta-analytic confidence interval for effect size is proposed that are easy to compute. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to compare the performance of the proposed confidence intervals with the existing confidence intervals. The best confidence interval method will have a coverage probability close to 0.95. Simulation results have shown that our proposed confidence intervals perform well in terms of coverage probability and expected length.
Keywords: Effect size, confidence interval, Bootstrap Method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1054
145 CFD Simulations to Study the Cooling Effects of Different Greening Modifications
Authors: An-Shik Yang, Chih-Yung Wen, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Yu-Hsuan Juan
Abstract:The objective of this study is to conduct computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations for evaluating the cooling efficacy from vegetation implanted in a public park in the Taipei, Taiwan. To probe the impacts of park renewal by means of adding three pavilions and supplementary green areas on urban microclimates, the simulated results have revealed that the park having a higher percentage of green coverage ratio (GCR) tended to experience a better cooling effect. These findings can be used to explore the effects of different greening modifications on urban environments for achieving an effective thermal comfort in urban public spaces.
Keywords: CFD simulations, green coverage ratio, urban heat island, urban public park.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2547
144 On Simple Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation
Authors: Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong
In this paper we proposed the new confidence interval for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. In practice, this situation occurs normally in environment and agriculture sciences where we know the standard deviation is proportional to the mean. As a result, the coefficient of variation of is known. We propose the new confidence interval based on the recent work of Khan  and this new confidence interval will compare with our previous work, see, e.g. Niwitpong . We derive analytic expressions for the coverage probability and the expected length of each confidence interval. A numerical method will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their expected lengths.
Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1646