Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: redundancy

80 Redundancy in Steel Frames with Masonry Infill Walls

Authors: Hosein Ghaffarzadeh, Robab Naseri Ghalghachi

Abstract:

Structural redundancy is an interesting point in seismic design of structures. Initially, the structural redundancy is described as indeterminate degree of a system. Although many definitions are presented for redundancy in structures, recently the definition of structural redundancy has been related to the configuration of structural system and the number of lateral load transferring directions in the structure. The steel frames with infill walls are general systems in the constructing of usual residential buildings in some countries. It is obviously declared that the performance of structures will be affected by adding masonry infill walls. In order to investigate the effect of infill walls on the redundancy of the steel frame which constructed with masonry walls, the components of redundancy including redundancy variation index, redundancy strength index and redundancy response modification factor were extracted for the frames with masonry infills. Several steel frames with typical storey number and various numbers of bays were designed and considered. The redundancy of frames with and without infill walls was evaluated by proposed method. The results showed the presence of infill causes increase of redundancy.

Keywords: Structural redundancy, Masonry infill walls frames.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2080
79 Redundancy Component Matrix and Structural Robustness

Authors: Xinjian Kou, Linlin Li, Yongju Zhou, Jimian Song

Abstract:

We introduce the redundancy matrix that expresses clearly the geometrical/topological configuration of the structure. With the matrix, the redundancy of the structure is resolved into redundant components and assigned to each member or rigid joint. The values of the diagonal elements in the matrix indicates the importance of the corresponding members or rigid joints, and the geometrically correlations can be shown with the non-diagonal elements. If a member or rigid joint failures, reassignment of the redundant components can be calculated with the recursive method given in the paper. By combining the indexes of reliability and redundancy components, we define an index concerning the structural robustness. To further explain the properties of the redundancy matrix, we cited several examples of statically indeterminate structures, including two trusses and a rigid frame. With the examples, some simple results and the properties of the matrix are discussed. The examples also illustrate that the redundancy matrix and the relevant concepts are valuable in structural safety analysis.

Keywords: Structural robustness, structural reliability, redundancy component, redundancy matrix.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 667
78 A Codebook-based Redundancy Suppression Mechanism with Lifetime Prediction in Cluster-based WSN

Authors: Huan Chen, Bo-Chao Cheng, Chih-Chuan Cheng, Yi-Geng Chen, Yu Ling Chou

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) comprises of sensor nodes which are designed to sense the environment, transmit sensed data back to the base station via multi-hop routing to reconstruct physical phenomena. Since physical phenomena exists significant overlaps between temporal redundancy and spatial redundancy, it is necessary to use Redundancy Suppression Algorithms (RSA) for sensor node to lower energy consumption by reducing the transmission of redundancy. A conventional algorithm of RSAs is threshold-based RSA, which sets threshold to suppress redundant data. Although many temporal and spatial RSAs are proposed, temporal-spatial RSA are seldom to be proposed because it is difficult to determine when to utilize temporal or spatial RSAs. In this paper, we proposed a novel temporal-spatial redundancy suppression algorithm, Codebookbase Redundancy Suppression Mechanism (CRSM). CRSM adopts vector quantization to generate a codebook, which is easily used to implement temporal-spatial RSA. CRSM not only achieves power saving and reliability for WSN, but also provides the predictability of network lifetime. Simulation result shows that the network lifetime of CRSM outperforms at least 23% of that of other RSAs.

Keywords: Redundancy Suppression Algorithm (RSA), Threshold-based RSA, Temporal RSA, Spatial RSA and Codebookbase Redundancy Suppression Mechanism (CRSM)

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1173
77 A Hybrid P2P Storage Scheme Based on Erasure Coding and Replication

Authors: Usman Mahmood, Khawaja M. U. Suleman

Abstract:

A peer-to-peer storage system has challenges like; peer availability, data protection, churn rate. To address these challenges different redundancy, replacement and repair schemes are used. This paper presents a hybrid scheme of redundancy using replication and erasure coding. We calculate and compare the storage, access, and maintenance costs of our proposed scheme with existing redundancy schemes. For realistic behaviour of peers a trace of live peer-to-peer system is used. The effect of different replication, and repair schemes are also shown. The proposed hybrid scheme performs better than existing double coding hybrid scheme in all metrics and have an improved maintenance cost than hierarchical codes.

Keywords: Erasure Coding, P2P, Redundancy, Replication.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1106
76 Reliability and Cost Focused Optimization Approach for a Communication Satellite Payload Redundancy Allocation Problem

Authors: Mehmet Nefes, Selman Demirel, Hasan H. Ertok, Cenk Sen

Abstract:

A typical reliability engineering problem regarding communication satellites has been considered to determine redundancy allocation scheme of power amplifiers within payload transponder module, whose dominant function is to amplify power levels of the received signals from the Earth, through maximizing reliability against mass, power, and other technical limitations. Adding each redundant power amplifier component increases not only reliability but also hardware, testing, and launch cost of a satellite. This study investigates a multi-objective approach used in order to solve Redundancy Allocation Problem (RAP) for a communication satellite payload transponder, focusing on design cost due to redundancy and reliability factors. The main purpose is to find the optimum power amplifier redundancy configuration satisfying reliability and capacity thresholds simultaneously instead of analyzing respectively or independently. A mathematical model and calculation approach are instituted including objective function definitions, and then, the problem is solved analytically with different input parameters in MATLAB environment. Example results showed that payload capacity and failure rate of power amplifiers have remarkable effects on the solution and also processing time.

Keywords: Communication satellite payload, multi-objective optimization, redundancy allocation problem, reliability, transponder.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 767
75 Multi-Objective Optimization of Combined System Reliability and Redundancy Allocation Problem

Authors: Vijaya K. Srivastava, Davide Spinello

Abstract:

This paper presents established 3n enumeration procedure for mixed integer optimization problems for solving multi-objective reliability and redundancy allocation problem subject to design constraints. The formulated problem is to find the optimum level of unit reliability and the number of units for each subsystem. A number of illustrative examples are provided and compared to indicate the application of the superiority of the proposed method.

Keywords: Integer programming, mixed integer programming, multi-objective optimization, reliability redundancy allocation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 369
74 Incorporation of Long-Term Redundancy in ECG Time Domain Compression Methods through Curve Simplification and Block-Sorting

Authors: Bachir Boucheham, Youcef Ferdi, Mohamed Chaouki Batouche

Abstract:

We suggest a novel method to incorporate longterm redundancy (LTR) in signal time domain compression methods. The proposition is based on block-sorting and curve simplification. The proposition is illustrated on the ECG signal as a post-processor for the FAN method. Test applications on the new so-obtained FAN+ method using the MIT-BIH database show substantial improvement of the compression ratio-distortion behavior for a higher quality reconstructed signal.

Keywords: ECG compression, Long-term redundancy, Block-sorting, Curve Simplification.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1280
73 Reductive Control in the Management of Redundant Actuation

Authors: Mkhinini Maher, Knani Jilani

Abstract:

We present in this work the performances of a mobile omnidirectional robot through evaluating its management of the redundancy of actuation. Thus we come to the predictive control implemented.

The distribution of the wringer on the robot actions, through the inverse pseudo of Moore-Penrose, corresponds to a « geometric ›› distribution of efforts. We will show that the load on vehicle wheels would not be equi-distributed in terms of wheels configuration and of robot movement.

Thus, the threshold of sliding is not the same for the three wheels of the vehicle. We suggest exploiting the redundancy of actuation to reduce the risk of wheels sliding and to ameliorate, thereby, its accuracy of displacement. This kind of approach was the subject of study for the legged robots.

Keywords: Mobile robot, actuation, redundancy, omnidirectional, inverse pseudo Moore-Penrose, reductive control.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1546
72 A Genetic Algorithm Approach Considering Zero Injection Bus Constraint Modeling for Optimal Phasor Measurement Unit Placement

Authors: G. Chandana Sushma, T. R. Jyothsna

Abstract:

This paper presents optimal Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) Placement in network using a genetic algorithm approach as it is infeasible and require high installation cost to place PMUs at every bus in network. This paper proposes optimal PMU allocation considering observability and redundancy utilizing Genetic Algorithm (GA) approach. The nonlinear constraints of buses are modeled to give accurate results. Constraints associated with Zero Injection (ZI) buses and radial buses are modeled to optimize number of locations for PMU placement. GA is modeled with ZI bus constraints to minimize number of locations without losing complete observability. Redundancy of every bus in network is computed to show optimum redundancy of complete system network. The performance of method is measured by Bus Observability Index (BOI) and Complete System Observability Performance Index (CSOPI). MATLAB simulations are carried out on IEEE -14, -30 and -57 bus-systems and compared with other methods in literature survey to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Constraints, genetic algorithm, observability, phasor measurement units, redundancy, synchrophasors, zero injection bus.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 526
71 Improved Ant Colony Optimization for Solving Reliability Redundancy Allocation Problems

Authors: Phakhapong Thanitakul, Worawat Sa-ngiamvibool, Apinan Aurasopon, Saravuth Pothiya

Abstract:

This paper presents an improved ant colony optimization (IACO) for solving the reliability redundancy allocation problem (RAP) in order to maximize system reliability. To improve the performance of ACO algorithm, two additional techniques, i.e. neighborhood search, and re-initialization process are presented. To show its efficiency and effectiveness, the proposed IACO is applied to solve three RAPs. Additionally, the results of the proposed IACO are compared with those of the conventional heuristic approaches i.e. genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and ant colony optimization (ACO). The experimental results show that the proposed IACO approach is comparatively capable of obtaining higher quality solution and faster computational time.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Heuristic algorithm, Mixed-integer nonlinear programming, Redundancy allocation problem, Reliability optimization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1863
70 Redundancy in Malay Morphology: School Grammar versus Corpus Grammar

Authors: Zaharani Ahmad, Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to examine and identify the issue of linguistic redundancy in two competing grammars of Malay, namely the school grammar and the corpus grammar. The former is a normative grammar which is formally and prescriptively taught in the classroom, whereas the latter is a descriptive grammar that is informally acquired and mastered by the students as native speakers of the language outside the classroom. Corpus grammar is depicted based on its actual used in natural occurring texts, as attested in the corpus. It is observed that the grammar taught in schools is incompatible with the grammar used in the corpus. For instance, a noun phrase containing nominal reduplicated form which denotes plurality (i.e. murid-murid ‘students’ which is derived from murid ‘student’) and a modifier categorized as quantifiers (i.e. semua ‘all’, seluruh ‘entire’, and kebanyakan ‘most’) is not acceptable in the school grammar because the formation (i.e. semua murid-murid ‘all the students’ kebanyakan pelajar-pelajar ‘most of the students’) is claimed to be redundant, and redundancy is prohibited in the grammar. Redundancy is generally construed as the property of speech and language by which more information is provided than is precisely required for the message to be understood, so that, if some information is omitted, the remaining information will still be sufficient for the message to be comprehended. Thus, the correct construction to be used is strictly the reduplicated form (i.e. murid-murid ‘students’) or the quantifier plus the root (i.e. semua murid ‘all the students’) with the intention that the grammatical meaning of plural is not repeated. Nevertheless, the so-called redundant form (i.e. kebanyakan pelajar-pelajar ‘most of the students’) is frequently used in the corpus grammar. This study shows that there are a number of redundant forms occur in the morphology of the language, particularly in affixation, reduplication and combination of both. Apparently, the so-called redundancy has grammatical and socio-cultural functions in communication that is to give emphasis and to stress the importance of the information delivered by the speakers or writers.

Keywords: Corpus grammar, morphology, redundancy, school grammar.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1202
69 Modality and Redundancy Effects on Music Theory Learning Among Pupils of Different Anxiety Levels

Authors: Soon Fook Fong, Aldalalah, M. Osamah

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of modality and redundancy principles on music theory learning among pupils of different anxiety levels. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The independent variables were the three modes of courseware. The moderator variable was the anxiety level, while the dependent variable was the post test score. The study sample consisted of 405 third-grade pupils. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to analyze the collected data. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The findings of this study showed that medium anxiety pupils performed significantly better than low and high anxiety pupils in all the three treatment modes. The AI mode was found to help pupils with high anxiety significantly more than the TI and AIT modes.

Keywords: Modality, Redundancy, Music theory, Cognitivetheory of multimedia learning, Cognitive load theory, Anxiety.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1827
68 Key Frame Based Video Summarization via Dependency Optimization

Authors: Janya Sainui

Abstract:

As a rapid growth of digital videos and data communications, video summarization that provides a shorter version of the video for fast video browsing and retrieval is necessary. Key frame extraction is one of the mechanisms to generate video summary. In general, the extracted key frames should both represent the entire video content and contain minimum redundancy. However, most of the existing approaches heuristically select key frames; hence, the selected key frames may not be the most different frames and/or not cover the entire content of a video. In this paper, we propose a method of video summarization which provides the reasonable objective functions for selecting key frames. In particular, we apply a statistical dependency measure called quadratic mutual informaion as our objective functions for maximizing the coverage of the entire video content as well as minimizing the redundancy among selected key frames. The proposed key frame extraction algorithm finds key frames as an optimization problem. Through experiments, we demonstrate the success of the proposed video summarization approach that produces video summary with better coverage of the entire video content while less redundancy among key frames comparing to the state-of-the-art approaches.

Keywords: Video summarization, key frame extraction, dependency measure, quadratic mutual information, optimization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 584
67 Probabilistic Modeling of Network-induced Delays in Networked Control Systems

Authors: Manoj Kumar, A.K. Verma, A. Srividya

Abstract:

Time varying network induced delays in networked control systems (NCS) are known for degrading control system-s quality of performance (QoP) and causing stability problems. In literature, a control method employing modeling of communication delays as probability distribution, proves to be a better method. This paper focuses on modeling of network induced delays as probability distribution. CAN and MIL-STD-1553B are extensively used to carry periodic control and monitoring data in networked control systems. In literature, methods to estimate only the worst-case delays for these networks are available. In this paper probabilistic network delay model for CAN and MIL-STD-1553B networks are given. A systematic method to estimate values to model parameters from network parameters is given. A method to predict network delay in next cycle based on the present network delay is presented. Effect of active network redundancy and redundancy at node level on network delay and system response-time is also analyzed.

Keywords: NCS (networked control system), delay analysis, response-time distribution, worst-case delay, CAN, MIL-STD-1553B, redundancy

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1531
66 Design for Reliability and Manufacturing Yield (Study and Modeling of Defects in Integrated Circuits for their Reliability Analysis)

Authors: G. Ait Abdelmalek, R. Ziani

Abstract:

In this document, we have proposed a robust conceptual strategy, in order to improve the robustness against the manufacturing defects and thus the reliability of logic CMOS circuits. However, in order to enable the use of future CMOS technology nodes this strategy combines various types of design: DFR (Design for Reliability), techniques of tolerance: hardware redundancy TMR (Triple Modular Redundancy) for hard error tolerance, the DFT (Design for Testability. The Results on largest ISCAS and ITC benchmark circuits show that our approach improves considerably the reliability, by reducing the key factors, the area costs and fault tolerance probability.

Keywords: Design for reliability, design for testability, fault tolerance, manufacturing yield.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1796
65 An Efficient Digital Baseband ASIC for Wireless Biomedical Signals Monitoring

Authors: Kah-Hyong Chang, Xin Liu, Jia Hao Cheong, Saisundar Sankaranarayanan, Dexing Pang, Hongzhao Zheng

Abstract:

A digital baseband Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) (yclic Redundancy Checkis developed for a microchip transponder to transmit signals and temperature levels from biomedical monitoring devices. The transmission protocol is adapted from the ISO/IEC 11784/85 standard. The module has a decimation filter that employs only a single adder-subtractor in its datapath. The filtered output is coded with cyclic redundancy check and transmitted through backscattering Load Shift Keying (LSK) modulation to a reader. Fabricated using the 0.18-μm CMOS technology, the module occupies 0.116 mm2 in chip area (digital baseband: 0.060 mm2, decimation filter: 0.056 mm2), and consumes a total of less than 0.9 μW of power (digital baseband: 0.75 μW, decimation filter: 0.14 μW).

Keywords: Biomedical sensor, decimation filter, Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC) baseband, temperature sensor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1277
64 On-line Testing of Software Components for Diagnosis of Embedded Systems

Authors: Thi-Quynh Bui, Oum-El-Kheir Aktouf

Abstract:

This paper studies the dependability of componentbased applications, especially embedded ones, from the diagnosis point of view. The principle of the diagnosis technique is to implement inter-component tests in order to detect and locate the faulty components without redundancy. The proposed approach for diagnosing faulty components consists of two main aspects. The first one concerns the execution of the inter-component tests which requires integrating test functionality within a component. This is the subject of this paper. The second one is the diagnosis process itself which consists of the analysis of inter-component test results to determine the fault-state of the whole system. Advantage of this diagnosis method when compared to classical redundancy faulttolerant techniques are application autonomy, cost-effectiveness and better usage of system resources. Such advantage is very important for many systems and especially for embedded ones.

Keywords: Dependability, diagnosis, middlewares, embeddedsystems, fault tolerance, inter-component testing.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1477
63 Evaluation of Behavior Factor for Steel Moment-Resisting Frames

Authors: Taïeb Branci, Djamal Yahmi, Abdelhamid Bouchair, Eric Fourneley

Abstract:

According to current seismic codes the structures are calculated using the capacity design procedure based on the concept of shear at the base depending on several parameters including behavior factor which is considered to be the most important parameter. The behavior factor allows designing the structure when it is at its ultimate limit state taking into account its energy dissipation through its plastic deformation. The aim of the present study is to assess the basic parameters on which is composed the behavior factor among them the reduction factor due to ductility, and those due to redundancy and the overstrength for steel moment-resisting frames of different heights and regular configuration. Analyses are conducted on these frames using the nonlinear static method where the effect of some parameters on the behavior factor, such as the number of stories and the number of spans, are taken into account. The results show that the behavior factor is rather sensitive to the variation of the number of stories and bays.

Keywords: Behavior, code, frame, ductility, overstrength, redundancy, plastic.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2950
62 Generation of Photo-Mosaic Images through Block Matching and Color Adjustment

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee

Abstract:

Mosaic refers to a technique that makes image by gathering lots of small materials in various colors. This paper presents an automatic algorithm that makes the photo-mosaic image using photos. The algorithm is composed of 4 steps: partition and feature extraction, block matching, redundancy removal and color adjustment. The input image is partitioned in the small block to extract feature. Each block is matched to find similar photo in database by comparing similarity with Euclidean difference between blocks. The intensity of the block is adjusted to enhance the similarity of image by replacing the value of light and darkness with that of relevant block. Further, the quality of image is improved by minimizing the redundancy of tiles in the adjacent blocks. Experimental results support that the proposed algorithm is excellent in quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis.

Keywords: Photo-mosaic, Euclidean distance, Block matching, Intensity adjustment.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3246
61 Modelling and Analysis of a Robust Control of Manufacturing Systems: Flow-Quality Approach

Authors: Lotfi Nabli, Achraf Jabeur Telmoudi, Radhi M'hiri

Abstract:

This paper proposes a modeling method of the laws controlling manufacturing systems with temporal and non temporal constraints. A methodology of robust control construction generating the margins of passive and active robustness is being elaborated. Indeed, two paramount models are presented in this paper. The first utilizes the P-time Petri Nets which is used to manage the flow type disturbances. The second, the quality model, exploits the Intervals Constrained Petri Nets (ICPN) tool which allows the system to preserve its quality specificities. The redundancy of the robustness of the elementary parameters between passive and active is also used. The final model built allows the correlation of temporal and non temporal criteria by putting two paramount models in interaction. To do so, a set of definitions and theorems are employed and affirmed by applicator examples.

Keywords: Manufacturing systems control, flow, quality, robustness, redundancy, Petri Nets.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1482
60 Effects of Computer–Based Instructional Designs among Pupils of Different Music Intelligence Levels

Authors: Aldalalah, M. Osamah, Soon Fook Fong

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of computer–based instructional designs, namely modality and redundancy principles on the attitude and learning of music theory among primary pupils of different Music Intelligence levels. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The independent variables were the three modes of courseware. The moderator variable was music intelligence. The dependent variables were the post test score. ANOVA was used to determine the significant differences of the pretest scores among the three groups. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. High music intelligence pupils performed significantly better than low music intelligence pupils in all the three treatment modes. The AI mode was found to help pupils with low music intelligence significantly more than the TI and AIT modes.

Keywords: Modality, Redundancy, Music theory, Cognitivetheory of multimedia learning, Cognitive load theory, Musicintelligence.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1424
59 Perceptual JPEG Compliant Coding by Using DCT-Based Visibility Thresholds of Color Images

Authors: Kuo-Cheng Liu

Abstract:

Effective estimation of just noticeable distortion (JND) for images is helpful to increase the efficiency of a compression algorithm in which both the statistical redundancy and the perceptual redundancy should be accurately removed. In this paper, we design a DCT-based model for estimating JND profiles of color images. Based on a mathematical model of measuring the base detection threshold for each DCT coefficient in the color component of color images, the luminance masking adjustment, the contrast masking adjustment, and the cross masking adjustment are utilized for luminance component, and the variance-based masking adjustment based on the coefficient variation in the block is proposed for chrominance components. In order to verify the proposed model, the JND estimator is incorporated into the conventional JPEG coder to improve the compression performance. A subjective and fair viewing test is designed to evaluate the visual quality of the coding image under the specified viewing condition. The simulation results show that the JPEG coder integrated with the proposed DCT-based JND model gives better coding bit rates at visually lossless quality for a variety of color images.

Keywords: Just-noticeable distortion (JND), discrete cosine transform (DCT), JPEG.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2335
58 VoIP and Database Traffic Co-existence over IEEE 802.11b WLAN with Redundancy

Authors: Rizik Al-Sayyed, Colin Pattinson, Tony Dacre

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of two experiments that were performed on the Redundancy in Wireless Connection Model (RiWC) using the 802.11b standard. The experiments were simulated using OPNET 11.5 Modeler software. The first was aimed at finding the maximum number of simultaneous Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) users the model would support under the G.711 and G.729 codec standards when the packetization interval was 10 milliseconds (ms). The second experiment examined the model?s VoIP user capacity using the G.729 codec standard along with background traffic using the same packetization interval as in the first experiment. To determine the capacity of the model under various experiments, we checked three metrics: jitter, delay and data loss. When background traffic was added, we checked the response time in addition to the previous three metrics. The findings of the first experiment indicated that the maximum number of simultaneous VoIP users the model was able to support was 5, which is consistent with recent research findings. When using the G.729 codec, the model was able to support up to 16 VoIP users; similar experiments in current literature have indicated a maximum of 7 users. The finding of the second experiment demonstrated that the maximum number of VoIP users the model was able to support was 12, with the existence of background traffic.

Keywords: WLAN, IEEE 802.11b, Codec, VoIP, OPNET, Background traffic, and QoS.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1484
57 Research and Development of Net-Centric Information Sharing Platform

Authors: Xiaoqing Wang, Fang Youyuan, Zheng Yanxing, Gu Tianyang, Zong Jianjian, Tong Jinrong

Abstract:

Compared with traditional distributed environment, the net-centric environment brings on more demanding challenges for information sharing with the characteristics of ultra-large scale and strong distribution, dynamic, autonomy, heterogeneity, redundancy. This paper realizes an information sharing model and a series of core services, through which provides an open, flexible and scalable information sharing platform.

Keywords: Net-centric environment, Information sharing, Metadata registry and catalog, Cross-domain data access control.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1112
56 Inefficiency of Data Storing in Physical Memory

Authors: Kamaruddin Malik Mohamad, Sapiee Haji Jamel, Mustafa Mat Deris

Abstract:

Memory forensic is important in digital investigation. The forensic is based on the data stored in physical memory that involve memory management and processing time. However, the current forensic tools do not consider the efficiency in terms of storage management and the processing time. This paper shows the high redundancy of data found in the physical memory that cause inefficiency in processing time and memory management. The experiment is done using Borland C compiler on Windows XP with 512 MB of physical memory.

Keywords: Digital Evidence, Memory Forensics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1496
55 Parallelization and Optimization of SIFT Feature Extraction on Cluster System

Authors: Mingling Zheng, Zhenlong Song, Ke Xu, Hengzhu Liu

Abstract:

Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) has been widely applied, but extracting SIFT feature is complicated and time-consuming. In this paper, to meet the demand of the real-time applications, SIFT is parallelized and optimized on cluster system, which is named pSIFT. Redundancy storage and communication are used for boundary data to improve the performance, and before representation of feature descriptor, data reallocation is adopted to keep load balance in pSIFT. Experimental results show that pSIFT achieves good speedup and scalability.

Keywords: cluster, image matching, parallelization and optimization, SIFT.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1641
54 A Novel Methodology for Synthesis of Fault Trees from MATLAB-Simulink Model

Authors: F. Tajarrod, G. Latif-Shabgahi

Abstract:

Fault tree analysis is a well-known method for reliability and safety assessment of engineering systems. In the last 3 decades, a number of methods have been introduced, in the literature, for automatic construction of fault trees. The main difference between these methods is the starting model from which the tree is constructed. This paper presents a new methodology for the construction of static and dynamic fault trees from a system Simulink model. The method is introduced and explained in detail, and its correctness and completeness is experimentally validated by using an example, taken from literature. Advantages of the method are also mentioned.

Keywords: Fault tree, Simulink, Standby Sparing and Redundancy

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2616
53 Optimizing the Number of Bits/Stage in 10-Bit, 50Ms/Sec Pipelined A/D Converter Considering Area, Speed, Power and Linearity

Authors: P. Prasad Rao, K. Lal Kishore

Abstract:

Pipeline ADCs are becoming popular at high speeds and with high resolution. This paper discusses the options of number of bits/stage conversion techniques in pipelined ADCs and their effect on Area, Speed, Power Dissipation and Linearity. The basic building blocks like op-amp, Sample and Hold Circuit, sub converter, DAC, Residue Amplifier used in every stage is assumed to be identical. The sub converters use flash architectures. The design is implemented using 0.18

Keywords: 1.5 bits/stage, Conversion Frequency, Redundancy Switched Capacitor Sample and Hold Circuit

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1499
52 A Redundant Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for Collaborating Embedded Systems

Authors: M. Schukat, M.P. Cullen, D. O'Beirne

Abstract:

This paper describes a UDP over IP based, server-oriented redundant host configuration protocol (RHCP) that can be used by collaborating embedded systems in an ad-hoc network to acquire a dynamic IP address. The service is provided by a single network device at a time and will be dynamically reassigned to one of the other network clients if the primary provider fails. The protocol also allows all participating clients to monitor the dynamic makeup of the network over time. So far the algorithm has been implemented and tested on an 8-bit embedded system architecture with a 10Mbit Ethernet interface.

Keywords: Ad-Hoc Networks, Collaborating Embedded Systems, Dynamic Host Configuration, Redundancy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1323
51 A Robust Redundant Residue Representation in Residue Number System with Moduli Set(rn-2,rn-1,rn)

Authors: Hossein Khademolhosseini, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

Abstract:

The residue number system (RNS), due to its properties, is used in applications in which high performance computation is needed. The carry free nature, which makes the arithmetic, carry bounded as well as the paralleling facility is the reason of its capability of high speed rendering. Since carry is not propagated between the moduli in this system, the performance is only restricted by the speed of the operations in each modulus. In this paper a novel method of number representation by use of redundancy is suggested in which {rn- 2,rn-1,rn} is the reference moduli set where r=2k+1 and k =1, 2,3,.. This method achieves fast computations and conversions and makes the circuits of them much simpler.

Keywords: Binary to RNS converter, Carry save adder, Computer arithmetic, Residue number system.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1134